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Anti-4E-BP1, phospho (Thr37 / Thr46) Monoclonal Antibody

RRID:AB_560835

Acid Suspends the Circadian Clock in Hypoxia through Inhibition of mTOR.

  • Walton ZE
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jun 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent reports indicate that hypoxia influences the circadian clock through the transcriptional activities of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) at clock genes. Unexpectedly, we uncover a profound disruption of the circadian clock and diurnal transcriptome when hypoxic cells are permitted to acidify to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment. Buffering against acidification or inhibiting lactic acid production fully rescues circadian oscillation. Acidification of several human and murine cell lines, as well as primary murine T cells, suppresses mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, a key regulator of translation in response to metabolic status. We find that acid drives peripheral redistribution of normally perinuclear lysosomes away from perinuclear RHEB, thereby inhibiting the activity of lysosome-bound mTOR. Restoring mTORC1 signaling and the translation it governs rescues clock oscillation. Our findings thus reveal a model in which acid produced during the cellular metabolic response to hypoxia suppresses the circadian clock through diminished translation of clock constituents.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - L30 RR020478(United States)

Phosphatidylinositol-5-Phosphate 4-Kinases Regulate Cellular Lipid Metabolism By Facilitating Autophagy.

  • Lundquist MR
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

While the majority of phosphatidylinositol-4, 5-bisphosphate (PI-4, 5-P2) in mammalian cells is generated by the conversion of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI-4-P) to PI-4, 5-P2, a small fraction can be made by phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate (PI-5-P). The physiological relevance of this second pathway is not clear. Here, we show that deletion of the genes encoding the two most active enzymes in this pathway, Pip4k2a and Pip4k2b, in the liver of mice causes a large enrichment in lipid droplets and in autophagic vesicles during fasting. These changes are due to a defect in the clearance of autophagosomes that halts autophagy and reduces the supply of nutrients salvaged through this pathway. Similar defects in autophagy are seen in nutrient-starved Pip4k2a-/-Pip4k2b-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts and in C. elegans lacking the PI5P4K ortholog. These results suggest that this alternative pathway for PI-4, 5-P2 synthesis evolved, in part, to enhance the ability of multicellular organisms to survive starvation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R35 CA197588()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA210184()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - UL1RR024128(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM041890()

Adipocyte p62/SQSTM1 Suppresses Tumorigenesis through Opposite Regulations of Metabolism in Adipose Tissue and Tumor.

  • Huang J
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Apr 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Obesity is a leading risk factor for cancer. However, understanding the crosstalk between adipocytes and tumor cells in vivo, independently of dietary contributions, is a major gap in the field. Here we used a prostate cancer (PCa) mouse model in which the signaling adaptor p62/Sqstm1 is selectively inactivated in adipocytes. p62 loss in adipocytes results in increased osteopontin secretion, which mediates tumor fatty acid oxidation and invasion, leading to aggressive metastatic PCa in vivo. Furthermore, p62 deficiency triggers in adipocytes a general shutdown of energy-utilizing pathways through mTORC1 inhibition, which supports nutrient availability for cancer cells. This reveals a central role of adipocyte's p62 in the symbiotic adipose tissue-tumor collaboration that enables cancer metabolic fitness.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - 22358(United Kingdom)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA192642()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA211794()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA218254()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK108743()

mTORC1 Inactivation Promotes Colitis-Induced Colorectal Cancer but Protects from APC Loss-Dependent Tumorigenesis.

  • Brandt M
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jan 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dietary habits that can induce inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are major colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors, but mechanisms linking nutrients, IBD, and CRC are unknown. Using human data and mouse models, we show that mTORC1 inactivation-induced chromosomal instability impairs intestinal crypt proliferation and regeneration, CDK4/6 dependently. This triggers interleukin (IL)-6-associated reparative inflammation, inducing crypt hyper-proliferation, wound healing, and CRC. Blocking IL-6 signaling or reactivating mTORC1 reduces inflammation-induced CRC, so mTORC1 activation suppresses tumorigenesis in IBD. Conversely, mTORC1 inactivation is beneficial in APC loss-dependent CRC. Thus, IL-6 blockers or protein-rich-diet-linked mTORC1 activation may prevent IBD-associated CRC. However, abolishing mTORC1 can mitigate CRC in predisposed patients with APC mutations. Our work reveals mTORC1 oncogenic and tumor-suppressive roles in intestinal epithelium and avenues to optimized and personalized therapeutic regimens for CRC.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007067(United States)

Sensing and Transmitting Intracellular Amino Acid Signals through Reversible Lysine Aminoacylations.

  • He XD
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jan 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Amino acids are known regulators of cellular signaling and physiology, but how they are sensed intracellularly is not fully understood. Herein, we report that each aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS) senses its cognate amino acid sufficiency through catalyzing the formation of lysine aminoacylation (K-AA) on its specific substrate proteins. At physiologic levels, amino acids promote ARSs bound to their substrates and form K-AAs on the ɛ-amine of lysines in their substrates by producing reactive aminoacyl adenylates. The K-AA marks can be removed by deacetylases, such as SIRT1 and SIRT3, employing the same mechanism as that involved in deacetylation. These dynamically regulated K-AAs transduce signals of their respective amino acids. Reversible leucylation on ras-related GTP-binding protein A/B regulates activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1. Glutaminylation on apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 suppresses apoptosis. We discovered non-canonical functions of ARSs and revealed systematic and functional amino acid sensing and signal transduction networks.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P01AI045757(United States)

mTORC1-Mediated Inhibition of 4EBP1 Is Essential for Hedgehog Signaling-Driven Translation and Medulloblastoma.

  • Wu CC
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) cooperates with Hedgehog (HH) signaling, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we provide genetic, biochemical, and pharmacologic evidence that MTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent translation is a prerequisite for HH signaling. The genetic loss of mTORC1 function inhibited HH signaling-driven growth of the cerebellum and medulloblastoma. Inhibiting translation or mTORC1 blocked HH signaling. Depleting 4EBP1, an mTORC1 target that inhibits translation, alleviated the dependence of HH signaling on mTORC1. Consistent with this, phosphorylated 4EBP1 levels were elevated in HH signaling-driven medulloblastomas in mice and humans. In mice, an mTORC1 inhibitor suppressed medulloblastoma driven by a mutant SMO that is inherently resistant to existing SMO inhibitors, prolonging the survival of the mice. Our study reveals that mTORC1-mediated translation is a key component of HH signaling and an important target for treating medulloblastoma and other cancers driven by HH signaling.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA021765()

mTORC1 Activation during Repeated Regeneration Impairs Somatic Stem Cell Maintenance.

  • Haller S
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Dec 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

The balance between self-renewal and differentiation ensures long-term maintenance of stem cell (SC) pools in regenerating epithelial tissues. This balance is challenged during periods of high regenerative pressure and is often compromised in aged animals. Here, we show that target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling is a key regulator of SC loss during repeated regenerative episodes. In response to regenerative stimuli, SCs in the intestinal epithelium of the fly and in the tracheal epithelium of mice exhibit transient activation of TOR signaling. Although this activation is required for SCs to rapidly proliferate in response to damage, repeated rounds of damage lead to SC loss. Consistently, age-related SC loss in the mouse trachea and in muscle can be prevented by pharmacologic or genetic inhibition, respectively, of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. These findings highlight an evolutionarily conserved role of TOR signaling in SC function and identify repeated rounds of mTORC1 activation as a driver of age-related SC decline.

Funding information:
  • BLRD VA - I01 BX002324()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - UL1 RR024989(United States)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL132996()
  • NIA NIH HHS - K99 AG041764()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG036695()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R00 AG041764()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG047497()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG047820()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R37 AG023806()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK100342()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK113144()

Dual function of the PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 axis in myelination of the peripheral nervous system.

  • Figlia G
  • Elife
  • 2017 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Myelination is a biosynthetically demanding process in which mTORC1, the gatekeeper of anabolism, occupies a privileged regulatory position. We have shown previously that loss of mTORC1 function in Schwann cells (SCs) hampers myelination. Here, we genetically disrupted key inhibitory components upstream of mTORC1, TSC1 or PTEN, in mouse SC development, adult homeostasis, and nerve injury. Surprisingly, the resulting mTORC1 hyperactivity led to markedly delayed onset of both developmental myelination and remyelination after injury. However, if mTORC1 was hyperactivated after myelination onset, radial hypermyelination was observed. At early developmental stages, physiologically high PI3K-Akt-mTORC1 signaling suppresses expression of Krox20 (Egr2), the master regulator of PNS myelination. This effect is mediated by S6K and contributes to control mechanisms that keep SCs in a not-fully differentiated state to ensure proper timing of myelination initiation. An ensuing decline in mTORC1 activity is crucial to allow myelination to start, while remaining mTORC1 activity drives myelin growth.

A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice.

  • Roberts MN
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Sep 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Calorie restriction, without malnutrition, has been shown to increase lifespan and is associated with a shift away from glycolysis toward beta-oxidation. The objective of this study was to mimic this metabolic shift using low-carbohydrate diets and to determine the influence of these diets on longevity and healthspan in mice. C57BL/6 mice were assigned to a ketogenic, low-carbohydrate, or control diet at 12 months of age and were either allowed to live their natural lifespan or tested for physiological function after 1 or 14 months of dietary intervention. The ketogenic diet (KD) significantly increased median lifespan and survival compared to controls. In aged mice, only those consuming a KD displayed preservation of physiological function. The KD increased protein acetylation levels and regulated mTORC1 signaling in a tissue-dependent manner. This study demonstrates that a KD extends longevity and healthspan in mice.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG025532()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK092993()

PTEN Loss Increases the Connectivity of Fast Synaptic Motifs and Functional Connectivity in a Developing Hippocampal Network.

  • Barrows CM
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Sep 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Changes in synaptic strength and connectivity are thought to be a major mechanism through which many gene variants cause neurological disease. Hyperactivation of the PI3K-mTOR signaling network, via loss of function of repressors such as PTEN, causes epilepsy in humans and animal models, and altered mTOR signaling may contribute to a broad range of neurological diseases. Changes in synaptic transmission have been reported in animal models of PTEN loss; however, the full extent of these changes, and their effect on network function, is still unknown. To better understand the scope of these changes, we recorded from pairs of mouse hippocampal neurons cultured in a two-neuron microcircuit configuration that allowed us to characterize all four major connection types within the hippocampus. Loss of PTEN caused changes in excitatory and inhibitory connectivity, and these changes were postsynaptic, presynaptic, and transynaptic, suggesting that disruption of PTEN has the potential to affect most connection types in the hippocampal circuit. Given the complexity of the changes at the synaptic level, we measured changes in network behavior after deleting Pten from neurons in an organotypic hippocampal slice network. Slices containing Pten-deleted neurons showed increased recruitment of neurons into network bursts. Importantly, these changes were not confined to Pten-deleted neurons, but involved the entire network, suggesting that the extensive changes in synaptic connectivity rewire the entire network in such a way that promotes a widespread increase in functional connectivity.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Homozygous deletion of the Pten gene in neuronal subpopulations in the mouse serves as a valuable model of epilepsy caused by mTOR hyperactivation. To better understand how gene deletions lead to altered neuronal activity, we investigated the synaptic and network effects that occur 1 week after Pten deletion. PTEN loss increased the connectivity of all four types of hippocampal synaptic connections, including two forms of increased inhibition of inhibition, and increased network functional connectivity. These data suggest that single gene mutations that cause neurological diseases such as epilepsy may affect a surprising range of connection types. Moreover, given the robustness of homeostatic plasticity, these diverse effects on connection types may be necessary to cause network phenotypes such as increased synchrony.

The Kinase mTORC1 Promotes the Generation and Suppressive Function of Follicular Regulatory T Cells.

  • Xu L
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Sep 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells differentiate from conventional regulatory T (Treg) cells and suppress excessive germinal center (GC) responses by acting on both GC B cells and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. Here, we examined the impact of mTOR, a serine/threonine protein kinase that senses and integrates diverse environmental cues, on the differentiation and functional competency of Tfr cells in response to protein immunization or viral infection. By genetically deleting Rptor or Rictor, essential components for mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), respectively, we found that mTORC1 but not mTORC2 is essential for Tfr differentiation. Mechanistically, mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT3 induced the expression of the transcription factor TCF-1 by promoting STAT3 binding to the Tcf7 5'-regulatory region. Subsequently, TCF-1 bound to the Bcl6 promoter to induce Bcl6 expression, which launched the Tfr cell differentiation program. Thus, mTORC1 initiates Tfr cell differentiation by activating the TCF-1-Bcl-6 axis during immunization or infection.

Prosapip1-Dependent Synaptic Adaptations in the Nucleus Accumbens Drive Alcohol Intake, Seeking, and Reward.

  • Laguesse S
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a transducer of local dendritic translation, participates in learning and memory processes as well as in mechanisms underlying alcohol-drinking behaviors. Using an unbiased RNA-seq approach, we identified Prosapip1 as a novel downstream target of mTORC1 whose translation and consequent synaptic protein expression are increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice excessively consuming alcohol. We demonstrate that alcohol-dependent increases in Prosapip1 levels promote the formation of actin filaments, leading to changes in dendritic spine morphology of NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs). We further demonstrate that Prosapip1 is required for alcohol-dependent synaptic localization of GluA2 lacking AMPA receptors in NAc shell MSNs. Finally, we present data implicating Prosapip1 in mechanisms underlying alcohol self-administration and reward. Together, these data suggest that Prosapip1 in the NAc is a molecular transducer of structural and synaptic alterations that drive and/or maintain excessive alcohol use.

mTOR Inhibition Restores Amino Acid Balance in Cells Dependent on Catabolism of Extracellular Protein.

  • Nofal M
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Scavenging of extracellular protein via macropinocytosis is an alternative to monomeric amino acid uptake. In pancreatic cancer, macropinocytosis is driven by oncogenic Ras signaling and contributes substantially to amino acid supply. While Ras signaling promotes scavenging, mTOR signaling suppresses it. Here, we present an integrated experimental-computational method that enables quantitative comparison of protein scavenging rates across cell lines and conditions. Using it, we find that, independently of mTORC1, amino acid scarcity induces protein scavenging and that under such conditions the impact of mTOR signaling on protein scavenging rate is minimal. Nevertheless, mTOR inhibition promotes growth of cells reliant on eating extracellular protein. This growth enhancement depends on mTORC1's canonical function in controlling translation rate: mTOR inhibition slows translation, thereby matching protein synthesis to the limited amino acid supply. Thus, paradoxically, in amino acid-poor conditions the pro-anabolic effects of mTORC1 are functionally opposed to growth.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - F31 CA186513()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA163591()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DP1 DK113643()

TREM2 Maintains Microglial Metabolic Fitness in Alzheimer's Disease.

  • Ulland TK
  • Cell
  • 2017 Aug 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Elevated risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with hypomorphic variants of TREM2, a surface receptor required for microglial responses to neurodegeneration, including proliferation, survival, clustering, and phagocytosis. How TREM2 promotes such diverse responses is unknown. Here, we find that microglia in AD patients carrying TREM2 risk variants and TREM2-deficient mice with AD-like pathology have abundant autophagic vesicles, as do TREM2-deficient macrophages under growth-factor limitation or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Combined metabolomics and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) linked this anomalous autophagy to defective mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which affects ATP levels and biosynthetic pathways. Metabolic derailment and autophagy were offset in vitro through Dectin-1, a receptor that elicits TREM2-like intracellular signals, and cyclocreatine, a creatine analog that can supply ATP. Dietary cyclocreatine tempered autophagy, restored microglial clustering around plaques, and decreased plaque-adjacent neuronal dystrophy in TREM2-deficient mice with amyloid-β pathology. Thus, TREM2 enables microglial responses during AD by sustaining cellular energetic and biosynthetic metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA009547()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG003991()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG026276()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG005681()
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG051485()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK058177()

mTORC2 Regulates Amino Acid Metabolism in Cancer by Phosphorylation of the Cystine-Glutamate Antiporter xCT.

  • Gu Y
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations in cancer reprogram amino acid metabolism to drive tumor growth, but the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Using an unbiased proteomic screen, we identified mTORC2 as a critical regulator of amino acid metabolism in cancer via phosphorylation of the cystine-glutamate antiporter xCT. mTORC2 phosphorylates serine 26 at the cytosolic N terminus of xCT, inhibiting its activity. Genetic inhibition of mTORC2, or pharmacologic inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, promotes glutamate secretion, cystine uptake, and incorporation into glutathione, linking growth factor receptor signaling with amino acid uptake and utilization. These results identify an unanticipated mechanism regulating amino acid metabolism in cancer, enabling tumor cells to adapt to changing environmental conditions.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - F31 CA186668()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM116897()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS073831()

An FAK-YAP-mTOR Signaling Axis Regulates Stem Cell-Based Tissue Renewal in Mice.

  • Hu JK
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tissue homeostasis requires the production of newly differentiated cells from resident adult stem cells. Central to this process is the expansion of undifferentiated intermediates known as transit-amplifying (TA) cells, but how stem cells are triggered to enter this proliferative TA state remains an important open question. Using the continuously growing mouse incisor as a model of stem cell-based tissue renewal, we found that the transcriptional cofactors YAP and TAZ are required both to maintain TA cell proliferation and to inhibit differentiation. Specifically, we identified a pathway involving activation of integrin α3 in TA cells that signals through an LATS-independent FAK/CDC42/PP1A cascade to control YAP-S397 phosphorylation and nuclear localization. This leads to Rheb expression and potentiates mTOR signaling to drive the proliferation of TA cells. These findings thus reveal a YAP/TAZ signaling mechanism that coordinates stem cell expansion and differentiation during organ renewal.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - F32 DE023705()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - K99 DE025874()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R01 DE024988()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R35 DE026602()

Time-Resolved Proteomics Extends Ribosome Profiling-Based Measurements of Protein Synthesis Dynamics.

  • Liu TY
  • Cell Syst
  • 2017 Jun 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ribosome profiling is a widespread tool for studying translational dynamics in human cells. Its central assumption is that ribosome footprint density on a transcript quantitatively reflects protein synthesis. Here, we test this assumption using pulsed-SILAC (pSILAC) high-accuracy targeted proteomics. We focus on multiple myeloma cells exposed to bortezomib, a first-line chemotherapy and proteasome inhibitor. In the absence of drug effects, we found that direct measurement of protein synthesis by pSILAC correlated well with indirect measurement of synthesis from ribosome footprint density. This correlation, however, broke down under bortezomib-induced stress. By developing a statistical model integrating longitudinal proteomic and mRNA-sequencing measurements, we found that proteomics could directly detect global alterations in translational rate caused by bortezomib; these changes are not detectable by ribosomal profiling alone. Further, by incorporating pSILAC data into a gene expression model, we predict cell-stress specific proteome remodeling events. These results demonstrate that pSILAC provides an important complement to ribosome profiling in measuring proteome dynamics.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - K08 CA184116()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P41 RR001614()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR026662()

Germinal Center Selection and Affinity Maturation Require Dynamic Regulation of mTORC1 Kinase.

  • Ersching J
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

During antibody affinity maturation, germinal center (GC) B cells cycle between affinity-driven selection in the light zone (LZ) and proliferation and somatic hypermutation in the dark zone (DZ). Although selection of GC B cells is triggered by antigen-dependent signals delivered in the LZ, DZ proliferation occurs in the absence of such signals. We show that positive selection triggered by T cell help activates the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which promotes the anabolic program that supports DZ proliferation. Blocking mTORC1 prior to growth prevented clonal expansion, whereas blockade after cells reached peak size had little to no effect. Conversely, constitutively active mTORC1 led to DZ enrichment but loss of competitiveness and impaired affinity maturation. Thus, mTORC1 activation is required for fueling B cells prior to DZ proliferation rather than for allowing cell-cycle progression itself and must be regulated dynamically during cyclic re-entry to ensure efficient affinity-based selection.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R00 CA151827()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA103866()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI047389()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI119006()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R37 AI047389()
  • NIH HHS - DP5 OD012146()

Role of mTOR Inhibitors in Growth Hormone-Producing Pituitary Adenomas Harboring Different FGFR4 Genotypes.

  • Jalali S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are common intracranial lesions. Available medical therapies are limited in PAs, and therefore, it is essential to identify treatments that control PA growth when surgery is not an option. Fibroblast growth factor 4 is implicated in PA pathogenesis; therefore, in this study, we used an isogenic mammosomatotroph cell line (GH4C1) harboring different fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-4 genotypes to establish and characterize intracranial xenograft mouse models that can be used for preclinical drug testing. We show that proliferating GH4C1 tumors have an average latency of 3 weeks to form. Histological analysis revealed that prototypic FGFR4 (G388) tumors express increased prolactin and less GH, whereas tumors possessing the polymorphic variant of FGFR4 (R388) express increased GH relative to prolactin. All tumors show abundant mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling as confirmed using phosphorylated (p)-S6 and p-4E-binding protein 1 as downstream regulators of this pathway. We subsequently demonstrate that the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 decreases tumor growth rate and reduces p-S6 but not p-4E-binding protein 1 activation, regardless of FGFR4 status. More importantly, GH activity was significantly reduced after mTOR inhibition in the R388 polymorphic variant tumors. This reduction was also associated with a concomitant reduction in serum IGF-1 levels in the R388 group. In summary, we demonstrate that the GH4C1 FGFR polymorphic xenograft is a useful model for examining PAs. Furthermore, we show that RAD001 can efficiently reduce tumor growth rate by a reduction in mTOR signaling and more importantly results in control of GH expression and IGF-1 secretion, providing further support for using mTOR inhibitors in PA patients, in particular GH-producing adenomas.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MR/L011719/1(United Kingdom)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R37HL023081(United States)

LARP1 functions as a molecular switch for mTORC1-mediated translation of an essential class of mRNAs.

  • Hong S
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The RNA binding protein, LARP1, has been proposed to function downstream of mTORC1 to regulate the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs such as those encoding ribosome proteins (RP). However, the roles of LARP1 in the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs are controversial and its regulatory roles in mTORC1-mediated translation remain unclear. Here we show that LARP1 is a direct substrate of mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1. Deep sequencing of LARP1-bound mRNAs reveal that non-phosphorylated LARP1 interacts with both 5' and 3'UTRs of RP mRNAs and inhibits their translation. Importantly, phosphorylation of LARP1 by mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1 dissociates it from 5'UTRs and relieves its inhibitory activity on RP mRNA translation. Concomitantly, phosphorylated LARP1 scaffolds mTORC1 on the 3'UTRs of translationally-competent RP mRNAs to facilitate mTORC1-dependent induction of translation initiation. Thus, in response to cellular mTOR activity, LARP1 serves as a phosphorylation-sensitive molecular switch for turning off or on RP mRNA translation and subsequent ribosome biogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK083491()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM088565()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM110019()

Impaired Amino Acid Transport at the Blood Brain Barrier Is a Cause of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

  • Tărlungeanu DC
  • Cell
  • 2016 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of genetic disorders often overlapping with other neurological conditions. We previously described abnormalities in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic pathway as a cause of ASD. Here, we show that the solute carrier transporter 7a5 (SLC7A5), a large neutral amino acid transporter localized at the blood brain barrier (BBB), has an essential role in maintaining normal levels of brain BCAAs. In mice, deletion of Slc7a5 from the endothelial cells of the BBB leads to atypical brain amino acid profile, abnormal mRNA translation, and severe neurological abnormalities. Furthermore, we identified several patients with autistic traits and motor delay carrying deleterious homozygous mutations in the SLC7A5 gene. Finally, we demonstrate that BCAA intracerebroventricular administration ameliorates abnormal behaviors in adult mutant mice. Our data elucidate a neurological syndrome defined by SLC7A5 mutations and support an essential role for the BCAA in human brain function.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH064043(United States)

SF-1 expression in the hypothalamus is required for beneficial metabolic effects of exercise.

  • Fujikawa T
  • Elife
  • 2016 Nov 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Exercise has numerous beneficial metabolic effects. The central nervous system (CNS) is critical for regulating energy balance and coordinating whole body metabolism. However, a role for the CNS in the regulation of metabolism in the context of the exercise remains less clear. Here, using genetically engineered mice we assessed the requirement of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) expression in neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. We found that VMH-specific deletion of SF-1 blunts (a) the reductions in fat mass, (b) improvements in glycemia, and (c) increases in energy expenditure that are associated with exercise training. Unexpectedly, we found that SF-1 deletion in the VMH attenuates metabolic responses of skeletal muscle to exercise, including induction of PGC-1α expression. Collectively, this evidence suggests that SF-1 expression in VMH neurons is required for the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG005146(United States)

L-Arginine Modulates T Cell Metabolism and Enhances Survival and Anti-tumor Activity.

  • Geiger R
  • Cell
  • 2016 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Metabolic activity is intimately linked to T cell fate and function. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we generated dynamic metabolome and proteome profiles of human primary naive T cells following activation. We discovered critical changes in the arginine metabolism that led to a drop in intracellular L-arginine concentration. Elevating L-arginine levels induced global metabolic changes including a shift from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation in activated T cells and promoted the generation of central memory-like cells endowed with higher survival capacity and, in a mouse model, anti-tumor activity. Proteome-wide probing of structural alterations, validated by the analysis of knockout T cell clones, identified three transcriptional regulators (BAZ1B, PSIP1, and TSN) that sensed L-arginine levels and promoted T cell survival. Thus, intracellular L-arginine concentrations directly impact the metabolic fitness and survival capacity of T cells that are crucial for anti-tumor responses.

Dynamics of mTORC1 activation in response to amino acids.

  • Manifava M
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Amino acids are essential activators of mTORC1 via a complex containing RAG GTPases, RAGULATOR and the vacuolar ATPase. Sensing of amino acids causes translocation of mTORC1 to lysosomes, an obligate step for activation. To examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of this translocation, we used live imaging of the mTORC1 component RAPTOR and a cell permeant fluorescent analogue of di-leucine methyl ester. Translocation to lysosomes is a transient event, occurring within 2 min of aa addition and peaking within 5 min. It is temporally coupled with fluorescent leucine appearance in lysosomes and is sustained in comparison to aa stimulation. Sestrin2 and the vacuolar ATPase are negative and positive regulators of mTORC1 activity in our experimental system. Of note, phosphorylation of canonical mTORC1 targets is delayed compared to lysosomal translocation suggesting a dynamic and transient passage of mTORC1 from the lysosomal surface before targetting its substrates elsewhere.

Insulin signaling controls neurotransmission via the 4eBP-dependent modification of the exocytotic machinery.

  • Mahoney RE
  • Elife
  • 2016 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Altered insulin signaling has been linked to widespread nervous system dysfunction including cognitive dysfunction, neuropathy and susceptibility to neurodegenerative disease. However, knowledge of the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of insulin on neuronal function is incomplete. Here, we show that cell autonomous insulin signaling within the Drosophila CM9 motor neuron regulates the release of neurotransmitter via alteration of the synaptic vesicle fusion machinery. This effect of insulin utilizes the FOXO-dependent regulation of the thor gene, which encodes the Drosophila homologue of the eif-4e binding protein (4eBP). A critical target of this regulatory mechanism is Complexin, a synaptic protein known to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis. We find that the amounts of Complexin protein observed at the synapse is regulated by insulin and genetic manipulations of Complexin levels support the model that increased synaptic Complexin reduces neurotransmission in response to insulin signaling.

Thyroid Hormone Stimulation of Autophagy Is Essential for Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Activity in Skeletal Muscle.

  • Lesmana R
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Jan 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Thyroid hormone (TH) and autophagy share similar functions in regulating skeletal muscle growth, regeneration, and differentiation. Although TH recently has been shown to increase autophagy in liver, the regulation and role of autophagy by this hormone in skeletal muscle is not known. Here, using both in vitro and in vivo models, we demonstrated that TH induces autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner in skeletal muscle. TH induction of autophagy involved reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulation of 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-Unc-51-like kinase 1 (Ulk1) signaling. TH also increased mRNA and protein expression of key autophagy genes, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), Sequestosome 1 (p62), and Ulk1, as well as genes that modulated autophagy and Forkhead box O (FOXO) 1/3a. TH increased mitochondrial protein synthesis and number as well as basal mitochondrial O2 consumption, ATP turnover, and maximal respiratory capacity. Surprisingly, mitochondrial activity and biogenesis were blunted when autophagy was blocked in muscle cells by Autophagy-related gene (Atg)5 short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Induction of ROS and 5'adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by TH played a significant role in the up-regulation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PPARGC1A), the key regulator of mitochondrial synthesis. In summary, our findings showed that TH-mediated autophagy was essential for stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in skeletal muscle. Moreover, autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis were coupled in skeletal muscle via TH induction of mitochondrial activity and ROS generation.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM064709(United States)

Systematic analysis of BRAF(V600E) melanomas reveals a role for JNK/c-Jun pathway in adaptive resistance to drug-induced apoptosis.

  • Fallahi-Sichani M
  • Mol. Syst. Biol.
  • 2015 Mar 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Drugs that inhibit RAF/MEK signaling, such as vemurafenib, elicit profound but often temporary anti-tumor responses in patients with BRAF(V) (600E) melanoma. Adaptive responses to RAF/MEK inhibition occur on a timescale of hours to days, involve homeostatic responses that reactivate MAP kinase signaling and compensatory mitogenic pathways, and attenuate the anti-tumor effects of RAF/MEK inhibitors. We profile adaptive responses across a panel of melanoma cell lines using multiplex biochemical measurement, single-cell assays, and statistical modeling and show that adaptation involves at least six signaling cascades that act to reduce drug potency (IC50) and maximal effect (i.e., Emax ≪ 1). Among these cascades, we identify a role for JNK/c-Jun signaling in vemurafenib adaptation and show that RAF and JNK inhibitors synergize in cell killing. This arises because JNK inhibition prevents a subset of cells in a cycling population from becoming quiescent upon vemurafenib treatment, thereby reducing drug Emax. Our findings demonstrate the breadth and diversity of adaptive responses to RAF/MEK inhibition and a means to identify which steps in a signaling cascade are most predictive of phenotypic response.