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Doublecortin antibody - Neuronal Marker

RRID:AB_732011

Antibody ID

AB_732011

Target Antigen

Doublecortin antibody - Neuronal Marker human, non-human primate, mouse, rat, chicken/bird, feline, human, mouse, rat, cat, chicken, quail, rhesus monkey

Proper Citation

(Abcam Cat# ab18723, RRID:AB_732011)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

validation status unknown, seller recommendations provided in 2012: Immunofluorescence; Immunocytochemistry; Immunohistochemistry - fixed; Western Blot; Immunohistochemistry - frozen; Immunohistochemistry; ICC/IF, IHC-FoFr, IHC-Fr, IHC-FrFl, IHC-P, WB

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Abcam

Stable STIM1 Knockdown in Self-Renewing Human Neural Precursors Promotes Premature Neural Differentiation.

  • Gopurappilly R
  • Front Mol Neurosci
  • 2018 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ca2+ signaling plays a significant role in the development of the vertebrate nervous system where it regulates neurite growth as well as synapse and neurotransmitter specification. Elucidating the role of Ca2+ signaling in mammalian neuronal development has been largely restricted to either small animal models or primary cultures. Here we derived human neural precursor cells (NPCs) from human embryonic stem cells to understand the functional significance of a less understood arm of calcium signaling, Store-operated Ca2+ entry or SOCE, in neuronal development. Human NPCs exhibited robust SOCE, which was significantly attenuated by expression of a stable shRNA-miR targeted toward the SOCE molecule, STIM1. Along with the plasma membrane channel Orai, STIM is an essential component of SOCE in many cell types, where it regulates gene expression. Therefore, we measured global gene expression in human NPCs with and without STIM1 knockdown. Interestingly, pathways down-regulated through STIM1 knockdown were related to cell proliferation and DNA replication processes, whereas post-synaptic signaling was identified as an up-regulated process. To understand the functional significance of these gene expression changes we measured the self-renewal capacity of NPCs with STIM1 knockdown. The STIM1 knockdown NPCs demonstrated significantly reduced neurosphere size and number as well as precocious spontaneous differentiation toward the neuronal lineage, as compared to control cells. These findings demonstrate that STIM1 mediated SOCE in human NPCs regulates gene expression changes, that in vivo are likely to physiologically modulate the self-renewal and differentiation of NPCs.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U54 AI057153(United States)

Preterm birth disrupts cerebellar development by affecting granule cell proliferation program and Bergmann glia.

  • Iskusnykh IY
  • Exp. Neurol.
  • 2018 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Preterm birth is a leading cause of long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Clinical studies suggest that some of these deficits result from disruption of cerebellar development, but the mechanisms that mediate cerebellar abnormalities in preterm infants are largely unknown. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment directly disrupt cerebellar development or indirectly by increasing the probability of cerebellar injury, including that resulting from clinical interventions and protocols associated with the care of preterm infants. In this study, we analyzed the cerebellum of preterm pigs delivered via c-section at 91% term and raised for 10 days, until term-equivalent age. The pigs did not receive any treatments known or suspected to affect cerebellar development and had no evidence of brain damage. Term pigs sacrificed at birth were used as controls. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that preterm birth did not affect either size or numbers of Purkinje cells or molecular layer interneurons at term-equivalent age. The number of granule cell precursors and Bergmann glial fibers, however, were reduced in preterm pigs. Preterm pigs had reduced proliferation but not differentiation of granule cells. qRT-PCR analysis of laser capture microdissected external granule cell layer showed that preterm pigs had a reduced expression of Ccnd1 (Cyclin D1), Ccnb1 (Cyclin B1), granule cell master regulatory transcription factor Atoh1, and signaling molecule Jag1. In vitro rescue experiments identified Jag1 as a central granule cell gene affected by preterm birth. Thus, preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment disrupt cerebellum by modulating expression of key cerebellar developmental genes, predominantly affecting development of granule precursors and Bergmann glia.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD007491(United States)

Characterization of the canine rostral ventricular-subventricular zone: Morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and neurosphere assay studies.

  • Fernández-Flores F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mammalian ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) presents the highest neurogenic potential in the brain of the adult individual. In rodents, it is mainly composed of chains of neuroblasts. In humans, it is organized in layers where neuroblasts do not form chains. The aim of this study is to describe the cytoarchitecture of canine V-SVZ (cV-SVZ), to assess its neurogenic potential, and to compare our results with those previously described in other species. We have studied by histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), electron microscopy and neurosphere assay the morphology, cytoarchitecture and neurogenic potential of cV-SVZ. Age groups of animals were performed. Histological and ultrastructural studies indicated that the cV-SVZ is organized in layers as in humans, but including migratory chains as in rodents. Neural progenitors were organized in niches in the subependymal area and a decline in their number was observed with age. Adult-young dogs contained migratory cells capable to expand and differentiate in vitro according with previous results obtained in rodents, primates, humans, pigs, and dogs. Some adult animals presented perivascular niches outside the V-SVZ. Our observations evidence a great similarity between canine and human V-SVZ indicating that the dog may be better representative of neurogenic events in humans, compared with rodents. Accordingly with our results, we conclude that dogs are a valuable animal model of adult neurogenesis in comparative and preclinical studies.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01-GM028630(United States)

Dissecting the Causal Mechanism of X-Linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism by Integrating Genome and Transcriptome Assembly.

  • Aneichyk T
  • Cell
  • 2018 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

X-linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism (XDP) is a Mendelian neurodegenerative disease that is endemic to the Philippines and is associated with a founder haplotype. We integrated multiple genome and transcriptome assembly technologies to narrow the causal mutation to the TAF1 locus, which included a SINE-VNTR-Alu (SVA) retrotransposition into intron 32 of the gene. Transcriptome analyses identified decreased expression of the canonical cTAF1 transcript among XDP probands, and de novo assembly across multiple pluripotent stem-cell-derived neuronal lineages discovered aberrant TAF1 transcription that involved alternative splicing and intron retention (IR) in proximity to the SVA that was anti-correlated with overall TAF1 expression. CRISPR/Cas9 excision of the SVA rescued this XDP-specific transcriptional signature and normalized TAF1 expression in probands. These data suggest an SVA-mediated aberrant transcriptional mechanism associated with XDP and may provide a roadmap for layered technologies and integrated assembly-based analyses for other unsolved Mendelian disorders.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0601618(United Kingdom)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS102423()

Non-Newly Generated, "Immature" Neurons in the Sheep Brain Are Not Restricted to Cerebral Cortex.

  • Piumatti M
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

A newly proposed form of brain structural plasticity consists of non-newly generated, "immature" neurons of the adult cerebral cortex. Similar to newly generated neurons, these cells express the cytoskeletal protein Doublecortin (DCX), yet they are generated prenatally and then remain in a state of immaturity for long periods. In rodents, the immature neurons are restricted to the paleocortex, whereas in other mammals, they are also found in neocortex. Here, we analyzed the DCX-expressing cells in the whole sheep brain of both sexes to search for an indicator of structural plasticity at a cellular level in a relatively large-brained, long-living mammal. Brains from adult and newborn sheep (injected with BrdU and analyzed at different survival times) were processed for DCX, cell proliferation markers (Ki-67, BrdU), pallial/subpallial developmental origin (Tbr1, Sp8), and neuronal/glial antigens for phenotype characterization. We found immature-like neurons in the whole sheep cortex and in large populations of DCX-expressing cells within the external capsule and the surrounding gray matter (claustrum and amygdala). BrdU and Ki-67 detection at neonatal and adult ages showed that all of these DCX+ cells were generated during embryogenesis, not after birth. These results show that the adult sheep, unlike rodents, is largely endowed with non-newly generated neurons retaining immature features, suggesting that such plasticity might be particularly important in large-brained, long-living mammals.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Brain plasticity is important in adaptation and brain repair. Structural changes span from synaptic plasticity to adult neurogenesis, the latter being highly reduced in large-brained, long-living mammals (e.g., humans). The cerebral cortex contains "immature" neurons, which are generated prenatally and then remain in an undifferentiated state for long periods, being detectable with markers of immaturity. We studied the distribution and developmental origin of these cells in the whole brain of sheep, relatively large-brained, long-living mammals. In addition to the expected cortical location, we also found populations of non-newly generated neurons in several subcortical regions (external capsule, claustrum, and amygdala). These results suggests that non-neurogenic, parenchymal structural plasticity might be more important in large mammals with respect to adult neurogenesis.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - N01-AI-40096(United States)

Cellular Retinoic Acid-Binding Protein 1 Modulates Stem Cell Proliferation to Affect Learning and Memory in Male Mice.

  • Lin YL
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Retinoic acid (RA) is the active ingredient of vitamin A. It exerts its canonical activity by binding to nuclear RA receptors (RARs) to regulate gene expression. Increasingly, RA is also known to elicit nongenomic RAR-independent activities, most widely detected in activating extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. This study validated the functional role of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1 (Crabp1) in mediating nongenomic activity in RA, specifically activating ERK1/2 to rapidly augment the cell cycle by expanding the growth 1 phase and slowing down embryonic stem cell and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation. The study further uncovered the physiological activity of Crabp1 in modulating NSC proliferation and animal behavior. In the Crabp1 knockout mouse hippocampus, where Crabp1 is otherwise detected in the subgranular zone, neurogenesis and NSC proliferation increased and hippocampus-dependent brain functions such as learning and memory correspondingly improved. This study established the physiological role of Crabp1 in modulating stem cell proliferation and hippocampus-dependent brain activities such as learning and memory.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK054733()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK060521()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS039444(United States)

Neurotransmitter Switching Regulated by miRNAs Controls Changes in Social Preference.

  • Dulcis D
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Changes in social preference of amphibian larvae result from sustained exposure to kinship odorants. To understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms of this neuroplasticity, we investigated the effects of olfactory system activation on neurotransmitter (NT) expression in accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) interneurons during development. We show that protracted exposure to kin or non-kin odorants changes the number of dopamine (DA)- or gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-expressing neurons, with corresponding changes in attraction/aversion behavior. Changing the relative number of dopaminergic and GABAergic AOB interneurons or locally introducing DA or GABA receptor antagonists alters kinship preference. We then isolate AOB microRNAs (miRs) differentially regulated across these conditions. Inhibition of miR-375 and miR-200b reveals that they target Pax6 and Bcl11b to regulate the dopaminergic and GABAergic phenotypes. The results illuminate the role of NT switching governing experience-dependent social preference. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor promotes behavioral recovery in a mouse model of traumatic brain injury.

  • Song S
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2016 Dec 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hematopoietic growth factors such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) represent a novel approach for treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). After mild controlled cortical impact (CCI), mice were treated with G-CSF (100 μg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. The primary behavioral endpoint was performance on the radial arm water maze (RAWM), assessed 7 and 14 days after CCI. Secondary endpoints included 1) motor performance on a rotating cylinder (rotarod), 2) measurement of microglial and astroglial response, 3) hippocampal neurogenesis, and 4) measures of neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor [GDNF]) and cytokines in brain homogenates. G-CSF-treated animals performed significantly better than vehicle-treated mice in the RAWM at 1 and 2 weeks but not on the rotarod. Cellular changes found in the G-CSF group included increased hippocampal neurogenesis as well as astrocytosis and microgliosis in both the striatum and the hippocampus. Neurotrophic factors GDNF and BDNF, elaborated by activated microglia and astrocytes, were increased in G-CSF-treated mice. These factors along with G-CSF itself are known to promote hippocampal neurogenesis and inhibit apoptosis and likely contributed to improvement in the hippocampal-dependent learning task. Six cytokines that were modulated by G-CSF treatment following CCI were elevated on day 3, but only one of them remained altered by day 7, and all of them were no different from vehicle controls by day 14. The pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines modulated by G-CSF administration interact in a complex and incompletely understood network involving both damage and recovery processes, underscoring the dual role of inflammation after TBI.

Environmental Enrichment Potently Prevents Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation by Human Amyloid β-Protein Oligomers.

  • Xu H
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2016 Aug 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Microglial dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a key contributor to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Environmental enrichment (EE) is well documented to enhance neuronal form and function, but almost nothing is known about whether and how it alters the brain's innate immune system. Here we found that prolonged exposure of naive wild-type mice to EE significantly altered microglial density and branching complexity in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus. In wild-type mice injected intraventricularly with soluble Aβ oligomers (oAβ) from hAPP-expressing cultured cells, EE prevented several morphological features of microglial inflammation and consistently prevented oAβ-mediated mRNA changes in multiple inflammatory genes both in vivo and in primary microglia cultured from the mice. Microdialysis in behaving mice confirmed that EE normalized increases in the extracellular levels of the key cytokines (CCL3, CCL4, TNFα) identified by the mRNA analysis. Moreover, EE prevented the changes in microglial gene expression caused by ventricular injection of oAβ extracted directly from AD cerebral cortex. We conclude that EE potently alters the form and function of microglia in a way that prevents their inflammatory response to human oAβ, suggesting that prolonged environmental enrichment could protect against AD by modulating the brain's innate immune system. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Environmental enrichment (EE) is a potential therapy to delay Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microglial inflammation is associated with the progression of AD, but the influence of EE on microglial inflammation is unclear. Here we systematically applied in vivo methods to show that EE alters microglia in the dentate gyrus under physiological conditions and robustly prevents microglial inflammation induced by human Aβ oligomers, as shown by neutralized microglial inflammatory morphology, mRNA changes, and brain interstitial fluid cytokine levels. Our findings suggest that EE alters the innate immune system and could serve as a therapeutic approach to AD and provide new targets for drug discovery. Further, we propose that the therapeutic benefits of EE could extend to other neurodegenerative diseases involving microglial inflammation.

Mice lacking circadian clock components display different mood-related behaviors and do not respond uniformly to chronic lithium treatment.

  • Schnell A
  • Chronobiol. Int.
  • 2015 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Genomic studies suggest an association of circadian clock genes with bipolar disorder (BD) and lithium response in humans. Therefore, we tested mice mutant in various clock genes before and after lithium treatment in the forced swim test (FST), a rodent behavioral test used for evaluation of depressive-like states. We find that expression of circadian clock components, including Per2, Cry1 and Rev-erbα, is affected by lithium treatment, and thus, these clock components may contribute to the beneficial effects of lithium therapy. In particular, we observed that Cry1 is important at specific times of the day to transmit lithium-mediated effects. Interestingly, the pathways involving Per2 and Cry1, which regulate the behavior in the FST and the response to lithium, are distinct as evidenced by the phosphorylation of GSK3β after lithium treatment and the modulation of dopamine levels in the striatum. Furthermore, we observed the co-existence of depressive and mania-like symptoms in Cry1 knock-out mice, which resembles the so-called mixed state seen in BD patients. Taken together our results strengthen the concept that a defective circadian timing system may impact directly or indirectly on mood-related behaviors.

Aging attenuates acquired heat tolerance and hypothalamic neurogenesis in rats.

  • Matsuzaki K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

This study investigated age-dependent changes in heat exposure-induced hypothalamic neurogenesis and acquired heat tolerance in rats. We previously reported that neuronal progenitor cell proliferation and neural differentiation are enhanced in the hypothalamus of long-term heat-acclimated (HA) rats. Male Wistar rats, 5 weeks (Young), 10-11 months (Adult), or 22-25 months (Old) old, were subjected to an ambient temperature of 32°C for 40-50 days (HA rats). Rats underwent a heat tolerance test. In HA rats, increases in abdominal temperature (Tab ) in the the Young, Adult, and Old groups were significantly smaller than those in their respective controls. However, the increase in Tab of HA rats became greater with advancing age. The number of hypothalamic bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-immunopositive cells double stained with a mature neuron marker, neuronal nuclei (NeuN), of HA rats was significantly higher in the Young group than that in the control group. In Young HA, BrdU/NeuN-immunopositive cells of the preoptic area/anterior hypothalamus appeared to be the highest among regions examined. Large numbers of newborn neurons were also located in the ventromedial and dorsomedial nuclei, as well as the posterior hypothalamic area, whereas heat exposure did not increase such numbers in the Adult and Old groups. Aging may interfere with heat exposure-induced hypothalamic neurogenesis and acquired heat tolerance in rats.

Biciliated ependymal cell proliferation contributes to spinal cord growth.

  • Alfaro-Cervello C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Two neurogenic regions have been described in the adult brain, the lateral ventricle subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus subgranular zone. It has been suggested that neural stem cells also line the central canal of the adult spinal cord. Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and immunostaining, we describe here the organization and cell types of the central canal epithelium in adult mice. The identity of dividing cells was determined by 3D ultrastructural reconstructions of [(3) H]thymidine-labeled cells and confocal analysis of bromodeoxyuridine labeling. The most common cell type lining the central canal had two long motile (9+2) cilia and was vimentin+, CD24+, FoxJ1+, Sox2+, and CD133+, but nestin- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-. These biciliated ependymal cells of the central canal (Ecc) resembled E2 cells of the lateral ventricles, but their basal bodies were different from those of E2 or E1 cells. Interestingly, we frequently found Ecc cells with two nuclei and four cilia, suggesting they are formed by incomplete cytokinesis or cell fusion. GFAP+ astrocytes with a single cilium and an orthogonally oriented centriole were also observed. The majority of dividing cells corresponded to biciliated Ecc cells. Central canal proliferation was most common during the active period of spinal cord growth. Pairs of labeled Ecc cells were observed within the central canal in adult mice 2.5 weeks post labeling. Our work suggests that the vast majority of postnatal dividing cells in the central canal are Ecc cells and their proliferation is associated with the growth of the spinal cord.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - FRN15686(Canada)

Doublecortin-positive cells in the adult primate cerebral cortex and possible role in brain plasticity and development.

  • Bloch J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have demonstrated that cortical cell autografts might be a useful therapy in two monkey models of neurological disease: motor cortex lesion and Parkinson's disease. However, the origin of the useful transplanted cells obtained from cortical biopsies is not clear. In this report we describe the expression of doublecortin (DCX) in these cells based on reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunodetection in the adult primate cortex and cell cultures. The results showed that DCX-positive cells were present in the whole primate cerebral cortex and also expressed glial and/or neuronal markers such as glial fibrillary protein (GFAP) or neuronal nuclei (NeuN). We also demonstrated that only DCX/GFAP positive cells were able to proliferate and originate progenitor cells in vitro. We hypothesize that these DCX-positive cells in vivo have a role in cortical plasticity and brain reaction to injury. Moreover, in vitro these DCX-positive cells have the potential to reacquire progenitor characteristics that confirm their potential for brain repair.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 075491/Z/04(United Kingdom)

Characterization of the netrin/RGMa receptor neogenin in neurogenic regions of the mouse and human adult forebrain.

  • Bradford D
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the adult rodent forebrain, astrocyte-like neural stem cells reside within the subventricular zone (SVZ) and give rise to progenitors and neuroblasts, which then undergo chain migration along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb, where they mature into fully functional interneurons. Neurogenesis also occurs in the adult human SVZ, where neural precursors similar to the rodent astrocyte-like stem cell and neuroblast have been identified. A migratory pathway equivalent to the rodent RMS has also recently been described for the human forebrain. In the embryo, the guidance receptor neogenin and its ligands netrin-1 and RGMa regulate important neurogenic processes, including differentiation and migration. We show in this study that neogenin is expressed on neural stem cells (B cells), progenitor cells (C cells), and neuroblasts (A cells) in the adult mouse SVZ and RMS. We also show that netrin-1 and RGMa are ideally placed within the neurogenic niche to activate neogenin function. Moreover, we find that neogenin and RGMa are also present in the neurogenic regions of the human adult forebrain. We show that neogenin is localized to cells displaying stem cell (B cell)-like characteristics within the adult human SVZ and RMS and that RGMa is expressed by the same or a closely apposed cell population. This study supports the hypothesis that, as in the embryo, neogenin regulates fundamental signalling pathways important for neurogenesis in the adult mouse and human forebrain.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY011307-13(United States)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01HL111694(United States)

Adult dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons express the early neuronal fate marker doublecortin.

  • Dellarole A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Nov 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

It has been widely accepted that doublecortin (DCX) may represent a neuronal fate marker transiently expressed by immature neurons during development of the central and peripheral nervous tissue and in neurogenic areas of the adult brain. Previous work described the presence of DCX in the developing dorsal root ganglia (DRG), structures of the peripheral nervous system originating from the neural crest, but no information is available on its expression in adulthood. To this purpose, we have performed an immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis for DCX expression in DRG from adult male mice and rats. To our surprise, we demonstrated that the majority of DRG neurons do express DCX, both in somata and in fibers. DCX(+) cells have been characterized morphologically and phenotypically with well-established markers of DRG neuronal subpopulations. A large number of DCX(+) cells belong to the small and medium-sized nociceptive neurons. Additionally, DCX immunoreactivity is present in the spinal cord dorsal horns, the projection area of DRG neurons. The novel and unexpected localization for DCX protein opens up new, interesting vistas on the functional role of this protein in mature neurons and in particular in sensory neurons.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK025759-29(United States)