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S100 beta antibody - Astrocyte Marker

RRID:AB_956280

Antibody ID

AB_956280

Target Antigen

S100 beta antibody - Astrocyte Marker porcine, human, mouse, rat, mouse, rat, pig

Proper Citation

(Abcam Cat# ab41548, RRID:AB_956280)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

validation status unknown, seller recommendations provided in 2012: ICC/IF, IHC-FoFr, WB; Immunofluorescence; Immunohistochemistry - frozen; Western Blot; Immunohistochemistry; Immunocytochemistry

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Abcam

Cat Num

ab41548

Publications that use this research resource

Ablation of proliferating neural stem cells during early life is sufficient to reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  • Youssef M
  • Hippocampus
  • 2018 May 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Environmental exposures during early life, but not during adolescence or adulthood, lead to persistent reductions in neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The mechanisms by which early life exposures lead to long-term deficits in neurogenesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether targeted ablation of dividing neural stem cells during early life is sufficient to produce long-term decreases in DG neurogenesis. Having previously found that the stem cell lineage is resistant to long-term effects of transient ablation of dividing stem cells during adolescence or adulthood (Kirshenbaum et al., 2014), we used a similar pharmacogenetic approach to target dividing neural stem cells for elimination during early life periods sensitive to environmental insults. We then assessed the Nestin stem cell lineage in adulthood. We found that the adult neural stem cell reservoir was depleted following ablation during the first postnatal week, when stem cells were highly proliferative, but not during the third postnatal week, when stem cells were more quiescent. Remarkably, ablating proliferating stem cells during either the first or third postnatal week led to reduced adult neurogenesis out of proportion to the changes in the stem cell pool, indicating a disruption of the stem cell function or niche following stem cell ablation in early life. These results highlight the first three postnatal weeks as a series of sensitive periods during which elimination of dividing stem cells leads to lasting alterations in adult DG neurogenesis and stem cell function. These findings contribute to our understanding of the relationship between DG development and adult neurogenesis, as well as suggest a possible mechanism by which early life experiences may lead to lasting deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - F30 MH111209()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH091844()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R56 MH106809()

An Optical Neuron-Astrocyte Proximity Assay at Synaptic Distance Scales.

  • Octeau JC
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Astrocytes are complex bushy cells that serve important functions through close contacts between their processes and synapses. However, the spatial interactions and dynamics of astrocyte processes relative to synapses have proven problematic to study in adult living brain tissue. Here, we report a genetically targeted neuron-astrocyte proximity assay (NAPA) to measure astrocyte-synapse spatial interactions within intact brain preparations and at synaptic distance scales. The method exploits resonance energy transfer between extracellularly displayed fluorescent proteins targeted to synapses and astrocyte processes. We validated the method in the striatal microcircuitry following in vivo expression. We determined the proximity of striatal astrocyte processes to distinct neuronal input pathways, to D1 and D2 medium spiny neuron synapses, and we evaluated how astrocyte-to-excitatory synapse proximity changed following cortical afferent stimulation, during ischemia and in a model of Huntington's disease. NAPA provides a simple approach to measure astrocyte-synapse spatial interactions in a variety of experimental scenarios. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA104926(United States)

Olig2-Lineage Astrocytes: A Distinct Subtype of Astrocytes That Differs from GFAP Astrocytes.

  • Tatsumi K
  • Front Neuroanat
  • 2018 Mar 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Astrocytes are the most abundant glia cell type in the central nervous system (CNS), and are known to constitute heterogeneous populations that differ in their morphology, gene expression and function. Although glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the cardinal cytological marker of CNS astrocytes, GFAP-negative astrocytes can easily be found in the adult CNS. Astrocytes are also allocated to spatially distinct regional domains during development. This regional heterogeneity suggests that they help to coordinate post-natal neural circuit formation and thereby to regulate eventual neuronal activity. Here, during lineage-tracing studies of cells expressing Olig2 using Olig2CreER; Rosa-CAG-LSL-eNpHR3.0-EYFP transgenic mice, we found Olig2-lineage mature astrocytes in the adult forebrain. Long-term administration of tamoxifen resulted in sufficient recombinant induction, and Olig2-lineage cells were found to be preferentially clustered in some adult brain nuclei. We then made distribution map of Olig2-lineage astrocytes in the adult mouse brain, and further compared the map with the distribution of GFAP-positive astrocytes visualized in GFAPCre; Rosa-CAG-LSL-eNpHR3.0-EYFP mice. Brain regions rich in Olig2-lineage astrocytes (e.g., basal forebrain, thalamic nuclei, and deep cerebellar nuclei) tended to lack GFAP-positive astrocytes, and vice versa. Even within a single brain nucleus, Olig2-lineage astrocytes and GFAP astrocytes frequently occupied mutually exclusive territories. These findings strongly suggest that there is a subpopulation of astrocytes (Olig2-lineage astrocytes) in the adult brain, and that it differs from GFAP-positive astrocytes in its distribution pattern and perhaps also in its function. Interestingly, the brain nuclei rich in Olig2-lineage astrocytes strongly expressed GABA-transporter 3 in astrocytes and vesicular GABA transporter in neurons, suggesting that Olig2-lineage astrocytes are involved in inhibitory neuronal transmission.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P20 GM104416(United States)

Neural Circuit-Specialized Astrocytes: Transcriptomic, Proteomic, Morphological, and Functional Evidence.

  • Chai H
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Astrocytes are ubiquitous in the brain and are widely held to be largely identical. However, this view has not been fully tested, and the possibility that astrocytes are neural circuit specialized remains largely unexplored. Here, we used multiple integrated approaches, including RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), mass spectrometry, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, serial block-face-scanning electron microscopy, morphological reconstructions, pharmacogenetics, and diffusible dye, calcium, and glutamate imaging, to directly compare adult striatal and hippocampal astrocytes under identical conditions. We found significant differences in electrophysiological properties, Ca2+ signaling, morphology, and astrocyte-synapse proximity between striatal and hippocampal astrocytes. Unbiased evaluation of actively translated RNA and proteomic data confirmed significant astrocyte diversity between hippocampal and striatal circuits. We thus report core astrocyte properties, reveal evidence for specialized astrocytes within neural circuits, and provide new, integrated database resources and approaches to explore astrocyte diversity and function throughout the adult brain. VIDEO ABSTRACT.