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Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Phaseolus vulgaris erythroagglutinin (PHA-E) and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA L

Proper Citation

(Vector Laboratories Cat# AS-2224 W0131, RRID:AB_10000080)




No catalog number given

Host Organism



Vector Laboratories

Cat Num

AS-2224 W0131

Characterization of McDonald's intermediate part of the central nucleus of the amygdala in the rat.

  • Barbier M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jun 12

Literature context:


The actual organization of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) in the rat is mostly based on cytoarchitecture and the distribution of several cell types, as described by McDonald in 1982. Four divisions were identified by this author. However, since this original work, one of these divisions, the intermediate part, has not been consistently recognized based on Nissl-stained material. In the present study, we observed that a compact condensation of retrogradely labeled cells is found in the CEA after fluorogold injection in the anterior region of the tuberal lateral hypothalamic area in the rat. We then searched for neurochemical markers of this cell condensation and found that it is quite specifically labeled for calbindin (Cb), but also contains calretinin (Cr), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk) immunohistochemical signals. These neurochemical features are specific to this cell group which, therefore, is distinct from the other parts of the CEA. We then performed cholera toxin injections in the mouse LHA (lateral hypothalamic area) to identify this cell group in this species. We found that neurons exist in the medial and rostral CEAl that project into the LHA but they have a less tight organization than in the rat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA116984(United States)

Brain micro-inflammation at specific vessels dysregulates organ-homeostasis via the activation of a new neural circuit.

  • Arima Y
  • Elife
  • 2017 Aug 15

Literature context:


Impact of stress on diseases including gastrointestinal failure is well-known, but molecular mechanism is not understood. Here we show underlying molecular mechanism using EAE mice. Under stress conditions, EAE caused severe gastrointestinal failure with high-mortality. Mechanistically, autoreactive-pathogenic CD4+ T cells accumulated at specific vessels of boundary area of third-ventricle, thalamus, and dentate-gyrus to establish brain micro-inflammation via stress-gateway reflex. Importantly, induction of brain micro-inflammation at specific vessels by cytokine injection was sufficient to establish fatal gastrointestinal failure. Resulting micro-inflammation activated new neural pathway including neurons in paraventricular-nucleus, dorsomedial-nucleus-of-hypothalamus, and also vagal neurons to cause fatal gastrointestinal failure. Suppression of the brain micro-inflammation or blockage of these neural pathways inhibited the gastrointestinal failure. These results demonstrate direct link between brain micro-inflammation and fatal gastrointestinal disease via establishment of a new neural pathway under stress. They further suggest that brain micro-inflammation around specific vessels could be switch to activate new neural pathway(s) to regulate organ homeostasis.

Posterior parietal cortex of the rat: Architectural delineation and thalamic differentiation.

  • Olsen GM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Dec 15

Literature context:


This study refines the characterization of the rat parietal cortical domain in terms of cyto- and chemoarchitecture as well as thalamic connectivity. We recognize three subdivisions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), which are architectonically distinct from the neighboring somatosensory and visual cortices. Furthermore, we show that the different parietal areas are differently connected with thalamic nuclei. The medial portion of PPC (mPPC) is connected primarily with the medial portion of the lateral posterior nucleus (LP), whereas the lateral portion (lPPC) connects with the posterior complex (Po). The more caudolateral part of PPC (PtP) also projects to Po but can be distinguished from lPPC based on architectonic criteria. The primary somatic and visual cortices, neighboring PPC, are preferentially connected with the primary ventral posterior and dorsolateral geniculate nuclei, respectively, and less with the associational Po and LP. Particularly the border between the secondary visual cortex and the PPC has been a matter of controversy, but here we show that, although PPC subareas are connected with Po and medial LP, the medial and lateral secondary visual cortices are connected with lateral LP and a portion of medial LP different from that connected with PPC. The resulting delineations and specifications of connectivity with thalamic nuclei together with upcoming studies of cortical connectivity will facilitate detailed studies on the role of the subdivisions of PPC in the rat as diverse, higher order associative cortical areas, comparable to those described in the primate.for J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3774-3809, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL062571(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH084812(United States)

Elucidation of the anatomy of a satiety network: Focus on connectivity of the parabrachial nucleus in the adult rat.

  • Zséli G
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Oct 1

Literature context:


We hypothesized that brain regions showing neuronal activation after refeeding comprise major nodes in a satiety network, and tested this hypothesis with two sets of experiments. Detailed c-Fos mapping comparing fasted and refed rats was performed to identify candidate nodes of the satiety network. In addition to well-known feeding-related brain regions such as the arcuate, dorsomedial, and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area, parabrachial nucleus (PB), nucleus of the solitary tract and central amygdalar nucleus, other refeeding activated regions were also identified, such as the parastrial and parasubthalamic nuclei. To begin to understand the connectivity of the satiety network, the interconnectivity of PB with other refeeding-activated neuronal groups was studied following administration of anterograde or retrograde tracers into the PB. After allowing for tracer transport time, the animals were fasted and then refed before sacrifice. Refeeding-activated neurons that project to the PB were found in the agranular insular area; bed nuclei of terminal stria; anterior hypothalamic area; arcuate, paraventricular, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei; lateral hypothalamic area; parasubthalamic nucleus; central amygdalar nucleus; area postrema; and nucleus of the solitary tract. Axons originating from the PB were observed to closely associate with refeeding-activated neurons in the agranular insular area; bed nuclei of terminal stria; anterior hypothalamus; paraventricular, arcuate, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei; lateral hypothalamic area; central amygdalar nucleus; parasubthalamic nucleus; ventral posterior thalamic nucleus; area postrema; and nucleus of the solitary tract. These data indicate that the PB has bidirectional connections with most refeeding-activated neuronal groups, suggesting that short-loop feedback circuits exist in this satiety network. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2803-2827, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Insular projections to the parahippocampal region in the rat.

  • Mathiasen ML
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Jun 15

Literature context:


The insular cortex is involved in the perception of interoceptive signals, coding of emotional and affective states, and processing information from gustatory, olfactory, auditory, somatosensory, and nociceptive modalities. This information represents an important component of episodic memory, mediated by the parahippocampal-hippocampal region. A comprehensive description of insular projections to the latter region is lacking. Previous studies reported that insular projections do not target any of the subdivisions in the hippocampal formation (the dentate gyus, the cornu ammonis [CA] fields 1, 2, and 3 and the subiculum), but, in contrast, target the parahippocampal region (perirhinal, postrhinal, lateral and medial entorhinal cortices, and pre- and parasubiculum). The present study examined the topographical and laminar organization of insular projections to the parahippocampal region in the rat with the use of anterograde tracing. Notably, our results corroborated the absence of hippocampal projections. We further showed that the perirhinal and the lateral entorhinal cortices received extensive projections from the insular cortex, primarily from its agranular areas. With the exception of a weak projection to the postrhinal cortex, projections to the remaining parahippocampal areas were either absent or very sparse. The projections to the lateral entorhinal cortex displayed a preference for the deep layers of its most lateral subdivisions, known also to receive hippocampal inputs. Projections to the perirhinal cortex primarily targeted the superficial layers with a preference for its ventral subdivision, referred to as area 35. Our findings indicate that only processed information, reflecting emotional and affective states, but not primary gustatory and viscerosensory information, has direct access to the parahippocampal-hippocampal system.

On lateral septum-like characteristics of outputs from the accumbal hedonic "hotspot" of Peciña and Berridge with commentary on the transitional nature of basal forebrain "boundaries".

  • Zahm DS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Jan 1

Literature context:


Peciña and Berridge (2005; J Neurosci 25:11777-11786) observed that an injection of the μ-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO (D-ala(2) -N-Me-Phe(4) -Glycol(5) -enkephalin) into the rostrodorsal part of the accumbens shell (rdAcbSh) enhances expression of hedonic "liking" responses to the taste of an appetitive sucrose solution. Insofar as the connections of this hedonic "hotspot" were not singled out for special attention in the earlier neuroanatomical literature, we undertook to examine them. We observed that the patterns of inputs and outputs of the rdAcbSh are not qualitatively different from those of the rest of the Acb, except that outputs from the rdAcbSh to the lateral preoptic area and anterior and lateral hypothalamic areas are anomalously robust and overlap extensively with those of the lateral septum. We also detected reciprocal interconnections between the rdAcbSh and lateral septum. Whether and how these connections subserve hedonic impact remains to be learned, but these observations lead us to hypothesize that the rdAcbSh represents a basal forebrain transition area, in the sense that it is invaded by neurons of the lateral septum, or possibly transitional neuronal forms sharing properties of both structures. We note that the proposed transition zone between lateral septum and rdAcbSh would be but one of many in the basal forebrain and conclude by reiterating the longstanding argument that the transitional nature of such boundary areas has functional importance, of which the precise nature will remain elusive until the neurophysiological and neuropharmacological implications of such zones of transition are more generally acknowledged and better addressed.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS29709(United States)