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PDGFR-alpha (C-20) antibody

RRID:AB_631064

Antibody ID

AB_631064

Target Antigen

PDGFRA human, mouse, rat

Proper Citation

(Santa Cruz Biotechnology Cat# sc-338, RRID:AB_631064)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Discontinued: 2016; validation status unknown check with seller; recommendations: ELISA; Flow Cytometry; Immunocytochemistry; Immunofluorescence; Immunohistochemistry; Immunoprecipitation; Western Blot; Western Blotting, Immunoprecipitation, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry(P), Flow Cytometry, ELISA

Clone ID

C-20

Host Organism

rabbit

Spred1 Safeguards Hematopoietic Homeostasis against Diet-Induced Systemic Stress.

  • Tadokoro Y
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Stem cell self-renewal is critical for tissue homeostasis, and its dysregulation can lead to organ failure or tumorigenesis. While obesity can induce varied abnormalities in bone marrow components, it is unclear how diet might affect hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal. Here, we show that Spred1, a negative regulator of RAS-MAPK signaling, safeguards HSC homeostasis in animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Under steady-state conditions, Spred1 negatively regulates HSC self-renewal and fitness, in part through Rho kinase activity. Spred1 deficiency mitigates HSC failure induced by infection mimetics and prolongs HSC lifespan, but it does not initiate leukemogenesis due to compensatory upregulation of Spred2. In contrast, HFD induces ERK hyperactivation and aberrant self-renewal in Spred1-deficient HSCs, resulting in functional HSC failure, severe anemia, and myeloproliferative neoplasm-like disease. HFD-induced hematopoietic abnormalities are mediated partly through alterations to the gut microbiota. Together, these findings reveal that diet-induced stress disrupts fine-tuning of Spred1-mediated signals to govern HSC homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • Arthritis Research UK - 17522(United Kingdom)

Sox2 Is Essential for Oligodendroglial Proliferation and Differentiation during Postnatal Brain Myelination and CNS Remyelination.

  • Zhang S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the CNS, myelination and remyelination depend on the successful progression and maturation of oligodendroglial lineage cells, including proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells (OPCs). Previous studies have reported that Sox2 transiently regulates oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation in the embryonic and perinatal spinal cord and appears dispensable for myelination in the postnatal spinal cord. However, the role of Sox2 in OL development in the brain has yet to be defined. We now report that Sox2 is an essential positive regulator of developmental myelination in the postnatal murine brain of both sexes. Stage-specific paradigms of genetic disruption demonstrated that Sox2 regulated brain myelination by coordinating upstream OPC population supply and downstream OL differentiation. Transcriptomic analyses further supported a crucial role of Sox2 in brain developmental myelination. Consistently, oligodendroglial Sox2-deficient mice developed severe tremors and ataxia, typical phenotypes indicative of hypomyelination, and displayed severe impairment of motor function and prominent deficits of brain OL differentiation and myelination persisting into the later CNS developmental stages. We also found that Sox2 was required for efficient OPC proliferation and expansion and OL regeneration during remyelination in the adult brain and spinal cord. Together, our genetic evidence reveals an essential role of Sox2 in brain myelination and CNS remyelination, and suggests that manipulation of Sox2 and/or Sox2-mediated downstream pathways may be therapeutic in promoting CNS myelin repair.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Promoting myelin formation and repair has translational significance in treating myelin-related neurological disorders, such as periventricular leukomalacia and multiple sclerosis in which brain developmental myelin formation and myelin repair are severely affected, respectively. In this report, analyses of a series of genetic conditional knock-out systems targeting different oligodendrocyte stages reveal a previously unappreciated role of Sox2 in coordinating upstream proliferation and downstream differentiation of oligodendroglial lineage cells in the mouse brain during developmental myelination and CNS remyelination. Our study points to the potential of manipulating Sox2 and its downstream pathways to promote oligodendrocyte regeneration and CNS myelin repair.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0900950(United Kingdom)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS094559()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS093559()

Acute oligodendrocyte loss with persistent white matter injury in a third trimester equivalent mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

  • Newville J
  • Glia
  • 2018 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alcohol exposure during central nervous system (CNS) development can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Human imaging studies have revealed significant white matter (WM) abnormalities linked to cognitive impairment in children with FASD; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we evaluated both the acute and long-term impacts of alcohol exposure on oligodendrocyte number and WM integrity in a third trimester-equivalent mouse model of FASD, in which mouse pups were exposed to alcohol during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development. Our results demonstrate a 58% decrease in the number of mature oligodendrocytes (OLs) and a 75% decrease in the number of proliferating oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) within the corpus callosum of alcohol-exposed mice at postnatal day 16 (P16). Interestingly, neither mature OLs nor OPCs derived from the postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) were numerically affected by alcohol exposure, indicating heterogeneity in susceptibility based on OL ontogenetic origin. Although mature OL and proliferating OPC numbers recovered by postnatal day 50 (P50), abnormalities in myelin protein expression and microstructure within the corpus callosum of alcohol-exposed subjects persisted, as assessed by western immunoblotting of myelin basic protein (MBP; decreased expression) and MRI diffusion tensor imaging (DTI; decreased fractional anisotropy). These results indicate that third trimester-equivalent alcohol exposure leads to an acute, albeit recoverable, decrease in OL lineage cell numbers, accompanied by enduring WM injury. Additionally, our finding of heterogeneity in alcohol susceptibility based on the developmental origin of OLs may have therapeutic implications in FASD and other disorders of WM development.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - P50 AA022534()

Selective neuronal expression of the SoxE factor, Sox8, in direct pathway striatal projection neurons of the developing mouse brain.

  • Merchan-Sala P
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The striatum is the major component of the basal ganglia and is well known to play a key role in the control of motor function via balanced output from the indirect (iSPNs) and direct pathway striatal projection neurons (dSPNs). Little is known, however, about the molecular genetic mechanisms that control the formation of the iSPNs versus dSPNs. We show here that the SoxE family member, Sox8, is co-expressed with the dSPN markers, Isl1 and Ebf1, in the developing striatum. Moreover, dSPNs, as marked by Isl1-cre fate map, express Sox8 in the embryonic striatum and Sox8-EGFP BAC transgenic mice specifically reveal the direct pathway axons during development. These EGFP+ axons are first observed to reach their midbrain target, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), at E14 in the mouse with a robust connection observed already at birth. The selective expression of EGFP in dSPNs of Sox8-EGFP BAC mice is maintained at postnatal timepoints. Sox8 is known to be expressed in oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) together with other SoxE factors and we show here that the EGFP signal co-localizes with the OPC markers throughout the brain. Finally, we show that Sox8-EGFP BAC mice can be used to interrogate the altered dSPN development in Isl1 conditional mutants including aberrant axonal projections detected already at embryonic timepoints. Thus, Sox8 represents an early and specific marker of embryonic dSPNs and the Sox8-EGFP BAC transgenic mice are an excellent tool to study the development of basal ganglia circuitry.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH090740()

Variability in Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor Alpha Antibody Specificity May Impact Clinical Utility of Immunohistochemistry Assays.

  • Holzer TR
  • J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • 2017 May 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aberrant regulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFRα) is implicated in several types of cancer. Inhibition of the PDGFRα pathway may be a beneficial therapy, and detection of PDGFRα in tumor biopsies may lead to insights about which patients respond to therapy. Exploratory or clinical biomarker use of PDGFRα IHC has been frequently reported, often with polyclonal antibody sc-338. An sc-338-based assay was systematically compared with anti-PDGFRα rabbit monoclonal antibody D13C6 using immunoblot profiling and IHC in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human tumor cell lines. Application of sc-338 to blots of whole cell lysates showed multiple bands including some of unknown origin, whereas application of D13C6 resulted in a prominent band at the expected molecular mass of PDGFRα. The IHC assay using D13C6 showed appropriate staining in cell lines, whereas the assay using sc-338 suggested nonspecific detection of proteins. An optimized IHC assay using D13C6 showed a range of staining in the tumor stromal compartment in lung and ovarian carcinomas. These observations suggest that use of clone sc-338 produced unreliable results and should not be used for an IHC research grade assay. In addition, this precludes its use as a potential antibody for a clinical diagnostic tool.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R21 AR059884(United States)

Migrating Interneurons Secrete Fractalkine to Promote Oligodendrocyte Formation in the Developing Mammalian Brain.

  • Voronova A
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

During development, newborn interneurons migrate throughout the embryonic brain. Here, we provide evidence that these interneurons act in a paracrine fashion to regulate developmental oligodendrocyte formation. Specifically, we show that medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) interneurons secrete factors that promote genesis of oligodendrocytes from glially biased cortical precursors in culture. Moreover, when MGE interneurons are genetically ablated in vivo prior to their migration, this causes a deficit in cortical oligodendrogenesis. Modeling of the interneuron-precursor paracrine interaction using transcriptome data identifies the cytokine fractalkine as responsible for the pro-oligodendrocyte effect in culture. This paracrine interaction is important in vivo, since knockdown of the fractalkine receptor CX3CR1 in embryonic cortical precursors, or constitutive knockout of CX3CR1, causes decreased numbers of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and oligodendrocytes in the postnatal cortex. Thus, in addition to their role in regulating neuronal excitability, interneurons act in a paracrine fashion to promote the developmental genesis of oligodendrocytes.

Zika Virus Causes Testis Damage and Leads to Male Infertility in Mice.

  • Ma W
  • Cell
  • 2016 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Zika virus (ZIKV) persists in the semen of male patients, a first for flavivirus infection. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV can induce inflammation in the testis and epididymidis, but not in the prostate or seminal vesicle, and can lead to damaged testes after 60 days post-infection in mice. ZIKV induces innate immune responses in Leydig, Sertoli, and epididymal epithelial cells, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. However, ZIKV does not induce a rapid and abundant cytokine production in peritubular cell and spermatogonia, suggesting that these cells are vulnerable for ZIKV infection and could be the potential repositories for ZIKV. Our study demonstrates a correlation between ZIKV and testis infection/damage and suggests that ZIKV infection, under certain circumstances, can eventually lead to male infertility.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL007088(United States)

Evidence that the central canal lining of the spinal cord contributes to oligodendrogenesis during postnatal development and adulthood in intact rats.

  • Sevc J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Two waves of oligodendrogenesis in the ventricular zone of the spinal cord (SC-VZ) during rat development, which take place between embryonic days 14 and 18 (E14-E18) and E20-E21, have been described. In the VZ of the brain, unlike the SC-VZ, a third wave of oligodendrogenesis occurs during the first weeks of postnatal development. Using immunofluorescence staining of intact rat SC tissue, we noticed the presence of small numbers of Olig2(+) /Sox-10(+) cells inside the lining of the central canal (CC) during postnatal development and adulthood. Olig2(+) /Sox-10(+) cells appeared inside the lining of the CC shortly after birth, and their number reached a maximum of approximately 0.65 ± 0.14 cell/40-μm section during the second postnatal week. After the latter development, the number of Olig2(+) /Sox-10(+) cells decreased to 0.21 ± 0.07 (P36) and 0.18 ± 0.1 cell/section (P120). At P21, Olig2(+) /Sox-10(+) cells inside the CC lining started to express other oligodendroglial markers such as CNPase, RIP, and APC. Olig2(+) /Sox-10(+) cells usually did not proliferate inside the CC lining and were only rarely found to be immunoreactive against oligodendrocyte progenitor markers such as NG2 or PDGFRα. Using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine administration at P2, P11, P22, or P120-P125, we revealed that these cells arose in the CC lining during postnatal development and adulthood. Our findings confirmed that the CC lining is the source of a small number of cells with an oligodendroglial phenotype during postnatal development and adulthood in the SC of intact rats.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022358(United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - F31 AI124563(United States)

TACE/ADAM17 is essential for oligodendrocyte development and CNS myelination.

  • Palazuelos J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Sep 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Several studies have elucidated the significance of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase proteins (ADAMs) in PNS myelination, but there is no evidence if they also play a role in oligodendrogenesis and CNS myelination. Our study identifies ADAM17, also called tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE), as a novel key modulator of oligodendrocyte (OL) development and CNS myelination. Genetic deletion of TACE in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPs) induces premature cell cycle exit and reduces OL cell survival during postnatal myelination of the subcortical white matter (SCWM). These cellular and molecular changes lead to deficits in SCWM myelination and motor behavior. Mechanistically, TACE regulates oligodendrogenesis by modulating the shedding of EGFR ligands TGFα and HB-EGF and, consequently, EGFR signaling activation in OL lineage cells. Constitutive TACE depletion in OPs in vivo leads to similar alterations in CNS myelination and motor behavior as to what is observed in the EGFR hypofunctional mouse line EgfrWa2. EGFR overexpression in TACE-deficient OPs restores OL survival and development. Our study reveals an essential function of TACE in oligodendrogenesis, and demonstrates how this molecule modulates EGFR signaling activation to regulate postnatal CNS myelination.

TGFβ signaling regulates the timing of CNS myelination by modulating oligodendrocyte progenitor cell cycle exit through SMAD3/4/FoxO1/Sp1.

  • Palazuelos J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Jun 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Research on myelination has focused on identifying molecules capable of inducing oligodendrocyte (OL) differentiation in an effort to develop strategies that promote functional myelin regeneration in demyelinating disorders. Here, we show that transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling is crucial for allowing oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) cell cycle withdrawal, and therefore, for oligodendrogenesis and postnatal CNS myelination. Enhanced oligodendrogenesis and subcortical white matter (SCWM) myelination was detected after TGFβ gain of function, while TGFβ receptor II (TGFβ-RII) deletion in OPs prevents their development into mature myelinating OLs, leading to SCWM hypomyelination in mice. TGFβ signaling modulates OP cell cycle withdrawal and differentiation through the transcriptional modulation of c-myc and p21 gene expression, mediated by the interaction of SMAD3/4 with Sp1 and FoxO1 transcription factors. Our study is the first to demonstrate an autonomous and crucial role of TGFβ signaling in OL development and CNS myelination, and may provide new avenues in the treatment of demyelinating diseases.