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Calretinin antibody

RRID:AB_10000321

Regional chemoarchitecture of the brain of lungfishes based on calbindin D-28K and calretinin immunohistochemistry.

  • Morona R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lungfishes are the closest living relatives of land vertebrates, and their neuroanatomical organization is particularly relevant for deducing the neural traits that have been conserved, modified, or lost with the transition from fishes to land vertebrates. The immunohistochemical localization of calbindin (CB) and calretinin (CR) provides a powerful method for discerning segregated neuronal populations, fiber tracts, and neuropils and is here applied to the brains of Neoceratodus and Protopterus, representing the two extant orders of lungfishes. The results showed abundant cells containing these proteins in pallial and subpallial telencephalic regions, with particular distinct distribution in the basal ganglia, amygdaloid complex, and septum. Similarly, the distribution of CB and CR containing cells supports the division of the hypothalamus of lungfishes into neuromeric regions, as in tetrapods. The dense concentrations of CB and CR positive cells and fibers highlight the extent of the thalamus. As in other vertebrates, the optic tectum is characterized by numerous CB positive cells and fibers and smaller numbers of CR cells. The so-called cerebellar nucleus contains abundant CB and CR cells with long ascending axons, which raises the possibility that it could be homologized to the secondary gustatory nucleus of other vertebrates. The corpus of the cerebellum is devoid of CB and CR and cells positive for both proteins are found in the cerebellar auricles and the octavolateralis nuclei. Comparison with other vertebrates reveals that lungfishes share most of their features of calcium binding protein distribution with amphibians, particularly with salamanders.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32CA154274(United States)

Characterization of McDonald's intermediate part of the central nucleus of the amygdala in the rat.

  • Barbier M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jun 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The actual organization of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in the rat is mostly based on cytoarchitecture and the distribution of several cell types, as described by McDonald in 1982. Four divisions were identified by this author. However, since this original work, one of these divisions, the intermediate part, has not been consistently recognized based on Nissl-stained material. In the present study, we observed that a compact condensation of retrogradely labeled cells is found in the CEA after fluorogold injection in the anterior region of the tuberal lateral hypothalamic area in the rat. We then searched for neurochemical markers of this cell condensation and found that it is quite specifically labeled for calbindin (Cb), but also contains calretinin (Cr), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) immunohistochemical signals. These neurochemical features are specific to this cell group which, therefore, is distinct from the other parts of the CEA. We then performed cholera toxin injections in the mouse LHA (lateral hypothalamic area) to identify this cell group in this species. We found that neurons exist in the medial and rostral CEAl that project into the LHA but they have a less tight organization than in the rat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA116984(United States)

Neural connections of the pretectum in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

  • Yáñez J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The pretectum is a complex region of the caudal diencephalon which in adult zebrafish comprises both retinorecipient (parvocellular superficial, central, intercalated, paracommissural, and periventricular) and non-retinorecipient (magnocellular superficial, posterior, and accessory) pretectal nuclei distributed from periventricular to superficial regions. We conducted a comprehensive study of the connections of pretectal nuclei by using neuronal tracing with fluorescent carbocyanine dyes. This study reveals specialization of efferent connections of the various pretectal nuclei, with nuclei projecting to the optic tectum (paracommissural, central, and periventricular pretectal nuclei), the torus longitudinalis and the cerebellar corpus (paracommissural, central, and intercalated pretectal nuclei), the lateral hypothalamus (magnocellular superficial, posterior, and central pretectal nuclei), and the tegmental regions (accessory and superficial pretectal nuclei). With regard to major central afferents to the pretectum, we observed projections from the telencephalon to the paracommissural and central pretectal nuclei, from the optic tectum to the paracommissural, central, accessory and parvocellular superficial pretectal nuclei, from the cerebellum to the paracommissural and periventricular pretectal nuclei and from the nucleus isthmi to the parvocellular superficial and accessory pretectal nuclei. The parvocellular superficial pretectal nucleus sends conspicuous projections to the contralateral magnocellular superficial pretectal nucleus. The composite figure of results reveals large differences in connections of neighbor pretectal nuclei, indicating high degree of nuclear specialization. Our results will have important bearings in functional studies that analyze the relationship between specific circuits and behaviors in zebrafish. Comparison with results available in other species also reveals differences in the organization and connections of the pretectum in vertebrates.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - HG002779(United States)

Shared rhythmic subcortical GABAergic input to the entorhinal cortex and presubiculum.

  • Viney TJ
  • Elife
  • 2018 Apr 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rhythmic theta frequency (~5-12 Hz) oscillations coordinate neuronal synchrony and higher frequency oscillations across the cortex. Spatial navigation and context-dependent episodic memories are represented in several interconnected regions including the hippocampal and entorhinal cortices, but the cellular mechanisms for their dynamic coupling remain to be defined. Using monosynaptically-restricted retrograde viral tracing in mice, we identified a subcortical GABAergic input from the medial septum that terminated in the entorhinal cortex, with collaterals innervating the dorsal presubiculum. Extracellularly recording and labeling GABAergic entorhinal-projecting neurons in awake behaving mice show that these subcortical neurons, named orchid cells, fire in long rhythmic bursts during immobility and locomotion. Orchid cells discharge near the peak of hippocampal and entorhinal theta oscillations, couple to entorhinal gamma oscillations, and target subpopulations of extra-hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. Thus, orchid cells are a specialized source of rhythmic subcortical GABAergic modulation of 'upstream' and 'downstream' cortico-cortical circuits involved in mnemonic functions.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_UU_12024/4()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL083473(United States)
  • Wellcome - 108726/Z/15/Z()

RORβ Spinal Interneurons Gate Sensory Transmission during Locomotion to Secure a Fluid Walking Gait.

  • Koch SC
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Animals depend on sensory feedback from mechanosensory afferents for the dynamic control of movement. This sensory feedback needs to be selectively modulated in a task- and context-dependent manner. Here, we show that inhibitory interneurons (INs) expressing the RORβ orphan nuclear receptor gate sensory feedback to the spinal motor system during walking and are required for the production of a fluid locomotor rhythm. Genetic manipulations that abrogate inhibitory RORβ IN function result in an ataxic gait characterized by exaggerated flexion movements and marked alterations to the step cycle. Inactivation of RORβ in inhibitory neurons leads to reduced presynaptic inhibition and changes to sensory-evoked reflexes, arguing that the RORβ inhibitory INs function to suppress the sensory transmission pathways that activate flexor motor reflexes and interfere with the ongoing locomotor program. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - AG021495(Canada)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS080586()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS086372()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS090919()

Behavior-Dependent Activity and Synaptic Organization of Septo-hippocampal GABAergic Neurons Selectively Targeting the Hippocampal CA3 Area.

  • Joshi A
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rhythmic medial septal (MS) GABAergic input coordinates cortical theta oscillations. However, the rules of innervation of cortical cells and regions by diverse septal neurons are unknown. We report a specialized population of septal GABAergic neurons, the Teevra cells, selectively innervating the hippocampal CA3 area bypassing CA1, CA2, and the dentate gyrus. Parvalbumin-immunopositive Teevra cells show the highest rhythmicity among MS neurons and fire with short burst duration (median, 38 ms) preferentially at the trough of both CA1 theta and slow irregular oscillations, coincident with highest hippocampal excitability. Teevra cells synaptically target GABAergic axo-axonic and some CCK interneurons in restricted septo-temporal CA3 segments. The rhythmicity of their firing decreases from septal to temporal termination of individual axons. We hypothesize that Teevra neurons coordinate oscillatory activity across the septo-temporal axis, phasing the firing of specific CA3 interneurons, thereby contributing to the selection of pyramidal cell assemblies at the theta trough via disinhibition. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/F005237/1(United Kingdom)
  • Medical Research Council - MC_UU_12024/4()
  • Wellcome Trust - MC_UU_12024/3()

A subset of ipRGCs regulates both maturation of the circadian clock and segregation of retinogeniculate projections in mice.

  • Chew KS
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The visual system consists of two major subsystems, image-forming circuits that drive conscious vision and non-image-forming circuits for behaviors such as circadian photoentrainment. While historically considered non-overlapping, recent evidence has uncovered crosstalk between these subsystems. Here, we investigated shared developmental mechanisms. We revealed an unprecedented role for light in the maturation of the circadian clock and discovered that intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are critical for this refinement process. In addition, ipRGCs regulate retinal waves independent of light, and developmental ablation of a subset of ipRGCs disrupts eye-specific segregation of retinogeniculate projections. Specifically, a subset of ipRGCs, comprising ~200 cells and which project intraretinally and to circadian centers in the brain, are sufficient to mediate both of these developmental processes. Thus, this subset of ipRGCs constitute a shared node in the neural networks that mediate light-dependent maturation of the circadian clock and light-independent refinement of retinogeniculate projections.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - F32 EY020108()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY017137()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY019053()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R15 EY026255()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL089742()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC007395()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM076430()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM104991()

Gene expression analysis of developing cell groups in the pretectal region of Xenopus laevis.

  • Morona R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Our previous analysis of progenitor domains in the pretectum of Xenopus revealed three molecularly distinct anteroposterior subdivisions, identified as precommissural (PcP), juxtacommissural (JcP), and commissural (CoP) histogenetic domains (Morona et al. [2011] J Comp Neurol 519:1024-1050). Here we analyzed at later developmental stages the nuclei derived from these areas, attending to their gene expression patterns and histogenesis. Transcription-factor gene markers were used to selectively map derivatives of each domain: Pax7 and Pax6 (CoP); Foxp1 and Six3 (JcP); and Xiro1, VGlut2, Ebf1, and Ebf3 (PcP). Additional genoarchitectural information was provided by the expression of Gbx2, NPY, Lhx1, and Lhx9. This allowed both unambiguous characterization of the anuran pretectal nuclei with regard to their origin in the three early anteroposterior progenitor domains, and their comparison with counterparts in the chick and mouse pretectum. Our observations demonstrated a molecular conservation, during practically all the stages analyzed, for most of the main markers used to define genoarchitecturally the main derivatives of each pretectal domain. We found molecular evidence to propose homologous derivatives from the CoP (olivary pretectal, parvocellular, and magnocellular posterior commissure and lateral terminal nuclei), JcP (spiriformis lateral and lateral terminal nuclei), and PcP (anterior pretectal nucleus) to those described in avian studies. These results represent significant progress in the comprehension of the diencephalic region of Xenopus and show that the organization of the pretectum possesses many features shared with birds. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:715-752, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK007319(United States)

Left Habenula Mediates Light-Preference Behavior in Zebrafish via an Asymmetrical Visual Pathway.

  • Zhang BB
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Habenula (Hb) plays critical roles in emotion-related behaviors through integrating inputs mainly from the limbic system and basal ganglia. However, Hb also receives inputs from multiple sensory modalities. The function and underlying neural circuit of Hb sensory inputs remain unknown. Using larval zebrafish, we found that left dorsal Hb (dHb, a homolog of mammalian medial Hb) mediates light-preference behavior by receiving visual inputs from a specific subset of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) through eminentia thalami (EmT). Loss- and gain-of-function manipulations showed that left, but not right, dHb activities, which encode environmental illuminance, are necessary and sufficient for light-preference behavior. At circuit level, left dHb neurons receive excitatory monosynaptic inputs from bilateral EmT, and EmT neurons are contacted mainly by sustained ON-type RGCs at the arborization field 4 of retinorecipient brain areas. Our findings discover a previously unidentified asymmetrical visual pathway to left Hb and its function in mediating light-preference behavior. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Immunocytochemical heterogeneity of somatostatin-expressing GABAergic interneurons in layers II and III of the mouse cingulate cortex: A combined immunofluorescence/design-based stereologic study.

  • Riedemann T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many neurological diseases including major depression and schizophrenia manifest as dysfunction of the GABAergic system within the cingulate cortex. However, relatively little is known about the properties of GABAergic interneurons in the cingulate cortex. Therefore, we investigated the neurochemical properties of GABAergic interneurons in the cingulate cortex of FVB-Tg(GadGFP)45704Swn/J mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a subset of GABAergic interneurons (GFP-expressing inhibitory interneurons [GINs]) by means of immunocytochemical and design-based stereologic techniques. We found that GINs represent around 12% of all GABAergic interneurons in the cingulate cortex. In contrast to other neocortical areas, GINs were only found in cortical layers II and III. More than 98% of GINs coexpressed the neuropeptide somatostatin (SOM), but only 50% of all SOM + neurons were GINs. By analyzing the expression of calretinin (CR), calbindin (CB), parvalbumin, and various neuropeptides, we identified several distinct GIN subgroups. In particular, we observed coexpression of SOM with CR and CB. In addition, we found neuropeptide Y expression almost exclusively in those GINs that coexpressed SOM and CR. Thus, with respect to the expression of calcium-binding proteins and neuropeptides, GINs are surprisingly heterogeneous in the mouse cingulate cortex, and the minority of GINs express only one marker protein or peptide. Furthermore, our observation of overlap between the SOM + and CR + interneuron population was in contrast to earlier findings of non-overlapping SOM + and CR + interneuron populations in the human cortex. This might indicate that findings in mouse models of neuropsychiatric diseases may not be directly transferred to human patients. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2281-2299, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY 15224(United States)

Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena).

  • Dell LA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The present study provides the first systematic immunohistochemical neuroanatomical investigation of the systems involved in the control and regulation of sleep in an odontocete cetacean, the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). The odontocete cetaceans show an unusual form of mammalian sleep, with unihemispheric slow waves, suppressed REM sleep, and continuous bodily movement. All the neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals were present in the harbor porpoise, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity of nuclear organization relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic, and orexinergic systems and is extended to the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic elements involved with these nuclei. Quantitative analysis of the cholinergic and noradrenergic nuclei of the pontine region revealed that in comparison with other mammals, the numbers of pontine cholinergic (126,776) and noradrenergic (122,878) neurons are markedly higher than in other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. The diminutive telencephalic commissures (anterior commissure, corpus callosum, and hippocampal commissure) along with an enlarged posterior commissure and supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic neurons indicate that the control of unihemispheric slow-wave sleep is likely to be a function of interpontine competition, facilitated through the posterior commissure, in response to unilateral telencephalic input related to the drive for sleep. In addition, an expanded peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex appears likely to play a role in the suppression of REM sleep in odontocete cetaceans. Thus, the current study provides several clues to the understanding of the neural control of the unusual sleep phenomenology present in odontocete cetaceans. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1999-2017, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA060553(United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA177558(United States)

Organization of the sleep-related neural systems in the brain of the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata).

  • Dell LA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The current study analyzed the nuclear organization of the neural systems related to the control and regulation of sleep and wake in the basal forebrain, diencephalon, midbrain, and pons of the minke whale, a mysticete cetacean. While odontocete cetaceans sleep in an unusual manner, with unihemispheric slow wave sleep (USWS) and suppressed REM sleep, it is unclear whether the mysticete whales show a similar sleep pattern. Previously, we detailed a range of features in the odontocete brain that appear to be related to odontocete-type sleep, and here present our analysis of these features in the minke whale brain. All neural elements involved in sleep regulation and control found in bihemispheric sleeping mammals and the harbor porpoise were present in the minke whale, with no specific nuclei being absent, and no novel nuclei being present. This qualitative similarity relates to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, serotonergic and orexinergic systems, and the GABAergic elements of these nuclei. Quantitative analysis revealed that the numbers of pontine cholinergic (274,242) and noradrenergic (203,686) neurons, and hypothalamic orexinergic neurons (277,604), are markedly higher than other large-brained bihemispheric sleeping mammals. Small telencephalic commissures (anterior, corpus callosum, and hippocampal), an enlarged posterior commissure, supernumerary pontine cholinergic and noradrenergic cells, and an enlarged peripheral division of the dorsal raphe nuclear complex of the minke whale, all indicate that the suite of neural characteristics thought to be involved in the control of USWS and the suppression of REM in the odontocete cetaceans are present in the minke whale. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2018-2035, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Organization of the nitrergic neuronal system in the primitive bony fishes Polypterus senegalus and Erpetoichthys calabaricus (Actinopterygii: Cladistia).

  • López JM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cladistians are a group of basal actinopterygian fishes that constitute a good model for studying primitive brain features, most likely present in the ancestral bony fishes. The analysis of the nitrergic neurons (with the enzyme nitric oxide synthase; NOS) has helped in understanding important aspects of brain organization in all vertebrates studied. We investigated the nitrergic system of two cladistian species by means of specific antibodies against NOS and NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry, which, with the exception of the primary olfactory and terminal nerve fibers, labeled only for NADPH-d, yielded identical results. Double immunohistochemistry was conducted for simultaneous detection of NOS with tyrosine hydroxylase, choline acetyltransferase, calbindin, calretinin, and serotonin, to establish accurately the localization of the nitrergic neurons and fibers and to assess possible interactions between these neuroactive substances. The pattern of distribution in both species showed only subtle differences in the density of labeled cells. Distinct groups of NOS-immunoreactive cells were observed in pallial and subpallial areas, paraventricular region, tuberal and retromammillary hypothalamic areas, posterior tubercle, prethalamic and thalamic areas, optic tectum, torus semicircularis, mesencephalic tegmentum, interpeduncular nucleus, superior and middle reticular nuclei, magnocellular vestibular nucleus, solitary tract nucleus, nucleus medianus magnocellularis, the spinal cord and amacrine cells in the retina. Large neurons in cranial nerve sensory ganglia were also labeled. The comparison of these results with those from other vertebrates, using a neuromeric analysis, reveals a conserved pattern of organization of the nitrergic system from this primitive fish group to amniotes, including mammals.

Identification of AⅡ amacrine, displaced amacrine, and bistratified ganglion cell types in human retina with antibodies against calretinin.

  • Lee SC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Antibodies against calretinin are markers for one type of rod pathway interneuron (AⅡ amacrine cell) in the retina of some but not all mammalian species. The AⅡ cells play a crucial role in night-time (scotopic) vision and have been proposed as a target for optogenetic restoration of vision in retinal disease. In the present study we aimed to characterize the AⅡ cells in human retina. Postmortem human donor eyes were obtained with ethical approval and processed for calretinin immunofluorescence. Calretinin-positive somas in the inner nuclear and the ganglion cell layer were filled with the lipophilic dye DiI. The large majority (over 80%) of calretinin-immunoreactive cells is located in the inner nuclear layer, is immunopositive for glycine transporter 1, and shows the typical morphology of AⅡ amacrine cells. In addition, a small proportion of calretinin-positive cells in the inner nuclear layer and in the ganglion cell layer is glutamic acid decarboxylase-positive and shows the morphology of widefield amacrine cells (stellate, semilunar, and thorny amacrine cells). About half of the calretinin cells in the ganglion cell layer are bistratified ganglion cells resembling the small bistratified (presumed blue-ON/yellow-OFF) and the G17 ganglion cell previously described in primates. We conclude that in human retina, antibodies against calretinin can be used to identify AⅡ amacrine cells in the inner nuclear layer as well as widefield amacrine and small bistratified ganglion cells in the ganglion cell layer.

Neuronal Organization of the Brain in the Adult Amphioxus (Branchiostoma lanceolatum): A Study With Acetylated Tubulin Immunohistochemistry.

  • Castro A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Amphioxus (Cephalochordata) belongs to the most basal extant chordates, and knowledge of their brain organization appears to be key to deciphering the early stages of evolution of vertebrate brains. Most comprehensive studies of the organization of the central nervous system of adult amphioxus have investigated the spinal cord. Some brain populations have been characterized via neurochemistry and electron microscopy, and the overall cytoarchitecture of the brain was studied by Ekhart et al. (2003; J. Comp. Neurol. 466:319-330) with general staining methods and retrograde transport from the spinal cord. Here, the cytoarchitecture of the brain of adult amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum was reinvestigated by using acetylated tubulin immunohistochemistry, which specifically stains neurons and fibers, in combination with some ancillary methods. This method allowed reproducible staining and mapping of types of neuron, mostly in brain regions caudal to the entrance level of nerve 2, and its comparison with spinal cord populations. The brain populations studied and discussed in detail were the Retzius bipolar cells, lamellate cells, Joseph cells, various types of translumenal cells, somatic motoneurons, Rohde nucleus cells, small ventral multipolar neurons, and Edinger cells. These observations expand our knowledge of the distribution of cell types and provide additional data on the number of cells and the axonal tracts and commissural regions of the adult amphioxus brain. The results of this comprehensive study provide a framework for comparison of complex adult populations with the early brain neuronal populations revealed in developmental studies of the amphioxus.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP-38854(Canada)
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022157-01(United States)

Analysis of bipolar and amacrine populations in marmoset retina.

  • Weltzien F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

About 15 parallel ganglion cell pathways transmit visual signals to the brain, but the interneuron (bipolar and amacrine) populations providing input to ganglion cells remain poorly understood in primate retina. We carried out a quantitative analysis of the inner nuclear layer in the retina of the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Vertical Vibratome sections along the horizontal meridian were processed with immunohistochemical markers. Image stacks were taken with a confocal microscope, and densities of cell populations were determined. The density of flat midget bipolar cells fell from 15,746 cells/mm(2) at 1 mm (8 deg) to 7,827 cells/mm(2) at 3 mm (25 deg). The rod bipolar cell density fell from 8,640 cells/mm(2) at 1 mm to 4,278 cells/mm(2) at 3 mm, but the ratio of the two bipolar cell types did not change with eccentricity. The amacrine cell density ranged from 30,000 cells/mm(2) at 8 deg to less than 15,000 cells/mm(2) at 25 deg, but throughout the retina, the ratio of glycinergic to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic to amacrine cells remained relatively constant. The fractions of rod bipolar, cone bipolar, amacrine, Müller, and horizontal cells of all cells in the inner nuclear layer were comparable in central and peripheral retina. Marmosets had lower proportions of midget bipolar and rod bipolar in comparison with macaque. These differences were correlated with differences in rod and cone densities between the two species and did not reflect fundamental differences in the wiring between the two species.

Spatiotemporal patterns of Pax3, Pax6, and Pax7 expression in the developing brain of a urodele amphibian, Pleurodeles waltl.

  • Joven A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The onset and developmental dynamics of Pax3, Pax6, and Pax7 expressions were analyzed by immunohistochemical techniques in the central nervous system (CNS) of embryos, larvae, and recently metamorphosed juveniles of the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl. During the embryonic period, the Pax proteins start being detectable in neuroepithelial domains. Subsequently, they become restricted to subsets of cells in distinct brain regions, maintaining different degrees of expression in late larvae and juvenile brains. Specifically, Pax6 is broadly expressed all along the urodele CNS (olfactory bulbs, pallium, basal ganglia, diencephalon, mesencephalic tegmentum, rhombencephalon, and spinal cord) and the developing olfactory organ and retina. Pax3 and Pax7 are excluded from the rostral forebrain and were usually observed in overlapping regions during embryonic development, whereas Pax3 expression is highly downregulated as development proceeds. Thus, Pax3 is restricted to the roof plate of prosomere 2, pretectum, optic tectum, rhombencephalon, and spinal cord. Comparatively, Pax7 was more conspicuous in all these regions. Pax7 cells were also found in the paraphysis, intermediate lobe of the hypophysis, and basal plate of prosomere 3. Our data show that the expression patterns of the three Pax genes studied are overall evolutionarily conserved, and therefore could unequivocally be used to identify subdivisions in the urodele brain similar to other vertebrates, which are not clearly discernable with classical techniques. In addition, the spatiotemporal sequences of expression provide indirect evidence of putative migratory routes across neuromeric limits and the alar-basal boundary.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA126189(United States)

Calretinin inputs are confined to motoneurons for upward eye movements in monkey.

  • Zeeh C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Motoneurons of extraocular muscles are controlled by different premotor pathways, whose selective damage may cause directionally selective eye movement disorders. The fact that clinical disorders can affect only one direction, e.g., isolated up-/downgaze palsy or up-/downbeat nystagmus, indicates that up- and downgaze pathways are organized separately. Recent work in monkey revealed that a subpopulation of premotor neurons of the vertical eye movement system contains the calcium-binding protein calretinin (CR). With combined tract-tracing and immunofluorescence, the motoneurons of vertically pulling eye muscles in monkey were investigated for the presence of CR-positive afferent terminals. In the oculomotor nucleus, CR was specifically found in punctate profiles contacting superior rectus and inferior oblique motoneurons, as well as levator palpebrae motoneurons, all of which participate in upward eye movements. Double-immunofluorescence labeling revealed that CR-positive terminals lacked the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase, which is present in inhibitory afferents to all motoneurons mediating vertical eye movements. Therefore, CR-containing afferents are considered to be excitatory. In conclusion, a strong CR input is confined to motoneurons mediating upgaze, which derive from premotor pathways mediating saccades and smooth pursuit, but not from secondary vestibulo-ocular neurons in the magnocellular part of the medial vestibular nucleus. The functional significance of CR in these connections is unclear, but it may serve as a useful marker to locate upgaze pathways in the human brain.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK-078049(United States)

Immunohistochemical distribution of calretinin and calbindin (D-28k) in the brain of the cladistian Polypterus senegalus.

  • Graña P
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Polypteriform fishes are believed to be basal to other living ray-finned bony fishes, and they may be useful for providing information of the neural organization that existed in the brain of the earliest ray-finned fishes. The calcium-binding proteins calretinin (CR) and calbindin-D28k (CB) have been widely used to characterize neuronal populations in vertebrate brains. Here, the distribution of the immunoreactivity against CR and CB was investigated in the olfactory organ and brain of Polypterus senegalus and compared to the distribution of these molecules in other ray-finned fishes. In general, CB-immunoreactive (ir) neurons were less abundant than CR-ir cells. CR immunohistochemistry revealed segregation of CR-ir olfactory receptor neurons in the olfactory mucosa and their bulbar projections. Our results confirmed important differences between pallial regions in terms of CR immunoreactivity of cell populations and afferent fibers. In the habenula, these calcium-binding proteins revealed right-left asymmetry of habenular subpopulations and segregation of their interpeduncular projections. CR immunohistochemistry distinguished among some thalamic, pretectal, and posterior tubercle-derived populations. Abundant CR-ir populations were observed in the midbrain, including the tectum. CR immunoreactivity was also useful for characterizing a putative secondary gustatory/visceral nucleus in the isthmus, and for distinguishing territories in the primary viscerosensory column and octavolateral region. Comparison of the data obtained within a segmental neuromeric context indicates that some CB-ir and CR-ir populations in polypteriform fishes are shared with other ray-finned fishes, but other positive structures appear to have evolved following the separation between polypterids and other ray-finned fishes.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/I000984/1(United Kingdom)
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY04067(United States)

Expression patterns of Pax6 and Pax7 in the adult brain of a urodele amphibian, Pleurodeles waltl.

  • Joven A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Expression patterns of Pax6, Pax7, and, to a lesser extent, Pax3 genes were analyzed by a combination of immunohistochemical techniques in the central nervous system of adult specimens of the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl. Only Pax6 was found in the telencephalon, specifically the olfactory bulbs, striatum, septum, and lateral and central parts of the amygdala. In the diencephalon, Pax6 and Pax7 were distinct in the alar and basal parts, respectively, of prosomere 3. The distribution of Pax6, Pax7, and Pax3 cells correlated with the three pretectal domains. Pax7 specifically labeled cells in the dorsal mesencephalon, mainly in the optic tectum, and Pax6 cells were the only cells found in the tegmentum. Large populations of Pax7 cells occupied the rostral rhombencephalon, along with lower numbers of Pax6 and Pax3 cells. Pax6 was found in most granule cells of the cerebellum. Pax6 cells also formed a column of scattered neurons in the reticular formation and were found in the octavolateral area. The rhombencephalic ventricular zone of the alar plate expressed Pax7. Dorsal Pax7 cells and ventral Pax6 cells were found along the spinal cord. Our results show that the expression of Pax6 and Pax7 is widely maintained in the brains of adult urodeles, in contrast to the situation in other tetrapods. This discrepancy could be due to the generally pedomorphic features of urodele brains. Although the precise role of these transcription factors in adult brains remains to be determined, our findings support the idea that they may also function in adult urodeles.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R03 EB012461-01(United States)

Differential dendritic targeting of AMPA receptor subunit mRNAs in adult rat hippocampal principal neurons and interneurons.

  • Cox DJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

In hippocampal neurons, AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory postsynaptic responses at glutamatergic synapses, and are involved in various forms of synaptic plasticity. Dendritic local protein synthesis of selected AMPAR subunit mRNAs is considered an additional mechanism to independently and rapidly control the strength of individual synapses. We have used fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to analyze the localization of AMPAR subunit (GluA1-4) mRNAs and their relationship with the translation machinery in principal cells and interneurons of the adult rat hippocampus. The mRNAs encoding all four AMPAR subunits were detected in the somata and dendrites of CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells and those of six classes of CA1 γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons. GluA1-4 subunit mRNAs were highly localized to the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells, whereas in interneurons they were present in multiple dendrites. In contrast, in the dentate gyrus, GluA1-4 subunit mRNAs were virtually restricted to the somata and were absent from the dendrites of granule cells. These different regional and cell type-specific labeling patterns also correlated with the localization of markers for components of the protein synthesis machinery. Our results support the local translation of GluA1-4 mRNAs in dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal cells and CA1 interneurons but not in granule cells of the dentate gyrus. Furthermore, the regional and cell type-specific differences we observed suggest that each cell type uses distinct ways of regulating the local translation of AMPAR subunits.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/I000984/1(United Kingdom)

Cytoskeletal changes during development and aging in the cortex of neurofilament light protein knockout mice.

  • Liu Y
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The neurofilament light (NFL) subunit is considered as an obligate subunit polymer for neuronal intermediate filaments comprising the neurofilament (NF) triplet proteins. We examined cytoskeletal protein levels in the cerebral cortex of NFL knockout (KO) mice at postnatal day 4 (P4), 5 months, and 12 months of age compared with age-matched wild-type (WT) mice of a similar genetic background (C57BL/6). The absence of NFL protein resulted in a significant reduction of phosphorylated and dephosphorylated NFs (NF-P, NF-DP), the medium NF subunit (NFM), and the intermediate filament α-internexin (INT) at P4. At 5 months, NF-DP, NFM, and INT remained significantly lower in knockouts. At 12 months, NF-P was again significantly decreased, and INT significantly increased, in KOs compared with wild type. In addition, protein levels of class III neuron-specific β-tubulin and microtubule-associated protein 2 were significantly increased in NFL KO mice at P4, 5 months, and 12 months, whereas β-actin levels were significantly decreased at P4. Immunocytochemical studies demonstrated that NF-DP accumulated abnormally in the perikarya of cortical neurons by 5 months of age in NFL KO mice. Neurons that lacked NF triplet proteins, such as calretinin-immunolabeled nonpyramidal cells, showed no alterations in density or cytoarchitectural distribution in NFL KO mice at 5 months relative to WT mice, although calretinin protein levels were decreased significantly after 12 months in NFL KO mice. These findings suggest that a lack of NFL protein alters the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and disrupts other NF subunits, causing intracellular aggregation but not gross structural changes in cortical neurons or cytoarchitecture. The data also indicate that changes in expression of other cytoskeletal proteins may compensate for decreased NFs.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS064675(United States)

Males but not females show differences in calbindin immunoreactivity in the dorsal thalamus of the mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

  • Giráldez-Pérez RM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the loss of the Fmr1 gene product, fragile X mental retardation protein. Here we analyze the immunohistochemical expression of calcium-binding proteins in the dorsal thalamus of Fmr1 knockout mice of both sexes and compare it with that of wildtype littermates. The spatial distribution pattern of calbindin-immunoreactive cells in the dorsal thalamus was similar in wildtype and knockout mice but there was a notable reduction in calbindin-immunoreactive cells in midline/intralaminar/posterior dorsal thalamic nuclei of male Fmr1 knockout mice. We counted the number of calbindin-immunoreactive cells in 18 distinct nuclei of the dorsal thalamus. Knockout male mice showed a significant reduction in calbindin-immunoreactive cells (range: 36-67% lower), whereas female knockout mice did not show significant differences (in any dorsal thalamic nucleus) when compared with their wildtype littermates. No variation in the calretinin expression pattern was observed throughout the dorsal thalamus. The number of calretinin-immunoreactive cells was similar for all experimental groups as well. Parvalbumin immunoreactivity was restricted to fibers and neuropil in the analyzed dorsal thalamic nuclei, and presented no differences between genotypes. Midline/intralaminar/posterior dorsal thalamic nuclei are involved in forebrain circuits related to memory, nociception, social fear, and auditory sensory integration; therefore, we suggest that downregulation of calbindin protein expression in the dorsal thalamus of male knockout mice should be taken into account when analyzing behavioral studies in the mouse model of FXS.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30CA54174(United States)

Pattern of calbindin-D28k and calretinin immunoreactivity in the brain of Xenopus laevis during embryonic and larval development.

  • Morona R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The present study represents a detailed spatiotemporal analysis of the localization of calbindin-D28k (CB) and calretinin (CR) immunoreactive structures in the brain of Xenopus laevis throughout development, conducted with the aim to correlate the onset of the immunoreactivity with the development of compartmentalization of distinct subdivisions recently identified in the brain of adult amphibians and primarily highlighted when analyzed within a segmental paradigm. CR and CB are expressed early in the brain and showed a progressively increasing expression throughout development, although transient expression in some neuronal subpopulations was also noted. Common and distinct characteristics in Xenopus, as compared with reported features during development in the brain of mammals, were observed. The development of specific regions in the forebrain such as the olfactory bulbs, the components of the basal ganglia and the amygdaloid complex, the alar and basal hypothalamic regions, and the distinct diencephalic neuromeres could be analyzed on the basis of the distinct expression of CB and CR in subregions. Similarly, the compartments of the mesencephalon and the main rhombencephalic regions, including the cerebellum, were differently highlighted by their specific content in CB and CR throughout development. Our results show the usefulness of the analysis of the distribution of these proteins as a tool in neuroanatomy to interpret developmental aspects of many brain regions.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD048954(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - 077074(United Kingdom)

Immunohistochemical study of the distribution of calcium binding proteins in the brain of a chondrostean (Acipenser baeri).

  • Graña P
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chondrosteans represent an ancient lineage in ray-finned bony fishes and hence in jawed vertebrates. This immunohistochemical study in the brain of the Siberian sturgeon reports the neuronal distribution of three cytosolic calcium-binding proteins: calbindin-D28k (CB), calretinin (CR), and parvalbumin (PV). CB and CR are widely expressed in different neuron subsets distributed throughout the sturgeon brain. Studies using double immunofluorescence reveal a wide co-distribution of CB and CR in the brain nuclei but scarce co-localization at cellular level. In the forebrain, CR- and CB-immunoreactive (ir) populations were observed in the olfactory bulbs, in pallial and subpallial telencephalic areas, and in some diencephalic nuclei. CR-ir cells were also observed in the posterior tubercle and CB-ir cells in the preglomerular complex. At midbrain and hindbrain basal levels, CB-ir and CR-ir cell bodies were mainly distributed in periventricular areas. In the cerebellum, CB and CR cells were co-localized in some granular cell subsets in laterodorsal and dorsolateral regions, and in some Purkinje-like cells. CB-ir and CR-ir fibers were mainly observed in the olfactory bulbs, hypothalamus, and habenula, and in fiber tracts that coursed in the optic tectum and through the mesencephalic and rhombencephalic basal areas. With regard to PV, the sturgeon brain showed a rather limited distribution of PV-ir perikarya and fibers. Thus, CR, CB, and PV allowed the identification of subpopulations of neurons not distinguished on the basis of cytoarchitecture alone, which provided a better understanding of the anatomical organization of the sturgeon brain. These results reveal numerous shared features with teleosts, but also important differences.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083726(United States)

Characterization of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the forebrain of anuran amphibians.

  • Moreno N
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Major common features have been reported for the organization of the basal telencephalon in amniotes, and most characteristics were thought to be acquired in the transition from anamniotes to amniotes. However, gene expression, neurochemical, and hodological data obtained for the basal ganglia and septal and amygdaloid complexes in amphibians (anamniotic tetrapods) have strengthened the idea of a conserved organization in tetrapods. A poorly characterized region in the forebrain of amniotes has been the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), but numerous recent investigations have characterized it as a member of the extended amygdala. Our study analyzes the main features of the BST in anuran amphibians to establish putative homologies with amniotes. Gene expression patterns during development identified the anuran BST as a subpallial, nonstriatal territory. The BST shows Nkx2.1 and Lhx7 expression and contains an Islet1-positive cell subpopulation derived from the lateral ganglionic eminence. Immunohistochemistry for diverse peptides and neurotransmitters revealed that the distinct chemoarchitecture of the BST is strongly conserved among tetrapods. In vitro tracing techniques with dextran amines revealed important connections between the BST and the central and medial amygdala, septal territories, medial pallium, preoptic area, lateral hypothalamus, thalamus, and prethalamus. The BST receives dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area and is connected with the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus and the rostral raphe in the brainstem. All these data suggest that the anuran BST shares many features with its counterpart in amniotes and belongs to a basal continuum, likely controlling similar reflexes, reponses, and behaviors in tetrapods.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P20 GM64361(United States)

Dlx6 regulates molecular properties of the striatum and central nucleus of the amygdala.

  • Wang B
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

We describe here the prenatal telencephalic expression of Dlx6 RNA and β-galactosidase driven from a mutant Dlx6 locus. The mutant Dlx6 allele, which we believe is either a null or severe hypomorph, has an IRES-lacZ-neomycin resistance cassette inserted into the Dlx6 homeobox coding sequence (Dlx6(LacZ) ). We compared expression from the Dlx6-lacZ (Dlx6(LacZ) ) allele in heterozygotes (Dlx6(LacZ/+) ), with the expression of Dlx1, Dlx2, Dlx5 and Dlx6 RNA. Like these wild-type alleles, Dlx6(LacZ) is expressed in the developing ganglionic eminences, and their derivatives. Unlike the other Dlx genes, Dlx6 and Dlx6(LacZ) expression is not readily observed in tangentially migrating interneurons. In addition to Dlx6's expression at later stages of differentiation of many basal ganglia nuclei, it shows particularly robust expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala. Histological analysis of Dlx6 mutants (Dlx6(LacZ/LacZ) ) shows that this homeobox transcription factor is required for molecular properties of the striatum, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and central nucleus of the amygdala. For instance, we observed reduced of Golf, RXRγ, and Tiam2 expression in the striatum, and reduced Dlx5 expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala. RNA expression array analysis of the E18.5 striatum was useful in identifying the transcription factors that are expressed in this tissue, but did not identify major changes in gene expression in the Dlx6(LacZ/LacZ) mutant.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

Embryonic genoarchitecture of the pretectum in Xenopus laevis: a conserved pattern in tetrapods.

  • Morona R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Networked gene activities control the evolutionarily conserved histogenetic organization of the central nervous system of vertebrates. Genoarchitectonic studies contribute to the analysis of each morphogenetic field by identifying distinct progenitor domains and corresponding derivatives whose pattern of gene expression shows a unique combinatory code. Previous studies in the pretectal region (caudal diencephalon) have defined three anteroposterior genoarchitectonic domains that are conserved in birds and mammals. Here, we have studied the embryonic pretectal genoarchitecture in the amphibian Xenopus laevis, in order to determine whether it is possible to define a comparable anteroposterior tripartition of the amphibian pretectal area. The expression patterns of 14 genes mapped from early embryonic stages to metamorphic climax allowed us to define the boundaries of the pretectum, the expected precommissural, juxtacommissural, and commissural anteroposterior domains, and some dorsoventral subdivisions. Taken together, our data provide evidence for a conserved pattern of pretectal domains and subdomains, shared by amniotes and amphibian anamniotes (tetrapods), understandable as part of a general Bauplan in vertebrates.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - MR/L008661/1(United Kingdom)

Distribution of glycine immunoreactivity in the brain of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri): comparison with γ-aminobutyric acid.

  • Adrio F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the main inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates. Studies on the distribution of glycinergic neurons and fibers have been carried out mainly in rodents and lampreys. With the aim of discovering more about the early evolution of this system in vertebrates, we analyzed the distribution of glycine-immunoreactive (Gly-ir) neurons and fibers in the CNS of a basal ray-finned fish, the Siberian sturgeon (Chondrostei, Acipenseriformes), by use of immunohistochemical techniques. We also compared the distribution of glycine and GABA by the use of double-immunofluorescence techniques and confocal microscopy. Our results revealed the presence of Gly-ir cells in different regions of the CNS, such as olfactory bulbs, preoptic area, hypothalamus, thalamus, pretectum, optic tectum, tegmentum and rostral spinal cord, although most of the Gly-ir cells and the most intensely immunoreactive cells were located in the rhombencephalon, mainly in the octavolateral area and reticular formation. In addition, coronet cells of the basal hypothalamus and saccus vasculosus were Gly-ir. Glycinergic fibers coursed along most brain regions and were more abundant in the thalamus, hypothalamus, optic tectum, tegmentum, isthmic region, and basal rhombencephalon. The Mauthner cell perikaryon was richly innervated by Gly-ir boutons, as reported for teleosts. With regard to the colocalization of glycine and GABA, double-immunoreactive cells were located mainly in the rhombencephalon. The results enable us to conclude that the distribution of glycine in the sturgeon brain is more similar to that observed in lampreys than that observed in mammals.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - MH067937(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - WT088340MA(United Kingdom)

Differential bulbar and extrabulbar projections of diverse olfactory receptor neuron populations in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

  • Gayoso JÁ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Immunohistochemical methods were used to characterize the expression of two calcium-binding proteins, calretinin (CR) and S100, in the olfactory rosette of the adult zebrafish. These proteins are expressed in different sets of sensory neurons, and together represent a large proportion of these cells. Double immunofluorescence for CR and Gα(olf) protein, and CR immunoelectron microscopy, indicated that most CR-immunoreactive (ir) cells were ciliary neurons. Differential S100- and CR-ir projections to glomerular fields of the olfactory bulb were also observed, although these projections overlap in some glomeruli. Application of the carbocyanine dye DiI to either S100-ir or CR-ir glomerular regions led to labeling of cells mostly similar to S100-ir and CR-ir neurons, respectively. Instead, these bulbar regions project to similar telencephalic targets. On the other hand, antibodies against keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-stained numerous sensory cells in the olfactory rosette, including cells that were CR- and S100-negative. This antiserum also stained most primary bulbar projections and revealed extrabulbar olfactory primary projections coursing to the ventral area of the telencephalon through the medial olfactory tract. This extrabulbar projection was confirmed by tract-tracing with DiI. A loose association of this extrabulbar primary olfactory projection and the catecholaminergic populations of the ventral area was also observed with double tyrosine hydroxylase/KLH-like immunohistochemistry. Comparison between KLH-like-ir pathways and the structures revealed by FMRFamide immunohistochemistry (a marker of terminal ganglion cells and fibers) indicated that the KLH-like-ir extrabulbar projection was different from the terminal nerve system. The significance of the extrabulbar olfactory projection of zebrafish is discussed.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA101936-01(United States)
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - DC005557(United States)

GABAergic complex basket formations in the human neocortex.

  • Blazquez-Llorca L
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Certain GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex, basket cells, establish multiple connections with cell bodies that typically outline the somata and proximal dendrites of pyramidal cells. During studies into the distribution of the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) in the human cerebral cortex, we were struck by the presence of a very dense, pericellular arrangement of multiple VGAT-immunoreactive (-ir) terminals in certain cortical areas. We called these terminals "Complex basket formations" (Cbk-formations) to distinguish them from the simpler and more typical pericellular GABAergic innervations of most cortical neurons. Here we examined the distribution of these VGAT-ir Cbk-formations in various cortical areas, including the somatosensory (area 3b), visual (areas 17 and 18), motor (area 4), associative frontal (dorsolateral areas 9, 10, 45, 46, and orbital areas 11, 12, 13, 14, 47), associative temporal (areas 20, 21, 22, and 38), and limbic cingulate areas (areas 24, 32). Furthermore, we used dual or triple staining techniques to study the chemical nature of the innervated cells. We found that VGAT-ir Cbk-formations were most frequently found in area 4 followed by areas 3b, 13, and 18. In addition, they were mostly observed in layer III, except in area 17, where they were most dense in layer IV. We also found that 70% of the innervated neurons were pyramidal cells, while the remaining 30% were multipolar cells. Most of these multipolar cells expressed the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin and the lectin Vicia villosa agglutinin.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - R01RR025342(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY1765(United States)

Long-term regulation in calretinin staining in the rat inferior colliculus after unilateral auditory cortical ablation.

  • Clarkson C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

In this study we analyzed the effects in the inferior colliculus of a unilateral ablation of the auditory cortex in rats. Variations in both calretinin immunoreactivity and protein levels determined by Western blot suggest that such lesions induce changes in the regulation of this calcium-binding protein. Stereological counts of calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in the inferior colliculus 15, 90, and 180 days after the lesion showed a progressive increase in the number of immunoreactive neurons, with a parallel increase in the intensity of staining. Two hundred forty days after the cortical lesion, both the number of immunoreactive neurons and the staining intensity had returned to control values. The effects of the cortical lesion on calretinin regulation are more intense in those inferior colliculus subdivisions more densely innervated by the corticocollicular projection. This finding, along with the time course of calretinin regulation suggests that degeneration of the descending projection is linked to calretinin regulation in the inferior colliculus. We hypothesize, based on the role of calretinin, that the observed increase in immunoreactivity levels seen in the inferior colliculus after lesioning of the auditory cortex may be related to altered excitability in deafferented neurons. Our finding, may reflect adaptive mechanisms to changes in calcium influx and excitability in inferior colliculus neurons induced by lesions of the descending projection from the cortex to the inferior colliculus.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R03 HD057334-01A2(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 1 U54 GM69338(United States)

Calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity characterizes the auditory system of Gekko gecko.

  • Yan K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Geckos use vocalizations for intraspecific communication, but little is known about the organization of their central auditory system. We therefore used antibodies against the calcium-binding proteins calretinin (CR), parvalbumin (PV), and calbindin-D28k (CB) to characterize the gecko auditory system. We also examined expression of both glutamic acid decarboxlase (GAD) and synaptic vesicle protein (SV2). Western blots showed that these antibodies are specific to gecko brain. All three calcium-binding proteins were expressed in the auditory nerve, and CR immunoreactivity labeled the first-order nuclei and delineated the terminal fields associated with the ascending projections from the first-order auditory nuclei. PV expression characterized the superior olivary nuclei, whereas GAD immunoreactivity characterized many neurons in the nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and some neurons in the torus semicircularis. In the auditory midbrain, the distribution of CR, PV, and CB characterized divisions within the central nucleus of the torus semicircularis. All three calcium-binding proteins were expressed in nucleus medialis of the thalamus. These expression patterns are similar to those described for other vertebrates.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01HG004059(United States)

The zebrafish cerebellar upper rhombic lip generates tegmental hindbrain nuclei by long-distance migration in an evolutionary conserved manner.

  • Volkmann K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jul 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The upper rhombic lip (URL) of the developing mammalian cerebellum produces different neuronal cell types in a temporal sequence. The first neuronal populations arising from this proliferation zone include the progenitors of the parabrachial, parabigeminal, and laterodorsal-pedunculopontine tegmental hindbrain nuclei. By means of expression analysis, histology, and retrograde neuronal tracing, we have identified the zebrafish homologues of these nuclei, namely, the secondary gustatory/viscerosensory nucleus, the nucleus isthmi, and the superior reticular nucleus, respectively, in the embryonic and larval brain of a stable transgenic wnt1:Gal4-VP16-14 x UAS:GFP zebrafish strain. Combining time-lapse confocal imaging with individual cell tracing, we characterize the migratory behavior of these neuronal precursor populations in detail by revealing their migration path, velocity, and directionality. In addition, we identify neuronal progenitors of the secondary gustatory/viscerosensory nucleus and nucleus isthmi/superior reticular nucleus as belonging to the polysialic acid (PSA)-expressing cell population in the cerebellar plate that migrates in a PSA-dependent manner. Finally, we reveal that circuitries involved in the processing of sensory information (visual, gustatory, general viscerosensory) are already established in the zebrafish larva at day 4 of development. Also the wnt1-expressing pretectal neuronal precursors (not originating from the URL) sending mossy fiber-like projections into the cerebellar corpus are established at that time. In sum, our results show that the origin of neurons of some tegmental hindbrain nuclei, namely, nucleus isthmi/superior reticular nucleus and secondary gustatory/viscerosensory nucleus is in the URL, and that the temporal order of cell types produced by the URL and their developmental program are conserved among vertebrate species.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01HG006102(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS34404(United States)

D-serine is distributed in neurons in the brain of the sea lamprey.

  • Villar-Cerviño V
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The amino acid D-serine is an endogenous coagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in mammals that has been shown to play an important role in synaptic function, behavior, learning, and memory. The distribution and cellular location of D-serine in the brain of the sea lamprey was investigated by using immunofluorescence methods. One major finding of our study, unlike early studies of mammals, was the localization of D-serine immunoreactivity in perikarya and dendrites of neurons, whereas D-serine immunoreactivity was not generally observed in the lamprey glia. D-serine-immunoreactive neurons were observed in different brain regions, including the olfactory bulb, medial pallium, thalamus, torus semicircularis, isthmus, and reticular formation. The colocalization of D-serine with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was also studied with a double-immunofluorescence technique. The relationship between D-serine and glycine immunoreactivities was studied in alternate parallel series of sections stained for either D-serine/GABA or glycine/GABA. Colocalization with GABA was observed in various D-serine-immunoreactive populations, and codistribution and possible colocalization with glycine was also observed in some populations, mainly in the dorsal isthmic gray, medial octavolateral nucleus, dorsal column nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, and reticular formation. Although numerous fibers were strongly GABA- and glycine-immunoreactive, D-serine immunoreactivity was observed mostly in cell perikarya and dendrites. The present results indicate that the D-serine immunoreactive cells are small to medium-sized neurons, some exhibiting classical inhibitory neurotransmitters, in which D-serine might be acting as a modulator. The neuronal distribution of D-serine and its frequent colocalization and/or codistribution with the two main inhibitory neurotransmitters appeared early in vertebrates.

Basal ganglia and thalamic input from neurons located within the ventral tier cell cluster region of the substantia nigra pars compacta in the rat.

  • Cebrián C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The most caudally located dopaminergic (DA) ventral tier neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) form typical cell clusters that are deeply embedded in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Here we examine the efferent projections of 35 neurons located in the SNr region where these SNc cell clusters reside. The neuronal cell body was injected with biotinylated dextran amine so as to trace each complete axon in the sagittal or the coronal plane. Electrophysiological guidance guaranteed that the tracer was ejected among neurons displaying a typical SNc discharge pattern. Furthermore, double immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical labeling ensured that the tracer deposits were placed within the DA cell clusters. Three types of projection neurons occurred in the SNc ventral tier cell cluster region: type I neurons, projecting to basal ganglia; type II neurons, targeting both the basal ganglia and thalamus; and type III neurons, projecting only to the thalamus. The striatum was targeted by most of the type I and II neurons and the innervation reached both the striosome/subcallosal streak and matrix compartments. Many nigrostriatal fibers provided collaterals to the globus pallidus and, less frequently, to the subthalamic nucleus. At a thalamic level, type II and III neurons preferentially targeted the reticular, ventral posterolateral, and ventral medial nuclei. Our results reveal that the SNr region where DA ventral tier cell clusters reside harbors neurons projecting to the basal ganglia and/or the thalamus, thus suggesting that neurodegeneration of nigral neurons in Parkinson's disease might affect various extrastriatal basal ganglia structures and multiple thalamic nuclei.

Immunochemical characterization of inhibitory mouse cortical neurons: three chemically distinct classes of inhibitory cells.

  • Xu X
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The cerebral cortex has diverse types of inhibitory neurons. In rat cortex, past research has shown that parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), calretinin (CR), and cholecystokinin (CCK) label four distinct chemical classes of GABAergic interneurons. However, in contrast to rat cortex, previous studies indicate that there is significant colocalization of SOM and CR in mouse cortical inhibitory neurons. In the present study we further characterized immunochemical distinctions among mouse inhibitory cortical neurons by double immunochemical labeling with chemical markers. We found that, PV, SOM, and vasointenstinal peptide (VIP) reliably identify three nonoverlapping distinct subpopulations, as there was no overlap of immunoreactivity between PV and all the other chemical markers tested, and SOM and VIP did not show any overlap in labeled neurons in all the cortical areas. In comparison, there was significant overlap in combinations of other chemical markers. With some laminar and regional variations, the average overlap of SOM/CR (percentage of SOM+ cells expressing CR) and SOM/neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) across all examined layers and cortical regions was 21.6% and 7.1%, respectively. The average overlap of VIP/CR, VIP/NPY, and CR/NPY was 34.2%, 9.5%, and 10%, respectively. We quantified and assessed the percentages of marker-positive GABAergic cells, and showed that the nonoverlapping subpopulations (i.e., PV+, SOM+ and VIP+ cells) accounted for about 60% of the GABAergic cell population. Taken together, our data reveal important chemical distinctions between mouse inhibitory cortical neurons and indicate that PV, SOM, and VIP can differentially label a majority of mouse inhibitory cortical neurons.

Decreased number of parvalbumin and cholinergic interneurons in the striatum of individuals with Tourette syndrome.

  • Kataoka Y
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Corticobasal ganglia neuronal ensembles bring automatic motor skills into voluntary control and integrate them into ongoing motor behavior. A 5% decrease in caudate (Cd) nucleus volume is the most consistent structural finding in the brain of patients with Tourette syndrome (TS), but the cellular abnormalities that underlie this decrease in volume are unclear. In this study the density of different types of interneurons and medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum was assessed in the postmortem brains of 5 TS subjects as compared with normal controls (NC) by unbiased stereological analyses. TS patients demonstrated a 50%-60% decrease of both parvalbumin (PV)+ and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)+ cholinergic interneurons in the Cd and the putamen (Pt). Cholinergic interneurons were decreased in TS patients in the associative and sensorimotor regions but not in the limbic regions of the striatum, such that the normal gradient in density of cholinergic cells (highest in associative regions, intermediate in sensorimotor and lowest in limbic regions) was abolished. No significant difference was present in the densities of medium-sized calretinin (CR)+ interneurons, MSNs, and total neurons. The selective deficit of PV+ and cholinergic striatal interneurons in TS subjects may result in an impaired cortico/thalamic control of striatal neuron firing in TS.

Genoarchitectonic profile of developing nuclear groups in the chicken pretectum.

  • Ferran JL
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Earlier results on molecularly coded progenitor domains in the chicken pretectum revealed an anteroposterior subdivision of the pretectum in precommissural (PcP), juxtacommissural (JcP), and commissural (CoP) histogenetic areas, each specified differentially (Ferran et al. [2007] J Comp Neurol 505:379-403). Here we examined the nuclei derived from these areas with regard to characteristic gene expression patterns and gradual histogenesis (eventually, migration patterns). We sought a genoarchitectonic schema of the avian pretectum within the prosomeric model of the vertebrate forebrain (Puelles and Rubenstein [2003] Trends Neurosci 26:469-476; Puelles et al. [2007] San Diego: Academic Press). Transcription-factor gene markers were used to selectively map derivatives of the three pretectal histogenetic domains: Pax7 and Pax6 (CoP); FoxP1 and Six3 (JcP); and FoxP2, Ebf1, and Bhlhb4 (PcP). The combination of this genoarchitectonic information with additional data on Lim1, Tal2, and Nbea mRNA expression and other chemoarchitectonic results allowed unambiguous characterization of some 30 pretectal nuclei. Apart from grouping them as derivatives of the three early anteroposterior domains, we also assigned them to postulated dorsoventral subdomains (Ferran et al. [2007]). Several previously unknown neuronal populations were detected, thus expanding the list of pretectal structures, and we corrected some apparently confused concepts in the earlier literature. The composite gene expression map represents a substantial advance in anatomical and embryological knowledge of the avian pretectum. Many nuclear primordia can be recognized long before the mature differentiated state of the pretectum is achieved. This study provides fundamental notions for ultimate scientific study of the specification and regionalization processes building up this brain area, both in birds and other vertebrates.

Cell-specific expression of neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor immunoreactivity in the rat basolateral amygdala.

  • Rostkowski AB
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Nov 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Activation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptors (Y1r) in the rat basolateral nuclear complex of the amygdala (BLA) produces anxiolysis and interferes with the generation of conditioned fear. NPY is important in regulating the output of the BLA, yet the cell types involved in mediating this response are currently unknown. The current studies employed multiple label immunocytochemistry to determine the distribution of Y1r-immunoreactivity (-ir) in glutamatergic pyramidal and GABAergic cell populations in the BLA using scanning laser confocal stereology. Pyramidal neurons were identified by expression of calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase II (CaMKII-ir) and functionally distinct interneuron subpopulations were distinguished by peptide (cholecystokinin, somatostatin) or calcium-binding protein (parvalbumin, calretinin) content. Throughout the BLA, Y1r-ir was predominately on soma with negligible fiber staining. The high degree of coexpression of Y1r-ir (99.9%) in CaMKII-ir cells suggests that these receptors colocalize on pyramidal cells and that NPY could influence BLA output by directly regulating the activity of these projection neurons. Additionally, Y1r-ir was also colocalized with the interneuronal markers studied. Parvalbumin-ir interneurons, which participate in feedforward inhibition of BLA pyramidal cells, represented the largest number of Y1r expressing interneurons in the BLA ( approximately 4% of the total neuronal population). The anatomical localization of NPY receptors on different cell populations within the BLA provides a testable circuit whereby NPY could modulate the activity of the BLA via actions on both projection cells and interneuronal cell populations.

Effects of developmental age, brain region, and time in culture on long-term proliferation and multipotency of neural stem cell populations.

  • Gritti A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Nov 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the murine subventricular zone (SVZ) niche allow life-long neurogenesis. During the first postnatal month and throughout aging, the decrease of neuroblasts and the rise of astrocytes results in diminished neurogenesis and increased astrocyte:neuron ratio. Also, a different neurogenic activity characterizes the SVZ periventricular region (LV, lateral ventricle) as compared to its rostral extension (RE). In order to investigate whether and to what extent these physiological modifications may be ascribed to intrinsic changes of the endogenous NSC/progenitor features, we performed a functional analysis on NSCs isolated and cultured from LV and RE tissues at distinct postnatal stages that are marked by striking modifications to the SVZ niche in vivo. We evaluated the effect of age and brain region on long-term proliferation and multipotency, and characterized the cell type composition of NSC-derived progeny, comparing this make-up to that of region- and age-matched primary neural cultures. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of prolonged in vitro expansion on NSC functional properties. We documented age- and region-dependent differences on the clonogenic efficiency and on the long-term proliferative capacity of NSCs. Also, we found age- and region-dependent quantitative changes in the cell composition of NSC progeny (decreased quantity of neurons and oligodendrocytes; increased amount of astroglial cells) and these differences were maintained in long-term cultured NSC populations. Overall, these data strengthen the hypothesis that age- and region-dependent differences in neurogenesis (observed in vivo) may be ascribed to the changes in the intrinsic developmental program of the NSC populations.

Immunohistochemical localization of calbindin-D28k and calretinin in the brainstem of anuran and urodele amphibians.

  • Morona R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Aug 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Calbindin-D28k (CB) and calretinin (CR) are calcium binding proteins present in distinct sets of neurons; they act as buffers regulating the concentration of intracellular calcium. CB and CR immunohistochemistry was studied in the brainstem of anuran and urodele amphibians in combination with other markers (choline acetyltransferase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and nitric oxide synthase), which served to clarify the localization and signature of many cell groups. CR labeled the retinorecipient layers of the optic tectum, and CB and CR labeled distinct tectal cell populations. The two proteins were largely complementary in the torus semicircularis and marked auditory and lateral line sensory regions, depending on the species. CB and CR in the mesencephalic and isthmic tegmentum specified the boundaries of basal and medial longitudinal bands. In the cerebellum, CB labeled Purkinje cells in all species, whereas CR was mainly found in fibers and labeled Purkinje cells only in Rana. In the parabrachial region, CB and CR allowed the distinction of the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, isthmic nucleus, locus coeruleus, and rostral octavolateral nuclei. The distribution of CB- and CR-immunoreactive cells in the reticular formation and central gray was consistent with the current models of brainstem segmentation in amphibians. CR was found in the auditory fibers and nuclei in Rana and in mechanosensory lateral line fibers in Xenopus and urodeles, whereas CB mainly labeled vestibular fibers and nuclei in all species. These results highlight the anatomical complexity of the amphibian brainstem and help in an understanding of its regional organization that is not cytoarchitectonically evident.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P50 NS038367(United States)

Deletion of the citron kinase gene selectively affects the number and distribution of interneurons in barrelfield cortex.

  • Muzzi P
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Mar 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Citron kinase (CIT-K), a ser/thr kinase, is required during neurogenesis for cytokinesis of neuronal precursors. Deletion of the cit-k gene in mice (cit-k(-/-) mice) leads to a severe malformative central nervous system syndrome characterized by microencephaly, ataxia, and epileptic seizures; affected mice die by the third week of postnatal life. We have used NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry, immunostaining for calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), and histological staining to undertake qualitative and quantitative analyses of the morphology and distribution of interneurons in the barrelfield cortex of cit-k(-/-) mice. By postnatal day 13, lack of CIT-K results in profoundly altered cortical cell morphology: the infragranular layers are populated by large, binucleate interneurons bearing many more dendrites than in control mice, an anatomical profile that has also been reported for the cortex of humans with cortical dysplasias and epilepsy. Tessellation analyses reveal that a clustered distribution of interneurons is maintained in cit-k(-/-) mice, but that their nearest neighbor distance is significantly increased, and thus their density is reduced; the overall number of interneurons is more dramatically decreased in the absence of CIT-K than would be predicted on the basis of the reduced brain size of affected mice. This reduction of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons likely underlies the occurrence of epileptic seizures in the cit-k(-/-) mice. Furthermore, the altered distribution of NADPH-diaphorase-positive interneurons could be responsible for an impaired coupling of cortical activity to blood flow, also affecting cortical growth and functioning.

Neurochemical characterization of sea lamprey taste buds and afferent gustatory fibers: presence of serotonin, calretinin, and CGRP immunoreactivity in taste bud bi-ciliated cells of the earliest vertebrates.

  • Barreiro-Iglesias A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuroactive substances such as serotonin and other monoamines have been suggested to be involved in the transmission of gustatory signals from taste bud cells to afferent fibers. Lampreys are the earliest vertebrates that possess taste buds, although these differ in structure from taste buds in jawed vertebrates, and their neurochemistry remains unknown. We used immunofluorescence methods with antibodies raised against serotonin, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), calretinin, and acetylated alpha-tubulin to characterize the neurochemistry and innervation of taste buds in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus L. For localization of proliferative cells in taste buds we used bromodeoxyuridine labeling and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. Results with both markers indicate that proliferating cells are restricted to a few basal cells and that almost all cells in taste buds are nonproliferating. A large number of serotonin-, calretinin-, and CGRP-immunoreactive bi-ciliated cells were revealed in lamprey taste buds. This suggests that serotonin participates in the transmission of gustatory signals and indicates that this substance appeared early on in vertebrate evolution. The basal surface of the bi-ciliated taste bud cells was contacted by tubulin-immunoreactive fibers. Some of the fibers surrounding the taste bud were calretinin immunoreactive. Lamprey taste bud cells or afferent fibers did not exhibit TH, GABA, glutamate, or NPY immunoreactivity, which suggests that expression of these substances evolved in taste buds of some gnathostomes lines after the separation of gnathostomes and lampreys.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY018431(United States)

Calbindin-D28k and calretinin expression in the forebrain of anuran and urodele amphibians: further support for newly identified subdivisions.

  • Morona R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Nov 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

A general pattern of organization of the forebrain shared by amphibians, mainly anurans, and amniotes has been proposed considering the relative topography of the territories, their connectivity, and their neurochemistry. These criteria were needed because the amphibians possess limited cell migration from the ventricle that precludes a parcellation into circumscribed nuclei. In the present study we have tested the identity of most newly described forebrain territories in anurans and urodeles with regard to their content in calbindin-D28k (CB) and calretinin (CR). By means of immunohistochemistry, these proteins were demonstrated to be particularly abundant and specifically distributed in the amphibian forebrain and were extremely useful markers for delineating nuclear boundaries otherwise indistinguishable. In the telencephalon, labeled cells in the pallium allowed the identification of particular regions with marked differences between anurans and urodeles, whereas the subpallium showed more conservative patterns of distribution. In particular, the components of the amygdaloid complex and the basal ganglia were distinctly labeled. The distribution in the nonevaginated secondary prosencephalon and diencephalon showed abundant common features between anurans and urodeles, highlighted using the prosomeric model for the comparison. In the pretectum, thalamus, and prethalamus of urodeles, the CB and CR staining was particularly suitable for the identification of diverse structures within the simple periventricular gray layer. However, the analysis across species also revealed a considerable degree of heterogeneity, even within comparatively well-defined neuronal populations. Therefore, the content of a particular calcium binding protein in a neuronal group is not a fully reliable criterion for considering homologies.

Calcium-fluxing glutamate receptors associated with primary gustatory afferent terminals in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

  • Huesa G
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Presynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors modulate transmission at primary afferent synapses in several glutamatergic systems. To test whether primary gustatory afferent fibers express Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA/kainate receptors, we utilized kainate-stimulated uptake of Co(2+) along with immunocytochemistry for the Ca(2+)-binding proteins (CaBPs) calbindin and calretinin to investigate the primary gustatory afferents in goldfish (Carassius auratus). In goldfish, the primary gustatory nucleus (equivalent to the gustatory portion of the nucleus of the solitary tract) includes the vagal lobe, which is a large, laminated structure protruding dorsally from the medulla. Kainate-stimulated uptake of Co(2+) (a measure of Ca(2+)-fluxing glutamate receptors) shows punctate staining distributed in the distinct laminar pattern matching the layers of termination of the primary gustatory afferent fibers. In addition, CaBP immunocytochemistry, which correlates highly with expression of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA/kainate receptors, shows a laminar pattern of distribution similar to that found with kainate-stimulated cobalt uptake. Nearly all neurons of the vagal gustatory ganglion show Co(2+) uptake and are immunopositive for CaBPs. Transection of the vagus nerve proximal to the ganglion results in loss of such punctate Co(2+) uptake and of punctate CaBP staining as soon as 4 days postlesion. These results are consonant with the presence of Ca(2+)-fluxing glutamate receptors on the presynaptic terminals of primary gustatory terminals, providing an avenue for modulation of primary gustatory input.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022954(United States)

GABAergic phenotype of periglomerular cells in the rodent olfactory bulb.

  • Panzanelli P
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Periglomerular (PG) cells in the rodent olfactory bulb are heterogeneous anatomically and neurochemically. Here we investigated whether major classes of PG cells use gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as a neurotransmitter. In addition to three known subtypes of PG cells expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), calbindin D-28k (CB), and calretinin (CR), we identified a novel PG cell population containing the GABAA receptor alpha5 subunit. Consistent with previous studies in the rat, we found that TH-positive cells were also labeled with antibodies against GABA, whereas PG cells expressing CB or the alpha5 subunit were GABA-negative. Using GAD67-GFP knockin mice, we found that all PG cell subtypes expressed GAD67-GFP. Calretinin labeled the major fraction (44%) of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive cells, followed by TH (16%), CB (14%), and the alpha5 subunit (13%). There was no overlap between these neuronal populations, which accounted for approximately 85% of GAD67-GFP-positive cells. We then demonstrated that PG cells labeled for TH, CB, or CR established dendrodendritic synapses expressing glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) or the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter, VGAT, irrespective of their immunoreactivity for GABA. In addition, CB-, CR-, and TH-positive dendrites were apposed to GABAA receptor clusters containing the alpha1 or alpha3 subunits, which are found in mitral and tufted cells, and the alpha2 subunit, which is expressed by PG cells. Together, these findings indicate that all major subtypes of PG cells are GABAergic. In addition, they show that PG cells provide GABAergic input to the dendrites of principal neurons and are interconnected with other GABAergic interneurons, which most likely are other PG cells.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS065960(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS07437(United States)

Type 3a and type 3b OFF cone bipolar cells provide for the alternative rod pathway in the mouse retina.

  • Mataruga A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mammalian retina provides several pathways to relay the information from the photoreceptors to the ganglion cells. Cones feed into ON and OFF cone bipolar cells that excite ON and OFF ganglion cells, respectively. In the "classical" rod pathway, rods feed into rod bipolar cells that provide input to both the ON and the OFF pathway via AII amacrine cells. Recent evidence suggests an alternative rod pathway in which rods directly contact some types of OFF cone bipolar cells. The mouse has become an important model system for retinal research. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis on the level of light and electron microscopy to identify the bipolar cells and ganglion cells that are involved in the alternative rod pathway of the mouse retina. 1) We identify a new bipolar cell type, showing that type 3 OFF cone bipolar cells comprise two distinct cell types, that we termed 3a and 3b. Type 3a cells express the ion channel HCN4. Type 3b bipolar cells represent a hitherto unknown cell type that can be identified with antibodies against the regulatory subunit RIIbeta of protein kinase A. 2) We show that both 3a and 3b cells form flat contacts at cone pedicles and rod spherules. 3) Finally, we identify an OFF ganglion cell type whose dendrites costratify with type 3a and 3b bipolar cell axon terminals. These newly identified cell types represent the basis of a neuronal circuit in the mammalian retina that could provide for an alternative fast rod pathway.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY011261(United States)
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - DC004657(United States)

Dynamic patterns of neurotrophin 3 expression in the postnatal mouse inner ear.

  • Sugawara M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent studies indicate that neurotrophin 3 (NT3) may be important for the maintenance and function of the adult inner ear, but the pattern of postnatal NT3 expression in this organ has not been characterized. We used a reporter mouse in which cells expressing NT3 also express beta-galactosidase, allowing for their histochemical visualization, to determine the pattern of NT3 expression in cochlear and vestibular organs. We analyzed animals from birth (P0) to adult (P135). At P0, NT3 was strongly expressed in supporting cells and hair cells of all vestibular and cochlear sense organs, Reissner's membrane, saccular membrane, and the dark cells adjacent to canal organs. With increasing age, staining disappeared in most cell types but remained relatively high in inner hair cells (IHCs) and to a lesser extent in IHC supporting cells. In the cochlea, by P0 there is a longitudinal gradient (apex > base) that persists into adulthood. In vestibular maculae, staining gradients are: striolar > extrastriolar regions and supporting cells > hair cells. By P135, cochlear staining is restricted to IHCs and their supporting cells, with stronger expression in the apex than the base. By the same age, in the vestibular organs, NT3 expression is weak and restricted to saccular and utricular supporting cells. These results suggest that NT3 might play a long-term role in the maintenance and functioning of the adult auditory and vestibular systems and that supporting cells are the main source of this factor in the adult.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637(United States)

Laminar fate of cortical GABAergic interneurons is dependent on both birthdate and phenotype.

  • Rymar VV
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Mar 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pioneering work indicates that the final position of neurons in specific layers of the mammalian cerebral cortex is determined primarily by birthdate. Glutamatergic projection neurons are born in the cortical proliferative zones of the dorsal telencephalon, and follow an "inside-out" neurogenesis gradient: later-born cohorts migrate radially past earlier-born neurons to populate more superficial layers. GABAergic interneurons, the major source of cortical inhibition, comprise a heterogeneous population and are produced in proliferative zones of the ventral telencephalon. Mechanisms by which interneuron subclasses find appropriate layer-specific cortical addresses remain largely unexplored. Major cortical interneuron subclasses can be identified based on expression of distinct calcium-binding proteins including parvalbumin, calretinin, or calbindin. We determined whether cortical layer-patterning of interneurons is dependent on phenotype. Parvalbumin-positive interneurons populate cortical layers with an inside-out gradient, and birthdate is isochronous to projection neurons in the same layers. In contrast, another major GABAergic subtype, labeled using calretinin, populates the cerebral cortex using an opposite "outside-in" gradient, heterochronous to neighboring neurons. In addition to birthdate, phenotype is also a determinant of cortical patterning. Discovery of a cortical subpopulation that does not follow the well-established inside-out gradient has important implications for mechanisms of layer formation in the cerebral cortex.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS042225(United States)

Heterogeneity of horizontal cells in the chicken retina.

  • Fischer AJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Feb 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite numerous reports that different markers are expressed by horizontal cells in the avian retina, it remains unknown whether different types of horizontal cells can be defined by differences in their immunocytochemical profiles. The purpose of this study was to rectify this deficiency. We identified horizontal cells by indirect immunofluorescence with antibodies to calretinin, trkA, GABA, Prox1, AP2alpha, Pax6, islet1, and Lim1 + 2. We found two major groups of horizontal cells, those that express trkA and those that express calretinin. The trkA-immunoreactive (-IR) horizontal cells had small, round somata and robust, bulbous dendritic endings, whereas calretinin-IR horizontal cells had large, polygonal cell bodies and fine, diffuse dendritic endings, both contacting the calbindin-IR pedicles of double cones. Weak gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity was observed only in a few of the trkA-IR horizontal cells, whereas the overlap of calretinin and GABA immunoreactivities was 100%. The majority of trkA-IR horizontal cells expressed islet1, and the majority of calretinin-IR horizontal cells expressed Lim1 + 2, AP2alpha, and Pax6. Islet1 immunoreactivity was observed in a small fraction of calretinin-IR/non-trkA-IR cells. In agreement with previous reports, we detected Prox1 immunoreactivity in all types of horizontal cells. These immunolabeling profiles suggest that there are four immunochemically distinct subtypes of horizontal cells in the postnatal chick retina, which may match the four types that have been observed in Golgi-impregnated pigeon and turtle retinas.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U01 HG004271(United States)

Origins and migratory routes of murine Cajal-Retzius cells.

  • García-Moreno F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Jan 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The first layer that appears in the cortical neuroepithelium, the preplate, forms in the upper part of the cortex immediately below the pial surface. In mice, this layer exists between embryonic days (E) 10 and 13, and it hosts different cell populations. Here, we have studied the first cell population generated in the preplate, the Cajal-Retzius cells. There is considerable confusion regarding these cells with respect to both their site of generation and the migratory routes that they follow. This perhaps is due largely to the different opinions that exist regarding their characterization. We have studied the site of origin of these cells, their migratory routes, and the molecular markers that may distinguish them by injecting tracers into early embryos, culturing them in toto for 24 hours, and then performing immunohistochemistry. We found that the Cajal-Retzius cells are most likely generated in the cortical hem by comparing with other cortical or extracortical origins. These cells are generated mainly at E10 and E11, and they subsequently migrate tangentially to cover the whole cortical mantle in 24 hours. From their site of origin in the medial wall of the telencephalon, they spread in a caudorostral direction, following an oblique migratory path toward the lateral part of the neuroepithelium. Prior to the splitting of the preplate, a percentage of the Cajal-Retzius cells that can be distinguished by the expression of reelin do not contain calretinin. Furthermore, there were no early-migrating neurons that expressed calbindin.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/F005210/1(United Kingdom)
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - DE12738(United States)

Presence of glutamate, glycine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid in the retina of the larval sea lamprey: comparative immunohistochemical study of classical neurotransmitters in larval and postmetamorphic retinas.

  • Villar-Cerviño V
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Dec 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The neurochemistry of the retina of the larval and postmetamorphic sea lamprey was studied via immunocytochemistry using antibodies directed against the major candidate neurotransmitters [glutamate, glycine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), aspartate, dopamine, serotonin] and the neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Immunoreactivity to rod opsin and calretinin was also used to distinguish some retinal cells. Two retinal regions are present in larvae: the central retina, with opsin-immunoreactive photoreceptors, and the lateral retina, which lacks photoreceptors and is mainly neuroblastic. We observed calretinin-immunostained ganglion cells in both retinal regions; immunolabeled bipolar cells were detected in the central retina only. Glutamate immunoreactivity was present in photoreceptors, ganglion cells, and bipolar cells. Faint to moderate glycine immunostaining was observed in photoreceptors and some cells of the ganglion cell/inner plexiform layer. No GABA-immunolabeled perikarya were observed. GABA-immunoreactive centrifugal fibers were present in the central and lateral retina. These centrifugal fibers contacted glutamate-immunostained ganglion cells. No aspartate, serotonin, dopamine, or TH immunoreactivity was observed in larvae, whereas these molecules, as well as GABA, glycine, and glutamate, were detected in neurons of the retina of recently transformed lamprey. Immunoreactivity to GABA was observed in outer horizontal cells, some bipolar cells, and numerous amacrine cells, whereas immunoreactivity to glycine was found in amacrine cells and interplexiform cells. Dopamine and serotonin immunoreactivity was found in scattered amacrine cells. Amacrine and horizontal cells did not express classical neurotransmitters (with the possible exception of glycine) during larval life, so transmitter-expressing cells of the larval retina appear to participate only in the vertical processing pathway.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - HHSN266200400038C(United States)

Immunocytochemical analysis of GABA-positive and calretinin-positive horizontal cells in the tiger salamander retina.

  • Zhang J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Nov 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

By using immunocytochemical techniques, we demonstrate that there are two distinct, nonoverlapping populations of horizontal cells (HCs) in the tiger salamander retina: GABA-positive cells account for about 72% and GABA-negative (calretinin-positive) cells account for 28% of the total HC somas. The calretinin-positive HCs have relatively sparse and thick dendrites: soma diameter of 19.72 +/- 0.29 microm, and soma density of 140 +/- 13 cells/mm(2), morphological features very much like the A-type HCs described in the accompanying article. The GABA-positive HCs have thinner dendritic and coarse axon-terminal-like processes of higher density: soma diameter of 18 +/- 0.18 microm, and soma density of 364 +/- 18 cells/mm(2), features that very much resemble the B-type HCs and B-type HC axon terminals in the accompanying article. By using double and triple immunostaining techniques we found that only 18% of the non-GABAergic HC dendritic clusters contact rods, whereas the remaining 82% of the dendritic clusters contact cones. This is consistent with the physiological finding in the accompanying article that the A-type HCs are cone-dominated. On the other hand, 32% of GABAergic HC dendrites contact rod pedicles and 68% contact cone pedicles, consistent with the physiological finding that B-type HCs and B-type HC axon terminals receive mixed rod/cone inputs. Detailed confocal microscope analysis shows that 4% rods, 6% principal double cones/single cones, and 100% accessory double cones contact calretinin-positive HCs, and 79% rods, 100% principal double cones, 14% accessory double cones, and 82% single cones contact GABAergic HCs. These results suggest that GABAergic and non-GABAergic HC input/output synapses differ and they may mediate different functional pathways in the outer retina.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - WT077192/Z/05/Z(United Kingdom)

Mouse cortical inhibitory neuron type that coexpresses somatostatin and calretinin.

  • Xu X
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mammalian cortex contains a diversity of inhibitory neuron types, each with distinct morphological, immunochemical, and/or physiological properties. In rat cortex, chemical markers distinguish at least four distinct and nonoverlapping neuron classes based on expression of parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SST), calretinin (CR), and cholecystokinin (CCK). It has generally been assumed that these classifications should also apply to other rodent species. In mouse cortex, however, we found significant colocalization of SST and CR in inhibitory neurons; about 30% of SST-positive cells contained CR, and about 33% of CR-positive cells contained SST across frontal, somatosensory (S1), and visual cortex (V1). The SST and CR colocalized cells were concentrated in layer 2/3. We further characterized morphological and physiological properties of the mouse cortical inhibitory neuron types that express SST by using "GIN" transgenic mice, in which GFP is expressed in a subset of SST inhibitory neurons (see Oliva et al. [2000] J Neurosci 20:3354-3368). Generally, both SST/CR+ cells and SST/CR- cells exhibited morphological features of Martinotti cells as described in rat cortex, and they also had similar accommodating spike-firing patterns. However, they differed significantly in quantitative comparisons of morphology and spike shapes. SST/CR+ cells had more horizontally extended dendritic fields and more primary process than did SST/CR- cells; and SST/CR- cells had narrower action potential widths and faster afterhyperpolarization than did SST/CR+ cells. Thus, our data show an important species difference in the chemical distinction of inhibitory neuron subtypes, and indicate that colocalization of CR in SST cells correlates with different morphological and physiological features.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - C14303/A10825(United Kingdom)

Calcium-binding proteins, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and GABA help to distinguish different pallial areas in the developing and adult chicken. I. Hippocampal formation and hyperpallium.

  • Suárez J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Aug 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

To better understand the formation and adult organization of the avian pallium, we studied the expression patterns of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the hippocampal formation and hyperpallium of developing and adult chicks. Each marker showed a specific spatiotemporal expression pattern and was expressed in a region (area)-specific but dynamic manner during development. The combinatorial expression of these markers was very useful for identifying and following the development of subdivisions of the chicken hippocampal formation and hyperpallium. In the hyperpallium, three separate radially arranged subdivisions were present since early development showing distinct expression patterns: the apical hyperpallium (CB-rich); the intercalated hyperpallium (nNOS-rich, CB-poor); the dorsal hyperpallium (nNOS-poor, CB-moderate). Furthermore, a novel division was identified (CB-rich, CR-rich), interposed between hyper- and mesopallium and related to the lamina separating both, termed laminar pallial nucleus. This gave rise at its surface to part of the lateral hyperpallium. Later in development, the interstitial nucleus of the apical hyperpallium became visible as a partition of the apical hyperpallium. In the hippocampal formation, at least five radial divisions were observed, and these were compared with the divisions proposed recently in adult pigeons. Of note, the corticoid dorsolateral area (sometimes referred as caudolateral part of the parahippocampal area) contained CB immunoreactivity patches coinciding with Nissl-stained cell aggregates, partially resembling the patches described in the mammalian entorhinal cortex. Each neurochemical marker was present in specific neuronal subpopulations and axonal networks, providing insights into the functional maturation of the chicken pallium.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01DC000191(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - (United Kingdom)

Topography and connections of the telencephalon in a chondrostean, Acipenser baeri: an experimental study.

  • Huesa G
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sturgeons belong to an ancient group of the extant actinopterygian fishes. Accordingly, the study of their brain connections is important to understand brain evolution in the line leading to teleosts. We examined the topography and connections of the various telencephalic regions of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri). The telencephalic regions were characterized on the basis of acetylcholinesterase histochemistry and calbindin-D28k and calretinin immunohistochemistry. The telencephalic connections were investigated by using the fluorescent dye DiI (1,1'-dioctadecyl 3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate) in fixed brains. Application of DiI to different areas of the pallial (dorsal) regions of the telencephalic lobes showed that they have mostly intratelencephalic connections. A posterior pallial region is characterized by its similar hodology to that of the posterior zone of the teleosts dorsal telencephalon and those described in other ancient groups. Extratelencephalic connections of the pallium are scarce, although a few afferent and efferent connections with the diencephalon, mesencephalon, and rostral rhombencephalon were observed. DiI application to subpallial regions showed both intratelencephalic connections and connections with different brain regions. Afferents to the subpallium originate from the olfactory bulbs, preoptic area, thalamus, posterior tuberculum, hypothalamus, secondary gustatory nucleus, and raphe nuclei. Some of these connections are quite similar to those described for other vertebrates.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - MH080526(United States)