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S100 beta antibody [EP1576Y]

RRID:AB_882426

Antibody ID

AB_882426

Target Antigen

S100 beta antibody [EP1576Y] non-human primate, human, mouse, rat, macaque monkey

Proper Citation

(Abcam Cat# ab52642, RRID:AB_882426)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

validation status unknown, seller recommendations provided in 2012: Immunohistochemistry; Immunoprecipitation; Immunofluorescence; Immunocytochemistry; Immunohistochemistry - fixed; Western Blot; ICC/IF, IHC-P, IP, WB

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Abcam

Involvement of aquaporin-4 in laminin-enhanced process formation of mouse astrocytes in 2D culture: Roles of dystroglycan and α-syntrophin in aquaporin-4 expression.

  • Sato J
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Jul 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the central nervous system, astrocytes extend endfoot processes to ensheath synapses and microvessels. However, the mechanisms underlying this astrocytic process extension remain unclear. A limitation of the use of 2D cultured astrocytes for such studies is that they display a flat, epithelioid morphology, with no or very few processes, which is markedly different from the stellate morphology observed in vivo. In the present study, we obtained 2D cultured astrocytes with a rich complexity of processes using differentiation of neurospheres in vitro. Using these process-bearing astrocytes, we showed that laminin, an extracellular matrix molecule abundant in perivascular sites, efficiently induced process formation and branching. Specifically, the numbers of the first- and second-order branch processes and the maximal process length of astrocytes were increased when cultured on laminin, compared with when they were cultured on poly-L-ornithine or type IV collagen. Knockdown of dystroglycan or α-syntrophin, constituent proteins of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex that provides a link between laminin and the cytoskeleton, using small interference RNAs inhibited astrocyte process formation and branching, and downregulated expression of the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Direct knockdown and a specific inhibitor of AQP4 also inhibited, whereas overexpression of AQP4 enhanced astrocyte process formation and branching. Knockdown of AQP4 decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) that is critically implicated in actin remodeling. Collectively, these results indicate that the laminin-dystroglycan-α-syntrophin-AQP4 axis is important for process formation and branching of 2D cultured astrocytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL095799(United States)

Behavioral Changes in Mice Lacking Interleukin-33.

  • Dohi E
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Jan 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Interleukin (IL)-33 is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines. IL-33 is expressed in nuclei and secreted as alarmin upon cellular damage to deliver a danger signal to the surrounding cells. Previous studies showed that IL-33 is expressed in the brain and that it is involved in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes in both humans and rodents. Nevertheless, the role of IL-33 in physiological brain function and behavior remains unclear. Here, we have investigated the behaviors of mice lacking IL-33 (Il33-/- mice). IL-33 is constitutively expressed throughout the adult mouse brain, mainly in oligodendrocyte-lineage cells and astrocytes. Notably, Il33-/- mice exhibited reduced anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field test (OFT), as well as deficits in social novelty recognition, despite their intact sociability, in the three-chamber social interaction test. The immunoreactivity of c-Fos proteins, an indicator of neuronal activity, was altered in several brain regions implicated in anxiety-related behaviors, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala, and piriform cortex (PCX), in Il33-/- mice after the EPM. Altered c-Fos immunoreactivity in Il33-/- mice was not correlated with IL-33 expression in wild-type (WT) mice nor was IL-33 expression affected by the EPM in WT mice. Thus, our study has revealed that Il33-/- mice exhibit multiple behavioral deficits, such as reduced anxiety and impaired social recognition. Our findings also indicate that IL-33 may regulate the development and/or maturation of neuronal circuits, rather than control neuronal activities in adult brains.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R00 MH093458()
  • Wellcome Trust - 078285(United Kingdom)

Study of retinal neurodegeneration and maculopathy in diabetic Meriones shawi: A particular animal model with human-like macula.

  • Hammoum I
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The purpose of this work was to evaluate a potentially useful animal model, Meriones shawi (M.sh)-developing metabolic X syndrome, diabetes and possessing a visual streak similar to human macula-in the study of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema (DME). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) was induced by high fat diet administration in M.sh. Body weights, blood glucose levels were monitored throughout the study. Diabetic retinal histopathology was evaluated 3 and 7 months after diabetes induction. Retinal thickness was measured, retinal cell types were labeled by immunohistochemistry and the number of stained elements were quantified. Apoptosis was determined with TUNEL assay. T2D induced progressive changes in retinal histology. A significant decrease of retinal thickness and glial reactivity was observed without an increase in apoptosis rate. Photoreceptor outer segment degeneration was evident, with a significant decrease in the number of all cones and M-cone subtype, but-surprisingly-an increase in S-cones. Damage of the pigment epithelium was also confirmed. A decrease in the number and labeling intensity of parvalbumin- and calretinin-positive amacrine cells and a loss of ganglion cells was detected. Other cell types showed no evident alterations. No DME-like condition was noticed even after 7 months. M.sh could be a useful model to study the evolution of diabetic retinal pathology and to identify the role of hypertension and dyslipidemia in the development of the reported alterations. Longer follow up would be needed to evaluate the potential use of the visual streak in modeling human macular diseases.

Protective Effects of Fetal Zone Steroids Are Comparable to Estradiol in Hyperoxia-Induced Cell Death of Immature Glia.

  • Hübner S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Impaired neurodevelopment in preterm infants is caused by prematurity itself; however, hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, and hyperoxia contribute to the extent of impairment. Because preterm birth is accompanied by a dramatic decrease in 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone, preliminary clinical studies have been carried out to substitute these steroids in preterm infants; however, they failed to confirm significantly improved neurologic outcomes. We therefore hypothesized that the persistently high postnatal production of fetal zone steroids [mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)] until term could interfere with E2-mediated protection. We investigated whether E2 could reduce hyperoxia-mediated apoptosis in three immature glial cell types and detected the involved receptors. Thereafter, we investigated protection by the fetal zone steroids DHEA, 16α-hydroxy-DHEA, and androstenediol. For DHEA, the involved receptors were evaluated. We examined aromatases, which convert fetal zone steroids into more estrogenic compounds. Finally, cotreatment was compared against single hormone treatment to investigate synergism. In all cell types, E2 and fetal zone steroids resulted in significant dose-dependent protection, whereas the mediating receptors differed. The neuroprotection by fetal zone steroids highly depended on the cell type-specific expression of aromatases, the receptor repertoire, and the potency of the fetal zone steroids toward these receptors. No synergism in fetal zone steroid and E2 cotreatment was detected in two of three cell types. Therefore, E2 supplementation may not be beneficial with respect to neuroprotection because fetal zone steroids circulate in persistently high concentrations until term in preterm infants. Hence, a refined experimental model for preterm infants is required to investigate potential treatments.

Agonist-evoked Ca2+ signaling in enteric glia drives neural programs that regulate intestinal motility in mice.

  • McClain JL
  • Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • 2015 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal motility is regulated by enteric neural circuitry that includes enteric neurons and glia. Enteric glia monitor synaptic activity and exhibit responses to neurotransmitters that are encoded by intracellular calcium (Ca2+) signaling. What role evoked glial responses play in the neural regulation of gut motility is unknown. We tested how evoking Ca2+ signaling in enteric glia affects the neural control of intestinal motility. METHODS: We used a novel chemogenetic mouse model that expresses the designer receptor hM3Dq under the transcriptional control of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter (GFAP::hM3Dq mice) to selectively trigger glial Ca2+ signaling. We used in situ Ca2+ imaging and immunohistochemistry to validate this model and assessed gut motility by measuring pellet output and composition, colonic bead expulsion time, small intestinal transit time, total gut transit time, colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC) recordings and muscle tension recordings. RESULTS: hM3Dq receptor expression is confined to GFAP-positive enteric glia in the intestines of GFAP::hM3Dq mice. In these mice, application of the hM3Dq agonist clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) selectively triggers intracellular Ca2+ responses in enteric glia. Glial activation drove neurogenic contractions in the ileum and colon but had no effect on neurogenic relaxations. CNO enhanced the amplitude and frequency of CMMCs in ex vivo preparations of the colon and CNO increased colonic motility in vivo. CNO had no effect on the composition of fecal matter, small intestinal transit or whole gut transit. CONCLUSIONS: Glial excitability encoded by intracellular Ca2+ signaling functions to modulate excitatory enteric circuits. Selectively triggering glial Ca2+ signaling might be a novel strategy to improve gut function in motility disorders.