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GFP (B-2) antibody

RRID:AB_627695

MTSS1 Regulation of Actin-Nucleating Formin DAAM1 in Dendritic Filopodia Determines Final Dendritic Configuration of Purkinje Cells.

  • Kawabata Galbraith K
  • Cell Rep
  • 2018 Jul 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dendritic filopodia of developing neurons function as environmental sensors, regulating the spatial organization of dendrites and proper targeting to presynaptic partners. Dendritic filopodia morphology is determined by the balance of F-actin assembled via two major nucleating pathways, the ARP2/3 complex and formins. The inverse-BAR protein MTSS1 is highly expressed in Purkinje cells (PCs) and has been shown to upregulate ARP2/3 activity. PCs in MTSS1 conditional knockout mice showed dendrite hypoplasia due to excessive contact-induced retraction during development. This phenotype was concomitant with elongated dendritic filopodia and was phenocopied by overactivation of the actin nucleator formin DAAM1 localized in the tips of PC dendritic protrusions. Cell biology assays including single-molecule speckle microscopy demonstrated that MTSS1's C terminus binds to DAAM1 and paused DAAM1-mediated F-actin polymerization. Thus, MTSS1 plays a dual role as a formin inhibitor and ARP2/3 activator in dendritic filopodia, determining final neuronal morphology.

Funding information:
  • Breast Cancer Now - 2012NOVSP024(United Kingdom)

BRET-based RAS biosensors that show a novel small molecule is an inhibitor of RAS-effector protein-protein interactions.

  • Bery N
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The RAS family of proteins is amongst the most highly mutated in human cancers and has so far eluded drug therapy. Currently, much effort is being made to discover mutant RAS inhibitors and in vitro screening for RAS-binding drugs must be followed by cell-based assays. Here, we have developed a robust set of bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based RAS biosensors that enable monitoring of RAS-effector interaction inhibition in living cells. These include KRAS, HRAS and NRAS and a variety of different mutations that mirror those found in human cancers with the major RAS effectors such as CRAF, PI3K and RALGDS. We highlighted the utility of these RAS biosensors by showing a RAS-binding compound is a potent pan-RAS-effector interactions inhibitor in cells. The RAS biosensors represent a useful tool to investigate and characterize the potency of anti-RAS inhibitors in cells and more generally any RAS protein-protein interaction (PPI) in cells.

Funding information:
  • Bloodwise - 12051()
  • Medical Research Council - MR/J000612/1()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637(United States)
  • Wellcome - 099246/Z/12/Z()
  • Wellcome - 100842/Z/12/Z()

A Viral Receptor Complementation Strategy to Overcome CAV-2 Tropism for Efficient Retrograde Targeting of Neurons.

  • Li SJ
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Retrogradely transported neurotropic viruses enable genetic access to neurons based on their long-range projections and have become indispensable tools for linking neural connectivity with function. A major limitation of viral techniques is that they rely on cell-type-specific molecules for uptake and transport. Consequently, viruses fail to infect variable subsets of neurons depending on the complement of surface receptors expressed (viral tropism). We report a receptor complementation strategy to overcome this by potentiating neurons for the infection of the virus of interest-in this case, canine adenovirus type-2 (CAV-2). We designed AAV vectors for expressing the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) throughout candidate projection neurons. CAR expression greatly increased retrograde-labeling rates, which we demonstrate for several long-range projections, including some resistant to other retrograde-labeling techniques. Our results demonstrate a receptor complementation strategy to abrogate endogenous viral tropism and thereby facilitate efficient retrograde targeting for functional analysis of neural circuits.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G9810900(United Kingdom)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA038209()

Intrinsic Instability of BOK Enables Membrane Permeabilization in Apoptosis.

  • Zheng JH
  • Cell Rep
  • 2018 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The effector B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) protein BCL-2 ovarian killer (BOK) induces mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) to initiate apoptosis upon inhibition of the proteasome. How BOK mediates MOMP is mechanistically unknown. The NMR structure of the BCL-2 core of human BOK reveals a conserved architecture with an atypical hydrophobic groove that undergoes conformational exchange. Remarkably, the BCL-2 core of BOK spontaneously associates with purified mitochondria to release cytochrome c in MOMP assays. Alanine substitution of a unique glycine in helix α1 stabilizes BOK, as shown by thermal shift and urea denaturation analyses, and significantly inhibits MOMP, liposome permeabilization, and cell death. Activated BID does not activate WT BOK or the stabilized alanine mutant to promote cell death. We propose that BOK-mediated membrane permeabilization is governed in part by its unique metastability of the hydrophobic groove and helix α1 and not through activation by BH3 ligands.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI089417(United States)

Nuclear-Import Receptors Reverse Aberrant Phase Transitions of RNA-Binding Proteins with Prion-like Domains.

  • Guo L
  • Cell
  • 2018 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) with prion-like domains (PrLDs) phase transition to functional liquids, which can mature into aberrant hydrogels composed of pathological fibrils that underpin fatal neurodegenerative disorders. Several nuclear RBPs with PrLDs, including TDP-43, FUS, hnRNPA1, and hnRNPA2, mislocalize to cytoplasmic inclusions in neurodegenerative disorders, and mutations in their PrLDs can accelerate fibrillization and cause disease. Here, we establish that nuclear-import receptors (NIRs) specifically chaperone and potently disaggregate wild-type and disease-linked RBPs bearing a NLS. Karyopherin-β2 (also called Transportin-1) engages PY-NLSs to inhibit and reverse FUS, TAF15, EWSR1, hnRNPA1, and hnRNPA2 fibrillization, whereas Importin-α plus Karyopherin-β1 prevent and reverse TDP-43 fibrillization. Remarkably, Karyopherin-β2 dissolves phase-separated liquids and aberrant fibrillar hydrogels formed by FUS and hnRNPA1. In vivo, Karyopherin-β2 prevents RBPs with PY-NLSs accumulating in stress granules, restores nuclear RBP localization and function, and rescues degeneration caused by disease-linked FUS and hnRNPA2. Thus, NIRs therapeutically restore RBP homeostasis and mitigate neurodegeneration.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01CA684841(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM069909()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM099836()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008275()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM071339()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS079009()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS081303()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS087227()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS090205()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS094921()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS100055()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R35 NS097263()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R35 NS097974()

γ-Secretase Inhibition Lowers Plasma Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins by Stabilizing the LDL Receptor.

  • Kim K
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Apr 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Excess plasma triglycerides (TGs) are a key component of obesity-induced metabolic syndrome. We have shown that γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) treatment improves glucose tolerance due to inhibition of hepatic Notch signaling but found additional Notch-independent reduction of plasma TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in GSI-treated, as well as hepatocyte-specific, γ-secretase knockout (L-Ncst) mice, which suggested a primary effect on hepatocyte TRL uptake. Indeed, we found increased VLDL and LDL particle uptake in L-Ncst hepatocytes and Ncst-deficient hepatoma cells, in part through reduced γ-secretase-mediated low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) cleavage and degradation. To exploit this novel finding, we generated a liver-selective Nicastrin ASO, which recapitulated glucose and lipid improvements of L-Ncst mice, with increased levels of hepatocyte LDLR. Collectively, these results identify the role of hepatic γ-secretase to regulate LDLR and suggest that liver-specific GSIs may simultaneously improve multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL092969()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL125649()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103818()
  • Wellcome Trust - CA062275(United Kingdom)

IRS-1 acts as an endocytic regulator of IGF-I receptor to facilitate sustained IGF signaling.

  • Yoneyama Y
  • Elife
  • 2018 Apr 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) preferentially regulates the long-term IGF activities including growth and metabolism. Kinetics of ligand-dependent IGF-IR endocytosis determines how IGF induces such downstream signaling outputs. Here, we find that the insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 modulates how long ligand-activated IGF-IR remains at the cell surface before undergoing endocytosis in mammalian cells. IRS-1 interacts with the clathrin adaptor complex AP2. IRS-1, but not an AP2-binding-deficient mutant, delays AP2-mediated IGF-IR endocytosis after the ligand stimulation. Mechanistically, IRS-1 inhibits the recruitment of IGF-IR into clathrin-coated structures; for this reason, IGF-IR avoids rapid endocytosis and prolongs its activity on the cell surface. Accelerating IGF-IR endocytosis via IRS-1 depletion induces the shift from sustained to transient Akt activation and augments FoxO-mediated transcription. Our study establishes a new role for IRS-1 as an endocytic regulator of IGF-IR that ensures sustained IGF bioactivity, independent of its classic role as an adaptor in IGF-IR signaling.

Funding information:
  • Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) - 850681()
  • Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development and Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology - Platform Project for Supporting in Drug Discovery and Life Scien()
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - 15K18766()
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology - The Targeted Proteins Research Program (TPRP)()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 2T32GM008646(United States)
  • University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria and the Center for Technological Innovation in Medicine (TIMed Center) - Project GlucoSTAR()

SPIN1 promotes tumorigenesis by blocking the uL18 (universal large ribosomal subunit protein 18)-MDM2-p53 pathway in human cancer.

  • Fang Z
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ribosomal proteins (RPs) play important roles in modulating the MDM2-p53 pathway. However, less is known about the upstream regulators of the RPs. Here, we identify SPIN1 (Spindlin 1) as a novel binding partner of human RPL5/uL18 that is important for this pathway. SPIN1 ablation activates p53, suppresses cell growth, reduces clonogenic ability, and induces apoptosis of human cancer cells. Mechanistically, SPIN1 sequesters uL18 in the nucleolus, preventing it from interacting with MDM2, and thereby alleviating uL18-mediated inhibition of MDM2 ubiquitin ligase activity toward p53. SPIN1 deficiency increases ribosome-free uL18 and uL5 (human RPL11), which are required for SPIN1 depletion-induced p53 activation. Analysis of cancer genomic databases suggests that SPIN1 is highly expressed in several human cancers, and its overexpression is positively correlated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. Altogether, our findings reveal that the oncogenic property of SPIN1 may be attributed to its negative regulation of uL18, leading to p53 inactivation.

Funding information:
  • National Institutes of Health - 2G12MD007595()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01CA095441()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01CA127724()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01CA172468()
  • National Institutes of Health - R21 CA201889()
  • National Institutes of Health - R21CA190775()
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA89194(United States)

PKCα-LSD1-NF-κB-Signaling Cascade Is Crucial for Epigenetic Control of the Inflammatory Response.

  • Kim D
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The inflammatory response mediated by nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling is essential for host defense against pathogens. Although the regulatory mechanism of NF-κB signaling has been well studied, the molecular basis for epigenetic regulation of the inflammatory response is poorly understood. Here we identify a new signaling axis of PKCα-LSD1-NF-κB, which is critical for activation and amplification of the inflammatory response. In response to excessive inflammatory stimuli, PKCα translocates to the nucleus and phosphorylates LSD1. LSD1 phosphorylation is required for p65 binding and facilitates p65 demethylation, leading to enhanced stability. In vivo genetic analysis using Lsd1SA/SA mice with ablation of LSD1 phosphorylation and chemical approaches in wild-type mice with inhibition of PKCα or LSD1 activity show attenuated sepsis-induced inflammatory lung injury and mortality. Together, we demonstrate that the PKCα-LSD1-NF-κB signaling cascade is crucial for epigenetic control of the inflammatory response, and targeting this signaling could be a powerful therapeutic strategy for systemic inflammatory diseases, including sepsis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - 1P01CA163205-01A1(United States)

Myocardial Polyploidization Creates a Barrier to Heart Regeneration in Zebrafish.

  • González-Rosa JM
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Correlative evidence suggests that polyploidization of heart muscle, which occurs naturally in post-natal mammals, creates a barrier to heart regeneration. Here, we move beyond a correlation by demonstrating that experimental polyploidization of zebrafish cardiomyocytes is sufficient to suppress their proliferative potential during regeneration. Initially, we determined that zebrafish myocardium becomes susceptible to polyploidization upon transient cytokinesis inhibition mediated by dominant-negative Ect2. Using a transgenic strategy, we generated adult animals containing mosaic hearts composed of differentially labeled diploid and polyploid-enriched cardiomyocyte populations. Diploid cardiomyocytes outcompeted their polyploid neighbors in producing regenerated heart muscle. Moreover, hearts composed of equivalent proportions of diploid and polyploid cardiomyocytes failed to regenerate altogether, demonstrating that a critical percentage of diploid cardiomyocytes is required to achieve heart regeneration. Our data identify cardiomyocyte polyploidization as a barrier to heart regeneration and suggest that mobilizing rare diploid cardiomyocytes in the human heart will improve its regenerative capacity.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL127067()

A constitutively-active IKK-complex at the axon initial segment.

  • König HG
  • Brain Res.
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Previous studies provided evidence for an accumulation of IκB-kinase (IKK) α/β at the axon initial segment (AIS), a neuronal compartment defined by ankyrin-G expression. Here we explored whether the presence of the IKK-complex at the AIS was associated with the activation of IKK signaling at this site. METHODS AND RESULTS: Proximity-ligation assays (PLAs) using pan-IKKα/β, phospho-IKKα/β-specific as well as ankyrin-G specific antibodies validated their binding to proximal epitopes in the AIS, while antibodies to other phosphorylated signaling proteins showed no preference for the AIS. Small-hairpin mediated silencing of IKKβ significantly reduced anti-phospho-IKKα/β-immunoreactivities in the AIS. ank3 gene-deficient cerebellar Purkinje cells also exhibited no phosphorylated IKKα/β at the proximal region of their axons. Transient ankyrin-G overexpression in PC12 cells augmented NF-κB transactivation in an ankyrin-G death-domain dependent manner. Finally, small molecule inhibitors of IKK-activity, including Aspirin, inhibited the accumulation of activated IKK proteins in the AIS. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the existence of a constitutively-active IKK signaling complex in the AIS.

Interactome Screening Identifies the ER Luminal Chaperone Hsp47 as a Regulator of the Unfolded Protein Response Transducer IRE1α.

  • Sepulveda D
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jan 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Maintenance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis is controlled by a dynamic signaling network known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). IRE1α is a major UPR transducer, determining cell fate under ER stress. We used an interactome screening to unveil several regulators of the UPR, highlighting the ER chaperone Hsp47 as the major hit. Cellular and biochemical analysis indicated that Hsp47 instigates IRE1α signaling through a physical interaction. Hsp47 directly binds to the ER luminal domain of IRE1α with high affinity, displacing the negative regulator BiP from the complex to facilitate IRE1α oligomerization. The regulation of IRE1α signaling by Hsp47 is evolutionarily conserved as validated using fly and mouse models of ER stress. Hsp47 deficiency sensitized cells and animals to experimental ER stress, revealing the significance of Hsp47 to global proteostasis maintenance. We conclude that Hsp47 adjusts IRE1α signaling by fine-tuning the threshold to engage an adaptive UPR.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

Evolutionary Proteomics Uncovers Ancient Associations of Cilia with Signaling Pathways.

  • Sigg MA
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cilia are organelles specialized for movement and signaling. To infer when during evolution signaling pathways became associated with cilia, we characterized the proteomes of cilia from sea urchins, sea anemones, and choanoflagellates. We identified 437 high-confidence ciliary candidate proteins conserved in mammals and discovered that Hedgehog and G-protein-coupled receptor pathways were linked to cilia before the origin of bilateria and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels before the origin of animals. We demonstrated that candidates not previously implicated in ciliary biology localized to cilia and further investigated ENKUR, a TRP channel-interacting protein identified in the cilia of all three organisms. ENKUR localizes to motile cilia and is required for patterning the left-right axis in vertebrates. Moreover, mutation of ENKUR causes situs inversus in humans. Thus, proteomic profiling of cilia from diverse eukaryotes defines a conserved ciliary proteome, reveals ancient connections to signaling, and uncovers a ciliary protein that underlies development and human disease.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG027849(United States)
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR054396()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM095941()

Mutant p53 Gains Its Function via c-Myc Activation upon CDK4 Phosphorylation at Serine 249 and Consequent PIN1 Binding.

  • Liao P
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Dec 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

TP53 missense mutations significantly influence the development and progression of various human cancers via their gain of new functions (GOF) through different mechanisms. Here we report a unique mechanism underlying the GOF of p53-R249S (p53-RS), a p53 mutant frequently detected in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that is highly related to hepatitis B infection and aflatoxin B1. A CDK inhibitor blocks p53-RS's nuclear translocation in HCC, whereas CDK4 interacts with p53-RS in the G1/S phase of the cells, phosphorylates it, and enhances its nuclear localization. This is coupled with binding of a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (PIN1) to p53-RS, but not the p53 form with mutations of four serines/threonines previously shown to be crucial for PIN1 binding. As a result, p53-RS interacts with c-Myc and enhances c-Myc-dependent rDNA transcription key for ribosomal biogenesis. These results unveil a CDK4-PIN1-p53-RS-c-Myc pathway as a novel mechanism for the GOF of p53-RS in HCC.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R00HL-091133(United States)

GFP-Mutant Human Tau Transgenic Mice Develop Tauopathy Following CNS Injections of Alzheimer's Brain-Derived Pathological Tau or Synthetic Mutant Human Tau Fibrils.

  • Gibbons GS
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Nov 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurodegenerative proteinopathies characterized by intracellular aggregates of tau proteins, termed tauopathies, include Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with tau pathology (FTLD-tau), and related disorders. Pathological tau proteins derived from human AD brains (AD-tau) act as proteopathic seeds that initiate the templated aggregation of soluble tau upon intracerebral injection into tau transgenic (Tg) and wild-type mice, thereby modeling human tau pathology. In this study, we found that aged Tg mice of both sexes expressing human tau proteins harboring a pathogenic P301L MAPT mutation labeled with green fluorescent protein (T40PL-GFP Tg mouse line) exhibited hyperphosphorylated tau mislocalized to the somatodentritic domain of neurons, but these mice did not develop de novo insoluble tau aggregates, which are characteristic of human AD and related tauopathies. However, intracerebral injections of either T40PL preformed fibrils (PFFs) or AD-tau seeds into T40PL-GFP mice induced abundant intraneuronal pathological inclusions of hyperphosphorylated T40PL-GFP. These injections of pathological tau resulted in the propagation of tau pathology from the injection site to neuroanatomically connected brain regions, and these tau inclusions consisted of both T40PL-GFP and WT endogenous mouse tau. Primary neurons cultured from the brains of neonatal T40PL-GFP mice provided an informative in vitro model for examining the uptake and localization of tau PFFs. These findings demonstrate the seeded aggregation of T40PL-GFP in vivo by synthetic PFFs and human AD-tau and the utility of this system to study the neuropathological spread of tau aggregates.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The stereotypical spread of pathological tau protein aggregates have recently been attributed to the transmission of proteopathic seeds. Despite the extensive use of transgenic mouse models to investigate the propagation of tau pathology in vivo, details of the aggregation process such as the early seeding events leading to new tau pathology have remained elusive. This study validates the use of GFP-labeled tau expressed by neurons in vivo and in vitro as models for investigating mechanisms underlying the seeded transmission of tau pathology as well as tau-focused drug discovery to identify disease-modifying therapies for AD and related tauopathies.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR001120(United States)
  • NIA NIH HHS - F32 AG053036()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG017586()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P30 AG010124()

An Attachment-Independent Biochemical Timer of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

  • Qian J
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) generates a diffusible protein complex that prevents anaphase until all chromosomes are properly attached to spindle microtubules. A key step in SAC initiation is the recruitment of MAD1 to kinetochores, which is generally thought to be governed by the microtubule-kinetochore (MT-KT) attachment status. However, we demonstrate that the recruitment of MAD1 via BUB1, a conserved kinetochore receptor, is not affected by MT-KT interactions in human cells. Instead, BUB1:MAD1 interaction depends on BUB1 phosphorylation, which is controlled by a biochemical timer that integrates counteracting kinase and phosphatase effects on BUB1 into a pulse-generating incoherent feedforward loop. We propose that this attachment-independent timer serves to rapidly activate the SAC at mitotic entry, before the attachment-sensing MAD1 receptors have become fully operational. The BUB1-centered timer is largely impervious to conventional anti-mitotic drugs, and it is, therefore, a promising therapeutic target to induce cell death through permanent SAC activation.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - RC2NS069480(United States)

Adaptive Evolution Leads to Cross-Species Incompatibility in the piRNA Transposon Silencing Machinery.

  • Parhad SS
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Reproductive isolation defines species divergence and is linked to adaptive evolution of hybrid incompatibility genes. Hybrids between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans are sterile, and phenocopy mutations in the PIWI interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway, which silences transposons and shows pervasive adaptive evolution, and Drosophila rhino and deadlock encode rapidly evolving components of a complex that binds to piRNA clusters. We show that Rhino and Deadlock interact and co-localize in simulans and melanogaster, but simulans Rhino does not bind melanogaster Deadlock, due to substitutions in the rapidly evolving Shadow domain. Significantly, a chimera expressing the simulans Shadow domain in a melanogaster Rhino backbone fails to support piRNA production, disrupts binding to piRNA clusters, and leads to ectopic localization to bulk heterochromatin. Fusing melanogaster Deadlock to simulans Rhino, by contrast, restores localization to clusters. Deadlock binding thus directs Rhino to piRNA clusters, and Rhino-Deadlock co-evolution has produced cross-species incompatibilities, which may contribute to reproductive isolation.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P01 HD078253()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD049116()

Collaboration between Distinct Rab Small GTPase Trafficking Circuits Mediates Bacterial Clearance from the Bladder Epithelium.

  • Miao Y
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Sep 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rab small GTPases control membrane trafficking through effectors that recruit downstream mediators such as motor proteins. Subcellular trafficking typically involves multiple Rabs, with each specific step mediated by a distinct Rab protein. We describe a collaboration between two distinct Rab-protein-orchestrated trafficking circuits in bladder epithelial cells (BECs) that expels intracellular uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) from their intracellular niche. RAB11a and RAB27b and their trafficking circuitry are simultaneously involved in UPEC expulsion. While RAB11a recruits its effector RAB11FIP3 and cytoskeletal motor Dynein, RAB27b mobilizes the effector MyRIP and motor Myosin VIIa to mediate bacterial expulsion. This collaboration is coordinated by deposition of the exocyst complex on bacteria-containing vesicles, an event triggered by the innate receptor Toll-like receptor 4. Both RAB11a and RAB27b are recruited and activated by the exocyst complex components SEC6/SEC15. Thus, the cell autonomous defense system can mobilize and coalesce multiple subcellular trafficking circuitries to combat infections.

Delta-Secretase Phosphorylation by SRPK2 Enhances Its Enzymatic Activity, Provoking Pathogenesis in Alzheimer's Disease.

  • Wang ZH
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Delta-secretase, a lysosomal asparagine endopeptidase (AEP), simultaneously cleaves both APP and tau, controlling the onset of pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, how this protease is post-translationally regulated remains unclear. Here we report that serine-arginine protein kinase 2 (SRPK2) phosphorylates delta-secretase and enhances its enzymatic activity. SRPK2 phosphorylates serine 226 on delta-secretase and accelerates its autocatalytic cleavage, leading to its cytoplasmic translocation and escalated enzymatic activities. Delta-secretase is highly phosphorylated in human AD brains, tightly correlated with SRPK2 activity. Overexpression of a phosphorylation mimetic (S226D) in young 3xTg mice strongly promotes APP and tau fragmentation and facilitates amyloid plaque deposits and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) formation, resulting in cognitive impairment. Conversely, viral injection of the non-phosphorylatable mutant (S226A) into 5XFAD mice decreases APP and tau proteolytic cleavage, attenuates AD pathologies, and reverses cognitive defects. Our findings support that delta-secretase phosphorylation by SRPK2 plays a critical role in aggravating AD pathogenesis.

cTag-PAPERCLIP Reveals Alternative Polyadenylation Promotes Cell-Type Specific Protein Diversity and Shifts Araf Isoforms with Microglia Activation.

  • Hwang HW
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is increasingly recognized to regulate gene expression across different cell types, but obtaining APA maps from individual cell types typically requires prior purification, a stressful procedure that can itself alter cellular states. Here, we describe a new platform, cTag-PAPERCLIP, that generates APA profiles from single cell populations in intact tissues; cTag-PAPERCLIP requires no tissue dissociation and preserves transcripts in native states. Applying cTag-PAPERCLIP to profile four major cell types in the mouse brain revealed common APA preferences between excitatory and inhibitory neurons distinct from astrocytes and microglia, regulated in part by neuron-specific RNA-binding proteins NOVA2 and PTBP2. We further identified a role of APA in switching Araf protein isoforms during microglia activation, impacting production of downstream inflammatory cytokines. Our results demonstrate the broad applicability of cTag-PAPERCLIP and a previously undiscovered role of APA in contributing to protein diversity between different cell types and cellular states within the brain.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - UM1 HG008901()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS034389()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS081706()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R35 NS097404()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R56 NS034389()

Interaction between optineurin and Rab1a regulates autophagosome formation in neuroblastoma cells.

  • Song GJ
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Aug 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Optineurin (OPTN) is an autophagy receptor protein that has been implicated in glaucoma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. OPTN-mediated autophagy is a complex process involving many autophagy-regulating proteins. Autophagy plays a critical role in removing damaged organelles, intracellular pathogens, and protein aggregates to maintain cellular homeostasis. We identified Ypt1 as a novel interaction partner of OPTN by performing a large-scale yeast-human two-hybrid assay. Coimmunoprecipitation assay showed that OPTN interacted with Rab1, the mammalian homolog of yeast Ypt1, in N2a mouse neuroblastoma cell line. We confirmed this interaction by confocal microscopy showing intracellular colocalization of the two proteins. We observed that a zinc finger domain of OPTN is important for Rab1a binding. Rab1a activity is also required for the binding with OPTN. The role of the OPTN-Rab1a complex in neuronal autophagy was determined by measuring the translocation of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-EGFP to autophagosomes. In N2a cells, OPTN-induced autophagosome formation was inhibited by Rab1a knockdown, indicating the important role of OPTN-Rab1a interaction in neuronal autophagy processes. Similarly, in N2a cells overexpressing Rab1a, serum starvation-induced formation of autophagosome was enhanced, while OPTN knockdown reduced the Rab1a-induced autophagy. These results show that the OPTN-Rab1a complex modulates autophagosome formation in neuroblastoma cells.

Ccdc3: A New P63 Target Involved in Regulation Of Liver Lipid Metabolism.

  • Liao W
  • Sci Rep
  • 2017 Aug 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

TAp63, a member of the p53 family, has been shown to regulate energy metabolism. Here, we report coiled coil domain-containing 3 (CCDC3) as a new TAp63 target. TAp63, but not ΔNp63, p53 or p73, upregulates CCDC3 expression by directly binding to its enhancer region. The CCDC3 expression is markedly reduced in TAp63-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts and brown adipose tissues and by tumor necrosis factor alpha that reduces p63 transcriptional activity, but induced by metformin, an anti-diabetic drug that activates p63. Also, the expression of CCDC3 is positively correlated with TAp63 levels, but conversely with ΔNp63 levels, during adipocyte differentiation. Interestingly, CCDC3, as a secreted protein, targets liver cancer cells and increases long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, but decreases ceramide in the cells. CCDC3 alleviates glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and steatosis formation in transgenic CCDC3 mice on high-fat diet (HFD) by reducing the expression of hepatic PPARγ and its target gene CIDEA as well as other genes involved in de novo lipogenesis. Similar results are reproduced by hepatic expression of ectopic CCDC3 in mice on HFD. Altogether, these results demonstrate that CCDC3 modulates liver lipid metabolism by inhibiting liver de novo lipogenesis as a downstream player of the p63 network.

Body Temperature Cycles Control Rhythmic Alternative Splicing in Mammals.

  • Preußner M
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Aug 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The core body temperature of all mammals oscillates with the time of the day. However, direct molecular consequences of small, physiological changes in body temperature remain largely elusive. Here we show that body temperature cycles drive rhythmic SR protein phosphorylation to control an alternative splicing (AS) program. A temperature change of 1°C is sufficient to induce a concerted splicing switch in a large group of functionally related genes, rendering this splicing-based thermometer much more sensitive than previously described temperature-sensing mechanisms. AS of two exons in the 5' UTR of the TATA-box binding protein (Tbp) highlights the general impact of this mechanism, as it results in rhythmic TBP protein levels with implications for global gene expression in vivo. Together our data establish body temperature-driven AS as a core clock-independent oscillator in mammalian peripheral clocks.

Reduced Expression of Foxp1 as a Contributing Factor in Huntington's Disease.

  • Louis Sam Titus ASC
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the huntington protein (htt). The neuropathological hallmark of HD is the loss of neurons in the striatum and, to a lesser extent, in the cortex. Foxp1 is a member of the Forkhead family of transcription factors expressed selectively in the striatum and the cortex. In the brain, three major Foxp1 isoforms are expressed: isoform-A (∼90 kDa), isoform-D (∼70 kDa), and isoform-C (∼50 kDa). We find that expression of Foxp1 isoform-A and -D is selectively reduced in the striatum and cortex of R6/2 HD mice as well as in the striatum of HD patients. Furthermore, expression of mutant htt in neurons results in the downregulation of Foxp1 Elevating expression of isoform-A or -D protects cortical neurons from death caused by the expression of mutant htt On the other hand, knockdown of Foxp1 promotes death in otherwise healthy neurons. Neuroprotection by Foxp1 is likely to be mediated by the transcriptional stimulation of the cell-cycle inhibitory protein p21Waf1/Cip1 Consistently, Foxp1 activates transcription of the p21Waf1/Cip1 gene promoter, and overexpression of Foxp1 in neurons results in the elevation of p21 expression. Moreover, knocking down of p21Waf1/Cip1 blocks the ability of Foxp1 to protect neurons from mut-Htt-induced neurotoxicity. We propose that the selective vulnerability of neurons of the striatum and cortex in HD is related to the loss of expression of Foxp1, a protein that is highly expressed in these neurons and required for their survival.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although the mutant huntingtin gene is expressed widely, neurons of the striatum and cortex are selectively affected in Huntington's disease (HD). Our results suggest that this selectivity is attributable to the reduced expression of Foxp1, a protein expressed selectively in striatal and cortical neurons that plays a neuroprotective role in these cells. We show that protection by Foxp1 involves stimulation of the p21Waf1/Cip1 (Cdkn1a) gene. Although three major Foxp1 isoforms (A, C, and D) are expressed in the brain, only isoform-A has been studied in the nervous system. We show that isoform-D is also expressed selectively, neuroprotective and downregulated in HD mice and patients. Our results suggest that Foxp1 might be an attractive therapeutic target for HD.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS040408()

Dynamic Reorganization of Chromatin Accessibility Signatures during Dedifferentiation of Secretory Precursors into Lgr5+ Intestinal Stem Cells.

  • Jadhav U
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Replicating Lgr5+ stem cells and quiescent Bmi1+ cells behave as intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in vivo. Disrupting Lgr5+ ISCs triggers epithelial renewal from Bmi1+ cells, from secretory or absorptive progenitors, and from Paneth cell precursors, revealing a high degree of plasticity within intestinal crypts. Here, we show that GFP+ cells from Bmi1GFP mice are preterminal enteroendocrine cells and we identify CD69+CD274+ cells as related goblet cell precursors. Upon loss of native Lgr5+ ISCs, both populations revert toward an Lgr5+ cell identity. While active histone marks are distributed similarly between Lgr5+ ISCs and progenitors of both major lineages, thousands of cis elements that control expression of lineage-restricted genes are selectively open in secretory cells. This accessibility signature dynamically converts to that of Lgr5+ ISCs during crypt regeneration. Beyond establishing the nature of Bmi1GFP+ cells, these findings reveal how chromatin status underlies intestinal cell diversity and dedifferentiation to restore ISC function and intestinal homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA127003()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F32 DK103453()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK081113()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01 DK103152()

Stabilization of the c-Myc Protein by CAMKIIγ Promotes T Cell Lymphoma.

  • Gu Y
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although high c-Myc protein expression is observed alongside MYC amplification in some cancers, in most cases protein overexpression occurs in the absence of gene amplification, e.g., T cell lymphoma (TCL). Here, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II γ (CAMKIIγ) was shown to stabilize the c-Myc protein by directly phosphorylating it at serine 62 (S62). Furthermore, CAMKIIγ was shown to be essential for tumor maintenance. Inhibition of CAMKIIγ with a specific inhibitor destabilized c-Myc and reduced tumor burden. Importantly, high CAMKIIγ levels in patient TCL specimens correlate with increased c-Myc and pS62-c-Myc levels. Together, the CAMKIIγ:c-Myc axis critically influences the development and maintenance of TCL and represents a potential therapeutic target for TCL.

The Mammalian Malonyl-CoA Synthetase ACSF3 Is Required for Mitochondrial Protein Malonylation and Metabolic Efficiency.

  • Bowman CE
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Malonyl-coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA) is a central metabolite in mammalian fatty acid biochemistry generated and utilized in the cytoplasm; however, little is known about noncanonical organelle-specific malonyl-CoA metabolism. Intramitochondrial malonyl-CoA is generated by a malonyl-CoA synthetase, ACSF3, which produces malonyl-CoA from malonate, an endogenous competitive inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase. To determine the metabolic requirement for mitochondrial malonyl-CoA, ACSF3 knockout (KO) cells were generated by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome editing. ACSF3 KO cells exhibited elevated malonate and impaired mitochondrial metabolism. Unbiased and targeted metabolomics analysis of KO and control cells in the presence or absence of exogenous malonate revealed metabolic changes dependent on either malonate or malonyl-CoA. While ACSF3 was required for the metabolism and therefore detoxification of malonate, ACSF3-derived malonyl-CoA was specifically required for lysine malonylation of mitochondrial proteins. Together, these data describe an essential role for ACSF3 in dictating the metabolic fate of mitochondrial malonate and malonyl-CoA in mammalian metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL108882()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072241()

JMJD3 Is Crucial for the Female AVPV RIP-Cre Neuron-Controlled Kisspeptin-Estrogen Feedback Loop and Reproductive Function.

  • Song A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controls development, reproduction, and metabolism. Although most studies have focused on the hierarchy from the brain to the gonad, many questions remain unresolved concerning the feedback from the gonad to the central nervous system, especially regarding the potential epigenetic modifications in hypothalamic neurons. In the present report, we generated genetically modified mice lacking histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase Jumonji domain-containing 3 (JMJD3) in hypothalamic rat-insulin-promoter-expressing neurons (RIP-Cre neurons). The female mutant mice displayed late-onset obesity owing to reduced locomotor activity and decreased energy expenditure. JMJD3 deficiency in RIP-Cre neurons also results in delayed pubertal onset, an irregular estrous cycle, impaired fertility, and accelerated ovarian failure in female mice owing to the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-ovarian axis. We found that JMJD3 directly regulates Kiss1 gene expression by binding to the Kiss1 promoter and triggering H3K27me3 demethylation in the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Further study confirmed that the aberrations arose from impaired kisspeptin signaling in the hypothalamic AVPV nucleus and subsequent estrogen deficiency. Estrogen replacement therapy can reverse obesity in mutant mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that Jmjd3 is an estrogen target gene in the hypothalamus. These results provide direct genetic and molecular evidence that JMJD3 is a key mediator for the kisspeptin-estrogen feedback loop.

The Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins Sec14l3/SEC14L2 act as GTPase proteins to mediate Wnt/Ca2+ signaling.

  • Gong B
  • Elife
  • 2017 May 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

The non-canonical Wnt/Ca2+ signaling pathway plays important roles in embryonic development, tissue formation and diseases. However, it is unclear how the Wnt ligand-stimulated, G protein-coupled receptor Frizzled activates phospholipases for calcium release. Here, we report that the zebrafish/human phosphatidylinositol transfer protein Sec14l3/SEC14L2 act as GTPase proteins to transduce Wnt signals from Frizzled to phospholipase C (PLC). Depletion of sec14l3 attenuates Wnt/Ca2+ responsive activity and causes convergent and extension (CE) defects in zebrafish embryos. Biochemical analyses in mammalian cells indicate that Sec14l3-GDP forms complex with Frizzled and Dishevelled; Wnt ligand binding of Frizzled induces translocation of Sec14l3 to the plasma membrane; and then Sec14l3-GTP binds to and activates phospholipase Cδ4a (Plcδ4a); subsequently, Plcδ4a initiates phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) signaling, ultimately stimulating calcium release. Furthermore, Plcδ4a can act as a GTPase-activating protein to accelerate the hydrolysis of Sec14l3-bound GTP to GDP. Our data provide a new insight into GTPase protein-coupled Wnt/Ca2+ signaling transduction.

Ezrin activation by LOK phosphorylation involves a PIP2-dependent wedge mechanism.

  • Pelaseyed T
  • Elife
  • 2017 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

How cells specify morphologically distinct plasma membrane domains is poorly understood. Prior work has shown that restriction of microvilli to the apical aspect of epithelial cells requires the localized activation of the membrane-F-actin linking protein ezrin. Using an in vitro system, we now define a multi-step process whereby the kinase LOK specifically phosphorylates ezrin to activate it. Binding of PIP2 to ezrin induces a conformational change permitting the insertion of the LOK C-terminal domain to wedge apart the membrane and F-actin-binding domains of ezrin. The N-terminal LOK kinase domain can then access a site 40 residues distal from the consensus sequence that collectively direct phosphorylation of the appropriate threonine residue. We suggest that this elaborate mechanism ensures that ezrin is only phosphorylated at the plasma membrane, and with high specificity by the apically localized kinase LOK.

Myrf ER-Bound Transcription Factors Drive C. elegans Synaptic Plasticity via Cleavage-Dependent Nuclear Translocation.

  • Meng J
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synaptic refinement is a critical step in nervous system maturation, requiring a carefully timed reorganization and refinement of neuronal connections. We have identified myrf-1 and myrf-2, two C. elegans homologs of Myrf family transcription factors, as key regulators of synaptic rewiring. MYRF-1 and its paralog MYRF-2 are functionally redundant specifically in synaptic rewiring. They co-exist in the same protein complex and act cooperatively to regulate synaptic rewiring. We find that the MYRF proteins localize to the ER membrane and that they are cleaved into active N-terminal fragments, which then translocate into the nucleus to drive synaptic rewiring. Overexpression of active forms of MYRF is sufficient to accelerate synaptic rewiring. MYRF-1 and MYRF-2 are the first genes identified to be indispensable for promoting synaptic rewiring in C. elegans. These findings reveal a molecular mechanism underlying synaptic rewiring and developmental circuit plasticity.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - P40 OD010440()
  • NIH HHS - R01 NS035546()

NBS1 Phosphorylation Status Dictates Repair Choice of Dysfunctional Telomeres.

  • Rai R
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Telomeres employ TRF2 to protect chromosome ends from activating the DNA damage sensor MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN), thereby repressing ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint responses. How TRF2 prevents MRN activation at dysfunctional telomeres is unclear. Here, we show that the phosphorylation status of NBS1 determines the repair pathway choice of dysfunctional telomeres. The crystal structure of the TRF2-NBS1 complex at 3.0 Å resolution shows that the NBS1 429YQLSP433 motif interacts specifically with the TRF2TRFH domain. Phosphorylation of NBS1 serine 432 by CDK2 in S/G2 dissociates NBS1 from TRF2, promoting TRF2-Apollo/SNM1B complex formation and the protection of leading-strand telomeres. Classical-NHEJ-mediated repair of telomeres lacking TRF2 requires phosphorylated NBS1S432 to activate ATM, while interaction of de-phosphorylated NBS1S432 with TRF2 promotes alternative-NHEJ repair of telomeres lacking POT1-TPP1. Our work advances understanding of how the TRF2TRFH domain orchestrates telomere end protection and reveals how the phosphorylation status of the NBS1S432 dictates repair pathway choice of dysfunctional telomeres.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016359()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG028888()

NF-κB regulates neuronal ankyrin-G via a negative feedback loop.

  • König HG
  • Sci Rep
  • 2017 Feb 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

The axon initial segment (AIS) is a neuronal compartment defined by ankyrin-G expression. We here demonstrate that the IKK-complex co-localizes and interacts with the cytoskeletal anchor protein ankyrin-G in immunoprecipitation and proximity-ligation experiments in cortical neurons. Overexpression of the 270 kDa variant of ankyrin-G suppressed, while gene-silencing of ankyrin-G expression increased nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity in primary neurons, suggesting that ankyrin-G sequesters the transcription factor in the AIS. We also found that p65 bound to the ank3 (ankyrin-G) promoter sequence in chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses thereby increasing ank3 expression and ankyrin-G levels at the AIS. Gene-silencing of p65 or ankyrin-G overexpression suppressed ank3 reporter activity. Collectively these data demonstrate that p65/NF-κB controls ankyrin-G levels via a negative feedback loop, thereby linking NF-κB signaling with neuronal polarity and axonal plasticity.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R37 MH063105(United States)

MiR-124 Promotes Newborn Olfactory Bulb Neuron Dendritic Morphogenesis and Spine Density.

  • Li G
  • J. Mol. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Feb 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Using microarray analysis, we detected microRNA-124 (miR-124) to be abundantly expressed in the olfactory bulb (OB). miR-124 regulates adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ). However, much less is known about its role in newborn OB neurons. Here, using both gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches, we demonstrate that brain-specific miR-124 affects dendritic morphogenesis and spine density in newborn OB neurons. Functional Annotation Clustering of miR-124 targets was enriched in "cell morphogenesis involved in neuron differentiation."

Phosphoribosylation of Ubiquitin Promotes Serine Ubiquitination and Impairs Conventional Ubiquitination.

  • Bhogaraju S
  • Cell
  • 2016 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Conventional ubiquitination involves the ATP-dependent formation of amide bonds between the ubiquitin C terminus and primary amines in substrate proteins. Recently, SdeA, an effector protein of pathogenic Legionella pneumophila, was shown to mediate NAD-dependent and ATP-independent ubiquitin transfer to host proteins. Here, we identify a phosphodiesterase domain in SdeA that efficiently catalyzes phosphoribosylation of ubiquitin on a specific arginine via an ADP-ribose-ubiquitin intermediate. SdeA also catalyzes a chemically and structurally distinct type of substrate ubiquitination by conjugating phosphoribosylated ubiquitin to serine residues of protein substrates via a phosphodiester bond. Furthermore, phosphoribosylation of ubiquitin prevents activation of E1 and E2 enzymes of the conventional ubiquitination cascade, thereby impairing numerous cellular processes including mitophagy, TNF signaling, and proteasomal degradation. We propose that phosphoribosylation of ubiquitin potently modulates ubiquitin functions in mammalian cells.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS048425(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS028478(United States)

IRBIT controls apoptosis by interacting with the Bcl-2 homolog, Bcl2l10, and by promoting ER-mitochondria contact.

  • Bonneau B
  • Elife
  • 2016 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

IRBIT is a molecule that interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-binding pocket of the IP3 receptor (IP3R), whereas the antiapoptotic protein, Bcl2l10, binds to another part of the IP3-binding domain. Here we show that Bcl2l10 and IRBIT interact and exert an additive inhibition of IP3R in the physiological state. Moreover, we found that these proteins associate in a complex in mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) and that their interplay is involved in apoptosis regulation. MAMs are a hotspot for Ca2+ transfer between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, and massive Ca2+ release through IP3R in mitochondria induces cell death. We found that upon apoptotic stress, IRBIT is dephosphorylated, becoming an inhibitor of Bcl2l10. Moreover, IRBIT promotes ER mitochondria contact. Our results suggest that by inhibiting Bcl2l10 activity and promoting contact between ER and mitochondria, IRBIT facilitates massive Ca2+ transfer to mitochondria and promotes apoptosis. This work then describes IRBIT as a new regulator of cell death.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 NS036715(United States)
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR001105(United States)

Sam68 promotes self-renewal and glycolytic metabolism in mouse neural progenitor cells by modulating Aldh1a3 pre-mRNA 3'-end processing.

  • La Rosa P
  • Elife
  • 2016 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The balance between self-renewal and differentiation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) dictates neurogenesis and proper brain development. We found that the RNA- binding protein Sam68 (Khdrbs1) is strongly expressed in neurogenic areas of the neocortex and supports the self-renewing potential of mouse NPCs. Knockout of Khdrbs1 constricted the pool of proliferating NPCs by accelerating their cell cycle exit and differentiation into post-mitotic neurons. Sam68 function was linked to regulation of Aldh1a3 pre-mRNA 3'-end processing. Binding of Sam68 to an intronic polyadenylation site prevents its recognition and premature transcript termination, favoring expression of a functional enzyme. The lower ALDH1A3 expression and activity in Khdrbs1-/- NPCs results in reduced glycolysis and clonogenicity, thus depleting the embryonic NPC pool and limiting cortical expansion. Our study identifies Sam68 as a key regulator of NPC self-renewal and establishes a novel link between modulation of ALDH1A3 expression and maintenance of high glycolytic metabolism in the developing cortex.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - C06 RR018928(United States)

Regulation of mTORC1 by lysosomal calcium and calmodulin.

  • Li RJ
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Blockade of lysosomal calcium release due to lysosomal lipid accumulation has been shown to inhibit mTORC1 signaling. However, the mechanism by which lysosomal calcium regulates mTORC1 has remained undefined. Herein we report that proper lysosomal calcium release through the calcium channel TRPML1 is required for mTORC1 activation. TRPML1 depletion inhibits mTORC1 activity, while overexpression or pharmacologic activation of TRPML1 has the opposite effect. Lysosomal calcium activates mTORC1 by inducing association of calmodulin (CaM) with mTOR. Blocking the interaction between mTOR and CaM by antagonists of CaM significantly inhibits mTORC1 activity. Moreover, CaM is capable of stimulating the kinase activity of mTORC1 in a calcium-dependent manner in vitro. These results reveal that mTOR is a new type of CaM-dependent kinase, and TRPML1, lysosomal calcium and CaM play essential regulatory roles in the mTORC1 signaling pathway.

Drosophila larval to pupal switch under nutrient stress requires IP3R/Ca(2+) signalling in glutamatergic interneurons.

  • Jayakumar S
  • Elife
  • 2016 Aug 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuronal circuits are known to integrate nutritional information, but the identity of the circuit components is not completely understood. Amino acids are a class of nutrients that are vital for the growth and function of an organism. Here, we report a neuronal circuit that allows Drosophila larvae to overcome amino acid deprivation and pupariate. We find that nutrient stress is sensed by the class IV multidendritic cholinergic neurons. Through live calcium imaging experiments, we show that these cholinergic stimuli are conveyed to glutamatergic neurons in the ventral ganglion through mAChR. We further show that IP3R-dependent calcium transients in the glutamatergic neurons convey this signal to downstream medial neurosecretory cells (mNSCs). The circuit ultimately converges at the ring gland and regulates expression of ecdysteroid biosynthetic genes. Activity in this circuit is thus likely to be an adaptation that provides a layer of regulation to help surpass nutritional stress during development.

Biochemical and cell biological properties of the human prohormone convertase 1/3 Ser357Gly mutation: a PC1/3 hypermorph.

  • Blanco EH
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Sep 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Satiety and appetite signaling are accomplished by circulating peptide hormones. These peptide hormones require processing from larger precursors to become bioactive, often by the proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3). Several subcellular maturation steps are necessary for PC1/3 to achieve its optimal enzymatic activity. Certain PC1/3 variants found in the general population slightly attenuate its enzymatic activity and are associated with obesity and diabetes. However, mutations that increase PC1/3 activity and/or affect its specificity could also have physiological consequences. We here present data showing that the known human Ser357Gly PC1/3 mutant (PC1/3(S357G)) represents a PC1/3 hypermorph. Conditioned media from human embryonic kidney-293 cells transfected with PC1/3(WT) and PC1/3(S357G) were collected and enzymatic activity characterized. PC1/3(S357G) exhibited a lower calcium dependence; a higher pH optimum (neutral); and a higher resistance to peptide inhibitors than the wild-type enzyme. PC1/3(S357G) exhibited increased cleavage to the C-terminally truncated form, and kinetic parameters of the full-length and truncated mutant enzymes were also altered. Lastly, the S357G mutation broadened the specificity of the enzyme; we detected PC2-like specificity on the substrate proCART, the precursor of the cocaine- and amphetamine regulated transcript neuropeptide known to be associated with obesity. The production of another anorexigenic peptide normally synthesized only by PC2, αMSH, was increased when proopiomelanocortin was coexpressed with PC1/3(S357G). Considering the aberrant enzymatic profile of PC1/3(S357G), we hypothesize that this enzyme possesses unusual processing activity that may significantly change the profile of circulating peptide hormones.

Funding information:
  • NIMHD NIH HHS - 8G12MD 007603-27(United States)

Duodenal CCK cells from male mice express multiple hormones including ghrelin.

  • Sykaras AG
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Sep 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Enteroendocrine (EEC) cells have a pivotal role in intestinal nutrient sensing and release hormones that orchestrate food digestion and regulate appetite. EEC cells are found scattered throughout the intestine and have typically been classified based on the primary hormone they contain. I cells represent a subset of EEC cells that secrete cholecystokinin (CCK) and are mainly localized to the duodenum. Recent studies have shown that I cells express mRNAs encoding several gut hormones. In this study, we investigated the hormonal profile of murine fluorescence-activated cell sorting-sorted duodenal I cells using semiquantitative RT-PCR, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and immunostaining methods. We report that I cells are enriched in mRNA transcripts encoding CCK and also other key gut hormones, including neurotensin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), secretin, peptide YY, proglucagon, and ghrelin (Ghrl). Furthermore, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified I cells and immunostaining confirmed the presence of these gut hormones in duodenal I cells. Immunostaining highlighted that subsets of I cells in both crypts and villi coexpress differential amounts of CCK, Ghrl, GIP, or peptide YY, indicating that a proportion of I cells contain several hormones during maturation and when fully differentiated. Our results reveal that although I cells express several key gut hormones, including GIP or proglucagon, and thus have a considerable overlap with classically defined K and L cells, approximately half express Ghrl, suggesting a potentially important subset of duodenal EEC cells that require further consideration.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01NS036715(United States)

Protein kinase D isoforms are expressed in rat and mouse primary sensory neurons and are activated by agonists of protease-activated receptor 2.

  • Amadesi S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Sep 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Serine proteases generated during injury and inflammation cleave protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR(2)) on primary sensory neurons to induce neurogenic inflammation and hyperalgesia. Hyperalgesia requires sensitization of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) ion channels by mechanisms involving phospholipase C and protein kinase C (PKC). The protein kinase D (PKD) serine/threonine kinases are activated by diacylglycerol and PKCs and can phosphorylate TRPV1. Thus, PKDs may participate in novel signal transduction pathways triggered by serine proteases during inflammation and pain. However, it is not known whether PAR(2) activates PKD, and the expression of PKD isoforms by nociceptive neurons is poorly characterized. By using HEK293 cells transfected with PKDs, we found that PAR(2) stimulation promoted plasma membrane translocation and phosphorylation of PKD1, PKD2, and PKD3, indicating activation. This effect was partially dependent on PKCepsilon. By immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, with antibodies against PKD1/PKD2 and PKD3 and neuronal markers, we found that PKDs were expressed in rat and mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, including nociceptive neurons that expressed TRPV1, PAR(2), and neuropeptides. PAR(2) agonist induced phosphorylation of PKD in cultured DRG neurons, indicating PKD activation. Intraplantar injection of PAR(2) agonist also caused phosphorylation of PKD in neurons of lumbar DRG, confirming activation in vivo. Thus, PKD1, PKD2, and PKD3 are expressed in primary sensory neurons that mediate neurogenic inflammation and pain transmission, and PAR(2) agonists activate PKDs in HEK293 cells and DRG neurons in culture and in intact animals. PKD may be a novel component of a signal transduction pathway for protease-induced activation of nociceptive neurons and an important new target for antiinflammatory and analgesic therapies.