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choline acetyltransferase antibody - Salvaterra, P.M.; Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope

RRID:AB_528122

Antibody ID

AB_528122

Target Antigen

choline acetyltransferase drosophila, manduca sexta

Proper Citation

(DSHB Cat# ChAT4B1, RRID:AB_528122)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Application(s): ELISA,FFPE,Immunofluorescence,Immunohistochemistry,Immunoprecipitation,Western Blot; Date Deposited: 09/06/2002

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

DSHB Go To Vendor

Divergent Connectivity of Homologous Command-like Neurons Mediates Segment-Specific Touch Responses in Drosophila.

  • Takagi S
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context: ank (University of Iowa); 1:50; RRID:AB_528122)


Abstract:

Animals adaptively respond to a tactile stimulus by choosing an ethologically relevant behavior depending on the location of the stimuli. Here, we investigate how somatosensory inputs on different body segments are linked to distinct motor outputs in Drosophila larvae. Larvae escape by backward locomotion when touched on the head, while they crawl forward when touched on the tail. We identify a class of segmentally repeated second-order somatosensory interneurons, that we named Wave, whose activation in anterior and posterior segments elicit backward and forward locomotion, respectively. Anterior and posterior Wave neurons extend their dendrites in opposite directions to receive somatosensory inputs from the head and tail, respectively. Downstream of anterior Wave neurons, we identify premotor circuits including the neuron A03a5, which together with Wave, is necessary for the backward locomotion touch response. Thus, Wave neurons match their receptive field to appropriate motor programs by participating in different circuits in different segments.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA108671(United States)

The laminar organization of the Drosophila ellipsoid body is semaphorin-dependent and prevents the formation of ectopic synaptic connections.

  • Xie X
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 20

Literature context: DSHB 4B1, RRID:AB_528122), rabbit-a


Abstract:

The ellipsoid body (EB) in the Drosophila brain is a central complex (CX) substructure that harbors circumferentially laminated ring (R) neuron axons and mediates multifaceted sensory integration and motor coordination functions. However, what regulates R axon lamination and how lamination affects R neuron function remain unknown. We show here that the EB is sequentially innervated by small-field and large-field neurons and that early developing EB neurons play an important regulatory role in EB laminae formation. The transmembrane proteins semaphorin-1a (Sema-1a) and plexin A function together to regulate R axon lamination. R neurons recruit both GABA and GABA-A receptors to their axon terminals in the EB, and optogenetic stimulation coupled with electrophysiological recordings show that Sema-1a-dependent R axon lamination is required for preventing the spread of synaptic inhibition between adjacent EB lamina. These results provide direct evidence that EB lamination is critical for local pre-synaptic inhibitory circuit organization.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS050274()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS079584()

Astrocytic glutamate transport regulates a Drosophila CNS synapse that lacks astrocyte ensheathment.

  • MacNamee SE
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Jul 1

Literature context: 313643;AB_528122;RRID: AB_2


Abstract:

Anatomical, molecular, and physiological interactions between astrocytes and neuronal synapses regulate information processing in the brain. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has become a valuable experimental system for genetic manipulation of the nervous system and has enormous potential for elucidating mechanisms that mediate neuron-glia interactions. Here, we show the first electrophysiological recordings from Drosophila astrocytes and characterize their spatial and physiological relationship with particular synapses. Astrocyte intrinsic properties were found to be strongly analogous to those of vertebrate astrocytes, including a passive current-voltage relationship, low membrane resistance, high capacitance, and dye-coupling to local astrocytes. Responses to optogenetic stimulation of glutamatergic premotor neurons were correlated directly with anatomy using serial electron microscopy reconstructions of homologous identified neurons and surrounding astrocytic processes. Robust bidirectional communication was present: neuronal activation triggered astrocytic glutamate transport via excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (Eaat1), and blocking Eaat1 extended glutamatergic interneuron-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents in motor neurons. The neuronal synapses were always located within 1 μm of an astrocytic process, but none were ensheathed by those processes. Thus, fly astrocytes can modulate fast synaptic transmission via neurotransmitter transport within these anatomical parameters. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1979-1998, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Neuropeptide F neurons modulate sugar reward during associative olfactory learning of Drosophila larvae.

  • Rohwedder A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Dec 15

Literature context: B, 1:100; RRID:AB_528122; Table 1)


Abstract:

All organisms continuously have to adapt their behavior according to changes in the environment in order to survive. Experience-driven changes in behavior are usually mediated and maintained by modifications in signaling within defined brain circuits. Given the simplicity of the larval brain of Drosophila and its experimental accessibility on the genetic and behavioral level, we analyzed if Drosophila neuropeptide F (dNPF) neurons are involved in classical olfactory conditioning. dNPF is an ortholog of the mammalian neuropeptide Y, a highly conserved neuromodulator that stimulates food-seeking behavior. We provide a comprehensive anatomical analysis of the dNPF neurons on the single-cell level. We demonstrate that artificial activation of dNPF neurons inhibits appetitive olfactory learning by modulating the sugar reward signal during acquisition. No effect is detectable for the retrieval of an established appetitive olfactory memory. The modulatory effect is based on the joint action of three distinct cell types that, if tested on the single-cell level, inhibit and invert the conditioned behavior. Taken together, our work describes anatomically and functionally a new part of the sugar reinforcement signaling pathway for classical olfactory conditioning in Drosophila larvae.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY015128(United States)

Colocalization of allatotropin and tachykinin-related peptides with classical transmitters in physiologically distinct subtypes of olfactory local interneurons in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana).

  • Fusca D
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the insect antennal lobe different types of local interneurons mediate complex excitatory and inhibitory interactions between the glomerular pathways to structure the spatiotemporal representation of odors. Mass spectrometric and immunohistochemical studies have shown that in local interneurons classical neurotransmitters are likely to colocalize with a variety of substances that can potentially act as cotransmitters or neuromodulators. In the antennal lobe of the cockroach Periplaneta americana, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been identified as the potential inhibitory transmitter of spiking type I local interneurons, whereas acetylcholine is most likely the excitatory transmitter of nonspiking type IIa1 local interneurons. This study used whole-cell patch clamp recordings combined with single-cell labeling and immunohistochemistry to test if the GABAergic type I local interneurons and the cholinergic type IIa1 local interneurons express allatotropin and tachykinin-related neuropeptides (TKRPs). These are two of the most abundant types of peptides in the insect antennal lobe. GABA-like and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-like immunoreactivity were used as markers for GABAergic and cholinergic neurons, respectively. About 50% of the GABA-like immunoreactive (-lir) spiking type I local interneurons were allatotropin-lir, and ∼ 40% of these neurons were TKRP-lir. About 20% of nonspiking ChAT-lir type IIa1 local interneurons were TKRP-lir. Our results suggest that in subpopulations of GABAergic and cholinergic local interneurons, allatotropin and TKRPs might act as cotransmitters or neuromodulators. To unequivocally assign neurotransmitters, cotransmitters, and neuromodulators to identified classes of antennal lobe neurons is an important step to deepen our understanding of information processing in the insect olfactory system.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL107147(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK057038(United States)

Characterization of the octopaminergic and tyraminergic neurons in the central brain of Drosophila larvae.

  • Selcho M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Oct 15

Literature context: A; 1:100; RRID:AB_528122; Table 1)


Abstract:

Drosophila larvae are able to evaluate sensory information based on prior experience, similarly to adult flies, other insect species, and vertebrates. Larvae and adult flies can be taught to associate odor stimuli with sugar reward, and prior work has implicated both the octopaminergic and the dopaminergic modulatory systems in reinforcement signaling. Here we use genetics to analyze the anatomy, up to the single-cell level, of the octopaminergic/tyraminergic system in the larval brain and subesophageal ganglion. Genetic ablation of subsets of these neurons allowed us to determine their necessity for appetitive olfactory learning. These experiments reveal that a small subset of about 39 largely morphologically distinguishable octopaminergic/tyraminergic neurons is involved in signaling reward in the Drosophila larval brain. In addition to prior work on larval locomotion, these data functionally separate the octopaminergic/tyraminergic system into two sets of about 40 neurons. Those situated in the thoracic/abdominal ganglion are involved in larval locomotion, whereas the others in the subesophageal ganglion and brain hemispheres mediate reward signaling.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 095598/Z/11/Z(United Kingdom)

Odd-skipped labels a group of distinct neurons associated with the mushroom body and optic lobe in the adult Drosophila brain.

  • Levy P
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Olfactory processing has been intensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster. However, we still know little about the descending neural pathways from the higher order processing centers and how these connect with other neural circuits. Here we describe, in detail, the adult projections patterns that arise from a cluster of 78 neurons, defined by the expression of the Odd-skipped transcription factor. We term these neurons Odd neurons. By using expression of genetically encoded axonal and dendritic markers, we show that a subset of the Odd neurons projects dendrites into the calyx of the mushroom body (MB) and axons into the inferior protocerebrum. We exclude the possibility that the Odd neurons are part of the well-known Kenyon cells whose projections form the MB and conclude that the Odd neurons belong to a previously not described class of extrinsic MB neurons. In addition, three of the Odd neurons project into the lobula plate of the optic lobe, and two of these cells extend axons ipsi- and contralaterally in the brain. Anatomically, these cells do not resemble any previously described lobula plate tangential cells (LPTCs) in Drosophila. We show that the Odd neurons are predominantly cholinergic but also include a small number of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons. Finally, we provide evidence that the Odd neurons are a hemilineage, suggesting they are born from a defined set of neuroblasts. Our anatomical analysis hints at the possibility that subgroups of Odd neurons could be involved in olfactory and visual processing.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - 5 T32 HG000044(United States)

Brain aging, memory impairment and oxidative stress: a study in Drosophila melanogaster.

  • Haddadi M
  • Behav. Brain Res.
  • 2014 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Memory impairment during aging is believed to be a consequence of decline in neuronal function and increase in neurodegeneration. Accumulation of oxidative damage and reduction of antioxidant defense system play a key role in organismal aging and functional senescence. In our study, we examined the age-related memory impairment (AMI) in relation to oxidative stress using Drosophila model. We observed a decline in cognitive function in old flies with respect to both short-lived and consolidated forms of olfactory memory. Light and electron microscopy of mushroom bodies revealed a reduction in the number of synapses and discernible architectural defects in mitochondria. An increase in neuronal apoptosis in Kenyon cells was also evident in aged flies. Biochemical investigations revealed a comparable age-associated decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase as well as the GSH level, accompanied by an increase in the level of lipid peroxidation and generation of reactive oxygen species in the brain. There was no significant difference in the activity level of AChE and BChE enzymes between different age groups while immunohistochemical studies showed a significant decrease in the level of ChAT in 50-day-old flies. RNAi-mediated silencing of cat and sod1 genes caused severe memory impairment in 15-day-old flies, whereas, over-expression of cat gene could partially rescue the memory loss in the old flies. We demonstrated that a Drosophila long-lived strain, possessing enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes and higher rate of resistance to oxidative stress, shows lower extent of AMI compared to normal lifespan strain. Present study provides evidence for involvement of oxidative stress in AMI in Drosophila.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - 5-P41-HG000739-13(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - RC1 DK086163(United States)

Localization of the contacts between Kenyon cells and aminergic neurons in the Drosophila melanogaster brain using SplitGFP reconstitution.

  • Pech U
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mushroom body of the insect brain represents a neuronal circuit involved in the control of adaptive behavior, e.g., associative learning. Its function relies on the modulation of Kenyon cell activity or synaptic transmitter release by biogenic amines, e.g., octopamine, dopamine, or serotonin. Therefore, for a comprehensive understanding of the mushroom body, it is of interest not only to determine which modulatory neurons interact with Kenyon cells but also to pinpoint where exactly in the mushroom body they do so. To accomplish the latter, we made use of the GRASP technique and created transgenic Drosophila melanogaster that carry one part of a membrane-bound splitGFP in Kenyon cells, along with a cytosolic red fluorescent marker. The second part of the splitGFP is expressed in distinct neuronal populations using cell-specific Gal4 drivers. GFP is reconstituted only if these neurons interact with Kenyon cells in close proximity, which, in combination with two-photon microscopy, provides a very high spatial resolution. We characterize spatially and microstructurally distinct contact regions between Kenyon cells and dopaminergic, serotonergic, and octopaminergic/tyraminergic neurons in all subdivisions of the mushroom body. Subpopulations of dopaminergic neurons contact complementary lobe regions densely. Octopaminergic/tyraminergic neurons contact Kenyon cells sparsely and are restricted mainly to the calyx, the α'-lobes, and the γ-lobes. Contacts of Kenyon cells with serotonergic neurons are heterogeneously distributed over the entire mushroom body. In summary, the technique enables us to localize precisely a segmentation of the mushroom body by differential contacts with aminergic neurons.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA51008(United States)

Neuroblast lineage-specific origin of the neurons of the Drosophila larval olfactory system.

  • Das A
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2013 Jan 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The complete neuronal repertoire of the central brain of Drosophila originates from only approximately 100 pairs of neural stem cells, or neuroblasts. Each neuroblast produces a highly stereotyped lineage of neurons which innervate specific compartments of the brain. Neuroblasts undergo two rounds of mitotic activity: embryonic divisions produce lineages of primary neurons that build the larval nervous system; after a brief quiescence, the neuroblasts go through a second round of divisions in larval stage to produce secondary neurons which are integrated into the adult nervous system. Here we investigate the lineages that are associated with the larval antennal lobe, one of the most widely studied neuronal systems in fly. We find that the same five neuroblasts responsible for the adult antennal lobe also produce the antennal lobe of the larval brain. However, there are notable differences in the composition of larval (primary) lineages and their adult (secondary) counterparts. Significantly, in the adult, two lineages (lNB/BAlc and adNB/BAmv3) produce uniglomerular projection neurons connecting the antennal lobe with the mushroom body and lateral horn; another lineage, vNB/BAla1, generates multiglomerular neurons reaching the lateral horn directly. lNB/BAlc, as well as a fourth lineage, vlNB/BAla2, generate a diversity of local interneurons. We describe a fifth, previously unknown lineage, BAlp4, which connects the posterior part of the antennal lobe and the neighboring tritocerebrum (gustatory center) with a higher brain center located adjacent to the mushroom body. In the larva, only one of these lineages, adNB/BAmv3, generates all uniglomerular projection neurons. Also as in the adult, lNB/BAlc and vlNB/BAla2 produce local interneurons which, in terms of diversity in architecture and transmitter expression, resemble their adult counterparts. In addition, lineages lNB/BAlc and vNB/BAla1, as well as the newly described BAlp4, form numerous types of projection neurons which along the same major axon pathways (antennal tracts) used by the antennal projection neurons, but which form connections that include regions outside the "classical" olfactory circuit triad antennal lobe-mushroom body-lateral horn. Our work will benefit functional studies of the larval olfactory circuit, and shed light on the relationship between larval and adult neurons.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM080223(United States)

The role of octopamine and tyramine in Drosophila larval locomotion.

  • Selcho M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The characteristic crawling behavior of Drosophila larvae consists of a series of rhythmic waves of peristalsis and episodes of head swinging and turning. The two biogenic amines octopamine and tyramine have recently been shown to modulate various parameters of locomotion, such as muscle contraction, the time spent in pausing or forward locomotion, and the initiation and maintenance of rhythmic motor patterns. By using mutants having altered octopamine and tyramine levels and by genetic interference with both systems we confirm that signaling of these two amines is necessary for larval locomotion. We show that a small set of about 40 octopaminergic/tyraminergic neurons within the ventral nerve cord is sufficient to trigger proper larval locomotion. Using single-cell clones, we describe the morphology of these neurons individually. Given various potential roles of octopamine and tyramine in the larval brain, such as locomotion, learning and memory, stress-induced behaviors or the regulation of the energy state, functions that are often not easy to discriminate, we dissect here for the first time a subset of this complex circuit that modulates specifically larval locomotion. Thus, these data will help to understand-for a given neuronal modulator-how specific behavioral functions are executed within distinct subcircuits of a complex neuronal network.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH050388(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS052370(United States)

Different classes of input and output neurons reveal new features in microglomeruli of the adult Drosophila mushroom body calyx.

  • Butcher NJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

To investigate how sensory information is processed, transformed, and stored within an olfactory system, we examined the anatomy of the input region, the calyx, of the mushroom bodies of Drosophila melanogaster. These paired structures are important for various behaviors, including olfactory learning and memory. Cells in the input neuropil, the calyx, are organized into an array of microglomeruli each comprising the large synaptic bouton of a projection neuron (PN) from the antennal lobe surrounded by tiny postsynaptic neurites from intrinsic Kenyon cells. Extrinsic neurons of the mushroom body also contribute to the organization of microglomeruli. We employed a combination of genetic reporters to identify single cells in the Drosophila calyx by light microscopy and compared these with cell shapes, synapses, and circuits derived from serial-section electron microscopy. We identified three morphological types of PN boutons, unilobed, clustered, and elongated; defined three ultrastructural types, with clear- or dense-core vesicles and those with a dark cytoplasm having both; reconstructed diverse dendritic specializations of Kenyon cells; and identified Kenyon cell presynaptic sites upon extrinsic neurons. We also report new features of calyx synaptic organization, in particular extensive serial synapses that link calycal extrinsic neurons into a local network, and the numerical proportions of synaptic contacts between calycal neurons. All PN bouton types had more ribbon than nonribbon synapses, dark boutons particularly so, and ribbon synapses were larger and with more postsynaptic elements (2-14) than nonribbon (1-10). The numbers of elements were in direct proportion to presynaptic membrane area. Extrinsic neurons exclusively had ribbon synapses.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - DC000232(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS94668(United States)

Diversity, variability, and suboesophageal connectivity of antennal lobe neurons in D. melanogaster larvae.

  • Thum AS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Whereas the "vertical" elements of the insect olfactory pathway, the olfactory receptor neurons and the projection neurons, have been studied in great detail, local interneurons providing "horizontal" connections in the antennal lobe were ignored for a long time. Recent studies in adult Drosophila demonstrate diverse roles for these neurons in the integration of odor information, consistent with the identification of a large variety of anatomical and neurochemical subtypes. Here we focus on the larval olfactory circuit of Drosophila, which is much reduced in terms of cell numbers. We show that the horizontal connectivity in the larval antennal lobe differs largely from its adult counterpart. Only one of the five anatomical types of neurons we describe is restricted to the antennal lobe and therefore fits the definition of a local interneuron. Interestingly, the four remaining subtypes innervate both the antennal lobe and the suboesophageal ganglion. In the latter, they may overlap with primary gustatory terminals and with arborizations of hugin cells, which are involved in feeding control. This circuitry suggests special links between smell and taste, which may reflect the chemosensory constraints of a crawling and burrowing lifestyle. We also demonstrate that many of the neurons we describe exhibit highly variable trajectories and arborizations, especially in the suboesophageal ganglion. Together with reports from adult Drosophila, these data suggest that wiring variability may be another principle of insect brain organization, in parallel with stereotypy.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - HD027305(United States)
  • PHS HHS - HHSN266200400037C(United States)

Neurons with cholinergic phenotype in the visual system of Drosophila.

  • Varija Raghu S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The optic lobe of Drosophila houses about 60,000 neurons that are organized in parallel, retinotopically arranged columns. Based on the Golgi-staining method, Fischbach and Dittrich ([1989] Cell Tissue Res 258:441-475) determined that each column contains about 90 identified cells. Each of these cells is supposed to release one or two different neurotransmitters. However, for most cells the released neurotransmitter is not known. Here we characterize the vast majority of the neurons in the Drosophila optic lobe that release acetylcholine (Ach), the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the insect central nervous system. We employed a promoter specific for cholinergic neurons and restricted its activity to single or a few cells using the MARCM technique. This approach allowed us to establish an anatomical map of neurons with a cholinergic phenotype based on their branching pattern. We identified 43 different types of neurons with a cholinergic phenotype. Thirty-one of them match previously described members of nine different subgroups: Transmedullary (Tm), Transmedullary Y (TmY), Medulla intrinsic (Mi, Mt, and Pm), Bushy T (T), Translobula Plate (Tlp), and Lobula intrinsic (Lcn and Lt) neurons (Fischbach and Dittrich [1989]). Intriguingly, 12 newly identified cell types suggest that previous Golgi studies were not saturating and that the actual number of different neurons per column is higher than previously thought. This study and similar ones on other neurotransmitter systems will contribute towards a columnar wiring diagram and foster the functional dissection of the visual circuitry in Drosophila.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS39793(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R56 NS050792(United States)

Physiological and morphological characterization of local interneurons in the Drosophila antennal lobe.

  • Seki Y
  • J. Neurophysiol.
  • 2010 Aug 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Drosophila antennal lobe (AL) has become an excellent model for studying early olfactory processing mechanisms. Local interneurons (LNs) connect a large number of glomeruli and are ideally positioned to increase computational capabilities of odor information processing in the AL. Although the neural circuit of the Drosophila AL has been intensively studied at both the input and the output level, the internal circuit is not yet well understood. An unambiguous characterization of LNs is essential to remedy this lack of knowledge. We used whole cell patch-clamp recordings and characterized four classes of LNs in detail using electrophysiological and morphological properties at the single neuron level. Each class of LN displayed unique characteristics in intrinsic electrophysiological properties, showing differences in firing patterns, degree of spike adaptation, and amplitude of spike afterhyperpolarization. Notably, one class of LNs had characteristic burst firing properties, whereas the others were tonically active. Morphologically, neurons from three classes innervated almost all glomeruli, while LNs from one class innervated a specific subpopulation of glomeruli. Three-dimensional reconstruction analyses revealed general characteristics of LN morphology and further differences in dendritic density and distribution within specific glomeruli between the different classes of LNs. Additionally, we found that LNs labeled by a specific enhancer trap line (GAL4-Krasavietz), which had previously been reported as cholinergic LNs, were mostly GABAergic. The current study provides a systematic characterization of olfactory LNs in Drosophila and demonstrates that a variety of inhibitory LNs, characterized by class-specific electrophysiological and morphological properties, construct the neural circuit of the AL.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - HD07031-29(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P50GM085764(United States)

Synaptic organization in the adult Drosophila mushroom body calyx.

  • Leiss F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Insect mushroom bodies are critical for olfactory associative learning. We have carried out an extensive quantitative description of the synaptic organization of the calyx of adult Drosophila melanogaster, the main olfactory input region of the mushroom body. By using high-resolution confocal microscopy, electron microscopy-based three-dimensional reconstructions, and genetic labeling of the neuronal populations contributing to the calyx, we resolved the precise connections between large cholinergic boutons of antennal lobe projection neurons and the dendrites of Kenyon cells, the mushroom body intrinsic neurons. Throughout the calyx, these elements constitute synaptic complexes called microglomeruli. By single-cell labeling, we show that each Kenyon cell's claw-like dendritic specialization is highly enriched in filamentous actin, suggesting that this might be a site of plastic reorganization. In fact, Lim kinase (LimK) overexpression in the Kenyon cells modifies the shape of the microglomeruli. Confocal and electron microscopy indicate that each Kenyon cell claw enwraps a single bouton of a projection neuron. Each bouton is contacted by a number of such claw-like specializations as well as profiles of gamma-aminobutyric acid-positive neurons. The dendrites of distinct populations of Kenyon cells involved in different types of memory are partially segregated within the calyx and contribute to different subsets of microglomeruli. Our analysis suggests, though, that projection neuron boutons can contact more than one type of Kenyon cell. These findings represent an important basis for the functional analysis of the olfactory pathway, including the formation of associative olfactory memories.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK37021(United States)

Architecture of the primary taste center of Drosophila melanogaster larvae.

  • Colomb J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Jun 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

A simple nervous system combined with stereotypic behavioral responses to tastants, together with powerful genetic and molecular tools, have turned Drosophila larvae into a very promising model for studying gustatory coding. Using the Gal4/UAS system and confocal microscopy for visualizing gustatory afferents, we provide a description of the primary taste center in the larval central nervous system. Essentially, gustatory receptor neurons target different areas of the subesophageal ganglion (SOG), depending on their segmental and sensory organ origin. We define two major and two smaller subregions in the SOG. One of the major areas is a target of pharyngeal sensilla, the other one receives inputs from both internal and external sensilla. In addition to such spatial organization of the taste center, circumstantial evidence suggests a subtle functional organization: aversive and attractive stimuli might be processed in the anterior and posterior part of the SOG, respectively. Our results also suggest less coexpression of gustatory receptors than proposed in prior studies. Finally, projections of putative second-order taste neurons seem to cover large areas of the SOG. These neurons may thus receive multiple gustatory inputs. This suggests broad sensitivity of secondary taste neurons, reminiscent of the situation in mammals.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC014105(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R15GM60203(United States)

Genetic dissection of neural circuit anatomy underlying feeding behavior in Drosophila: distinct classes of hugin-expressing neurons.

  • Bader R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Jun 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The hugin gene of Drosophila encodes a neuropeptide with homology to mammalian neuromedin U. The hugin-expressing neurons are localized exclusively to the subesophageal ganglion of the central nervous system and modulate feeding behavior in response to nutrient signals. These neurons send neurites to the protocerebrum, the ventral nerve cord, the ring gland, and the pharynx and may interact with the gustatory sense organs. In this study, we have investigated the morphology of the hugin neurons at a single-cell level by using clonal analysis. We show that single cells project to only one of the four major targets. In addition, the neurites of the different hugin cells overlap in a specific brain region lateral to the foramen of the esophagus, which could be a new site of neuropeptide release for feeding regulation. Our study reveals novel complexity in the morphology of individual hugin neurons, which has functional implication for how they coordinate feeding behavior and growth.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA017413(United States)

Neurotransmitter-induced changes in the intracellular calcium concentration suggest a differential central modulation of CCAP neuron subsets in Drosophila.

  • Vömel M
  • Dev Neurobiol
  • 2007 May 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The complete sequencing of the Drosophila melanogaster genome allowed major progress in the research on invertebrate neuropeptide signaling. However, it is still largely unknown how the insect CNS exerts synaptic control over the secretory activity of peptidergic neurons; afferent pathways and employed chemical transmitters remain largely unidentified. In the present study, we set out to identify neurotransmitters mediating synaptic input onto CCAP-expressing neurons (N(CCAP)), which play an important role in the regulation of ecdysis-related events. By in vitro and in situ calcium imaging with synthetic and genetically encoded calcium indicators, we provide evidence that differential neurotransmitter inputs control the activity of N(CCAP) subsets. In short-term culture, almost all N(CCAP) showed increases of the free intracellular calcium concentration after application of acetylcholine (ACh) and nicotine, whereas only some N(CCAP) responded to glutamate and GABA. In the intact ventral ganglia of both larvae and adults, only few N(CCAP) showed intracellular calcium-rises or calcium-oscillations after application of cholinergic agonists indicating a prevailing central inhibition of most N(CCAP) during these developmental stages. In larvae, responding N(CCAP) were primarily located in the third thoracic neuromere. At least one N(CCAP) pair in this neuromere belonged to a morphologically distinct subset with neurohemal endings on the body wall muscles. Our results suggest that N(CCAP) express functional receptors for ACh, glutamate, and GABA, and indicate that these transmitters are involved in a context-dependent regulation of functionally distinct N(CCAP) subsets.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR 1797(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103723(United States)

Excitatory local circuits and their implications for olfactory processing in the fly antennal lobe.

  • Shang Y
  • Cell
  • 2007 Feb 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Conflicting views exist of how circuits of the antennal lobe, the insect equivalent of the olfactory bulb, translate input from olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) into projection-neuron (PN) output. Synaptic connections between ORNs and PNs are one-to-one, yet PNs are more broadly tuned to odors than ORNs. The basis for this difference in receptive range remains unknown. Analyzing a Drosophila mutant lacking ORN input to one glomerulus, we show that some of the apparent complexity in the antennal lobe's output arises from lateral, interglomerular excitation of PNs. We describe a previously unidentified population of cholinergic local neurons (LNs) with multiglomerular processes. These excitatory LNs respond broadly to odors but exhibit little glomerular specificity in their synaptic output, suggesting that PNs are driven by a combination of glomerulus-specific ORN afferents and diffuse LN excitation. Lateral excitation may boost PN signals and enhance their transmission to third-order neurons in a mechanism akin to stochastic resonance.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - DA021801(United States)

Immunocytochemical localization of choline acetyltransferase and muscarinic ACh receptors in the antenna during development of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta.

  • Clark J
  • Cell Tissue Res.
  • 2005 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies was used to investigate the locations of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in sections of the developing antennae of the moth Manduca sexta. The results were correlated with a previous morphological investigation in the developing antennae which allowed us to locate different cell types at various stages of development. Our findings indicated that the muscarinic cholinergic system was not restricted to the sensory neurons but was also present in glial and epidermal cells. By day 4-5 of adult development, immunoreactivity against both antibodies was present in the axons of the antennal nerve, and more intense labeling was present in sections from older pupae. At days 4-9, the cell bodies of the sensory neurons in the basal part of the epidermis were also intensely immunolabeled by the anti-mAChR antibody. In mature flagella, large numbers of cells, some with processes into hairs, were strongly labeled by both antibodies. Antennal glial cells were intensely immunolabeled with both antibodies by days 4-5, but in later stages, it was not possible to discriminate between glial and neural staining. At days 4-9, we observed a distinctly labeled layer of epidermal cells close to the developing cuticle. The expression of both ChAT and mAChRs by neurons in moth antennae may allow the regulation of excitability by endogenous ACh. Cholinergic communication between neurons and glia may be part of the system that guides axon elongation during development. The cholinergic system in the apical part of the developing epidermis could be involved in cuticle formation.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - 1U54DA021519-01A1(United States)

Expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and choline acetyltransferase enzyme in cultured antennal sensory neurons and non-neural cells of the developing moth Manduca sexta.

  • Torkkeli PH
  • J. Neurobiol.
  • 2005 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Antennal sensory neurons of Manduca sexta emerge from epidermal cells that also give rise to sheath cells surrounding the peripheral parts of the neurons and to glial cells that enwrap the sensory axons in the antennal nerve. Reciprocal interactions between sensory neurons and glial cells are believed to aid in axon growth and guidance, but the exact nature of these interactions is not known. We investigated the possibility of cholinergic interactions in this process by locating muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) enzyme in cultured antennal sensory neurons and non-neural cells. ChAT and mAChRs were present in the sensory neurons from the first day in culture. Therefore, the sensory neurons are probably cholinergic, as previously suggested, but they may also be controlled by ACh. In 7-day-old cultures a subgroup of small non-neural cells with processes expressed ChAT activity, and in 14-day-old cultures non-neural cells that formed lamellipodia and scaffoldlike structures on the culture substrate were labeled with ChAT antibody. mAChR activity was detected in similar non-neural cells but only in areas surrounding the nuclei. In addition, mAChRs were found in flat lamellipodia and filopodia forming cells that were present in 1-day-old cultures and grew in size during the 2 week investigation period. These findings suggest muscarinic cholinergic interactions between the neural and non-neural cells during the development of Manduca antenna.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - 1P50HL073996-01(United States)

Immunoreactivity against choline acetyltransferase, gamma-aminobutyric acid, histamine, octopamine, and serotonin in the larval chemosensory system of Dosophila melanogaster.

  • Python F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2002 Nov 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have studied the distribution of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), histamine, octopamine and serotonin in the larval chemosensory system of Drosophila melanogaster. Colocalization at the confocal level with green fluorescent protein (GFP) or Tau-GFP reporters, expressed in selected P[GAL4] enhancer trap lines, was used to identify the cells making up these neurotransmitters. As in the adult fly, larval olfactory afferents project into the (larval) antennal lobe (LAL), where they synapse onto local interneurons and projection neurons, whereas gustatory afferents terminate essentially in the tritocerebral-subesophageal (TR-SOG) region. We demonstrate that the neuropils of the LAL and the TR-SOG are immunoreactive to ChAT and GABA. In addition, serotonin- and octopamine-immunoreactive fibers are present in the LAL. ChAT immunostaining is localized in subsets of olfactory and gustatory afferents and in many of the projection neurons. In contrast, GABA is expressed in most, and perhaps all, of the local interneurons. Serotonin immunoreactivity in the LAL derives from a single neuron that is situated close to the LAL and projects to additional neuropil regions. Taken together, these findings resemble the situation in the adult fly. Hence, given the highly reduced numbers of odorant receptor neurons in the larva, as shown in a previous study (Python and Stocker [2002] J. Comp. Neurol. 445:374-387), the larval system may become an attractive model system for studying the roles of neurotransmitters in olfactory processing.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - Z01 NS003119(United States)

Abnormal chemosensory jump 6 is a positive transcriptional regulator of the cholinergic gene locus in Drosophila olfactory neurons.

  • Lee MH
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2002 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cholinergic neurons acquire their neurotransmitter phenotype, in part, by expressing the cholinergic gene locus. Previous studies have indicated that the 5' flanking DNA of the locus contains both positive and negative regulatory elements important for expression in different subsets of cholinergic neurons in Drosophila and other animals. Approximately 300 bases of proximal 5' flanking DNA control expression in Drosophila CNS neurons essential for viability, whereas more distal regulatory elements are important for expression in PNS sensory neurons. In this study we identify the POU domain transcription factor abnormal chemosensory jump 6 (Acj6) as a necessary positive transcriptional regulator for cholinergic locus expression in primary olfactory neurons. Choline acetyltransferase enzyme activity, protein levels, mRNA, and a fluorescent cholinergic reporter gene are all decreased in olfactory neurons of acj6 mutants. Decreased cholinergic expression was observed in both adults and larvae. The presence of a specific Acj6 binding site has been identified in the cholinergic locus 5' flanking DNA, suggesting that Acj6 may play a direct role in specifying the cholinergic neurotransmitter phenotype of most olfactory neurons. Transgenic expression of two different isoforms of Acj6 restricted to olfactory neurons indicates that additional trans factors may be required for cholinergic locus expression. Transgenic expression in all cholinergic neurons, however, results in lethality when a POU IV box element is absent but is essentially benign when present, indicating the importance of this motif in specifying different functional roles for Acj6.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY012114(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32-MH18870(United States)

Synaptic organization of the mushroom body calyx in Drosophila melanogaster.

  • Yasuyama K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2002 Apr 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The calyx neuropil of the mushroom body in adult Drosophila melanogaster contains three major neuronal elements: extrinsic projection neurons, presumed cholinergic, immunoreactive to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-ir) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT-ir) antisera; presumed gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic extrinsic neurons with GABA-like immunoreactivity; and local intrinsic Kenyon cells. The projection neurons connecting the calyx with the antennal lobe via the antennocerebral tract are the only source of cholinergic elements in the calyces. Their terminals establish an array of large boutons 2-7 microm in diameter throughout all calycal subdivisions. The GABA-ir extrinsic neurons, different in origin, form a network of fine fibers and boutons codistributed in all calycal regions with the cholinergic terminals and with tiny profiles, mainly Kenyon cell dendrites. We have investigated the synaptic circuits of these three neuron types using preembedding immuno-electron microscopy. All ChAT/VAChT-ir boutons form divergent synapses upon multitudinous surrounding Kenyon cell dendrites. GABA-ir elements also regularly contribute divergent synaptic input onto these dendrites, as well as occasional inputs to boutons of projection neurons. The same synaptic microcircuits involving these three neuron types are repeatedly established in glomeruli in all calycal regions. Each glomerulus comprises a large cholinergic bouton at its core, encircled by tiny vesicle-free Kenyon cell dendrites as well as by a number of GABAergic terminals. A single dendritic profile may thereby receive synaptic input from both cholinergic and GABAergic elements in close vicinity at presynaptic sites with T-bars typical of fly synapses. ChAT-ir boutons regularly have large extensions of the active zones. Thus, Kenyon cells may receive major excitatory input from cholinergic boutons and considerable postsynaptic inhibition from GABAergic terminals, as well as, more rarely, presynaptic inhibitory signaling. The calycal glomeruli of Drosophila are compared with the cerebellar glomeruli of vertebrates. The cholinergic boutons are the largest identified cholinergic synapses in the Drosophila brain and an eligible prospect for studying the genetic regulation of excitatory presynaptic function.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL128630(United States)

Drosophila roadblock and Chlamydomonas LC7: a conserved family of dynein-associated proteins involved in axonal transport, flagellar motility, and mitosis.

  • Bowman AB
  • J. Cell Biol.
  • 1999 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Eukaryotic organisms utilize microtubule-dependent motors of the kinesin and dynein superfamilies to generate intracellular movement. To identify new genes involved in the regulation of axonal transport in Drosophila melanogaster, we undertook a screen based upon the sluggish larval phenotype of known motor mutants. One of the mutants identified in this screen, roadblock (robl), exhibits diverse defects in intracellular transport including axonal transport and mitosis. These defects include intra-axonal accumulations of cargoes, severe axonal degeneration, and aberrant chromosome segregation. The gene identified by robl encodes a 97-amino acid polypeptide that is 57% identical (70% similar) to the 105-amino acid Chlamydomonas outer arm dynein-associated protein LC7, also reported here. Both robl and LC7 have homology to several other genes from fruit fly, nematode, and mammals, but not Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we demonstrate that members of this family of proteins are associated with both flagellar outer arm dynein and Drosophila and rat brain cytoplasmic dynein. We propose that roadblock/LC7 family members may modulate specific dynein functions.

Analysis of choline acetyltransferase protein in temperature sensitive mutant flies using newly generated monoclonal antibody.

  • Takagawa K
  • Neurosci. Res.
  • 1996 Feb 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

The protein, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; EC 2.3.1.6), was analyzed in wild-type and two different temperature-sensitive ChAT mutants of Drosophila (Cha(ts1) and Cha(ts2)) using newly generated monoclonal antibodies. In all of the three genotypes, Western blots of crude fly head extracts showed a band stained at approximately the 80-kDa position, supporting the hypothesis that these temperature-sensitive mutants were generated by point mutation in the structural gene. The staining intensity of the bands indicated that these mutants have a lesser amount of ChAT protein than wild-type, even when they are reared at the permissive temperature (18 degrees C).

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - HHSN272200900018C(United States)

Localization of choline acetyltransferase-expressing neurons in the larval visual system of Drosophila melanogaster.

  • Yasuyama K
  • Cell Tissue Res.
  • 1995 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) is the enzyme catalyzing the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and is considered to be a phenotypically specific marker for cholinergic neurons. We have examined the distribution of ChAT-expressing neurons in the larval nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster by three different but complementary techniques: in situ hybridization with a cRNA probe to ChAT messenger RNA, immunocytochemistry using a monoclonal anti-ChAT antibody, and X-gal staining of transformed animals carrying a reporter gene composed of 7.4 kb of 5' flanking DNA from the ChAT gene fused to a lacZ reporter gene. All three techniques demonstrated ChAT-expressing neurons in the larval visual system. In embryos, the photoreceptor organ (Bolwig's organ) exhibited strong cRNA hybridization signals. The optic lobe of late third-instar larvae displayed ChAT immunoreactivity in Bolwig's nerve and a neuron close to the insertion site of the optic stalk. This neuron's axon ran in parallel with Bolwig's nerve to the larval optic neuropil. This neuron is likely to be a first-order interneuron of the larval visual system. Expression of the lacZ reporter gene was also detected in Bolwig's organ and the neuron stained by anti-ChAT antibody. Our observations indicate that acetylcholine may be a neurotransmitter in the larval photoreceptor cells as well as in a first-order interneuron in the larval visual system of Drosophila melanogaster.

Funding information:
  • Austrian Science Fund FWF - P 22834(Austria)
  • NIA NIH HHS - AGO5512(United States)