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Orexin-A antibody

RRID:AB_653610

Antibody ID

AB_653610

Target Antigen

peptide mapping at the C-terminus of human Orexin-A

Proper Citation

(Santa Cruz Biotechnology Cat# SC-8070, RRID:AB_653610)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Discontinued: 2016; duplicate entry, previous ID of this entry was AB_2315772, this record was consolidated with the AB_653610 by curator

Host Organism

goat

Vendor

Santa Cruz Biotechnology

A Role for Hypocretin/Orexin in Metabolic and Sleep Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Non-metastatic Breast Cancer.

  • Borniger JC
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

We investigated relationships among immune, metabolic, and sleep abnormalities in mice with non-metastatic mammary cancer. Tumor-bearing mice displayed interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated peripheral inflammation, coincident with altered hepatic glucose processing and sleep. Tumor-bearing mice were hyperphagic, had reduced serum leptin concentrations, and enhanced sensitivity to exogenous ghrelin. We tested whether these phenotypes were driven by inflammation using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against IL-6; despite the reduction in IL-6 signaling, metabolic and sleep abnormalities persisted. We next investigated neural populations coupling metabolism and sleep, and observed altered activity within lateral-hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin (HO) neurons. We used a dual HO-receptor antagonist to test whether increased HO signaling was causing metabolic abnormalities. This approach rescued metabolic abnormalities and enhanced sleep quality in tumor-bearing mice. Peripheral sympathetic denervation prevented tumor-induced increases in serum glucose. Our results link metabolic and sleep abnormalities via the HO system, and provide evidence that central neuromodulators contribute to tumor-induced changes in metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA194924()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21 CA191846()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL095372(United States)

Inhibition of TrkB at the nucleus accumbens, using ANA-12, regulates basal and stress-induced orexin A expression within the mesolimbic system and affects anxiety, sociability and motivation.

  • Azogu I
  • Neuropharmacology
  • 2018 Jun 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Repeated stress exposure can lead to the development of anxiety and mood disorders. An emerging biological substrate of depression and associated pathology is the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which through interactions with limbic, cognitive and motor circuits can regulate a variety of stress responses. Within these circuits, orexin neurons are involved in arousal and stress adaptability, effects proposed mediated via brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling. This study tested the hypotheses that 1) repeated exposure to heterotypic stress alters social ability and preference and passive avoidant behaviors, 2) TrkB receptors at the NAc shell regulates stress-induced behavioral responses and orexin expression within the mesocorticolimbic system. Our findings indicate that ANA-12 (0.25 μg/0.5 μl) enhanced sociability during the social interaction test, although treatment had no effect on social preference. The development of conditioned place preference, and fear retention in the passive avoidance test were also facilitated by ANA-12. Biochemical assessments on brain tissues collected within 2 h of a forced swim exposure revealed that ANA-12 increased orexin A immunoreactivity (ir) in the hypothalamic perifornical area, while expression was reduced in the ventral portion of the hippocampal CA1 layer, irrespective of the stress condition. This contrasts changes at the VTA characterized by elevated versus reduced orexin A-ir in ANA-12-treated stress and non-stress rats, respectively. Colocalized orexin A- and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-ir at the VTA supports a different temporal expression post stress, TH-ir being unaffected 9 days post stress. These findings support a role for TrkB receptors in regulating basal and stress-induced social, cognitive and motivational behavior, and modulatory actions of BDNF, via TrkB signaling, on orexin A signaling upon stress exposure.

Neurochemical Heterogeneity Among Lateral Hypothalamic Hypocretin/Orexin and Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Neurons Identified Through Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis.

  • Mickelsen LE
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) lies at the intersection of multiple neural and humoral systems and orchestrates fundamental aspects of behavior. Two neuronal cell types found in the LHA are defined by their expression of hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt/Ox) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and are both important regulators of arousal, feeding, and metabolism. Conflicting evidence suggests that these cell populations have a more complex signaling repertoire than previously appreciated, particularly in regard to their coexpression of other neuropeptides and the machinery for the synthesis and release of GABA and glutamate. Here, we undertook a single-cell expression profiling approach to decipher the neurochemical phenotype, and heterogeneity therein, of Hcrt/Ox and MCH neurons. In transgenic mouse lines, we used single-cell quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to quantify the expression of 48 key genes, which include neuropeptides, fast neurotransmitter components, and other key markers, which revealed unexpected neurochemical diversity. We found that single MCH and Hcrt/Ox neurons express transcripts for multiple neuropeptides and markers of both excitatory and inhibitory fast neurotransmission. Virtually all MCH and approximately half of the Hcrt/Ox neurons sampled express both the machinery for glutamate release and GABA synthesis in the absence of a vesicular GABA release pathway. Furthermore, we found that this profile is characteristic of a subpopulation of LHA glutamatergic neurons but contrasts with a broad population of LHA GABAergic neurons. Identifying the neurochemical diversity of Hcrt/Ox and MCH neurons will further our understanding of how these populations modulate postsynaptic excitability through multiple signaling mechanisms and coordinate diverse behavioral outputs.

Excitation of Cortical nNOS/NK1R Neurons by Hypocretin 1 is Independent of Sleep Homeostasis.

  • Williams RH
  • Cereb. Cortex
  • 2018 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have proposed that cortical nNOS/NK1R interneurons have a role in sleep homeostasis. The hypocretins (orexins) are wake-promoting neuropeptides and hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt) neurons project to the cortex. Hcrt peptides affect deep layer cortical neurons, and Hcrt receptor 1 (Hcrtr1; Ox1r) mRNA is expressed in cortical nNOS/NK1R cells. Therefore, we investigated whether Hcrt neuron stimulation affects cingulate cortex nNOS/NK1R neurons. Bath application of HCRT1/orexin-A evoked an inward current and membrane depolarization in most nNOS/NK1R cells which persisted in tetrodotoxin; optogenetic stimulation of Hcrt terminals expressing channelrhodopsin-2 confirmed these results, and pharmacological studies determined that HCRTR1 mediated these responses. Single-cell RT-PCR found Hcrtr1 mRNA in 31% of nNOS/NK1R cells without any Hcrtr2 mRNA expression; immunohistochemical studies of Hcrtr1-EGFP mice confirmed that a minority of nNOS/NK1R cells express HCRTR1. When Hcrt neurons degenerated in orexin-tTA;TetO DTA mice, the increased EEG delta power during NREM sleep produced in response to 4 h sleep deprivation and c-FOS expression in cortical nNOS/NK1R cells during recovery sleep were indistinguishable from that of controls. We conclude that Hcrt excitatory input to these deep layer cells is mediated through HCRTR1 but is unlikely to be involved in the putative role of cortical nNOS/NK1R neurons in sleep homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL059658()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS077408()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS098813()
  • Wellcome Trust - (United Kingdom)

Orexin-A/hypocretin-1 Immunoreactivity in the Lateral Hypothalamus is Reduced in Genetically Obese but not in Diet-induced Obese Mice.

  • González JA
  • Neuroscience
  • 2018 Jan 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mechanisms that link diet and body weight are not fully understood. A diet high in fat often leads to obesity, and this in part is the consequence of diet-induced injury to specific hypothalamic nuclei. It has been suggested that a diet high in fat leads to cell loss in the lateral hypothalamus, which contains specific populations of neurons that are essential for regulating energy homoeostasis; however, we do not know which cell types are affected by the diet. We studied the possibility that high-fat diet leads to a reduction in orexin-A/hypocretin-1 (Hcrt1) and/or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) immunoreactivity in the lateral hypothalamus. We quantified immuno-labeled Hcrt1 and MCH cells in brain sections of mice fed a diet high in fat for up to 12 weeks starting at 4 weeks of age and found that this diet did not modify the number of Hcrt1- or MCH-immunoreactive neurons. By contrast, there were fewer Hcrt1- (but not MCH-) immunoreactive cells in genetically obese db/db mice compared to wild-type mice. Non-obese, heterozygous db/+ mice also had fewer Hcrt1-immunoreactive cells. Differences in the number of Hcrt1-immunoreactive cells were only a function of the db genotype but not of diet or body weight. Our findings show that the lateral hypothalamus is affected differently in the db genotype and in diet-induced obesity, and support the idea that not all hypothalamic neurons involved in energy balance regulation are sensitive to the effects of diet.

Lateral hypothalamic Orexin-A-ergic projections to the arcuate nucleus modulate gastric function in vivo.

  • Luan X
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

It has been well-known that hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides, orexin-A, and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), play important roles in regulation of gastric function. However, what neural pathway mediated by the two neuropeptides affects the gastric function remains unknown. In this study, by way of nucleic stimulation and extracellular recording of single unit electrophysiological properties, we found that electrically stimulating the lateral hypothalamic area (LH) or microinjection of orexin-A into the arcuate nucleus (ARC) excited most gastric distension-responsive neurons in the nuclei and enhanced the gastric function including motility, emptying, and acid secretion of conscious rats. The results indicated that LH-ARC orexin-A-ergic projections may exist and the orexin-A in the ARC affected afferent and efferent signal transmission between ARC and stomach. As expected, combination of retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry showed that some orexin-A-ergic neurons projected from the LH to the ARC. In addition, microinjection of MCH and its receptor antagonist PMC-3881-PI into the ARC affected the role of orexin-A in the ARC, indicating a possible involvement of the MCH pathway in the orexin-A role. Our findings suggest that there was an orexin-A-ergic pathway between LH and ARC which participated in transmitting information between the central nuclei and the gastrointestinal tract and in regulating the gastric function of rats.

Ancestral Circuits for the Coordinated Modulation of Brain State.

  • Lovett-Barron M
  • Cell
  • 2017 Nov 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Internal states of the brain profoundly influence behavior. Fluctuating states such as alertness can be governed by neuromodulation, but the underlying mechanisms and cell types involved are not fully understood. We developed a method to globally screen for cell types involved in behavior by integrating brain-wide activity imaging with high-content molecular phenotyping and volume registration at cellular resolution. We used this method (MultiMAP) to record from 22 neuromodulatory cell types in behaving zebrafish during a reaction-time task that reports alertness. We identified multiple monoaminergic, cholinergic, and peptidergic cell types linked to alertness and found that activity in these cell types was mutually correlated during heightened alertness. We next recorded from and controlled homologous neuromodulatory cells in mice; alertness-related cell-type dynamics exhibited striking evolutionary conservation and modulated behavior similarly. These experiments establish a method for unbiased discovery of cellular elements underlying behavior and reveal an evolutionarily conserved set of diverse neuromodulatory systems that collectively govern internal state.

Descending projections from the basal forebrain to the orexin neurons in mice.

  • Agostinelli LJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The orexin (hypocretin) neurons play an essential role in promoting arousal, and loss of the orexin neurons results in narcolepsy, a condition characterized by chronic sleepiness and cataplexy. The orexin neurons excite wake-promoting neurons in the basal forebrain (BF), and a reciprocal projection from the BF back to the orexin neurons may help promote arousal and motivation. The BF contains at least three different cell types (cholinergic, glutamatergic, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons) across its different regions (medial septum, diagonal band, magnocellular preoptic area, and substantia innominata). Given the neurochemical and anatomical heterogeneity of the BF, we mapped the pattern of BF projections to the orexin neurons across multiple BF regions and neuronal types. We performed conditional anterograde tracing using mice that express Cre recombinase only in neurons producing acetylcholine, glutamate, or GABA. We found that the orexin neurons are heavily apposed by axon terminals of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons of the substantia innominata (SI) and magnocellular preoptic area, but there was no innervation by the cholinergic neurons. Channelrhodopsin-assisted circuit mapping (CRACM) demonstrated that glutamatergic SI neurons frequently form functional synapses with the orexin neurons, but, surprisingly, functional synapses from SI GABAergic neurons were rare. Considering their strong reciprocal connections, BF and orexin neurons likely work in concert to promote arousal, motivation, and other behaviors. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1668-1684, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Melanin-concentrating hormone axons, but not orexin or tyrosine hydroxylase axons, innervate the claustrum in the rat: An immunohistochemical study.

  • Barbier M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The claustrum is a small, elongated nucleus close to the external capsule and deep in the insular cortex. In rodents, this nucleus is characterized by a dense cluster of parvalbumin labeling. The claustrum is connected with the cerebral cortex. It does not project to the brainstem, but brainstem structures can influence this nucleus. To identify some specific projections from the lateral hypothalamus and midbrain, we analyzed the distribution of projections labeled with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), and hypocretin (Hcrt) in the region of the claustrum. The claustrum contains a significant projection by MCH axons, whereas it is devoid of TH projections. Unlike TH and MCH axons, Hcrt axons are scattered throughout the region. This observation is discussed mainly with regard to the role of the claustrum in cognitive functions and that of MCH in REM sleep. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1489-1498, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01HL095690(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083898(United States)

Peripherally administered orexin improves survival of mice with endotoxin shock.

  • Ogawa Y
  • Elife
  • 2016 Dec 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection, accounting for the most common cause of death in intensive care units. Here, we report that peripheral administration of the hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin improves the survival of mice with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced endotoxin shock, a well-studied septic shock model. The effect is accompanied by a suppression of excessive cytokine production and an increase of catecholamines and corticosterone. We found that peripherally administered orexin penetrates the blood-brain barrier under endotoxin shock, and that central administration of orexin also suppresses the cytokine production and improves the survival, indicating orexin's direct action in the central nervous system (CNS). Orexin helps restore body temperature and potentiates cardiovascular function in LPS-injected mice. Pleiotropic modulation of inflammatory response by orexin through the CNS may constitute a novel therapeutic approach for septic shock.

The orexinergic neurons receive synaptic input from C1 cells in rats.

  • Bochorishvili G
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The C1 cells, located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), are activated by pain, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, infection, and hypotension and elicit cardiorespiratory stimulation, adrenaline and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release, and arousal. The orexin neurons contribute to the autonomic responses to acute psychological stress. Here, using an anatomical approach, we consider whether the orexin neurons could also be contributing to the autonomic effects elicited by C1 neuron activation. Phenylethanolamine N-methyl transferase-immunoreactive (PNMT-ir) axons were detected among orexin-ir somata, and close appositions between PNMT-ir axonal varicosities and orexin-ir profiles were observed. The existence of synapses between PNMT-ir boutons labeled with diaminobenzidine and orexinergic neurons labeled with immunogold was confirmed by electron microscopy. We labeled RVLM neurons with a lentiviral vector that expresses the fusion protein ChR2-mCherry under the control of the catecholaminergic neuron-selective promoter PRSx8 and obtained light and ultrastructural evidence that these neurons innervate the orexin cells. By using a Cre-dependent adeno-associated vector and TH-Cre rats, we confirmed that the projection from RVLM catecholaminergic neurons to the orexinergic neurons originates predominantly from PNMT-ir catecholaminergic (i.e., C1 cells). The C1 neurons were found to establish predominantly asymmetric synapses with orexin-ir cell bodies or dendrites. These synapses were packed with small clear vesicles and also contained dense-core vesicles. In summary, the orexin neurons are among the hypothalamic neurons contacted and presumably excited by the C1 cells. The C1-orexin neuronal connection is probably one of several suprabulbar pathways through which the C1 neurons activate breathing and the circulation, raise blood glucose, and facilitate arousal from sleep.

Atorvastatin improves cognitive, emotional and motor impairments induced by intranasal 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration in rats, an experimental model of Parkinson's disease.

  • Castro AA
  • Brain Res.
  • 2013 Jun 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Affective disorders and memory impairments precede the classical motor symptoms seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the currently approved antiparkinsonian agents do not alleviate the non-motor symptoms as well as the underlying dopaminergic neuron degeneration. On the other hand, there is increasing evidence that inflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of PD and that the anti-inflammatory actions of statins are related to their neuroprotective properties against different insults in the CNS. The present data indicates that the oral treatment with atorvastatin (10mg/kg/day), once a day during 7 consecutive days, was able to prevent short-term memory impairments and depressive-like behavior of rats assessed in the social recognition and forced swimming tests at 7 and 14 days, respectively, after a single intranasal (i.n.) administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) (1mg/nostril). Importantly, at this time no significant alterations on the locomotor activity of the animals were observed in the open field test. Moreover, atorvastatin was found to protect against the long-lasting motor deficits evaluated in activity chambers and the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta observed at 21 days after i.n. MPTP administration. At this time, despite the absence of spatial memory deficits in the water maze and in concentrations of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 in striatum and hippocampus following i.n. MPTP administration, atorvastatin treatment resulted in a significant increase in the striatal and hippocampal levels of nerve growth factor (NGF). These findings reinforce and extend the notion of the neuroprotective potential of atorvastatin and suggest that it may represent a new therapeutic tool for the management of motor and non-motor symptoms of PD.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/G022577/1(United Kingdom)

Efferent projections of neuropeptide Y-expressing neurons of the dorsomedial hypothalamus in chronic hyperphagic models.

  • Lee SJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) has long been implicated in feeding behavior and thermogenesis. The DMH contains orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons, but the role of these neurons in the control of energy homeostasis is not well understood. NPY expression in the DMH is low under normal conditions in adult rodents but is significantly increased during chronic hyperphagic conditions such as lactation and diet-induced obesity (DIO). To understand better the role of DMH-NPY neurons, we characterized the efferent projections of DMH-NPY neurons using the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) in lactating rats and DIO mice. In both models, BDA- and NPY-colabeled fibers were limited mainly to the hypothalamus, including the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area (LH/PFA), and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Specifically in lactating rats, BDA-and NPY-colabeled axonal swellings were in close apposition to cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART)-expressing neurons in the PVH and AVPV. Although the DMH neurons project to the rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa), these projections did not contain NPY immunoreactivity in either the lactating rat or the DIO mouse. Instead, the majority of BDA-labeled fibers in the rRPa were orexin positive. Furthermore, DMH-NPY projections were not observed within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), another brainstem site critical for the regulation of sympathetic outflow. The present data suggest that NPY expression in the DMH during chronic hyperphagic conditions plays important roles in feeding behavior and thermogenesis by modulating neuronal functions within the hypothalamus, but not in the brainstem.

Neuroanatomy of melanocortin-4 receptor pathway in the lateral hypothalamic area.

  • Cui H
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The central melanocortin system regulates body energy homeostasis including the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) receives dense melanocortinergic inputs from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and regulates multiple processes including food intake, reward behaviors, and autonomic function. By using a mouse line in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) is expressed under control of the MC4R gene promoter, we systemically investigated MC4R signaling in the LHA by combining double immunohistochemistry, electrophysiology, and retrograde tracing techniques. We found that LHA MC4R-GFP neurons coexpress neurotensin as well as the leptin receptor but do not coexpress other peptide neurotransmitters found in the LHA including orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, and nesfatin-1. Furthermore, electrophysiological recording demonstrated that leptin, but not the MC4R agonist melanotan II, hyperpolarizes the majority of LHA MC4R-GFP neurons in an ATP- sensitive potassium channel-dependent manner. Retrograde tracing revealed that LHA MC4R-GFP neurons do not project to the ventral tegmental area, dorsal raphe nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and spinal cord, and only limited number of neurons project to the nucleus of the solitary tract and parabrachial nucleus. Our findings provide new insights into MC4R signaling in the LHA and its potential implications in homeostatic regulation of body energy balance.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P50 GM052585(United States)

Molecular fingerprint of neuropeptide S-producing neurons in the mouse brain.

  • Liu X
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuropeptide S (NPS) has been associated with a number of complex brain functions, including anxiety-like behaviors, arousal, sleep-wakefulness regulation, drug-seeking behaviors, and learning and memory. In order to better understand how NPS influences these functions in a neuronal network context, it is critical to identify transmitter systems that control NPS release and transmitters that are co-released with NPS. For this purpose, we generated several lines of transgenic mice that express enhanced green-fluorescent protein (EGFP) under control of the endogenous NPS precursor promoter. NPS/EGFP-transgenic mice show anatomically correct and overlapping expression of both NPS and EGFP. A total number of ∼500 NPS/EGFP-positive neurons are present in the mouse brain, located in the pericoerulear region and the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus. NPS and transgene expression is first detectable around E14, indicating a potential role for NPS in brain development. EGFP-positive cells were harvested by laser-capture microdissection, and mRNA was extracted for expression profiling by using microarray analysis. NPS was found co-localized with galanin in the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus of the lateral parabrachial area. A dense network of orexin/hypocretin neuronal projections contacting pericoerulear NPS-producing neurons was observed by immunostaining. Expression of a distinct repertoire of metabotropic and ionotropic receptor genes was identified in both NPS neuronal clusters that will allow for detailed investigations of incoming neurotransmission, controlling neuronal activity of NPS-producing neurons. Stress-induced functional activation of NPS-producing neurons was detected by staining for the immediate-early gene c-fos, thus supporting earlier findings that NPS might be part of the brain stress response network.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD060726(United States)

Muscarinic-2 and orexin-2 receptors on GABAergic and other neurons in the rat mesopontine tegmentum and their potential role in sleep-wake state control.

  • Brischoux F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Acetylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in the promotion of paradoxical sleep (PS) with muscle atonia through the muscarinic-2 receptor (M2R) in the mesopontine tegmentum. Conversely, orexin (Orx or hypocretin) appears to be critical for the maintenance of waking with muscle tone through the orexin-2 (or hypocretin-B) receptor (Orx2R), which is lacking in dogs having narcolepsy with cataplexy. In dual-immunostained material viewed under fluorescence microscopy, we examined the presence and distribution of M2R or Orx2R labeling on all neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-stained neurons or on glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)-stained neurons through the mesopontine tegmentum. Applying stereological analysis, we determined that many neurons bear M2Rs on their membrane ( approximately 6,300), including relatively large, non-GABAergic cells, which predominate (>75%) in the oral and caudal pontine (PnO and PnC) reticular fields, and small, GABAergic cells ( approximately 2,800), which predominate (>80%) in the mesencephalic (Mes) reticular formation. Many neurons bear Orx2Rs on their membrane ( approximately 6,800), including relatively large, non-GABAergic cells, which predominate (>70%) through all reticular fields, and comparatively few GABAergic cells ( approximately 700). In triple-immunostained material viewed by confocal microscopy, many large neurons in PnO and PnC appear to bear both M2Rs and Orx2Rs on their membrane, indicating that ACh and Orx could exert opposing influences of inhibition vs. excitation on putative reticulo-spinal neurons and thus attenuate vs. facilitate activity and muscle tone. A few GABAergic cells bear both receptors and could as PS inhibitor neurons serve under these different influences to control PS effector neurons and accordingly gate PS and muscle atonia appropriately across sleep-wake states.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - F32 AR054700(United States)

Characterization of brainstem peptide YY (PYY) neurons.

  • Glavas MM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Peptide YY (PYY), a member of the NPY superfamily of peptides, is predominantly synthesized by the colon and is thought to act on both the gut and brain to modulate energy homeostasis. Although neurons expressing PYY mRNA have also been reported in the brainstem, little is known about their physiological role and study of their projections has been problematic due to crossreactivity of PYY antibodies with NPY. In the present study we examined the localization of central PYY cell bodies in the mouse, rat, and monkey. In addition, efferent projections and afferent inputs of central PYY neurons were examined in rodents. Central PYY projections were examined by immunohistochemistry in the NPY knockout mouse, or with an NPY-preabsorbed PYY antibody in the rat to avoid any crossreactivity with NPY. In all species investigated PYY-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies were localized exclusively to the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) of the rostral medulla. The highest density of PYY fibers was present within the solitary tract nucleus, specifically within the dorsal and lateral aspects. PYY fibers were also concentrated within the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the hypoglossal nucleus. In addition, both orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone fibers made numerous close appositions with PYY cell bodies in the Gi. Collectively, the projection pattern and association with orexigenic neuropeptides suggest that brainstem PYY neurons may play a role in energy homeostasis through a coordinated effect on visceral, motor, and sympathetic output targets.

Funding information:
  • HHMI - (United States)

Innervation of orexin/hypocretin neurons by GABAergic, glutamatergic or cholinergic basal forebrain terminals evidenced by immunostaining for presynaptic vesicular transporter and postsynaptic scaffolding proteins.

  • Henny P
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Orexin/hypocretin (Orx) neurons are critical for the maintenance of waking in association with behavioral arousal and postural muscle tone, since with their loss narcolepsy with cataplexy occurs. Given that basal forebrain (BF) neurons project to the hypothalamus and play important diverse roles in sleep/wake states, we sought to determine whether acetylcholine (ACh), glutamate (Glu), and/or GABA-releasing BF neurons innervate and could thereby differentially regulate the Orx neurons. From discrete injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA, 10,000 MW) into the magnocellular preoptic nucleus (MCPO) and substantia innominata (SI) in the rat, BDA-labeled fibers projected to the lateral hypothalamus (LH), perifornical area (PF), and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), where approximately 41%, approximately 11%, and 9% of Orx-positive (+) neurons were respectively contacted in each region. Employing triple fluorescent staining for Orx, BDA, and presynaptic vesicular (V) transporters (T), we found that only 4% of the innervated Orx+ neurons in the LH were contacted by BDA+[VAChT+] terminals, whereas approximately 31% and approximately 67% were respectively contacted by BDA+[VGluT2+] and BDA+[VGAT+] terminals. In 3D-rendered and rotated confocal images, we confirmed the latter contacts and examined staining for postsynaptic proteins PSD-95, a marker for glutamatergic synapses, and gephyrin, a marker for GABAergic synapses, that were located on Orx+ neurons facing BDA-labeled terminals in approximately 20% and approximately 50% of contacts, respectively. With such synaptic input, BF glutamatergic neurons can excite Orx neurons and thus act to maintain behavioral arousal with muscle tone, whereas GABAergic neurons can inhibit Orx neurons and thus promote behavioral quiescence and sleep along with muscle atonia.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - U54 GM072970(United States)

P2X2R purinergic receptor subunit mRNA and protein are expressed by all hypothalamic hypocretin/orexin neurons.

  • Florenzano F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurophysiologic data suggest that orexin neurons are directly excited by ATP through purinergic receptors (P2XR). Anatomical studies, though reporting P2XR in the hypothalamus, did not describe it in the perifornical hypothalamic area, where orexinergic neurons are located. Here we report the presence of the P2X(2)R subunit in the rat perifornical hypothalamus and demonstrate that hypothalamic orexin neurons express the P2X(2)R. Double immunohistochemistry showed that virtually all orexin-immunoreactive neurons are also P2X(2)R immunoreactive, whereas 80% of P2X(2)R-immunoreactive neurons are also orexin positive. Triple-labeling experiments, combining fluorescence in situ hybridization for P2X(2)R mRNA and P2X(2)R/orexin double immunofluorescence, confirmed these findings. In addition, in situ hybridization demonstrated that P2X(2)R mRNA is localized in cellular processes of orexinergic neurons. The present data support neurophysiologic findings on ATP modulation of orexinergic function and provide direct evidence that the entire population of orexin neurons expresses a P2XR subtype, namely, P2X(2)R. Thus, purinergic transmission might intervene in modulating key functions known to be controlled by the orexinergic system, such as feeding behavior and arousal.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/G013160/1(United Kingdom)

A role for lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons in reward seeking.

  • Harris GC
  • Nature
  • 2005 Sep 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The lateral hypothalamus is a brain region historically implicated in reward and motivation, but the identity of the neurotransmitters involved are unknown. The orexins (or hypocretins) are neuropeptides recently identified as neurotransmitters in lateral hypothalamus neurons. Although knockout and transgenic overexpression studies have implicated orexin neurons in arousal and sleep, these cells also project to reward-associated brain regions, including the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. This indicates a possible role for these neurons in reward function and motivation, consistent with previous studies implicating these neurons in feeding. Here we show that activation of lateral hypothalamus orexin neurons is strongly linked to preferences for cues associated with drug and food reward. In addition, we show that chemical activation of lateral hypothalamus orexin neurons reinstates an extinguished drug-seeking behaviour. This reinstatement effect was completely blocked by prior administration of an orexin A antagonist. Moreover, administration of the orexin A peptide directly into the ventral tegmental area also reinstated drug-seeking. These data reveal a new role for lateral hypothalamus orexin neurons in reward-seeking, drug relapse and addiction.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007618(United States)