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p21 (F-5) antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

p21 (F-5) mouse, rat, human, mouse, rat, human

Proper Citation

(Santa Cruz Biotechnology Cat# sc-6246, RRID:AB_628073)


monoclonal antibody


validation status unknown check with seller; recommendations: ELISA; Immunohistochemistry; Immunofluorescence; Western Blot; Immunocytochemistry; Immunoprecipitation; WB, IP, IF, IHC(P), FCM; Flow Cytometry

Host Organism



Santa Cruz Biotechnology

Boosting ATM activity alleviates aging and extends lifespan in a mouse model of progeria.

  • Qian M
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 2

Literature context:


DNA damage accumulates with age (Lombard et al., 2005). However, whether and how robust DNA repair machinery promotes longevity is elusive. Here, we demonstrate that ATM-centered DNA damage response (DDR) progressively declines with senescence and age, while low dose of chloroquine (CQ) activates ATM, promotes DNA damage clearance, rescues age-related metabolic shift, and prolongs replicative lifespan. Molecularly, ATM phosphorylates SIRT6 deacetylase and thus prevents MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Extra copies of Sirt6 extend lifespan in Atm-/- mice, with restored metabolic homeostasis. Moreover, the treatment with CQ remarkably extends lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans, but not the ATM-1 mutants. In a progeria mouse model with low DNA repair capacity, long-term administration of CQ ameliorates premature aging features and extends lifespan. Thus, our data highlights a pro-longevity role of ATM, for the first time establishing direct causal links between robust DNA repair machinery and longevity, and providing therapeutic strategy for progeria and age-related metabolic diseases.

Funding information:
  • Department of Health - (United Kingdom)
  • Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China - 2016YFC0904600()
  • Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China - 2017YFA0503900()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 81422016()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 81501206()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 81501210()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 81571374()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 91439133()
  • Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province - 2014A030308011()
  • Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province - 2015A030308007()
  • Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province - 2016A030310064()
  • Research Grant Council of Hong Kong - 773313()
  • Research Grant Council of Hong Kong - HKU2/CRF/13G()
  • Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Commission - CXZZ20140903103747568()
  • Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Commission - JCYJ20140418095735645()
  • Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Commission - JCYJ20160226191451487()

A polymorphism in the tumor suppressor p53 affects aging and longevity in mouse models.

  • Zhao Y
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 20

Literature context:


Tumor suppressor p53 prevents early death due to cancer development. However, the role of p53 in aging process and longevity has not been well-established. In humans, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with either arginine (R72) or proline (P72) at codon 72 influences p53 activity; the P72 allele has a weaker p53 activity and function in tumor suppression. Here, employing a mouse model with knock-in of human TP53 gene carrying codon 72 SNP, we found that despite increased cancer risk, P72 mice that escape tumor development display a longer lifespan than R72 mice. Further, P72 mice have a delayed development of aging-associated phenotypes compared with R72 mice. Mechanistically, P72 mice can better retain the self-renewal function of stem/progenitor cells compared with R72 mice during aging. This study provides direct genetic evidence demonstrating that p53 codon 72 SNP directly impacts aging and longevity, which supports a role of p53 in regulation of longevity.

Funding information:
  • Lawrence Ellison Foundation - New Investigate Award AG-NS-0781-11()
  • National Institutes of Health - 1R01CA160558()
  • National Institutes of Health - 1R01CA203965()
  • National Institutes of Health - 1R01CA227912()
  • National Institutes of Health - F99CA222734()
  • NCI NIH HHS - F99 CA222734()
  • New Jersey Commission on Cancer Research - Postdoctoral Fellowship Award()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R37HD033082(United States)
  • U.S. Department of Defense - W81XWH-16-1-0358()

Distinct Cell-Cycle Control in Two Different States of Mouse Pluripotency.

  • Ter Huurne M
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Oct 5

Literature context:


Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) cultured in serum are characterized by hyper-phosphorylated RB protein, lack of G1 control, and rapid progression through the cell cycle. Here, we show that ESCs grown in the presence of two small-molecule inhibitors (2i ESCs) have a longer G1-phase with hypo-phosphorylated RB, implying that they have a functional G1 checkpoint. Deletion of RB, P107, and P130 in 2i ESCs results in a G1-phase similar to that of serum ESCs. Inhibition of the ERK signaling pathway in serum ESCs results in the appearance of hypo-phosphorylated RB and the reinstatement of a G1 checkpoint. In addition, induction of a dormant state by the inhibition of MYC, resembling diapause, requires the presence of the RB family proteins. Collectively, our data show that RB-dependent G1 restriction point signaling is active in mouse ESCs grown in 2i but abrogated in serum by ERK-dependent phosphorylation.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P01 GM085354()

Ccdc3: A New P63 Target Involved in Regulation Of Liver Lipid Metabolism.

  • Liao W
  • Sci Rep
  • 2017 Aug 21

Literature context:


TAp63, a member of the p53 family, has been shown to regulate energy metabolism. Here, we report coiled coil domain-containing 3 (CCDC3) as a new TAp63 target. TAp63, but not ΔNp63, p53 or p73, upregulates CCDC3 expression by directly binding to its enhancer region. The CCDC3 expression is markedly reduced in TAp63-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts and brown adipose tissues and by tumor necrosis factor alpha that reduces p63 transcriptional activity, but induced by metformin, an anti-diabetic drug that activates p63. Also, the expression of CCDC3 is positively correlated with TAp63 levels, but conversely with ΔNp63 levels, during adipocyte differentiation. Interestingly, CCDC3, as a secreted protein, targets liver cancer cells and increases long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, but decreases ceramide in the cells. CCDC3 alleviates glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and steatosis formation in transgenic CCDC3 mice on high-fat diet (HFD) by reducing the expression of hepatic PPARγ and its target gene CIDEA as well as other genes involved in de novo lipogenesis. Similar results are reproduced by hepatic expression of ectopic CCDC3 in mice on HFD. Altogether, these results demonstrate that CCDC3 modulates liver lipid metabolism by inhibiting liver de novo lipogenesis as a downstream player of the p63 network.

Enhancer Reprogramming Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Metastasis.

  • Roe JS
  • Cell
  • 2017 Aug 24

Literature context:


Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most lethal human malignancies, owing in part to its propensity for metastasis. Here, we used an organoid culture system to investigate how transcription and the enhancer landscape become altered during discrete stages of disease progression in a PDA mouse model. This approach revealed that the metastatic transition is accompanied by massive and recurrent alterations in enhancer activity. We implicate the pioneer factor FOXA1 as a driver of enhancer activation in this system, a mechanism that renders PDA cells more invasive and less anchorage-dependent for growth in vitro, as well as more metastatic in vivo. In this context, FOXA1-dependent enhancer reprogramming activates a transcriptional program of embryonic foregut endoderm. Collectively, our study implicates enhancer reprogramming, FOXA1 upregulation, and a retrograde developmental transition in PDA metastasis.

Chromosome Mis-segregation Generates Cell-Cycle-Arrested Cells with Complex Karyotypes that Are Eliminated by the Immune System.

  • Santaguida S
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 19

Literature context:


Aneuploidy, a state of karyotype imbalance, is a hallmark of cancer. Changes in chromosome copy number have been proposed to drive disease by modulating the dosage of cancer driver genes and by promoting cancer genome evolution. Given the potential of cells with abnormal karyotypes to become cancerous, do pathways that limit the prevalence of such cells exist? By investigating the immediate consequences of aneuploidy on cell physiology, we identified mechanisms that eliminate aneuploid cells. We find that chromosome mis-segregation leads to further genomic instability that ultimately causes cell-cycle arrest. We further show that cells with complex karyotypes exhibit features of senescence and produce pro-inflammatory signals that promote their clearance by the immune system. We propose that cells with abnormal karyotypes generate a signal for their own elimination that may serve as a means for cancer cell immunosurveillance.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA206157()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA067754()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD085866()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM056800()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM062207()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM074215()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM098815()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118066()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007753()

Early Molecular Stratification of High-risk Primary Biliary Cholangitis.

  • Hardie C
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2016 Dec 3

Literature context:


High-risk primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), defined by inadequate response at one year to Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), is associated with disease progression and liver transplantation. Stratifying high-risk patients early would facilitate improved approaches to care. Using long-term follow-up data to define risk at presentation, 6 high-risk PBC patients and 8 low-risk patients were identified from biopsy, transplant and biochemical archival records. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsies taken at presentation were graded (Scheuer and Nakanuma scoring) and gene expression analysed using the NanoString® nCounter PanCancer Immunity 770-gene panel. Principle component analysis (PCA) demonstrated discrete gene expression clustering between controls and high- and low-risk PBC. High-risk PBC was characterised by up-regulation of genes linked to T-cell activation and apoptosis, INF-γ signalling and leukocyte migration and down-regulation of those linked to the complement pathway. CDKN1a, up-regulated in high-risk PBC, correlated with significantly increased expression of its gene product, the senescence marker p21WAF1/Cip, by biliary epithelial cells. Our findings suggest high- and low-risk PBC are biologically different from disease outset and senescence an early feature in high-risk disease. Identification of a high-risk 'signal' early from standard FFPE tissue sections has clear clinical utility allowing for patient stratification and second-line therapeutic intervention.

Nonmyocytic androgen receptor regulates the sexually dimorphic development of the embryonic bulbocavernosus muscle.

  • Ipulan LA
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jul 21

Literature context:


The bulbocavernosus (BC) is a sexually dimorphic muscle observed only in males. Androgen receptor knockout mouse studies show the loss of BC formation. This suggests that androgen signaling plays a vital role in its development. Androgen has been known to induce muscle hypertrophy through satellite cell activation and myonuclei accretion during muscle regeneration and growth. Whether the same mechanism is present during embryonic development is not yet elucidated. To identify the mechanism of sexual dimorphism during BC development, the timing of morphological differences was first established. It was revealed that the BC was morphologically different between male and female mice at embryonic day (E) 16.5. Differences in the myogenic process were detected at E15.5. The male BC possesses a higher number of proliferating undifferentiated myoblasts. To identify the role of androgen signaling in this process, muscle-specific androgen receptor (AR) mutation was introduced, which resulted in no observable phenotypes. Hence, the expression of AR in the BC was examined and found that the AR did not colocalize with any muscle markers such as Myogenic differentiation 1, Myogenin, and paired box transcription factor 7. It was revealed that the mesenchyme surrounding the BC expressed AR and the BC started to express AR at E15.5. AR mutation on the nonmyocytic cells using spalt-like transcription factor 1 (Sall1) Cre driver mouse was performed, which resulted in defective BC formation. It was revealed that the number of proliferating undifferentiated myoblasts was reduced in the Sall1 Cre:AR(L-/Y) mutant embryos, and the adult mutants were devoid of BC. The transition of myoblasts from proliferation to differentiation is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. An increased expression of p21 was observed in the BC myoblast of the Sall1 Cre:AR(L-/Y) mutant and wild-type female. Altogether this study suggests that the nonmyocytic AR may paracrinely regulate the proliferation of myoblast possibly through inhibiting p21 expression in myoblasts of the BC.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083726(United States)