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Sheep Anti-Mouse IgG, Whole Ab ECL Antibody, HRP Conjugated

RRID:AB_772209

Antibody ID

AB_772209

Target Antigen

IgG mouse

Proper Citation

(GE Healthcare Cat# NXA931, RRID:AB_772209)

Clonality

unknown

Comments

This entry has been consolidated with AB_10190318 by curator on 4/2018

Host Organism

sheep

Vendor

GE Healthcare

Apoptotic Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Promote Malignancy of Glioblastoma Via Intercellular Transfer of Splicing Factors.

  • Pavlyukov MS
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jul 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aggressive cancers such as glioblastoma (GBM) contain intermingled apoptotic cells adjacent to proliferating tumor cells. Nonetheless, intercellular signaling between apoptotic and surviving cancer cells remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that apoptotic GBM cells paradoxically promote proliferation and therapy resistance of surviving tumor cells by secreting apoptotic extracellular vesicles (apoEVs) enriched with various components of spliceosomes. apoEVs alter RNA splicing in recipient cells, thereby promoting their therapy resistance and aggressive migratory phenotype. Mechanistically, we identified RBM11 as a representative splicing factor that is upregulated in tumors after therapy and shed in extracellular vesicles upon induction of apoptosis. Once internalized in recipient cells, exogenous RBM11 switches splicing of MDM4 and Cyclin D1 toward the expression of more oncogenic isoforms.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - (United Kingdom)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA183991()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA201402()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083767()

Liposomal Therapy Attenuates Dermonecrosis Induced by Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Targeting α-Type Phenol-Soluble Modulins and α-Hemolysin.

  • Wolfmeier H
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), typified by the pulse-field type USA300, is an emerging endemic pathogen that is spreading rapidly among healthy people. CA-MRSA causes skin and soft tissue infections, life-threatening necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis, and is remarkably resistant to many antibiotics. Here we show that engineered liposomes composed of naturally occurring sphingomyelin were able to sequester cytolytic toxins secreted by USA300 and prevent necrosis of human erythrocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and bronchial epithelial cells. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the capture by liposomes of phenol-soluble modulins, α-hemolysin and other toxins. Sphingomyelin liposomes prevented hemolysis induced by pure phenol-soluble modulin-α3, one of the main cytolytic components in the USA300 secretome. In contrast, sphingomyelin liposomes harboring a high cholesterol content (66 mol/%) were unable to protect human cells from phenol-soluble modulin-α3-induced lysis, however these liposomes efficiently sequestered the potent staphylococcal toxin α-hemolysin. In a murine cutaneous abscess model, a single dose of either type of liposomes was sufficient to significantly decrease tissue dermonecrosis. Our results provide further insights into the promising potential of tailored liposomal therapy in the battle against infectious diseases.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - RR024574(United States)

A Combinatorial Lipid Code Shapes the Electrostatic Landscape of Plant Endomembranes.

  • Platre MP
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Membrane surface charge is critical for the transient, yet specific recruitment of proteins with polybasic regions to certain organelles. In eukaryotes, the plasma membrane (PM) is the most electronegative compartment of the cell, which specifies its identity. As such, membrane electrostatics is a central parameter in signaling, intracellular trafficking, and polarity. Here, we explore which are the lipids that control membrane electrostatics using plants as a model. We show that phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P), phosphatidic acidic (PA), and phosphatidylserine (PS) are separately required to generate the electrostatic signature of the plant PM. In addition, we reveal the existence of an electrostatic territory that is organized as a gradient along the endocytic pathway and is controlled by PS/PI4P combination. Altogether, we propose that combinatorial lipid composition of the cytosolic leaflet of organelles not only defines the electrostatic territory but also distinguishes different functional compartments within this territory by specifying their varying surface charges.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P30 AI050410(United States)

FYCO1 mediates clearance of α-synuclein aggregates through a Rab7-dependent mechanism.

  • Saridaki T
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 May 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parkinson disease can be caused by mutations in the α-synuclein gene and is characterized by aggregates of α-synuclein protein. We have previously shown that overexpression of the small GTPase Rab7 can induce clearance of α-synuclein aggregates. In this study, we investigate which Rab7 effectors mediate this effect. To model Parkinson disease we expressed the pathogenic A53T mutant of α-synuclein in HEK293T cells and Drosophila melanogaster. We tested the Rab7 effectors FYVE and coiled-coil domain-containing protein 1 (FYCO1) and Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP). FYCO1-EGFP decorated vesicles containing α-synuclein. RILP-EGFP also decorated vesicular structures, but they did not contain α-synuclein. FYCO1 overexpression reduced the number of cells with α-synuclein aggregates, defined as visible particles of EGFP-tagged α-synuclein, whereas RILP did not. FYCO1 but not RILP reduced the amount of α-synuclein protein as assayed by western blot, increased the disappearance of α-synuclein aggregates in time-lapse microscopy, and decreased α-synuclein-induced toxicity assayed by the Trypan blue assay. siRNA-mediated knockdown of FYCO1 but not RILP reduced Rab7 induced aggregate clearance. Collectively, these findings indicate that FYCO1 and not RILP mediates Rab7 induced aggregate clearance. The effect of FYCO1 on aggregate clearance was blocked by the dominant negative Rab7 indicating that FYCO1 requires active Rab7 to function. Electron microscopic analysis and insertion of lysosomal membranes into the plasma membrane indicate that FYCO1 could lead to secretion of α-synuclein aggregates. Extracellular α-synuclein as assayed by ELISA was, however, not increased with FYCO1. Coexpression of FYCO1 in the fly model decreased α-synuclein aggregates as shown by the filter trap assay and rescued the locomotor deficit resulting from neuronal A53T-α-synuclein expression. This latter finding confirms that a pathway involving Rab7 and FYCO1 stimulates degradation of α-synuclein and could be beneficial in patients with Parkinson disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - P20 AA017837(United States)

Evidence that TLR4 Is Not a Receptor for Saturated Fatty Acids but Mediates Lipid-Induced Inflammation by Reprogramming Macrophage Metabolism.

  • Lancaster GI
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and is linked to the development of numerous diseases. The activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by long-chain saturated fatty acids (lcSFAs) is an important process in understanding how obesity initiates inflammation. While experimental evidence supports an important role for TLR4 in obesity-induced inflammation in vivo, via a mechanism thought to involve direct binding to and activation of TLR4 by lcSFAs, several lines of evidence argue against lcSFAs being direct TLR4 agonists. Using multiple orthogonal approaches, we herein provide evidence that while loss-of-function models confirm that TLR4 does, indeed, regulate lcSFA-induced inflammation, TLR4 is not a receptor for lcSFAs. Rather, we show that TLR4-dependent priming alters cellular metabolism, gene expression, lipid metabolic pathways, and membrane lipid composition, changes that are necessary for lcSFA-induced inflammation. These results reconcile previous discordant observations and challenge the prevailing view of TLR4's role in initiating obesity-induced inflammation.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP-42411(Canada)

Crosstalk control and limits of physiological c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity for cell viability and neurite stability in differentiated PC12 cells.

  • Waetzig V
  • Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are important mediators of cell viability and structural integrity in postmitotic neurons, which is required for maintaining synaptic connections and neural plasticity. In the present study, we chose differentiated PC12 cells as a well-characterised neuronal model system to selectively examine the regulation of basal JNK activity by extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt. We detected a complex interaction between the kinases to prevent cell death and neurite loss. Especially the appropriate level of JNK activation determined cellular survival. Basal activity of ERK1/2 attenuated the potentiation of JNK phosphorylation and thereby the induction of apoptosis. Importantly, when JNK activity was too low, cell viability and the number of neurite-bearing cells also decreased, even though the activation of ERK1/2 was enhanced. In this case, the JNK-mediated survival signals via activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) were inhibited. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 induced by the JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited the basal activity of Akt, which normally supported cell viability. Thus, controlling JNK activity is crucial to promote survival and neurite stability of differentiated neuronal cells.

γ-Secretase Inhibition Lowers Plasma Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins by Stabilizing the LDL Receptor.

  • Kim K
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Apr 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Excess plasma triglycerides (TGs) are a key component of obesity-induced metabolic syndrome. We have shown that γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) treatment improves glucose tolerance due to inhibition of hepatic Notch signaling but found additional Notch-independent reduction of plasma TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in GSI-treated, as well as hepatocyte-specific, γ-secretase knockout (L-Ncst) mice, which suggested a primary effect on hepatocyte TRL uptake. Indeed, we found increased VLDL and LDL particle uptake in L-Ncst hepatocytes and Ncst-deficient hepatoma cells, in part through reduced γ-secretase-mediated low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) cleavage and degradation. To exploit this novel finding, we generated a liver-selective Nicastrin ASO, which recapitulated glucose and lipid improvements of L-Ncst mice, with increased levels of hepatocyte LDLR. Collectively, these results identify the role of hepatic γ-secretase to regulate LDLR and suggest that liver-specific GSIs may simultaneously improve multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL092969()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL125649()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103818()
  • Wellcome Trust - CA062275(United Kingdom)

Cell Size and Growth Rate Are Modulated by TORC2-Dependent Signals.

  • Lucena R
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Jan 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The size of all cells, from bacteria to vertebrates, is proportional to the growth rate set by nutrient availability, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we show that nutrients modulate cell size and growth rate via the TORC2 signaling network in budding yeast. An important function of the TORC2 network is to modulate synthesis of ceramide lipids, which play roles in signaling. TORC2-dependent control of ceramide signaling strongly influences both cell size and growth rate. Thus, cells that cannot make ceramides fail to modulate their growth rate or size in response to changes in nutrients. PP2A associated with the Rts1 regulatory subunit (PP2ARts1) is embedded in a feedback loop that controls TORC2 signaling and helps set the level of TORC2 signaling to match nutrient availability. Together, the data suggest a model in which growth rate and cell size are mechanistically linked by ceramide-dependent signals arising from the TORC2 network.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM053959()

Bortezomib Alone and in Combination With Salinosporamid A Induces Apoptosis and Promotes Pheochromocytoma Cell Death In Vitro and in Female Nude Mice.

  • Bullova P
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Proteasome inhibitors have been frequently used in treating hematologic and solid tumors. They are administered individually or in combination with other regimens, to prevent severe side effects and resistance development. Because they have been shown to be efficient and are pharmaceutically available, we tested the first Food and Drug Administration-approved proteasome inhibitor bortezomib alone and in combination with another proteasome inhibitor, salinosporamid A, in pheochromocytoma cells. Pheochromocytomas/Paragangliomas (PHEOs/PGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors for which no definite cure is yet available. Therefore, drugs with a wide spectrum of mechanisms of action are being tested to identify suitable candidates for PHEO/PGL treatment. In the current study, we show that bortezomib induces PHEO cell death via the apoptotic pathway in vitro and in vivo. The combination of bortezomib with salinosporamid A exhibits additive effect on these cells and inhibits proliferation, cell migration and invasion, and angiogenesis more potently than bortezomib alone. Altogether, we suggest these proteasome inhibitors, especially bortezomib, could be potentially tested in PHEO/PGL patients who might benefit from treatment with either the inhibitors alone or in combination with other treatment options.

Neurodegenerative effects of azithromycin in differentiated PC12 cells.

  • Waetzig V
  • Eur. J. Pharmacol.
  • 2017 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Azithromycin is a widely used macrolide antibiotic with sustained and high tissue penetration and intracellular accumulation. While short-term exposure to low-dose azithromycin is usually well tolerated, prolonged treatment can lead to unwanted neurological effects like paresthesia and hearing loss. However, the mechanism causing neurodegeneration is still unknown. Here, we show that even low therapeutically relevant azithromycin concentrations like 1µg/ml decreased cell viability by 15% and induced neurite loss of 47% after 96h in differentiated PC12 cells, which are a well-established model system for neuronal cells. When higher concentrations were used, the drug-induced effects occurred earlier and were more pronounced. Thereby, azithromycin altered tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) signaling and attenuated protein kinase B (Akt) activity, which subsequently induced autophagy. Simultaneously, the antibiotic impaired lysosomal functions by blocking the autophagic flux, and this concurrence reduced cell viability. In good agreement with reversible effects observed in patients, PC12 cells could completely recover if azithromycin was removed after 24h. In addition, the detrimental effects of azithromycin were limited to differentiated cells, as confirmed in the human neuronal model cell line SH-SY5Y. Thus, azithromycin alters cell surface receptor signaling and autophagy in neuronal cells, but does not automatically induce irreversible damage when used in low concentrations and for a short time.

Cryo-EM Reveals How Human Cytoplasmic Dynein Is Auto-inhibited and Activated.

  • Zhang K
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cytoplasmic dynein-1 binds dynactin and cargo adaptor proteins to form a transport machine capable of long-distance processive movement along microtubules. However, it is unclear why dynein-1 moves poorly on its own or how it is activated by dynactin. Here, we present a cryoelectron microscopy structure of the complete 1.4-megadalton human dynein-1 complex in an inhibited state known as the phi-particle. We reveal the 3D structure of the cargo binding dynein tail and show how self-dimerization of the motor domains locks them in a conformation with low microtubule affinity. Disrupting motor dimerization with structure-based mutagenesis drives dynein-1 into an open form with higher affinity for both microtubules and dynactin. We find the open form is also inhibited for movement and that dynactin relieves this by reorienting the motor domains to interact correctly with microtubules. Our model explains how dynactin binding to the dynein-1 tail directly stimulates its motor activity.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 16-0093()

LIN41 Post-transcriptionally Silences mRNAs by Two Distinct and Position-Dependent Mechanisms.

  • Aeschimann F
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

The RNA-binding protein (RBP) LIN41, also known as LIN-41 or TRIM71, is a key regulator of animal development, but its physiological targets and molecular mechanism of action are largely elusive. Here we find that this RBP has two distinct mRNA-silencing activities. Using genome-wide ribosome profiling, RNA immunoprecipitation, and in vitro-binding experiments, we identify four mRNAs, each encoding a transcription factor or cofactor, as direct physiological targets of C. elegans LIN41. LIN41 silences three of these targets through their 3' UTRs, but it achieves isoform-specific silencing of one target, lin-29A, through its unique 5' UTR. Whereas the 3' UTR targets mab-10, mab-3, and dmd-3 undergo transcript degradation, lin-29A experiences translational repression. Through binding site transplantation experiments, we demonstrate that it is the location of the LIN41-binding site that specifies the silencing mechanism. Such position-dependent dual activity may, when studied more systematically, emerge as a feature shared by other RBPs.

Structure of the MIS12 Complex and Molecular Basis of Its Interaction with CENP-C at Human Kinetochores.

  • Petrovic A
  • Cell
  • 2016 Nov 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kinetochores, multisubunit protein assemblies, connect chromosomes to spindle microtubules to promote chromosome segregation. The 10-subunit KMN assembly (comprising KNL1, MIS12, and NDC80 complexes, designated KNL1C, MIS12C, and NDC80C) binds microtubules and regulates mitotic checkpoint function through NDC80C and KNL1C, respectively. MIS12C, on the other hand, connects the KMN to the chromosome-proximal domain of the kinetochore through a direct interaction with CENP-C. The structural basis for this crucial bridging function of MIS12C is unknown. Here, we report crystal structures of human MIS12C associated with a fragment of CENP-C and unveil the role of Aurora B kinase in the regulation of this interaction. The structure of MIS12:CENP-C complements previously determined high-resolution structures of functional regions of NDC80C and KNL1C and allows us to build a near-complete structural model of the KMN assembly. Our work illuminates the structural organization of essential chromosome segregation machinery that is conserved in most eukaryotes.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS025044(United States)