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Donkey Anti-Rabbit IgG ECL Antibody, HRP Conjugated

RRID:AB_772191

Antibody ID

AB_772191

Target Antigen

Donkey Rabbit IgG ECL HRP rabbit, rabbit

Proper Citation

(GE Healthcare Cat# NA9340-1ml, RRID:AB_772191)

Clonality

unknown

Comments

manufacturer recommendations:

Host Organism

donkey

Vendor

GE Healthcare

Transient increase in sAPPα secretion in response to Aβ1-42 oligomers: an attempt of neuronal self-defense?

  • Rose C
  • Neurobiol. Aging
  • 2018 Jun 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Amyloid precursor protein (APP), a key molecule of Alzheimer disease, is metabolized in 2 antagonist pathways generating the soluble APP alpha (sAPPα) having neuroprotective properties and the beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide at the origin of neurotoxic oligomers, particularly Aβ1-42. Whether extracellular Aβ1-42 oligomers modulate the formation and secretion of sAPPα is not known. We report here that the addition of Aβ1-42 oligomers to primary cortical neurons induced a transient increase in α-secretase activity and secreted sAPPα 6-9 hours later. Preventing the generation of sAPPα by using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for the α-secretases ADAM10 and ADAM17 or for APP led to increased Aβ1-42 oligomer-induced cell death after 24 hours. Neuronal injuries due to oxidative stress or growth factor deprivation also generated sAPPα 7 hours later. Finally, acute injection of Aβ1-42 oligomers into wild-type mouse hippocampi induced transient secretion of sAPPα 48-72 hours later. Altogether, these data suggest that neurons respond to stress by generating sAPPα for their survival. These data must be taken into account when interpreting sAPPα levels as a biomarker in neurological disorders.

FYCO1 mediates clearance of α-synuclein aggregates through a Rab7-dependent mechanism.

  • Saridaki T
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 May 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parkinson disease can be caused by mutations in the α-synuclein gene and is characterized by aggregates of α-synuclein protein. We have previously shown that overexpression of the small GTPase Rab7 can induce clearance of α-synuclein aggregates. In this study, we investigate which Rab7 effectors mediate this effect. To model Parkinson disease we expressed the pathogenic A53T mutant of α-synuclein in HEK293T cells and Drosophila melanogaster. We tested the Rab7 effectors FYVE and coiled-coil domain-containing protein 1 (FYCO1) and Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP). FYCO1-EGFP decorated vesicles containing α-synuclein. RILP-EGFP also decorated vesicular structures, but they did not contain α-synuclein. FYCO1 overexpression reduced the number of cells with α-synuclein aggregates, defined as visible particles of EGFP-tagged α-synuclein, whereas RILP did not. FYCO1 but not RILP reduced the amount of α-synuclein protein as assayed by western blot, increased the disappearance of α-synuclein aggregates in time-lapse microscopy, and decreased α-synuclein-induced toxicity assayed by the Trypan blue assay. siRNA-mediated knockdown of FYCO1 but not RILP reduced Rab7 induced aggregate clearance. Collectively, these findings indicate that FYCO1 and not RILP mediates Rab7 induced aggregate clearance. The effect of FYCO1 on aggregate clearance was blocked by the dominant negative Rab7 indicating that FYCO1 requires active Rab7 to function. Electron microscopic analysis and insertion of lysosomal membranes into the plasma membrane indicate that FYCO1 could lead to secretion of α-synuclein aggregates. Extracellular α-synuclein as assayed by ELISA was, however, not increased with FYCO1. Coexpression of FYCO1 in the fly model decreased α-synuclein aggregates as shown by the filter trap assay and rescued the locomotor deficit resulting from neuronal A53T-α-synuclein expression. This latter finding confirms that a pathway involving Rab7 and FYCO1 stimulates degradation of α-synuclein and could be beneficial in patients with Parkinson disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - P20 AA017837(United States)

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 VP22 Inhibits AIM2-Dependent Inflammasome Activation to Enable Efficient Viral Replication.

  • Maruzuru Y
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Feb 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

The AIM2 inflammasome is activated by DNA, leading to caspase-1 activation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, which are critical mediators in host innate immune responses against various pathogens. Some viruses employ strategies to counteract inflammasome-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but their in vivo relevance is less well understood. Here we show that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) tegument protein VP22 inhibits AIM2-dependent inflammasome activation. VP22 interacts with AIM2 and prevents its oligomerization, an initial step in AIM2 inflammasome activation. A mutant virus lacking VP22 (HSV-1ΔVP22) activates AIM2 and induces IL-1β and IL-18 secretion, but these responses are lost in the absence of AIM2. Additionally, HSV-1ΔVP22 infection results in diminished viral yields in vivo, but HSV-1ΔVP22 replication is largely restored in AIM2-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings reveal a mechanism of HSV-1 evasion of the host immune response that enables efficient viral replication in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA89520(United States)

KRAS Dimerization Impacts MEK Inhibitor Sensitivity and Oncogenic Activity of Mutant KRAS.

  • Ambrogio C
  • Cell
  • 2018 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mechanism by which the wild-type KRAS allele imparts a growth inhibitory effect to oncogenic KRAS in various cancers, including lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), is poorly understood. Here, using a genetically inducible model of KRAS loss of heterozygosity (LOH), we show that KRAS dimerization mediates wild-type KRAS-dependent fitness of human and murine KRAS mutant LUAD tumor cells and underlies resistance to MEK inhibition. These effects are abrogated when wild-type KRAS is replaced by KRASD154Q, a mutant that disrupts dimerization at the α4-α5 KRAS dimer interface without changing other fundamental biochemical properties of KRAS, both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, dimerization has a critical role in the oncogenic activity of mutant KRAS. Our studies provide mechanistic and biological insights into the role of KRAS dimerization and highlight a role for disruption of dimerization as a therapeutic strategy for KRAS mutant cancers.

Defective trafficking of Kv2.1 channels in MPTP-induced nigrostriatal degeneration.

  • Chao RY
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intracellular protein trafficking is tightly regulated, and improper trafficking might be the fundamental provocateur for human diseases including neurodegeneration. In neurons, protein trafficking to and from the plasma membrane affects synaptic plasticity. Voltage-gated potassium channel 2.1 (Kv2.1) is a predominant delayed rectifier potassium (K+ ) current, and electrical activity patterns of dopamine (DA) neurons within the substantia nigra are generated and modulated by the orchestrated function of different ion channels. The pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the progressive loss of these DA neurons, resulting in the degeneration of striatal dopaminergic terminals. However, whether trafficking of Kv2.1 channels contributes to PD remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that MPTP/MPP+ increases the surface expression of the Kv2.1 channel and causes nigrostriatal degeneration by using a subchronic MPTP mouse model. The inhibition of the Kv2.1 channel by using a specific blocker, guangxitoxin-1E, protected nigrostriatal projections against MPTP/MPP+ insult and thus facilitated the recovery of motor coordination. These findings highlight the importance of trafficking of Kv2.1 channels in the pathogenesis of PD.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - HG00983(United States)

Nicotine increases colon cancer cell migration and invasion through epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT): COX-2 involvement.

  • Dinicola S
  • J. Cell. Physiol.
  • 2017 Dec 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cigarette smoking is a recognized risk factor for colon cancer and nicotine, the principal active component of tobacco, plays a pivotal role in increasing colon cancer cell growth and survival. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of nicotine on cellular Caco-2 and HCT-8 migration and invasion, focusing on epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) induction, and COX-2 pathway involvement. In both these cell lines, treatment with nicotine increased COX-2 expression and the release of its enzymatic product PGE2 . Moreover, nicotine-stimulated cells showed increased migratory and invasive behavior, mesenchymal markers up-regulation and epithelial markers down-regulation, nuclear translocation of the β-catenin, increase of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity, and enhanced NF-κB expression. Noticeably, all these effects are largely mediated by COX-2 activity, as simultaneous treatment of both cell lines with nicotine and NS-398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, greatly reduced the number of migrating and invading cells and reverted nicotine-induced EMT. These findings emphasize that nicotine triggers EMT, leading hence to increased migration and invasiveness of colon cancer cells. Thereby, the use of COX-2 inhibitor drugs might likely counteract nicotine-mediated EMT effects on colon cancer development and progression.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA119018-04(United States)

Unconventional role of voltage-gated proton channels (VSOP/Hv1) in regulation of microglial ROS production.

  • Kawai T
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Sep 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

It has been established that voltage-gated proton channels (VSOP/Hv1), encoded by Hvcn1, support reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in phagocytic activities of neutrophils (El Chemaly et al. ) and antibody production in B lymphocytes (Capasso et al. ). VSOP/Hv1 is a potential therapeutic target for brain ischemia, since Hvcn1 deficiency reduces microglial ROS production and protects brain from neuronal damage (Wu et al. ). In the present study, we report that VSOP/Hv1 has paradoxical suppressive role in ROS production in microglia. Extracellular ROS production was lower in neutrophils of Hvcn1-/- mice than WT mice as reported. In contrast, it was drastically enhanced in isolated Hvcn1-/- microglia as compared with cells from WT mice. Actin dynamics was altered in Hvcn1-/- microglia and intracellular distribution of cytosolic NADPH oxidase subunit, p67, was changed. When expression levels of oxidative stress responsive antioxidant genes were compared between WT and Hvcn1-/- in cerebral cortex at different ages of animals, they were slightly decreased in Hvcn1-/- mice at younger stage (1 day, 5 days, 3 weeks old), but drastically increased at aged stage (6 months old), suggesting that the regulation of microglial ROS production by VSOP/Hv1 is age-dependent. We also performed brain ischemic stroke experiments and found that the neuroprotective effect of VSOP/Hv1deficiency on infarct volume depended on the age of animals. Taken together, regulation of ROS production by VSOP/Hv1 is more complex than previously thought and significance of VSOP/Hv1 in microglial ROS production depends on age.

Mov10 suppresses retroelements and regulates neuronal development and function in the developing brain.

  • Skariah G
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2017 Jun 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Moloney leukemia virus 10 (Mov10) is an RNA helicase that mediates access of the RNA-induced silencing complex to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Until now, its role as an RNA helicase and as a regulator of retrotransposons has been characterized exclusively in cell lines. We investigated the role of Mov10 in the mouse brain by examining its expression over development and attempting to create a Mov10 knockout mouse. Loss of both Mov10 copies led to early embryonic lethality. RESULTS: Mov10 was significantly elevated in postnatal murine brain, where it bound retroelement RNAs and mRNAs. Mov10 suppressed retroelements in the nucleus by directly inhibiting complementary DNA synthesis, while cytosolic Mov10 regulated cytoskeletal mRNAs to influence neurite outgrowth. We verified this important function by observing reduced dendritic arborization in hippocampal neurons from the Mov10 heterozygote mouse and shortened neurites in the Mov10 knockout Neuro2A cells. Knockdown of Fmrp also resulted in shortened neurites. Mov10, Fmrp, and Ago2 bound a common set of mRNAs in the brain. Reduced Mov10 in murine brain resulted in anxiety and increased activity in a novel environment, supporting its important role in the development of normal brain circuitry. CONCLUSIONS: Mov10 is essential for normal neuronal development and brain function. Mov10 preferentially binds RNAs involved in actin binding, neuronal projection, and cytoskeleton. This is a completely new and critically important function for Mov10 in neuronal development and establishes a precedent for Mov10 being an important candidate in neurological disorders that have underlying cytoarchitectural causes like autism and Alzheimer's disease.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL126845()

Circulating Immune Cells Mediate a Systemic RNAi-Based Adaptive Antiviral Response in Drosophila.

  • Tassetto M
  • Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Effective antiviral protection in multicellular organisms relies on both cell-autonomous and systemic immunity. Systemic immunity mediates the spread of antiviral signals from infection sites to distant uninfected tissues. In arthropods, RNA interference (RNAi) is responsible for antiviral defense. Here, we show that flies have a sophisticated systemic RNAi-based immunity mediated by macrophage-like haemocytes. Haemocytes take up dsRNA from infected cells and, through endogenous transposon reverse transcriptases, produce virus-derived complementary DNAs (vDNA). These vDNAs template de novo synthesis of secondary viral siRNAs (vsRNA), which are secreted in exosome-like vesicles. Strikingly, exosomes containing vsRNAs, purified from haemolymph of infected flies, confer passive protection against virus challenge in naive animals. Thus, similar to vertebrates, insects use immune cells to generate immunological memory in the form of stable vDNAs that generate systemic immunity, which is mediated by the vsRNA-containing exosomes.

Cell adhesion molecule contactin-associated protein 3 is expressed in the mouse basal ganglia during early postnatal stages.

  • Hirata H
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2016 Jan 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cell adhesion molecules play important roles in the development of the nervous system. Among the contactin-associated protein (Caspr; also known as Cntnap) family, which belongs to the neurexin superfamily of proteins, Caspr and Caspr2 are indispensable for the formation and maintenance of myelinated nerves. In contrast, a physiological role for Caspr3 remains to be elucidated. This study examines the expression and localization of Caspr3 in the mouse brain using newly generated Caspr3 antibodies. Caspr3 was expressed abundantly between the first and the second postnatal weeks. During this period, Caspr3 was localized especially to the basal ganglia, including the striatum, external segment of the globus pallidus, and substantia nigra, and no gross abnormalities were apparent in the basal ganglia of Caspr3 knockout mice. In the striatum, Caspr3 was expressed by a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons that constitute the direct and indirect pathways. Caspr3 immunostaining was observed as punctate around the cell bodies as well as in the soma. These Caspr3 signals did not, however, overlap with those of synaptic markers. Our findings suggest that Caspr3 may play an important role in basal ganglia development during early postnatal stages.