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Anti-Synaptotagmin 1 antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Synaptotagmin 1 (cytoplasmic tail) human, rat, mouse, mammals, zebrafish

Proper Citation

(Synaptic Systems Cat# 105 011, RRID:AB_887832)


monoclonal antibody


Applications: WB,IP,ICC,IHC,IHC-P,EM,ELISA. KO validated

Clone ID


Host Organism



Synaptic Systems Go To Vendor

Cat Num

105 011

Publications that use this research resource

Two Behavioral Tests Allow a Better Correlation Between Cognitive Function and Expression of Synaptic Proteins.

  • Balietti M
  • Front Aging Neurosci
  • 2018 Apr 20

Literature context:


The molecular substrate of age-associated cognitive decline (AACD) is still elusive. Evidence indicates that AACD is related to synaptic impairment in hippocampus, but different hippocampal regions play different roles, with the dorsal hippocampus (DH) associated to spatial learning, and the ventral hippocampus (VH) crucial for emotionality. If changes in hippocampal function contributes to AACD, this contribution may be reflected in alterations of synaptic protein levels. A commonly used approach to investigate this issue is western blotting. When this technique is applied to the entire hippocampus and the cognitive impairment is evaluated by a single task, changes in expression of a protein might undergo a "dilution effect", as they may occur only in a given hippocampal region. We show that two behavioral tests yield more accurate results than one test in evaluating the function of the whole rat hippocampus by studying the expression of synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1), a vesicular protein whose expression in aged hippocampus is reportedly inconsistent. Analysis of SYT1 levels in the whole hippocampus of rats selected by the Morris water maze (MWM) test only failed to highlight a difference, whereas analysis of SYT1 levels in the whole hippocampus of rats categorized by both the MWM and the step-through passive avoidance (STPA) tests demonstrated a significant increase of SYT1 level in impaired rats. These findings, besides showing that SYT1 increases in impaired aged rats, suggest that using the whole hippocampus in blotting studies may prevent false negative results only if animals are categorized with tests exploring both DH and VH.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK46072(United States)

Synaptotagmin2 (Syt2) Drives Fast Release Redundantly with Syt1 at the Output Synapses of Parvalbumin-Expressing Inhibitory Neurons.

  • Bouhours B
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Apr 26

Literature context:


Parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons in the mammalian CNS are specialized for fast transmitter release at their output synapses. However, the Ca2+ sensor(s) used by identified inhibitory synapses, including the output synapses of parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons, have only recently started to be addressed. Here, we investigated the roles of Syt1 and Syt2 at two types of fast-releasing inhibitory connections in the mammalian CNS: the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body to lateral superior olive glycinergic synapse, and the basket/stellate cell-Purkinje GABAergic synapse in the cerebellum. We used conditional and conventional knock-out (KO) mouse lines, with viral expression of Cre-recombinase and a light-activated ion channel for optical stimulation of the transduced fibers, to produce Syt1-Syt2 double KO synapses in vivo Surprisingly, we found that KO of Syt2 alone had only minor effects on evoked transmitter release, despite the clear presence of the protein in inhibitory nerve terminals revealed by immunohistochemistry. We show that Syt1 is weakly coexpressed at these inhibitory synapses and must be genetically inactivated together with Syt2 to achieve a significant reduction and desynchronization of fast release. Thus, our work identifies the functionally relevant Ca2+ sensor(s) at fast-releasing inhibitory synapses and shows that two major Syt isoforms can cooperate to mediate release at a given synaptic connection.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT During synaptic transmission, the influx of Ca2+ into the presynaptic nerve terminal activates a Ca2+ sensor for vesicle fusion, a crucial step in the activity-dependent release of neurotransmitter. Synaptotagmin (Syt) proteins, and especially Syt1 and Syt2, have been identified as the Ca2+ sensor at excitatory synapses, but the Ca2+ sensor(s) at inhibitory synapses in native brain tissue are not well known. We found that both Syt1 and Syt2 need to be genetically inactivated to cause a significant reduction of activity-evoked release at two types of fast inhibitory synapses in mouse brain. Thus, we identify Syt2 as a functionally important Ca2+ sensor at fast-releasing inhibitory synapses, and show that Syt1 and Syt2 can redundantly control transmitter release at specific brain synapses.

Synaptotagmin-1- and Synaptotagmin-7-Dependent Fusion Mechanisms Target Synaptic Vesicles to Kinetically Distinct Endocytic Pathways.

  • Li YC
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 8

Literature context:


Synaptic vesicle recycling is essential for maintaining normal synaptic function. The coupling of exocytosis and endocytosis is assumed to be Ca2+ dependent, but the exact role of Ca2+ and its key effector synaptotagmin-1 (syt1) in regulation of endocytosis is poorly understood. Here, we probed the role of syt1 in single- as well as multi-vesicle endocytic events using high-resolution optical recordings. Our experiments showed that the slowed endocytosis phenotype previously reported after syt1 loss of function can also be triggered by other manipulations that promote asynchronous release such as Sr2+ substitution and complexin loss of function. The link between asynchronous release and slowed endocytosis was due to selective targeting of fused synaptic vesicles toward slow retrieval by the asynchronous release Ca2+ sensor synaptotagmin-7. In contrast, after single synaptic vesicle fusion, syt1 acted as an essential determinant of synaptic vesicle endocytosis time course by delaying the kinetics of vesicle retrieval in response to increasing Ca2+ levels.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH066198()

Parkinson Sac Domain Mutation in Synaptojanin 1 Impairs Clathrin Uncoating at Synapses and Triggers Dystrophic Changes in Dopaminergic Axons.

  • Cao M
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

Literature context:


Synaptojanin 1 (SJ1) is a major presynaptic phosphatase that couples synaptic vesicle endocytosis to the dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a reaction needed for the shedding of endocytic factors from their membranes. While the role of SJ1's 5-phosphatase module in this process is well recognized, the contribution of its Sac phosphatase domain, whose preferred substrate is PI4P, remains unclear. Recently a homozygous mutation in its Sac domain was identified in early-onset parkinsonism patients. We show that mice carrying this mutation developed neurological manifestations similar to those of human patients. Synapses of these mice displayed endocytic defects and a striking accumulation of clathrin-coated intermediates, strongly implicating Sac domain's activity in endocytic protein dynamics. Mutant brains had elevated auxilin (PARK19) and parkin (PARK2) levels. Moreover, dystrophic axonal terminal changes were selectively observed in dopaminergic axons in the dorsal striatum. These results strengthen evidence for a link between synaptic endocytic dysfunction and Parkinson's disease.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR001863()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P30 DA018343()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P41 GM103412()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS036251()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS036942()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS036251()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS036942()

Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis Occurs on Multiple Timescales and Is Mediated by Formin-Dependent Actin Assembly.

  • Soykan T
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

Literature context:


Neurotransmission is based on the exocytic fusion of synaptic vesicles (SVs) followed by endocytic membrane retrieval and the reformation of SVs. Recent data suggest that at physiological temperature SVs are internalized via clathrin-independent ultrafast endocytosis (UFE) within hundreds of milliseconds, while other studies have postulated a key role for clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) of SV proteins on a timescale of seconds to tens of seconds. Here we demonstrate using cultured hippocampal neurons as a model that at physiological temperature SV endocytosis occurs on several timescales from less than a second to several seconds, yet, is largely independent of clathrin. Clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) of SV membranes is mediated by actin-nucleating formins such as mDia1, which are required for the formation of presynaptic endosome-like vacuoles from which SVs reform. Our results resolve previous discrepancies in the field and suggest that SV membranes are predominantly retrieved via CIE mediated by formin-dependent actin assembly.