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GAPDH (6C5) antibody

RRID:AB_627679

MicroRNAs Overcome Cell Fate Barrier by Reducing EZH2-Controlled REST Stability during Neuronal Conversion of Human Adult Fibroblasts.

  • Lee SW
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jul 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ability to convert human somatic cells efficiently to neurons facilitates the utility of patient-derived neurons for studying neurological disorders. As such, ectopic expression of neuronal microRNAs (miRNAs), miR-9/9∗ and miR-124 (miR-9/9∗-124) in adult human fibroblasts has been found to evoke extensive reconfigurations of the chromatin and direct the fate conversion to neurons. However, how miR-9/9∗-124 break the cell fate barrier to activate the neuronal program remains to be defined. Here, we identified an anti-neurogenic function of EZH2 in fibroblasts that acts outside its role as a subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 to directly methylate and stabilize REST, a transcriptional repressor of neuronal genes. During neuronal conversion, miR-9/9∗-124 induced the repression of the EZH2-REST axis by downregulating USP14, accounting for the opening of chromatin regions harboring REST binding sites. Our findings underscore the interplay between miRNAs and protein stability cascade underlying the activation of neuronal program.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P50 HL077107(United States)

AMPK/FIS1-Mediated Mitophagy Is Required for Self-Renewal of Human AML Stem Cells.

  • Pei S
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are thought to drive the genesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as well as relapse following chemotherapy. Because of their unique biology, developing effective methods to eradicate LSCs has been a significant challenge. In the present study, we demonstrate that intrinsic overexpression of the mitochondrial dynamics regulator FIS1 mediates mitophagy activity that is essential for primitive AML cells. Depletion of FIS1 attenuates mitophagy and leads to inactivation of GSK3, myeloid differentiation, cell cycle arrest, and a profound loss of LSC self-renewal potential. Further, we report that the central metabolic stress regulator AMPK is also intrinsically activated in LSC populations and is upstream of FIS1. Inhibition of AMPK signaling recapitulates the biological effect of FIS1 loss. These data suggest a model in which LSCs co-opt AMPK/FIS1-mediated mitophagy as a means to maintain stem cell properties that may be otherwise compromised by the stresses induced by oncogenic transformation.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR001082()
  • NCI NIH HHS - F31 CA196330()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA046934()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA166265()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA193994()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA200707()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01-HD048960(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008497()

Restricted Presence of POU6F2 in Human Corneal Endothelial Cells Uncovered by Extension of the Promoter-level Expression Atlas.

  • Yoshihara M
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 Jul 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Corneal endothelial cells (CECs) are essential for maintaining the clarity of the cornea. Because CECs have limited proliferative ability, interest is growing in their potentially therapeutic regeneration from pluripotent stem cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of human CEC differentiation remain largely unknown. To determine the key regulators of CEC characteristics, here we generated a comprehensive promoter-level expression profile of human CECs, using cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) with a single molecule sequencer. Integration with the FANTOM5 promoter-level expression atlas, which includes transcriptome profiles of various human tissues and cells, enabled us to identify 45 promoters at 28 gene loci that are specifically expressed in CECs. We further discovered that the expression of transcription factor POU class 6 homeobox 2 (POU6F2) is restricted to CECs, and upregulated during human CEC differentiation, suggesting that POU6F2 is pivotal to terminal differentiation of CECs. These CEC-specific promoters would be useful for the assessment of fully differentiated CECs derived from pluripotent stem cells. These findings promote the development of corneal regenerative medicine.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH094714(United States)

Peripheral Neuropathy and Hindlimb Paralysis in a Mouse Model of Adipocyte-Specific Knockout of Lkb1.

  • Xiong Y
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Brown adipose tissues (BAT) burn lipids to generate heat through uncoupled respiration, thus representing a powerful target to counteract lipid accumulation and obesity. The tumor suppressor liver kinase b1 (Lkb1) is a key regulator of cellular energy metabolism; and adipocyte-specific knockout of Lkb1 (Ad-Lkb1 KO) leads to the expansion of BAT, improvements in systemic metabolism and resistance to obesity in young mice. Here we report the unexpected finding that the Ad-Lkb1 KO mice develop hindlimb paralysis at mid-age. Gene expression analyses indicate that Lkb1 KO upregulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines in interscapular BAT and epineurial brown adipocytes surrounding the sciatic nerve. This is followed by peripheral neuropathy characterized by infiltration of macrophages into the sciatic nerve, axon degeneration, reduced nerve conductance, and hindlimb paralysis. Mechanistically, Lkb1 KO reduces AMPK phosphorylation and amplifies mammalian target-of-rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent inflammatory signaling specifically in BAT but not WAT. Importantly, pharmacological or genetic inhibition of mTOR ameliorates inflammation and prevents paralysis. These results demonstrate that BAT inflammation is linked to peripheral neuropathy.

MLKL Requires the Inositol Phosphate Code to Execute Necroptosis.

  • Dovey CM
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Necroptosis is an important form of lytic cell death triggered by injury and infection, but whether mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) is sufficient to execute this pathway is unknown. In a genetic selection for human cell mutants defective for MLKL-dependent necroptosis, we identified mutations in IPMK and ITPK1, which encode inositol phosphate (IP) kinases that regulate the IP code of soluble molecules. We show that IP kinases are essential for necroptosis triggered by death receptor activation, herpesvirus infection, or a pro-necrotic MLKL mutant. In IP kinase mutant cells, MLKL failed to oligomerize and localize to membranes despite proper receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3)-dependent phosphorylation. We demonstrate that necroptosis requires IP-specific kinase activity and that a highly phosphorylated product, but not a lowly phosphorylated precursor, potently displaces the MLKL auto-inhibitory brace region. These observations reveal control of MLKL-mediated necroptosis by a metabolite and identify a key molecular mechanism underlying regulated cell death.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA8766(United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - DP2 AI104557()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI020211()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - T32 AI007328()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U19 AI109662()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM122923()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM124404()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007347()

Mitophagy in Intestinal Epithelial Cells Triggers Adaptive Immunity during Tumorigenesis.

  • Ziegler PK
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jun 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

In colorectal cancer patients, a high density of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in tumors is associated with better prognosis. Using a Stat3 loss-of-function approach in two wnt/β-catenin-dependent autochthonous models of sporadic intestinal tumorigenesis, we unravel a complex intracellular process in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that controls the induction of a CD8+ T cell based adaptive immune response. Elevated mitophagy in IECs causes iron(II)-accumulation in epithelial lysosomes, in turn, triggering lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Subsequent release of proteases into the cytoplasm augments MHC class I presentation and activation of CD8+ T cells via cross-dressing of dendritic cells. Thus, our findings highlight a so-far-unrecognized link between mitochondrial function, lysosomal integrity, and MHC class I presentation in IECs and suggest that therapies triggering mitophagy or inducing LMP in IECs may prove successful in shifting the balance toward anti-tumor immunity in colorectal cancer.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P01 AI035297-170007(United States)

Selective Loss of PARG Restores PARylation and Counteracts PARP Inhibitor-Mediated Synthetic Lethality.

  • Gogola E
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase (PARPi) have recently entered the clinic for the treatment of homologous recombination (HR)-deficient cancers. Despite the success of this approach, drug resistance is a clinical hurdle, and we poorly understand how cancer cells escape the deadly effects of PARPi without restoring the HR pathway. By combining genetic screens with multi-omics analysis of matched PARPi-sensitive and -resistant Brca2-mutated mouse mammary tumors, we identified loss of PAR glycohydrolase (PARG) as a major resistance mechanism. We also found the presence of PARG-negative clones in a subset of human serous ovarian and triple-negative breast cancers. PARG depletion restores PAR formation and partially rescues PARP1 signaling. Importantly, PARG inactivation exposes vulnerabilities that can be exploited therapeutically.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM061835(United States)

APOE4 Causes Widespread Molecular and Cellular Alterations Associated with Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes in Human iPSC-Derived Brain Cell Types.

  • Lin YT
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) variant is the single greatest genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). However, the cell-type-specific functions of APOE4 in relation to AD pathology remain understudied. Here, we utilize CRISPR/Cas9 and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to examine APOE4 effects on human brain cell types. Transcriptional profiling identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes in each cell type, with the most affected involving synaptic function (neurons), lipid metabolism (astrocytes), and immune response (microglia-like cells). APOE4 neurons exhibited increased synapse number and elevated Aβ42 secretion relative to isogenic APOE3 cells while APOE4 astrocytes displayed impaired Aβ uptake and cholesterol accumulation. Notably, APOE4 microglia-like cells exhibited altered morphologies, which correlated with reduced Aβ phagocytosis. Consistently, converting APOE4 to APOE3 in brain cell types from sAD iPSCs was sufficient to attenuate multiple AD-related pathologies. Our study establishes a reference for human cell-type-specific changes associated with the APOE4 variant. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - RC1 AG036106()
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG048029()
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG048056()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK070136(United States)

Distinct roles of ATM and ATR in the regulation of ARP8 phosphorylation to prevent chromosome translocations.

  • Sun J
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chromosomal translocations are hallmarks of various types of cancers and leukemias. However, the molecular mechanisms of chromosome translocations remain largely unknown. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein, a DNA damage signaling regulator, facilitates DNA repair to prevent chromosome abnormalities. Previously, we showed that ATM deficiency led to the 11q23 chromosome translocation, the most frequent chromosome abnormalities in secondary leukemia. Here, we show that ARP8, a subunit of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, is phosphorylated after etoposide treatment. The etoposide-induced phosphorylation of ARP8 is regulated by ATM and ATR, and attenuates its interaction with INO80. The ATM-regulated phosphorylation of ARP8 reduces the excessive loading of INO80 and RAD51 onto the breakpoint cluster region. These findings suggest that the phosphorylation of ARP8, regulated by ATM, plays an important role in maintaining the fidelity of DNA repair to prevent the etoposide-induced 11q23 abnormalities.

Funding information:
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP15H02821()
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP16H01312()
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP26430114()
  • KWF Kankerbestrijding - The Oncode Institute()
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology - Program of the Joint Usage/Research Center of Kyoto University()
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology - the Program of the network-type joint Usage/Research Center for ()
  • Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek - The gravitation program CancerGenomiCs.nl()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R37 AI042528(United States)

β4GalT1 Mediates PPARγ N-Glycosylation to Attenuate Microglia Inflammatory Activation.

  • Liu X
  • Inflammation
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The inflammatory activation of microglia has double-edged effects in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. The ligand-activated transcriptional factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) inhibits the inflammatory response. β-1,4-Galactosyltransferase Ι (β1, 4GalT1) mediates N-glycosylation. In this study, the N-glycosylation of PPARγ, as well as two N-linked glycosylation sites in its DNA binding domain (DBD), was identified. Disruption of both sites by site-directed mutagenesis completely abrogated the N-glycosylation of PPARγ. PPAR wild-type (WT) transfection inhibited the inflammatory activation of microglia, while the anti-inflammatory function of unglycosylated PPARγ was down-regulated. In addition, β1, 4GalT1 was shown to interact with PPARγ and to mediate PPARγ glycosylation. β1, 4GalT1 promoted PPARγ's anti-transcription and anti-inflammatory functions. Collectively, our findings define that β-1, 4GalT1 mediated PPARγ glycosylation to attenuate the inflammatory activation of microglia, which has implications for potential therapies for CNS inflammatory diseases.

Funding information:
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 81401365()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM0737920(United States)

Pharmacological Inhibition of the Ubiquitin Ligase RNF5 Rescues F508del-CFTR in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelia.

  • Sondo E
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2018 Apr 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

In cystic fibrosis (CF), deletion of phenylalanine 508 (F508del) in the CFTR channel is associated with misfolding and premature degradation of the mutant protein. Among the known proteins associated with F508del-CFTR processing, the ubiquitin ligase RNF5/RMA1 is particularly interesting. We previously demonstrated that genetic suppression of RNF5 in vivo leads to an attenuation of intestinal pathological phenotypes in CF mice, validating the relevance of RNF5 as a drug target for CF. Here, we used a computational approach, based on ligand docking and virtual screening, to discover inh-02, a drug-like small molecule that inhibits RNF5. In in vitro experiments, treatment with inh-02 modulated ATG4B and paxillin, both known RNF5 targets. In immortalized and primary bronchial epithelial cells derived from CF patients homozygous for the F508del mutation, long-term incubation with inh-02 caused significant F508del-CFTR rescue. This work validates RNF5 as a drug target for CF, providing evidence to support its druggability.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01-CA111619(United States)

Systematic Characterization of Stress-Induced RNA Granulation.

  • Namkoong S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Upon stress, cytoplasmic mRNA is sequestered to insoluble ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules, such as the stress granule (SG). Partially due to the belief that translationally suppressed mRNAs are recruited to SGs in bulk, stress-induced dynamic redistribution of mRNA has not been thoroughly characterized. Here, we report that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress targets only a small subset of translationally suppressed mRNAs into the insoluble RNP granule fraction (RG). This subset, characterized by extended length and adenylate-uridylate (AU)-rich motifs, is highly enriched with genes critical for cell survival and proliferation. This pattern of RG targeting was conserved for two other stress types, heat shock and arsenite toxicity, which induce distinct responses in the total cytoplasmic transcriptome. Nevertheless, stress-specific RG-targeting motifs, such as guanylate-cytidylate (GC)-rich motifs in heat shock, were also identified. Previously underappreciated, transcriptome profiling in the RG may contribute to understanding human diseases associated with RNP dysfunction, such as cancer and neurodegeneration.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI043477(United States)

Ribosome Levels Selectively Regulate Translation and Lineage Commitment in Human Hematopoiesis.

  • Khajuria RK
  • Cell
  • 2018 Mar 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Blood cell formation is classically thought to occur through a hierarchical differentiation process, although recent studies have shown that lineage commitment may occur earlier in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The relevance to human blood diseases and the underlying regulation of these refined models remain poorly understood. By studying a genetic blood disorder, Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA), where the majority of mutations affect ribosomal proteins and the erythroid lineage is selectively perturbed, we are able to gain mechanistic insight into how lineage commitment is programmed normally and disrupted in disease. We show that in DBA, the pool of available ribosomes is limited, while ribosome composition remains constant. Surprisingly, this global reduction in ribosome levels more profoundly alters translation of a select subset of transcripts. We show how the reduced translation of select transcripts in HSPCs can impair erythroid lineage commitment, illuminating a regulatory role for ribosome levels in cellular differentiation.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R33 HL120791()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL007574()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103794()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM062917-06(United States)

Replication Stress Shapes a Protective Chromatin Environment across Fragile Genomic Regions.

  • Kim J
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jan 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent integrative epigenome analyses highlight the importance of functionally distinct chromatin states for accurate cell function. How these states are established and maintained is a matter of intense investigation. Here, we present evidence for DNA damage as an unexpected means to shape a protective chromatin environment at regions of recurrent replication stress (RS). Upon aberrant fork stalling, DNA damage signaling and concomitant H2AX phosphorylation coordinate the FACT-dependent deposition of macroH2A1.2, a histone variant that promotes DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR). MacroH2A1.2, in turn, facilitates the accumulation of the tumor suppressor and HR effector BRCA1 at replication forks to protect from RS-induced DNA damage. Consequently, replicating primary cells steadily accrue macroH2A1.2 at fragile regions, whereas macroH2A1.2 loss in these cells triggers DNA damage signaling-dependent senescence, a hallmark of RS. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that recurrent DNA damage contributes to the chromatin landscape to ensure the epigenomic integrity of dividing cells.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA BC011282-01()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM073046(United States)

Fisetin provides antidepressant effects by activating the tropomyosin receptor kinase B signal pathway in mice.

  • Wang Y
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Depression has been associated with a low-grade chronic inflammatory state, suggesting a potential therapeutic role for anti-inflammatory agents. Fisetin is a naturally occurring flavonoid in strawberries that has anti-inflammatory activities, but whether fisetin has antidepressant effects is unknown. In this study, we exposed mice to spatial restraint for 2 weeks with or without treatment with fisetin. Immobility time in the forced swimming and tail suspension test after this restraint increased in the untreated group, but this increase did not occur in the fisetin group. We administered fisetin to Abelson helper integration site-1 (Ahi1) knockout mice, which have depressive phenotypes. We found that fisetin attenuated the depressive phenotype of these Ahi1 knockout mice. We further investigated the potential mechanism of fisetin's antidepressant effects. Because TrkB is a critical signaling pathway in the mechanisms of depression, we examined whether phosphorylated TrkB was involved in the antidepressant effects of fisetin. We found that fisetin increased phosphorylated TrkB level without altering total TrkB; this increase was attenuated by K252a, a specific TrkB inhibitor. Taken together, our results demonstrated that fisetin may have therapeutic potential for treating depression and that this antidepressant effect may be mediated by the activation of the TrkB signaling pathway.

The conformational epitope for a new Aβ42 protofibril-selective antibody partially overlaps with the peptide N-terminal region.

  • Colvin BA
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aggregation and accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is a key component of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While monomeric Aβ appears to be benign, oligomers adopt a biologically detrimental structure. These soluble structures can be detected in AD brain tissue by antibodies that demonstrate selectivity for aggregated Aβ. Protofibrils are a subset of soluble oligomeric Aβ species and are described as small (< 100 nm) curvilinear assemblies enriched in β-sheet structure. Our own in vitro studies demonstrate that microglial cells are much more sensitive to soluble Aβ42 protofibrils compared to Aβ42 monomer or insoluble Aβ42 fibrils. Protofibrils interact with microglia, trigger Toll-like receptor signaling, elicit cytokine transcription and expression, and are rapidly taken up by the cells. Because of the importance of this Aβ species, we sought to develop an antibody that selectively recognizes protofibrils over other Aβ species. Immunization of rabbits with isolated Aβ42 protofibrils generated a high-titer anti serum with a strong affinity for Aβ42 protofibrils. The antiserum, termed AbSL, was selective for Aβ42 protofibrils over Aβ42 monomers and Aβ42 fibrils. AbSL did not react with amyloid precursor protein and recognized distinct pathological features in AD transgenic mouse brain slices. Competition studies with an Aβ antibody that targets residues 1-16 indicated that the conformational epitope for AbSL involved the N-terminal region of protofibrils in some manner. The newly developed antibody may have potential diagnostic and therapeutic uses in AD tissue and patients, and targeting of protofibrils in AD may have beneficial effects. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on page 621. Cover Image for this issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.13827.

Force Triggers YAP Nuclear Entry by Regulating Transport across Nuclear Pores.

  • Elosegui-Artola A
  • Cell
  • 2017 Nov 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

YAP is a mechanosensitive transcriptional activator with a critical role in cancer, regeneration, and organ size control. Here, we show that force applied to the nucleus directly drives YAP nuclear translocation by decreasing the mechanical restriction of nuclear pores to molecular transport. Exposure to a stiff environment leads cells to establish a mechanical connection between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton, allowing forces exerted through focal adhesions to reach the nucleus. Force transmission then leads to nuclear flattening, which stretches nuclear pores, reduces their mechanical resistance to molecular transport, and increases YAP nuclear import. The restriction to transport is further regulated by the mechanical stability of the transported protein, which determines both active nuclear transport of YAP and passive transport of small proteins. Our results unveil a mechanosensing mechanism mediated directly by nuclear pores, demonstrated for YAP but with potential general applicability in transcriptional regulation.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI 064481(United States)

Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Agonist ACEA Protects Neurons from Death and Attenuates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Apoptotic Pathway Signaling.

  • Vrechi TA
  • Neurotox Res
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurodegeneration is the result of progressive destruction of neurons in the central nervous system, with unknown causes and pathological mechanisms not yet fully elucidated. Several factors contribute to neurodegenerative processes, including neuroinflammation, accumulation of neurotoxic factors, and misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Endocannabinoid signaling has been pointed out as an important modulatory system in several neurodegeneration-related processes, inhibiting the inflammatory response and increasing neuronal survival. Thus, we investigated the presumptive protective effect of the selective cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor agonist arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) against inflammatory (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and ER stress (tunicamycin) stimuli in an in vitro neuronal model (Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells). Cell viability analysis revealed that ACEA was able to protect against cell death induced by LPS and tunicamycin. This neuroprotective effect occurs via the CB1 receptor in the inflammation process and via the transient receptor potential of vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channel in ER stress. Furthermore, the immunoblotting analyses indicated that the neuroprotective effect of ACEA seems to involve the modulation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and caspase 12, as well as the survival/death p44/42 MAPK, ERK1/2-related signaling pathways. Together, these data suggest that the endocannabinoid system is a potential therapeutic target in neurodegenerative processes, especially in ER-related neurodegenerative diseases.

Funding information:
  • Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - 1233360()
  • Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - 1279985()
  • Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo - 2014/06372-0()

H3.3K27M Cooperates with Trp53 Loss and PDGFRA Gain in Mouse Embryonic Neural Progenitor Cells to Induce Invasive High-Grade Gliomas.

  • Pathania M
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Nov 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gain-of-function mutations in histone 3 (H3) variants are found in a substantial proportion of pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGG), often in association with TP53 loss and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) amplification. Here, we describe a somatic mouse model wherein H3.3K27M and Trp53 loss alone are sufficient for neoplastic transformation if introduced in utero. H3.3K27M-driven lesions are clonal, H3K27me3 depleted, Olig2 positive, highly proliferative, and diffusely spreading, thus recapitulating hallmark molecular and histopathological features of pHGG. Addition of wild-type PDGFRA decreases latency and increases tumor invasion, while ATRX knockdown is associated with more circumscribed tumors. H3.3K27M-tumor cells serially engraft in recipient mice, and preliminary drug screening reveals mutation-specific vulnerabilities. Overall, we provide a faithful H3.3K27M-pHGG model which enables insights into oncohistone pathogenesis and investigation of future therapies.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA196539()

Chemical Proteomics Identifies Druggable Vulnerabilities in a Genetically Defined Cancer.

  • Bar-Peled L
  • Cell
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The transcription factor NRF2 is a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant response, and it is often genetically activated in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) by, for instance, mutations in the negative regulator KEAP1. While direct pharmacological inhibition of NRF2 has proven challenging, its aberrant activation rewires biochemical networks in cancer cells that may create special vulnerabilities. Here, we use chemical proteomics to map druggable proteins that are selectively expressed in KEAP1-mutant NSCLC cells. Principal among these is NR0B1, an atypical orphan nuclear receptor that we show engages in a multimeric protein complex to regulate the transcriptional output of KEAP1-mutant NSCLC cells. We further identify small molecules that covalently target a conserved cysteine within the NR0B1 protein interaction domain, and we demonstrate that these compounds disrupt NR0B1 complexes and impair the anchorage-independent growth of KEAP1-mutant cancer cells. Our findings designate NR0B1 as a druggable transcriptional regulator that supports NRF2-dependent lung cancers.

Cellular Retinoic Acid-Binding Protein 1 Modulates Stem Cell Proliferation to Affect Learning and Memory in Male Mice.

  • Lin YL
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Retinoic acid (RA) is the active ingredient of vitamin A. It exerts its canonical activity by binding to nuclear RA receptors (RARs) to regulate gene expression. Increasingly, RA is also known to elicit nongenomic RAR-independent activities, most widely detected in activating extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. This study validated the functional role of cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1 (Crabp1) in mediating nongenomic activity in RA, specifically activating ERK1/2 to rapidly augment the cell cycle by expanding the growth 1 phase and slowing down embryonic stem cell and neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation. The study further uncovered the physiological activity of Crabp1 in modulating NSC proliferation and animal behavior. In the Crabp1 knockout mouse hippocampus, where Crabp1 is otherwise detected in the subgranular zone, neurogenesis and NSC proliferation increased and hippocampus-dependent brain functions such as learning and memory correspondingly improved. This study established the physiological role of Crabp1 in modulating stem cell proliferation and hippocampus-dependent brain activities such as learning and memory.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK054733()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK060521()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS039444(United States)

A Phosphosite within the SH2 Domain of Lck Regulates Its Activation by CD45.

  • Courtney AH
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Aug 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Src Family kinase Lck sets a critical threshold for T cell activation because it phosphorylates the TCR complex and the Zap70 kinase. How a T cell controls the abundance of active Lck molecules remains poorly understood. We have identified an unappreciated role for a phosphosite, Y192, within the Lck SH2 domain that profoundly affects the amount of active Lck in cells. Notably, mutation of Y192 blocks critical TCR-proximal signaling events and impairs thymocyte development in retrogenic mice. We determined that these defects are caused by hyperphosphorylation of the inhibitory C-terminal tail of Lck. Our findings reveal that modification of Y192 inhibits the ability of CD45 to associate with Lck in cells and dephosphorylate the C-terminal tail of Lck, which prevents its adoption of an active open conformation. These results suggest a negative feedback loop that responds to signaling events that tune active Lck amounts and TCR sensitivity.

TIA1 Mutations in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia Promote Phase Separation and Alter Stress Granule Dynamics.

  • Mackenzie IR
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are age-related neurodegenerative disorders with shared genetic etiologies and overlapping clinical and pathological features. Here we studied a novel ALS/FTD family and identified the P362L mutation in the low-complexity domain (LCD) of T cell-restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA1). Subsequent genetic association analyses showed an increased burden of TIA1 LCD mutations in ALS patients compared to controls (p = 8.7 × 10-6). Postmortem neuropathology of five TIA1 mutations carriers showed a consistent pathological signature with numerous round, hyaline, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-positive inclusions. TIA1 mutations significantly increased the propensity of TIA1 protein to undergo phase transition. In live cells, TIA1 mutations delayed stress granule (SG) disassembly and promoted the accumulation of non-dynamic SGs that harbored TDP-43. Moreover, TDP-43 in SGs became less mobile and insoluble. The identification of TIA1 mutations in ALS/FTD reinforces the importance of RNA metabolism and SG dynamics in ALS/FTD pathogenesis.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R35 NS097974()

The Matrix Protein of Human Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Induces Mitophagy that Suppresses Interferon Responses.

  • Ding B
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Apr 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mitophagy is a form of autophagy that selectively removes damaged mitochondria. Impaired mitochondria can be tagged by the kinase PINK1, which triggers recruitment of the E3-ubiquitin ligase Parkin and subsequent mitochondrial sequestration within autophagosomes. We previously found that human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) infection induces autophagy, but the type and mechanisms of autophagy induction remain unknown. Here, we show that matrix protein (M) of HPIV3 translocates to mitochondria and interacts with Tu translation elongation factor mitochondrial (TUFM). M-mediated mitophagy does not require the Parkin-PINK1 pathway but rather an interaction between M and the LC3 protein that mediates autophagosome formation. These interactions with both TUFM and LC3 are required for the induction of mitophagy and lead to inhibition of the type I interferon response. These results reveal that a viral protein is sufficient to induce mitophagy by bridging autophagosomes and mitochondria.

Circ-ZNF609 Is a Circular RNA that Can Be Translated and Functions in Myogenesis.

  • Legnini I
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) constitute a family of transcripts with unique structures and still largely unknown functions. Their biogenesis, which proceeds via a back-splicing reaction, is fairly well characterized, whereas their role in the modulation of physiologically relevant processes is still unclear. Here we performed expression profiling of circRNAs during in vitro differentiation of murine and human myoblasts, and we identified conserved species regulated in myogenesis and altered in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A high-content functional genomic screen allowed the study of their functional role in muscle differentiation. One of them, circ-ZNF609, resulted in specifically controlling myoblast proliferation. Circ-ZNF609 contains an open reading frame spanning from the start codon, in common with the linear transcript, and terminating at an in-frame STOP codon, created upon circularization. Circ-ZNF609 is associated with heavy polysomes, and it is translated into a protein in a splicing-dependent and cap-independent manner, providing an example of a protein-coding circRNA in eukaryotes.

Funding information:
  • Telethon - GGP16213()

Perturbation of Serotonin Homeostasis during Adulthood Affects Serotonergic Neuronal Circuitry.

  • Pratelli M
  • eNeuro
  • 2017 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Growing evidence shows that the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) modulates the fine-tuning of neuron development and the establishment of wiring patterns in the brain. However, whether serotonin is involved in the maintenance of neuronal circuitry in the adult brain remains elusive. Here, we use a Tph2fl°x conditional knockout (cKO) mouse line to assess the impact of serotonin depletion during adulthood on serotonergic system organization. Data show that the density of serotonergic fibers is increased in the hippocampus and decreased in the thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) as a consequence of brain serotonin depletion. Strikingly, these defects are rescued following reestablishment of brain 5-HT signaling via administration of the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). Finally, 3D reconstruction of serotonergic fibers reveals that changes in serotonin homeostasis affect axonal branching complexity. These data demonstrate that maintaining proper serotonin homeostasis in the adult brain is crucial to preserve the correct serotonergic axonal wiring.

Transcriptional Elongation of HSV Immediate Early Genes by the Super Elongation Complex Drives Lytic Infection and Reactivation from Latency.

  • Alfonso-Dunn R
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Apr 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The cellular transcriptional coactivator HCF-1 is required for initiation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) lytic infection and for reactivation from latency in sensory neurons. HCF-1 stabilizes the viral Immediate Early (IE) gene enhancer complex and mediates chromatin transitions to promote IE transcription initiation. In infected cells, HCF-1 was also found to be associated with a network of transcription elongation components including the super elongation complex (SEC). IE genes exhibit characteristics of genes controlled by transcriptional elongation, and the SEC-P-TEFb complex is specifically required to drive the levels of productive IE mRNAs. Significantly, compounds that enhance the levels of SEC-P-TEFb also potently stimulated HSV reactivation from latency both in a sensory ganglia model system and in vivo. Thus, transcriptional elongation of HSV IE genes is a key limiting parameter governing both the initiation of HSV infection and reactivation of latent genomes.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM114141()

Functional Selectivity in Cytokine Signaling Revealed Through a Pathogenic EPO Mutation.

  • Kim AR
  • Cell
  • 2017 Mar 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cytokines are classically thought to stimulate downstream signaling pathways through monotonic activation of receptors. We describe a severe anemia resulting from a homozygous mutation (R150Q) in the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO). Surprisingly, the EPO R150Q mutant shows only a mild reduction in affinity for its receptor but has altered binding kinetics. The EPO mutant is less effective at stimulating erythroid cell proliferation and differentiation, even at maximally potent concentrations. While the EPO mutant can stimulate effectors such as STAT5 to a similar extent as the wild-type ligand, there is reduced JAK2-mediated phosphorylation of select downstream targets. This impairment in downstream signaling mechanistically arises from altered receptor dimerization dynamics due to extracellular binding changes. These results demonstrate how variation in a single cytokine can lead to biased downstream signaling and can thereby cause human disease. Moreover, we have defined a distinct treatable form of anemia through mutation identification and functional studies.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U54 HG003067()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - K02 HL111156()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL107558()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R33 HL120791()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R37 AI051321()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103794()

Loss of MyoD Promotes Fate Transdifferentiation of Myoblasts Into Brown Adipocytes.

  • Wang C
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2017 Feb 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) represents a promising agent to ameliorate obesity and other metabolic disorders. However, the abundance of BAT decreases with age and BAT paucity is a common feature of obese subjects. As brown adipocytes and myoblasts share a common Myf5 lineage origin, elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the fate choices of brown adipocytes versus myoblasts may lead to novel approaches to expand BAT mass. Here we identify MyoD as a key negative regulator of brown adipocyte development. CRISPR/CAS9-mediated deletion of MyoD in C2C12 myoblasts facilitates their adipogenic transdifferentiation. MyoD knockout downregulates miR-133 and upregulates the miR-133 target Igf1r, leading to amplification of PI3K-Akt signaling. Accordingly, inhibition of PI3K or Akt abolishes the adipogenic gene expression of MyoD null myoblasts. Strikingly, loss of MyoD converts satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts to brown adipocytes through upregulation of Prdm16, a target of miR-133 and key determinant of brown adipocyte fate. Conversely, forced expression of MyoD in brown preadipocytes blocks brown adipogenesis and upregulates the expression of myogenic genes. Importantly, miR-133a knockout significantly blunts the inhibitory effect of MyoD on brown adipogenesis. Our results establish MyoD as a negative regulator of brown adipocyte development by upregulating miR-133 to suppress Akt signaling and Prdm16.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR060652()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR062142()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R21 AR070319()

Inflammatory Stimuli Increase Progesterone Receptor-A Stability and Transrepressive Activity in Myometrial Cells.

  • Peters GA
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The steroid hormone progesterone acting via the nuclear progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms, progesterone receptor A (PR-A) and progesterone receptor B (PR-B), is essential for the maintenance of uterine quiescence during pregnancy. Inhibition of PR signaling augments uterine contractility and induces labor. Human parturition is thought to be triggered by modulation of PR signaling in myometrial cells to induce a functional progesterone withdrawal. One mechanism for functional progesterone withdrawal is increased abundance of PR-A, which decreases progesterone responsiveness by inhibiting the transcriptional activity of PR-B. Human parturition also involves tissue-level inflammation within the myometrium. This study examined the control of PR-A abundance and transrepressive activity in myometrial cells and the role of the inflammatory stimuli in the form of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in these processes. We found that abundance of PR-A was markedly increased by progesterone and by exposure to IL-1β and LPS via posttranslational mechanisms involving increased PR-A protein stability. In contrast, progesterone decreased abundance of PR-B by increasing its rate of degradation. Together, progesterone and proinflammatory stimuli induced a PR-A-dominant state in myometrial cells similar to that observed in term laboring myometrium. IL-1β and LPS also increased the capacity for PR-A to inhibit the transcriptional activity of PR-B. Taken together, our data suggest that proinflammatory stimuli increase the steady-state levels of PR-A and its transrepressive activity in myometrial cells and support the hypothesis that tissue-level inflammation triggers parturition by inducing PR-A-mediated functional progesterone withdrawal.

Germline NLRP1 Mutations Cause Skin Inflammatory and Cancer Susceptibility Syndromes via Inflammasome Activation.

  • Zhong FL
  • Cell
  • 2016 Sep 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inflammasome complexes function as key innate immune effectors that trigger inflammation in response to pathogen- and danger-associated signals. Here, we report that germline mutations in the inflammasome sensor NLRP1 cause two overlapping skin disorders: multiple self-healing palmoplantar carcinoma (MSPC) and familial keratosis lichenoides chronica (FKLC). We find that NLRP1 is the most prominent inflammasome sensor in human skin, and all pathogenic NLRP1 mutations are gain-of-function alleles that predispose to inflammasome activation. Mechanistically, NLRP1 mutations lead to increased self-oligomerization by disrupting the PYD and LRR domains, which are essential in maintaining NLRP1 as an inactive monomer. Primary keratinocytes from patients experience spontaneous inflammasome activation and paracrine IL-1 signaling, which is sufficient to cause skin inflammation and epidermal hyperplasia. Our findings establish a group of non-fever inflammasome disorders, uncover an unexpected auto-inhibitory function for the pyrin domain, and provide the first genetic evidence linking NLRP1 to skin inflammatory syndromes and skin cancer predisposition.

Control of Polyamine Biosynthesis by Antizyme Inhibitor 1 Is Important for Transcriptional Regulation of Arginine Vasopressin in the Male Rat Hypothalamus.

  • Greenwood MP
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Oct 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

The polyamines spermidine and spermine are small cations present in all living cells. In the brain, these cations are particularly abundant in the neurons of the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) of the hypothalamus, which synthesize the neuropeptide hormones arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin. We recently reported increased mRNA expression of antizyme inhibitor 1 (Azin1), an important regulator of polyamine synthesis, in rat SON and PVN as a consequence of 3 days of dehydration. Here we show that AZIN1 protein is highly expressed in both AVP- and oxytocin-positive magnocellular neurons of the SON and PVN together with antizyme 1 (AZ1), ornithine decarboxylase, and polyamines. Azin1 mRNA expression increased in the SON and PVN as a consequence of dehydration, salt loading, and acute hypertonic stress. In organotypic hypothalamic cultures, addition of the irreversible ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor DL-2-(difluoromethyl)-ornithine hydrochloride significantly increased the abundance of heteronuclear AVP but not heteronuclear oxytocin. To identify the function of Azin1 in vivo, lentiviral vectors that either overexpress or knock down Azin1 were stereotaxically delivered into the SON and/or PVN. Azin1 short hairpin RNA delivery resulted in decreased plasma osmolality and had a significant effect on food intake. The expression of AVP mRNA was also significantly increased in the SON by Azin1 short hairpin RNA. In contrast, Azin1 overexpression in the SON decreased AVP mRNA expression. We have therefore identified AZIN1, and hence by inference, polyamines as novel regulators of the expression of the AVP gene.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - 5P50MH086383-04(United States)

Nedd4 haploinsufficient mice display moderate insulin resistance, enhanced lipolysis, and protection against high-fat diet-induced obesity.

  • Li JJ
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 4 (Nedd4) is the prototypical protein in the Nedd4 ubiquitin ligase (E3) family, which governs ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis and/or degradation of plasma membrane proteins. Loss of Nedd4 results in embryonic or neonatal lethality in mice and reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling in embryonic fibroblasts. To delineate the roles of Nedd4 in vivo, we examined the phenotypes of heterozygous knockout mice using a high-fat diet-induced obesity (HFDIO) model. We observed that Nedd4+/- mice are moderately insulin resistant but paradoxically protected against HFDIO. After high-fat diet feeding, Nedd4+/- mice showed less body weight gain, less fat mass, and smaller adipocytes vs the wild type. Despite ameliorated HFDIO, Nedd4+/- mice did not manifest improvement in glucose tolerance vs the wild type in both genders. Nedd4+/- male, but not female, mice displayed significantly lower fasting blood glucose levels and serum insulin levels. Under obesogenic conditions, Nedd4+/- mice displayed elevated stimulated lipolytic activity, primarily through a β2-adrenergic receptor. Combined, these data support novel complex roles for Nedd4 in metabolic regulation involving altered insulin and β-adrenergic signaling pathways.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH084812(United States)

The role of hypothalamic mTORC1 signaling in insulin regulation of food intake, body weight, and sympathetic nerve activity in male mice.

  • Muta K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Insulin action in the brain particularly the hypothalamus is critically involved in the regulation of several physiological processes, including energy homeostasis and sympathetic nerve activity, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is implicated in the control of diverse cellular functions, including sensing nutrients and energy status. Here, we examined the role of hypothalamic mTORC1 in mediating the anorectic, weight-reducing, and sympathetic effects of central insulin action. In a mouse hypothalamic cell line (GT1-7), insulin treatment increased mTORC1 activity in a time-dependent manner. In addition, intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of insulin to mice activated mTORC1 pathway in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, a key site of central action of insulin. Interestingly, inhibition of hypothalamic mTORC1 with rapamycin reversed the food intake- and body weight-lowering effects of ICV insulin. Rapamycin also abolished the ability of ICV insulin to cause lumbar sympathetic nerve activation. In GT1-7 cells, we found that insulin activation of mTORC1 pathway requires phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Consistent with this, genetic disruption of PI3K in mice abolished insulin stimulation of hypothalamic mTORC1 signaling as well as the lumbar sympathetic nerve activation evoked by insulin. These results demonstrate the importance of mTORC1 pathway in the hypothalamus in mediating the action of insulin to regulate energy homeostasis and sympathetic nerve traffic. Our data also highlight the key role of PI3K as a link between insulin receptor and mTORC1 signaling in the hypothalamus.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL122494(United States)

Reelin receptors ApoER2 and VLDLR are expressed in distinct spatiotemporal patterns in developing mouse cerebral cortex.

  • Hirota Y
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

In mammalian developing brain, neuronal migration is regulated by a variety of signaling cascades, including Reelin signaling. Reelin is a glycoprotein that is mainly secreted by Cajal-Retzius neurons in the marginal zone, playing essential roles in the formation of the layered neocortex via its receptors, apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR). However, the precise mechanisms by which Reelin signaling controls the neuronal migration process remain unclear. To gain insight into how Reelin signaling controls individual migrating neurons, we generated monoclonal antibodies against ApoER2 and VLDLR and examined the localization of Reelin receptors in the developing mouse cerebral cortex. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that VLDLR is localized to the distal portion of leading processes in the marginal zone (MZ), whereas ApoER2 is mainly localized to neuronal processes and the cell membranes of multipolar cells in the multipolar cell accumulation zone (MAZ). These different expression patterns may contribute to the distinct actions of Reelin on migrating neurons during both the early and late migratory stages in the developing cerebral cortex.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS092786(United States)

Tat 101-mediated enhancement of brain pericyte migration involves platelet-derived growth factor subunit B homodimer: implications for human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders.

  • Niu F
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Aug 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the era of antiretroviral therapy, although the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication can be successfully controlled, complications of the CNS continue to affect infected individuals. Viral Tat protein is not only neurotoxic but has also been shown to disrupt the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although the role of brain microvascular endothelial cells and astrocytes in Tat-mediated impairment has been well documented, pericytes, which are important constituents of the BBB and play a key role in maintaining the integrity of the barrier, remain poorly studied in the context of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). In the present study, we demonstrated that exposure of human brain microvascular pericytes and C3H/10T1/2 cells to HIV-1 Tat101 resulted in increased expression of platelet-derived growth factor subunit B homodimer (PDGF-BB) and increased migration of the treated cells. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that this effect of Tat was mediated via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-κB pathways. Secreted PDGF-BB resulted in autocrine activation of the PDGF-BB/PDGF β receptor signaling pathway, culminating ultimately into increased pericyte migration. Ex vivo relevance of these findings was further corroborated in isolated microvessels of HIV Tg26 mice that demonstrated significantly increased expression of PDGF-BB in isolated brain microvessels with a concomitant loss of pericytes. Intriguingly, loss of pericyte coverage was also detected in sections of frontal cortex from humans with HIV-encephalitis compared with the uninfected controls. These findings thus implicate a novel role of PDGF-BB in the migration of pericytes, resulting in loss of pericyte coverage from the endothelium with a subsequent breach of the BBB.

Activation of angiotensin type 2 receptors partially ameliorates streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rats by islet protection.

  • Shao C
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Mar 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have previously demonstrated that rat islets express a high density of angiotensin type 2 receptors and that activation of this receptor evokes insulinotropic effect. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of Compound 21 (C21), a nonpeptide angiotensin type 2 receptor agonist, on islets in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Rats were assigned to five groups: normal, STZ, and STZ plus C21 (0.24, 0.48, and 0.96 mg/kg·d). C21 was continually infused by a sc implanted osmotic minipump for 14 days, and STZ was bolus injected on day 7. Body weight, water intake, urine excretion, and blood glucose were monitored daily. On the last day, the rats received an oral glucose tolerance test, and the pancreata were saved to examine islet morphology and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress and apoptosis. We found that, compared with control STZ rats, C21-treated STZ rats displayed less water intake and urine excretion, lower blood glucose, higher serum insulin concentration, and improved glucose tolerance. These rats had more islets, larger islet mass, and up-regulated insulin protein and proinsulin 2 mRNA expressions in the pancreas. Their islets displayed lower superoxide, decreased gp91 expression, and increased superoxide dismutase 1 expression as well as less apoptosis and down-regulated caspase-3 expression. In the epididymal adipose tissue of these rats, we found a decreased adipocyte size and up-regulated adipocyte protein 2 expression. The protective effects of C21 on β-cells against the toxic effects of STZ were also confirmed in cultured INS-1E cells. These data suggest that C21 ameliorates STZ-induced diabetes by protecting pancreatic islets via antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - U54 MH084690(United States)

Mechanisms of palmitate-induced lipotoxicity in human osteoblasts.

  • Gunaratnam K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

The interest in the relationship between fat and bone has increased steadily during recent years. Fat could have a lipotoxic effect on bone cells through the secretion of fatty acids. Palmitate is the most prevalent fatty acid secreted by adipocytes in vitro. Considering that palmitate has shown a high lipotoxic effect in other tissues, here we characterized the lipotoxic effect of palmitate on human osteoblasts (Obs). Initially we tested for changes in palmitoylation in this model. Subsequently we compared the capacity of Obs to differentiate and form bone nodules in the presence of palmitate. From a mechanistic approach, we assessed changes in nuclear activity of β-catenin and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2)/phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad) complexes using Western blotting and confocal microscopy. Quantitative real-time PCR showed negative changes in gene expression of palmitoyltransferase genes. Furthermore, palmitate negatively affected differentiation and bone nodule formation and mineralization by Obs. Although the expression of β-catenin in palmitate-treated cells was not affected, there was a significant reduction in the transcriptional activities of both β-catenin and Runx2. Confocal microscopy showed that whereas Runx2 and Smad-4 and -5 complex formation was increased in bone morphogenetic protein-2-treated cells, palmitate had a negative effect on protein expression and colocalization of these factors. In summary, in this study we identified potential mechanisms of palmitate-induced lipotoxicity, which include changes in palmitoylation, defective mineralization, and significant alterations in the β-catenin and Runx2/Smad signaling pathways. Our evidence facilitates the understanding of the relationship between fat and bone and could allow the development of new potential therapies for osteoporosis in older persons.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - UL1RR029882(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH095972(United States)

Triiodothyronine rapidly alters the TSH content and the secretory granules distribution in male rat thyrotrophs by a cytoskeleton rearrangement-independent mechanism.

  • Bargi-Souza P
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Dec 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rapid actions of T3 on TSH synthesis in posttranscriptional steps, such as polyadenylation and translation rate, have already been described. The focus of this paper was to characterize rapid actions of T3 on TSH secretion and the involvement of actin and microtubule cytoskeleton in this process. For that, sham-operated (SO) and thyroidectomized (Tx) rats were subjected to acute or chronic treatment with T3. We observed a disarrangement in microtubule and actin cytoskeletons and an increase in Tshb mRNA levels in Tx rats, whereas the total TSH protein content was reduced in the pituitary gland as a whole, but increased in the secretory granules close to the plasma membrane of thyrotrophs, as well as in the extracellular space. The acute T3 dose promoted a rapid increase and redistribution of TSH secretory granules throughout the cytoplasm, as well as a rearrangement in actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The T3 chronic treatment outcome reinforces the acute effects observed and, additionally, evinces an increase in the α-tubulin content and a rearrangement in microtubule cytoskeleton. Thus, T3 is able to rapidly suppress TSH secretion and, in parallel, to promote a rearrangement in actin and microtubules assembly throughout the pituitary gland, effects that seem to be independent from each other.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - HD068524(United States)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R21 DA035144(United States)