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Anti-GFAP Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone 2.2B10

RRID:AB_86543

Antibody ID

AB_86543

Target Antigen

GFAP bovine, human, mouse, bovine

Proper Citation

(Innovative Research Cat# 13-0300, RRID:AB_86543)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

manufacturer recommendations: ELISA; Flow Cytometry; Immunofluorescence; Immunohistochemistry; Immunoprecipitation; Western Blot; ELISA, IHC, IF, WB, IP, FC

Clone ID

Clone 2.2B10

Host Organism

rat

Vendor

Innovative Research

Cat Num

13-0300

Blockade of sustained tumor necrosis factor in a transgenic model of progressive autoimmune encephalomyelitis limits oligodendrocyte apoptosis and promotes oligodendrocyte maturation.

  • Valentin-Torres A
  • J Neuroinflammation
  • 2018 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is associated with several neurodegenerative disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). Although TNF-targeted therapies have been largely unsuccessful in MS, recent preclinical data suggests selective soluble TNF inhibition can promote remyelination. This has renewed interest in regulation of TNF signaling in demyelinating disease, especially given the limited treatment options for progressive MS. Using a mouse model of progressive MS, this study evaluates the effects of sustained TNF on oligodendrocyte (OLG) apoptosis and OLG precursor cell (OPC) differentiation. METHODS: Induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative interferon-γ receptor under the human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter (GFAPγR1Δ) causes severe non-remitting disease associated with sustained TNF. Therapeutic effects in GFAPγR1Δ mice treated with anti-TNF compared to control antibody during acute EAE were evaluated by assessing demyelinating lesion size, remyelination, OLG apoptosis, and OPC differentiation. RESULTS: More severe and enlarged demyelinating lesions in GFAPγR1Δ compared to wild-type (WT) mice were associated with increased OLG apoptosis and reduced differentiated CC1+Olig2+ OLG within lesions, as well as impaired upregulation of TNF receptor-2, suggesting impaired OPC differentiation. TNF blockade during acute EAE in GFAPγR1Δ both limited OLG apoptosis and enhanced OPC differentiation consistent with reduced lesion size and clinical recovery. TNF neutralization further limited increasing endothelin-1 (ET-1) expression in astrocytes and myeloid cells noted in lesions during disease progression in GFAPγR1Δ mice, supporting inhibitory effects of ET-1 on OPC maturation. CONCLUSION: Our data implicate that IFNγ signaling to astrocytes is essential to limit a detrimental positive feedback loop of TNF and ET-1 production, which increases OLG apoptosis and impairs OPC differentiation. Interference of this cycle by TNF blockade promotes repair independent of TNFR2 and supports selective TNF targeting to mitigate progressive forms of MS.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - 233376(United Kingdom)
  • Cancer Center Support - P30CA014089()
  • National Multiple Sclerosis Society - RG4007B5()

Kir4.1-Dependent Astrocyte-Fast Motor Neuron Interactions Are Required for Peak Strength.

  • Kelley KW
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diversified neurons are essential for sensorimotor function, but whether astrocytes become specialized to optimize circuit performance remains unclear. Large fast α-motor neurons (FαMNs) of spinal cord innervate fast-twitch muscles that generate peak strength. We report that ventral horn astrocytes express the inward-rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 (a.k.a. Kcnj10) around MNs in a VGLUT1-dependent manner. Loss of astrocyte-encoded Kir4.1 selectively altered FαMN size and function and led to reduced peak strength. Overexpression of Kir4.1 in astrocytes was sufficient to increase MN size through activation of the PI3K/mTOR/pS6 pathway. Kir4.1 was downregulated cell autonomously in astrocytes derived from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with SOD1 mutation. However, astrocyte Kir4.1 was dispensable for FαMN survival even in the mutant SOD1 background. These findings show that astrocyte Kir4.1 is essential for maintenance of peak strength and suggest that Kir4.1 downregulation might uncouple symptoms of muscle weakness from MN cell death in diseases like ALS.

Funding information:
  • FIC NIH HHS - K01 TW000001(United States)

EphA4 Regulates Neuroblast and Astrocyte Organization in a Neurogenic Niche.

  • Todd KL
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Mar 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Significant migration cues are required to guide and contain newly generated rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) neuroblasts as they transit along the lateral ventricles and then through the anterior forebrain to their ultimate site of differentiation in the olfactory bulbs (OBs). These cues enforce strict neuroblast spatial boundaries within the dense astroglial meshwork of the SVZ and rostral migratory stream (RMS), yet are permissive to large-scale neuroblast migration. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms that define these cues and control dynamic interactions between migratory neuroblasts and surrounding astrocytes are of particular interest. We found that deletion of EphA4 and specifically ablation of EphA4 kinase activity resulted in misaligned neuroblasts and disorganized astrocytes in the RMS/SVZ, linking EphA4 forward signaling to SVZ and RMS spatial organization, orientation, and regulation. In addition, within a 3 week period, there was a significant reduction in the number of neuroblasts that reached the OB and integrated into the periglomerular layer, revealing a crucial role for EphA4 in facilitating efficient neuroblast migration to the OB. Single-cell analysis revealed that EPHA4 and its EFN binding partners are expressed by subpopulations of neuroblasts and astrocytes within the SVZ/RMS/OB system resulting in a cell-specific mosaic, suggesting complex EphA4 signaling involving both homotypic and heterotypic cell-cell interactions. Together, our studies reveal a novel molecular mechanism involving EphA4 signaling that functions in stem cell niche organization and ultimately neuroblast migration in the anterior forebrain.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The subventricular zone neurogenic stem cell niche generates highly migratory neuroblasts that transit the anterior forebrain along a defined pathway to the olfactory bulb. Postnatal and adult brain organization dictates strict adherence to a narrow migration corridor. Subventricular zone neuroblasts are aligned in tightly bundled chains within a meshwork of astrocytes; however, the cell-cell cues that organize this unique, cell-dense migration pathway are largely unknown. Our studies show that forward signaling through the EphA4 tyrosine kinase receptor, mediated by ephrins expressed by subpopulations of neuroblasts and astrocytes, is required for compact, directional organization of neuroblasts and astrocytes within the pathway and efficient transit of neuroblasts through the anterior forebrain to the olfactory bulb.

Tamoxifen Provides Structural and Functional Rescue in Murine Models of Photoreceptor Degeneration.

  • Wang X
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Mar 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Photoreceptor degeneration is a cause of irreversible vision loss in incurable blinding retinal diseases including retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and atrophic age-related macular degeneration. We found in two separate mouse models of photoreceptor degeneration that tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator and a drug previously linked with retinal toxicity, paradoxically provided potent neuroprotective effects. In a light-induced degeneration model, tamoxifen prevented onset of photoreceptor apoptosis and atrophy and maintained near-normal levels of electroretinographic responses. Rescue effects were correlated with decreased microglial activation and inflammatory cytokine production in the retina in vivo and a reduction of microglia-mediated toxicity to photoreceptors in vitro, indicating a microglia-mediated mechanism of rescue. Tamoxifen also rescued degeneration in a genetic (Pde6brd10) model of RP, significantly improving retinal structure, electrophysiological responses, and visual behavior. These prominent neuroprotective effects warrant the consideration of tamoxifen as a drug suitable for being repurposed to treat photoreceptor degenerative disease.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Photoreceptor degeneration is a cause of irreversible blindness in a number of retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and atrophic age-related macular degeneration. Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator approved for the treatment of breast cancer and previously linked to a low incidence of retinal toxicity, was unexpectedly found to exert marked protective effects against photoreceptor degeneration. Structural and functional protective effects were found for an acute model of light-induced photoreceptor injury and for a genetic model for RP. The mechanism of protection involved the modulation of microglial activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines, highlighting the role of inflammatory mechanisms in photoreceptor degeneration. Tamoxifen may be suitable for clinical study as a potential treatment for diseases involving photoreceptor degeneration.

Regional and stage-specific effects of prospectively purified vascular cells on the adult V-SVZ neural stem cell lineage.

  • Crouch EE
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2015 Mar 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adult neural stem cells reside in specialized niches. In the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), quiescent neural stem cells (qNSCs) become activated (aNSCs), and generate transit amplifying cells (TACs), which give rise to neuroblasts that migrate to the olfactory bulb. The vasculature is an important component of the adult neural stem cell niche, but whether vascular cells in neurogenic areas are intrinsically different from those elsewhere in the brain is unknown. Moreover, the contribution of pericytes to the neural stem cell niche has not been defined. Here, we describe a rapid FACS purification strategy to simultaneously isolate primary endothelial cells and pericytes from brain microregions of nontransgenic mice using CD31 and CD13 as surface markers. We compared the effect of purified vascular cells from a neurogenic (V-SVZ) and non-neurogenic brain region (cortex) on the V-SVZ stem cell lineage in vitro. Endothelial and pericyte diffusible signals from both regions differentially promote the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of qNSCs, aNSCs, and TACs. Unexpectedly, diffusible cortical signals had the most potent effects on V-SVZ proliferation and neurogenesis, highlighting the intrinsic capacity of non-neurogenic vasculature to support stem cell behavior. Finally, we identify PlGF-2 as an endothelial-derived mitogen that promotes V-SVZ cell proliferation. This purification strategy provides a platform to define the functional and molecular contribution of vascular cells to stem cell niches and other brain regions under different physiological and pathological states.

Nuclear-cytoplasmic localization of acetyl coenzyme a synthetase-1 in the rat brain.

  • Ariyannur PS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Acetyl coenzyme A synthetase-1 (AceCS1) catalyzes the synthesis of acetyl coenzyme A from acetate and coenzyme A and is thought to play diverse roles ranging from fatty acid synthesis to gene regulation. By using an affinity-purified antibody generated against an 18-mer peptide sequence of AceCS1 and a polyclonal antibody directed against recombinant AceCS1 protein, we examined the expression of AceCS1 in the rat brain. AceCS1 immunoreactivity in the adult rat brain was present predominantly in cell nuclei, with only light to moderate cytoplasmic staining in some neurons, axons, and oligodendrocytes. Some nonneuronal cell nuclei were very strongly immunoreactive, including those of some oligodendrocytes, whereas neuronal nuclei ranged from unstained to moderately stained. Both antibodies stained some neuronal cell bodies and axons, especially in the hindbrain. AceCS1 immunoreactivity was stronger and more widespread in the brains of 18-day-old rats than in adults, with increased expression in oligodendrocytes and neurons, including cortical pyramidal cells. Expression of AceCS1 was substantially up-regulated in neurons throughout the brain after controlled cortical impact injury. The strong AceCS1 expression observed in the nuclei of CNS cells during brain development and after injury is consistent with a role in nuclear histone acetylation and therefore the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression. The cytoplasmic staining observed in some oligodendrocytes, especially during postnatal brain development, suggests an additional role in CNS lipid synthesis and myelination. Neuronal and axonal localization implicates AceCS1 in cytoplasmic acetylation reactions in some neurons.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

Light responses and morphology of bNOS-immunoreactive neurons in the mouse retina.

  • Pang JJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nitric oxide (NO), produced by NO synthase (NOS), modulates the function of all retinal neurons and ocular blood vessels and participates in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases. To further understand the regulation of ocular NO release, we systematically studied the morphology, topography, and light responses of NOS-containing amacrine cells (NOACs) in dark-adapted mouse retina. Immunohistological staining for neuronal NOS (bNOS), combined with retrograde labeling of ganglion cells (GCs) with Neurobiotin (NB, a gap junction permeable dye) and Lucifer yellow (LY, a less permeable dye), was used to identify NOACs. The light responses of ACs were recorded under whole-cell voltage clamp conditions and cell morphology was examined with a confocal microscope. We found that in dark-adapted conditions bNOS-immunoreactivity (IR) was present primarily in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. bNOS-IR somas were negative for LY, thus they were identified as ACs; nearly 6% of the cells were labeled by NB but not by LY, indicating that they were dye-coupled with GCs. Three morphological subtypes of NOACs (NI, NII, and displaced) were identified. The cell density, intercellular distance, and the distribution of NOACs were studied in whole retinas. Light evoked depolarizing highly sensitive ON-OFF responses in NI cells and less sensitive OFF responses in NII cells. Frequent (1-2 Hz) or abrupt change of light intensity evoked larger peak responses. The possibility for light to modify NO release from NOACs is discussed.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - K99 CA137860(United States)