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Mouse Anti-Rat Nkx6.1 Antibody, Unconjugated

RRID:AB_532378

Antibody ID

AB_532378

Target Antigen

Mouse Rat Nkx6.1 chicken/bird, mouse, human, mouse, rat, chicken, pig, human, and zebrafish, other species not tested, porcine, rat, zebrafish/fish

Proper Citation

(DSHB Cat# F55A10, RRID:AB_532378)

Clonality

unknown

Comments

manufacturer recommendations: IgG1, kappa light chain Immunoblotting

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

DSHB Go To Vendor

Intrinsic Immunity Shapes Viral Resistance of Stem Cells.

  • Wu X
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jan 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Stem cells are highly resistant to viral infection compared to their differentiated progeny; however, the mechanism is mysterious. Here, we analyzed gene expression in mammalian stem cells and cells at various stages of differentiation. We find that, conserved across species, stem cells express a subset of genes previously classified as interferon (IFN) stimulated genes (ISGs) but that expression is intrinsic, as stem cells are refractory to interferon. This intrinsic ISG expression varies in a cell-type-specific manner, and many ISGs decrease upon differentiation, at which time cells become IFN responsive, allowing induction of a broad spectrum of ISGs by IFN signaling. Importantly, we show that intrinsically expressed ISGs protect stem cells against viral infection. We demonstrate the in vivo importance of intrinsic ISG expression for protecting stem cells and their differentiation potential during viral infection. These findings have intriguing implications for understanding stem cell biology and the evolution of pathogen resistance.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI091707()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U19 AI111825()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK100810()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS046789-09S1(United States)

Bcl-xL dependency coincides with the onset of neurogenesis in the developing mammalian spinal cord.

  • Fogarty LC
  • Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The bcl-2 family of survival and death promoting proteins play a key role in regulating cell numbers during nervous system development. Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic bcl-2 family member is highly expressed in the developing nervous system. However; the early embryonic lethality of the bcl-x germline null mouse precluded an investigation into its role in nervous system development. To identify the role of bcl-x in spinal cord neurogenesis, we generated a central nervous system-specific bcl-x conditional knockout (BKO) mouse. Apoptotic cell death in the BKO embryo was initially detected at embryonic day 11 (E11) in the ventrolateral aspect of the spinal cord corresponding to the location of motor neurons. Apoptosis reached its peak at E13 having spread across the ventral and into the dorsal spinal cord. By E18, the wave of apoptosis had passed and only a few apoptotic cells were observed. The duration and direction of spread of apoptosis across the spinal cord is consistent with the spatial and temporal sequence of neuronal differentiation. Motor neurons, the first neurons to become post mitotic in the spinal cord, were also the first apoptotic cells. As neurogenesis spread across the spinal cord, later born neuronal populations such as Lim2+ interneurons were also affected. The onset of apoptosis occurred in cells that had exited the cell cycle within the previous 24h and initiated neural differentiation as demonstrated by BrdU birthdating and βIII tubulin immunohistochemistry. This data demonstrates that spinal cord neurons become Bcl-xL dependent at an early post mitotic stage in developmental neurogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI074847(United States)

Pancreatic Nonhormone Expressing Endocrine Cells in Children With Type 1 Diabetes.

  • Md Moin AS
  • J Endocr Soc
  • 2017 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

It has been proposed that the deficit in β-cell mass in type 1 diabetes (T1D) may be due, in part, to β-cell degranulation to chromogranin-positive hormone-negative (CPHN) cells. The frequency and distribution of pancreatic CPHN cells were investigated in 19 children with T1D compared with 14 non-diabetic (ND) children. We further evaluated these cells for replication and expression of endocrine lineage markers Nkx6.1 and Nkx2.2, and compared these frequencies with those previously reported in CPHN cells in adults with T1D. In contrast to adults' cells, pancreatic CPHN cells were comparably abundant (percentage of endocrine cells ± standard error of the mean, 1.4 ± 0.2 vs 1.0 ± 0.2 in patients with T1D vs ND subjects, respectively; P = not significant) and comparably distributed in children with T1D vs ND donors. Replication of CPHN cells was detected but unchanged in children with T1D vs ND children, as was the percentage of CPHN cells expressing Nkx6.1 or NKx2.2. In children with T1D, the frequency of pancreatic CPHN cells was not increased, and this differed from adults with T1D.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK077967()

Cholesterol Modification of Smoothened Is Required for Hedgehog Signaling.

  • Xiao X
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hedgehog (Hh) has been known as the only cholesterol-modified morphogen playing pivotal roles in development and tumorigenesis. A major unsolved question is how Hh signaling regulates the activity of Smoothened (SMO). Here, we performed an unbiased biochemical screen and identified that SMO was covalently modified by cholesterol on the Asp95 (D95) residue through an ester bond. This modification was inhibited by Patched-1 (Ptch1) but enhanced by Hh. The SMO(D95N) mutation, which could not be cholesterol modified, was refractory to Hh-stimulated ciliary localization and failed to activate downstream signaling. Furthermore, homozygous SmoD99N/D99N (the equivalent residue in mouse) knockin mice were embryonic lethal with severe cardiac defects, phenocopying the Smo-/- mice. Together, the results of our study suggest that Hh signaling transduces to SMO through modulating its cholesterylation and provides a therapeutic opportunity to treat Hh-pathway-related cancers by targeting SMO cholesterylation.

Genetic dissection of Gata2 selective functions during specification of V2 interneurons in the developing spinal cord.

  • Francius C
  • Dev Neurobiol
  • 2015 Jul 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Motor activities are controlled by neural networks in the ventral spinal cord and consist in motor neurons and a set of distinct cardinal classes of spinal interneurons. These interneurons arise from distinct progenitor domains (p0-p3) delineated according to a transcriptional code. Neural progenitors of each domain express a unique combination of transcription factors (TFs) that largely contribute to determine the fate of four classes of interneurons (V0-V3) and motor neurons. In p2 domain, at least four subtypes of interneurons namely V2a, V2b, V2c, and Pax6(+) V2 are generated. Although genetic and molecular mechanisms that specify V2a and V2b are dependent on complex interplay between several TFs including Nkx6.1, Irx3, Gata2, Foxn4, and Ascl1, and signaling pathways such as Notch and TGF-β, the sequence order of the activation of these regulators and their respective contribution are not completely elucidated yet. Here, we provide evidence by loss- or gain-of-function experiments that Gata2 is necessary for the normal development of both V2a and V2b neurons. We demonstrate that Nkx6.1 and Dll4 positively regulate the activation of Gata2 and Foxn4 in p2 progenitors. Gata2 also participates in the maintenance of p2 domain by repressing motor neuron differentiation and exerting a feedback control on patterning genes. Finally, Gata2 promotes the selective activation of V2b program at the expense of V2a fate. Thus our results provide new insights on the hierarchy and complex interactions between regulators of V2 genetic program.

Funding information:
  • NLM NIH HHS - T15 LM007056(United States)

Positive feedback loop between Sox2 and Sox6 inhibits neuronal differentiation in the developing central nervous system.

  • Lee KE
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2014 Feb 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

How a pool of undifferentiated neural progenitor cells is maintained in the developing nervous system is an issue that remains unresolved. One of the key transcription factors for self-renewal of these cells is Sox2, the forced expression of which has been shown to inhibit neuronal differentiation in vivo. To dissect the molecular mechanisms of Sox2 activity, a ChIP-on-chip assay has been carried out for Sox2, and multiple candidate direct target genes have been isolated. In this report, we provide evidence indicating that Sox6, which like Sox2 belongs to the SRY-related HMG box transcription factor family, is a bona-fide direct regulatory target of Sox2. In vivo, Sox6 expression is seen with a temporal lag in Sox2-positive neural precursor cells in the ventricular zone, and Sox2 promotes expression of Sox6 as a transcriptional activator. Interestingly, gain- and loss-of-function assays indicate that Sox6 in turn is required for the maintenance of Sox2 expression, suggesting that a positive feedback loop, which functions to inhibit premature neuronal differentiation, exists between the two transcription factors.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM056834(United States)

Spatiotemporal patterns of Pax3, Pax6, and Pax7 expression in the developing brain of a urodele amphibian, Pleurodeles waltl.

  • Joven A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The onset and developmental dynamics of Pax3, Pax6, and Pax7 expressions were analyzed by immunohistochemical techniques in the central nervous system (CNS) of embryos, larvae, and recently metamorphosed juveniles of the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl. During the embryonic period, the Pax proteins start being detectable in neuroepithelial domains. Subsequently, they become restricted to subsets of cells in distinct brain regions, maintaining different degrees of expression in late larvae and juvenile brains. Specifically, Pax6 is broadly expressed all along the urodele CNS (olfactory bulbs, pallium, basal ganglia, diencephalon, mesencephalic tegmentum, rhombencephalon, and spinal cord) and the developing olfactory organ and retina. Pax3 and Pax7 are excluded from the rostral forebrain and were usually observed in overlapping regions during embryonic development, whereas Pax3 expression is highly downregulated as development proceeds. Thus, Pax3 is restricted to the roof plate of prosomere 2, pretectum, optic tectum, rhombencephalon, and spinal cord. Comparatively, Pax7 was more conspicuous in all these regions. Pax7 cells were also found in the paraphysis, intermediate lobe of the hypophysis, and basal plate of prosomere 3. Our data show that the expression patterns of the three Pax genes studied are overall evolutionarily conserved, and therefore could unequivocally be used to identify subdivisions in the urodele brain similar to other vertebrates, which are not clearly discernable with classical techniques. In addition, the spatiotemporal sequences of expression provide indirect evidence of putative migratory routes across neuromeric limits and the alar-basal boundary.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA126189(United States)

IL-2 immunotherapy reveals potential for innate beta cell regeneration in the non-obese diabetic mouse model of autoimmune diabetes.

  • Diaz-de-Durana Y
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2013 Nov 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease targeting insulin-producing beta cells, resulting in dependence on exogenous insulin. To date, significant efforts have been invested to develop immune-modulatory therapies for T1D treatment. Previously, IL-2 immunotherapy was demonstrated to prevent and reverse T1D at onset in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model, revealing potential as a therapy in early disease stage in humans. In the NOD model, IL-2 deficiency contributes to a loss of regulatory T cell function. This deficiency can be augmented with IL-2 or antibody bound to IL-2 (Ab/IL-2) therapy, resulting in regulatory T cell expansion and potentiation. However, an understanding of the mechanism by which reconstituted regulatory T cell function allows for reversal of diabetes after onset is not clearly understood. Here, we describe that Ab/IL-2 immunotherapy treatment, given at the time of diabetes onset in NOD mice, not only correlated with reversal of diabetes and expansion of Treg cells, but also demonstrated the ability to significantly increase beta cell proliferation. Proliferation appeared specific to Ab/IL-2 immunotherapy, as anti-CD3 therapy did not have a similar effect. Furthermore, to assess the effect of Ab/IL-2 immunotherapy well after the development of diabetes, we tested the effect of delaying treatment for 4 weeks after diabetes onset, when beta cells were virtually absent. At this late stage after diabetes onset, Ab/IL-2 treatment was not sufficient to reverse hyperglycemia. However, it did promote survival in the absence of exogenous insulin. Proliferation of beta cells could not account for this improvement as few beta cells remained. Rather, abnormal insulin and glucagon dual-expressing cells were the only insulin-expressing cells observed in islets from mice with established disease. Thus, these data suggest that in diabetic NOD mice, beta cells have an innate capacity for regeneration both early and late in disease, which is revealed through IL-2 immunotherapy.

Funding information:
  • MRC - MC_UU_12011/1(United Kingdom)

Pdx-1 activates islet α- and β-cell proliferation via a mechanism regulated by transient receptor potential cation channels 3 and 6 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2.

  • Hayes HL
  • Mol. Cell. Biol.
  • 2013 Oct 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The homeodomain transcription factor Pdx-1 has important roles in pancreatic development and β-cell function and survival. In the present study, we demonstrate that adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Pdx-1 in rat or human islets also stimulates cell replication. Moreover, cooverexpression of Pdx-1 with another homeodomain transcription factor, Nkx6.1, has an additive effect on proliferation compared to either factor alone, implying discrete activating mechanisms. Consistent with this, Nkx6.1 stimulates mainly β-cell proliferation, whereas Pdx-1 stimulates both α- and β-cell proliferation. Furthermore, cyclins D1/D2 are upregulated by Pdx-1 but not by Nkx6.1, and inhibition of cdk4 blocks Pdx-1-stimulated but not Nkx6.1-stimulated islet cell proliferation. Genes regulated by Pdx-1 but not Nkx6.1 were identified by microarray analysis. Two members of the transient receptor potential cation (TRPC) channel family, TRPC3 and TRPC6, are upregulated by Pdx-1 overexpression, and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of TRPC3/6 or TRPC6 alone inhibits Pdx-1-induced but not Nkx6.1-induced islet cell proliferation. Pdx-1 also stimulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation, an effect partially blocked by knockdown of TRPC3/6, and blockade of ERK1/2 activation with a MEK1/2 inhibitor partially impairs Pdx-1-stimulated proliferation. These studies define a pathway by which overexpression of Pdx-1 activates islet cell proliferation that is distinct from and additive to a pathway activated by Nkx6.1.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - WT081682/Z/06/Z(United Kingdom)

Variable expressivity of ciliopathy neurological phenotypes that encompass Meckel-Gruber syndrome and Joubert syndrome is caused by complex de-regulated ciliogenesis, Shh and Wnt signalling defects.

  • Abdelhamed ZA
  • Hum. Mol. Genet.
  • 2013 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ciliopathies are a group of heterogeneous diseases with considerable variations in phenotype for allelic conditions such as Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS) and Joubert syndrome (JBTS) even at the inter-individual level within families. In humans, mutations in TMEM67 (also known as MKS3) cause both MKS and JBTS, with TMEM67 encoding the orphan receptor meckelin (TMEM67) that localizes to the ciliary transition zone. We now describe the Tmem67(tm1(Dgen/H)) knockout mouse model that recapitulates the brain phenotypic variability of these human ciliopathies, with categorization of Tmem67 mutant animals into two phenotypic groups. An MKS-like incipient congenic group (F6 to F10) manifested very variable neurological features (including exencephaly, and frontal/occipital encephalocele) that were associated with the loss of primary cilia, diminished Shh signalling and dorsalization of the caudal neural tube. The 'MKS-like' group also had high de-regulated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling associated with hyper-activated Dishevelled-1 (Dvl-1) localized to the basal body. Conversely, a second fully congenic group (F > 10) had less variable features pathognomonic for JBTS (including cerebellar hypoplasia), and retention of abnormal bulbous cilia associated with mild neural tube ventralization. The 'JBTS-like' group had de-regulated low levels of canonical Wnt signalling associated with the loss of Dvl-1 localization to the basal body. Our results suggest that modifier alleles partially determine the variation between MKS and JBTS, implicating the interaction between Dvl-1 and meckelin, or other components of the ciliary transition zone. The Tmem67(tm1(Dgen/H)) line is unique in modelling the variable expressivity of phenotypes in these two ciliopathies.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM076990(United States)

Rbfox3-regulated alternative splicing of Numb promotes neuronal differentiation during development.

  • Kim KK
  • J. Cell Biol.
  • 2013 Feb 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alternative premRNA splicing is a major mechanism to generate diversity of gene products. However, the biological roles of alternative splicing during development remain elusive. Here, we focus on a neuron-specific RNA-binding protein, Rbfox3, recently identified as the antigen of the widely used anti-NeuN antibody. siRNA-mediated loss-of-function studies using the developing chicken spinal cord revealed that Rbfox3 is required to promote neuronal differentiation of postmitotic neurons. Numb premRNA encoding a signaling adaptor protein was found to be a target of Rbfox3 action, and Rbfox3 repressed the inclusion of an alternative exon via binding to the conserved UGCAUG element in the upstream intron. Depleting a specific Numb splice isoform reproduced similar neuronal differentiation defects. Forced expression of the relevant Numb splice isoform was sufficient to rescue, in an isoform-specific manner, postmitotic neurons from defects in differentiation caused by Rbfox3 depletion. Thus, Rbfox3-dependent Numb alternative splicing plays an important role in the progression of neuronal differentiation during vertebrate development.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - (United Kingdom)

Wnt5a cooperates with canonical Wnts to generate midbrain dopaminergic neurons in vivo and in stem cells.

  • Andersson ER
  • Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • 2013 Feb 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Wnts are a family of secreted proteins that regulate multiple steps of neural development and stem cell differentiation. Two of them, Wnt1 and Wnt5a, activate distinct branches of Wnt signaling and individually regulate different aspects of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neuron development. However, several of their functions and interactions remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that loss of Wnt1 results in loss of Lmx1a and Ngn2 expression, as well as agenesis of DA neurons in the midbrain floor plate. Remarkably, a few ectopic DA neurons still emerge in the basal plate of Wnt1(-/-) mice, where Lmx1a is ectopically expressed. These results indicate that Wnt1 orchestrates DA specification and neurogenesis in vivo. Analysis of Wnt1(-/-);Wnt5a(-/-) mice revealed a greater loss of Nurr1(+) cells and DA neurons than in single mutants, indicating that Wnt1 and Wnt5a interact genetically and cooperate to promote midbrain DA neuron development in vivo. Our results unravel a functional interaction between Wnt1 and Wnt5a resulting in enhanced DA neurogenesis. Taking advantage of these findings, we have developed an application of Wnts to improve the generation of midbrain DA neurons from neural and embryonic stem cells. We thus show that coordinated Wnt actions promote DA neuron development in vivo and in stem cells and suggest that coordinated Wnt administration can be used to improve DA differentiation of stem cells and the development of stem cell-based therapies for Parkinson's disease.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z99 LM999999(United States)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - DA029099(United States)

The ciliary G-protein-coupled receptor Gpr161 negatively regulates the Sonic hedgehog pathway via cAMP signaling.

  • Mukhopadhyay S
  • Cell
  • 2013 Jan 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The primary cilium is required for Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in vertebrates. In contrast to mutants affecting ciliary assembly, mutations in the intraflagellar transport complex A (IFT-A) paradoxically cause increased Shh signaling. We previously showed that the IFT-A complex, in addition to its canonical role in retrograde IFT, binds to the tubby-like protein, Tulp3, and recruits it to cilia. Here, we describe a conserved vertebrate G-protein-coupled receptor, Gpr161, which localizes to primary cilia in a Tulp3/IFT-A-dependent manner. Complete loss of Gpr161 in mouse causes midgestation lethality and increased Shh signaling in the neural tube, phenocopying Tulp3/IFT-A mutants. Constitutive Gpr161 activity increases cAMP levels and represses Shh signaling by determining the processing of Gli3 to its repressor form. Conversely, Shh signaling directs Gpr161 to be internalized from cilia, preventing its activity. Thus, Gpr161 defines a morphogenetic pathway coupling protein kinase A activation to Shh signaling during neural tube development.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA DA000206-28(United States)

Lesion-induced generation of interneuron cell types in specific dorsoventral domains in the spinal cord of adult zebrafish.

  • Kuscha V
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In contrast to mammals, adult zebrafish regenerate neurons in the lesioned spinal cord. For example, motor neurons are generated from an olig2-expressing population of pMN-like ependymoradial glial cells in a ventrolateral position at the central canal. However, the extent of neuronal regeneration is unclear. Here we show, using a transgenic fish in which V2 interneurons are labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the vsx1 promoter, that after a complete spinal cord transection, large numbers of V2 interneurons are generated in the vicinity of the lesion site. Tg(vsx1:GFP)⁺ cells are not present in the unlesioned spinal cord and label with the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) after a lesion. Some mediolaterally elongated Tg(vsx1:GFP)⁺ cells contact the central canal in a medial position. These cells likely arise from a p2-like domain of ependymoradial glial progenitor cells, indicated by coexpression of Pax6 and Nkx6.1, but not DsRed driven by the olig2 promoter in these cells. We also present evidence that Pax2⁺ interneurons are newly generated after a spinal lesion, whereas the generation rate for a dorsal population of parvalbuminergic interneurons is comparatively low. Our results identify the regenerative potential of different interneuron types for the first time and support a model in which different progenitor cell domains in distinct dorsoventral positions around the central canal are activated by a lesion to give rise to diverse neuronal cell types in the adult zebrafish spinal cord.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R21 DC013358(United States)

Zebrafish sox9b is crucial for hepatopancreatic duct development and pancreatic endocrine cell regeneration.

  • Manfroid I
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2012 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent zebrafish studies have shown that the late appearing pancreatic endocrine cells are derived from pancreatic ducts but the regulatory factors involved are still largely unknown. Here, we show that the zebrafish sox9b gene is expressed in pancreatic ducts where it labels the pancreatic Notch-responsive cells previously shown to be progenitors. Inactivation of sox9b disturbs duct formation and impairs regeneration of beta cells from these ducts in larvae. sox9b expression in the midtrunk endoderm appears at the junction of the hepatic and ventral pancreatic buds and, by the end of embryogenesis, labels the hepatopancreatic ductal system as well as the intrapancreatic and intrahepatic ducts. Ductal morphogenesis and differentiation are specifically disrupted in sox9b mutants, with the dysmorphic hepatopancreatic ducts containing misdifferentiated hepatocyte-like and pancreatic-like cells. We also show that maintenance of sox9b expression in the extrapancreatic and intrapancreatic ducts requires FGF and Notch activity, respectively, both pathways known to prevent excessive endocrine differentiation in these ducts. Furthermore, beta cell recovery after specific ablation is severely compromised in sox9b mutant larvae. Our data position sox9b as a key player in the generation of secondary endocrine cells deriving from pancreatic ducts in zebrafish.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS062670(United States)

Establishment of motor neuron-V3 interneuron progenitor domain boundary in ventral spinal cord requires Groucho-mediated transcriptional corepression.

  • Todd KJ
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2012 Feb 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Dorsoventral patterning of the developing spinal cord is important for the correct generation of spinal neuronal types. This process relies in part on cross-repressive interactions between specific transcription factors whose expression is regulated by Sonic hedgehog. Groucho/transducin-like Enhancer of split (TLE) proteins are transcriptional corepressors suggested to be recruited by at least certain Sonic hedgehog-controlled transcription factors to mediate the formation of spatially distinct progenitor domains within the ventral spinal cord. The aim of this study was to characterize the involvement of TLE in mechanisms regulating the establishment of the boundary between the most ventral spinal cord progenitor domains, termed pMN and p3. Because the pMN domain gives rise to somatic motor neurons while the p3 domain generates V3 interneurons, we also examined the involvement of TLE in the acquisition of these neuronal fates. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A combination of in vivo loss- and gain-of-function studies in the developing chick spinal cord was performed to characterize the role of TLE in ventral progenitor domain formation. It is shown here that TLE overexpression causes increased numbers of p3 progenitors and promotes the V3 interneuron fate while suppressing the motor neuron fate. Conversely, dominant-inhibition of TLE increases the numbers of pMN progenitors and postmitotic motor neurons. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, we propose that TLE is important to promote the formation of the p3 domain and subsequent generation of V3 interneurons.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118110(United States)

Protein kinase A acts at the basal body of the primary cilium to prevent Gli2 activation and ventralization of the mouse neural tube.

  • Tuson M
  • Development
  • 2011 Nov 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Protein kinase A (PKA) is an evolutionarily conserved negative regulator of the hedgehog (Hh) signal transduction pathway. PKA is known to be required for the proteolytic processing event that generates the repressor forms of the Ci and Gli transcription factors that keep target genes off in the absence of Hh. Here, we show that complete loss of PKA activity in the mouse leads to midgestation lethality and a completely ventralized neural tube, demonstrating that PKA is as strong a negative regulator of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway as patched 1 (Ptch1) or suppressor of fused (Sufu). Genetic analysis shows that although PKA is important for production of the repressor form of Gli3, the principal function of PKA in the Shh pathway in neural development is to restrain activation of Gli2. Activation of the Hh pathway in PKA mutants depends on cilia, and the catalytic and regulatory subunits of PKA are localized to a compartment at the base of the primary cilia, just proximal to the basal body. The data show that PKA does not affect cilia length or trafficking of smoothened (Smo) in the cilium. Instead, we find that there is a significant increase in the level of Gli2 at the tips of cilia of PKA-null cells. The data suggest a model in which PKA acts at the base of the cilium after Gli proteins have transited the primary cilium; in this model the sequential movement of Gli proteins between compartments in the cilium and at its base controls accessibility of Gli proteins to PKA, which determines the fates of Gli proteins and the activity of the Shh pathway.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS078041(United States)

Isolation of mineralizing Nestin+ Nkx6.1+ vascular muscular cells from the adult human spinal cord.

  • Mamaeva D
  • BMC Neurosci
  • 2011 Oct 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The adult central nervous system (CNS) contains different populations of immature cells that could possibly be used to repair brain and spinal cord lesions. The diversity and the properties of these cells in the human adult CNS remain to be fully explored. We previously isolated Nestin+ Sox2+ neural multipotential cells from the adult human spinal cord using the neurosphere method (i.e. non adherent conditions and defined medium). RESULTS: Here we report the isolation and long term propagation of another population of Nestin+ cells from this tissue using adherent culture conditions and serum. QPCR and immunofluorescence indicated that these cells had mesenchymal features as evidenced by the expression of Snai2 and Twist1 and lack of expression of neural markers such as Sox2, Olig2 or GFAP. Indeed, these cells expressed markers typical of smooth muscle vascular cells such as Calponin, Caldesmone and Acta2 (Smooth muscle actin). These cells could not differentiate into chondrocytes, adipocytes, neuronal and glial cells, however they readily mineralized when placed in osteogenic conditions. Further characterization allowed us to identify the Nkx6.1 transcription factor as a marker for these cells. Nkx6.1 was expressed in vivo by CNS vascular muscular cells located in the parenchyma and the meninges. CONCLUSION: Smooth muscle cells expressing Nestin and Nkx6.1 is the main cell population derived from culturing human spinal cord cells in adherent conditions with serum. Mineralization of these cells in vitro could represent a valuable model for studying calcifications of CNS vessels which are observed in pathological situations or as part of the normal aging. In addition, long term propagation of these cells will allow the study of their interaction with other CNS cells and their implication in scar formation during spinal cord injury.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01NS077863(United States)

Lectin-based isolation and culture of mouse embryonic motoneurons.

  • Conrad R
  • J Vis Exp
  • 2011 Sep 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spinal motoneurons develop towards postmitotic stages through early embryonic nervous system development and subsequently grow out dendrites and axons. Neuroepithelial cells of the neural tube that express Nkx6.1 are the unique precursor cells for spinal motoneurons(1). Though postmitotic motoneurons move towards their final position and organize themselves into columns along the spinal tract(2,3). More than 90% of all these differentiated and positioned motoneurons express the transcription factors Islet 1/2. They innervate the muscles of the limbs as well as those of the body and the inner organs. Among others, motoneurons typically express the high affinity receptors for brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), the tropomyosin-related kinase B and C (TrkB, TrkC). They do not express the tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA)(4). Beside the two high affinity receptors, motoneurons do express the low affinity neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR). The p75(NTR) can bind all neurotrophins with similar but lower affinity to all neurotrophins than the high affinity receptors would bind the mature neurotrophins. Within the embryonic spinal cord, the p75(NTR) is exclusively expressed by the spinal motoneurons(5). This has been used to develop motoneuron isolation techniques to purify the cells from the vast majority of surrounding cells(6). Isolating motoneurons with the help of specific antibodies (panning) against the extracellular domains of p75(NTR) has turned out to be an expensive method as the amount of antibody used for a single experiment is high due to the size of the plate used for panning. A much more economical alternative is the use of lectin. Lectin has been shown to specifically bind to p75(NTR) as well(7). The following method describes an alternative technique using wheat germ agglutinin for a preplating procedure instead of the p75(NTR) antibody. The lectin is an extremely inexpensive alternative to the p75(NTR) antibody and the purification grades using lectin are comparable to that of the p75(NTR) antibody. Motoneurons from the embryonic spinal cord can be isolated by this method, survive and grow out neurites.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 202809(International)
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - (United States)

Regulation of spinal interneuron development by the Olig-related protein Bhlhb5 and Notch signaling.

  • Skaggs K
  • Development
  • 2011 Sep 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The neural circuits that control motor activities depend on the spatially and temporally ordered generation of distinct classes of spinal interneurons. Despite the importance of these interneurons, the mechanisms underlying their genesis are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the Olig-related transcription factor Bhlhb5 (recently renamed Bhlhe22) plays two central roles in this process. Our findings suggest that Bhlhb5 repressor activity acts downstream of retinoid signaling and homeodomain proteins to promote the formation of dI6, V1 and V2 interneuron progenitors and their differentiated progeny. In addition, Bhlhb5 is required to organize the spatially restricted expression of the Notch ligands and Fringe proteins that both elicit the formation of the interneuron populations that arise adjacent to Bhlhb5(+) cells and influence the global pattern of neuronal differentiation. Through these actions, Bhlhb5 helps transform the spatial information established by morphogen signaling into local cell-cell interactions associated with Notch signaling that control the progression of neurogenesis and extend neuronal diversity within the developing spinal cord.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008042(United States)

Spatiotemporally restricted regulation of generic motor neuron programs by miR-196-mediated repression of Hoxb8.

  • Asli NS
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2010 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hox transcription factors are key determinants of antero-posterior identity and have been implicated in assigning positionally appropriate neuron subtypes in the neural tube. These roles inherently necessitate stringent control mechanisms that confine Hox protein activities to discrete spatiotemporal domains. Here, we provide evidence that the timing and rostro-caudal extent of Hoxb8 activity in the neural tube is tightly regulated by miR-196, a microRNA species encoded within three Hox gene clusters. In vitro and in vivo sensor-tracer analysis and transcription assays revealed that miR-196 activity restricts the caudal extent of Hoxb8 expression to the thoracic-lumbar intersect via 3' UTR-dependent negative regulation. Spatio-temporally inappropriate Hoxb8 activity, through relief of miR-196-mediated repression or direct misexpression, affected normal progression of motor neuron genesis by affecting generic motor neuron differentiation programs. In addition to uncovering a role for microRNA-dependent restriction of caudal Hox activities, these data thus indicate novel aspects of Hox-dependent neural tube patterning by revealing a requirement of temporal regulation of a generic neuronal specification program.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P50GM071558(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - 066717(United Kingdom)

Distinct requirements for Ascl1 in subpopulations of midbrain GABAergic neurons.

  • Peltopuro P
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2010 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Midbrain GABAergic neurons regulate multiple aspects of behavior and play important roles in psychiatric and neurological disease. These neurons constitute several anatomical and functional subpopulations, but their molecular heterogeneity and developmental regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we have studied the involvement of the proneural gene Ascl1 in the development of the midbrain GABAergic neurons. Analysis of Ascl1 mutant mice demonstrated highly region-specific requirements for Ascl1 for development of different GABAergic neuron subpopulations. Ascl1 is dispensable for the development of the ventral-most midbrain GABAergic neurons associated with dopaminergic nuclei substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABAergic neurons. In the ventrolateral midbrain, loss of Ascl1 results in markedly delayed neurogenesis in the midbrain domains m3-m5. Within this region, Ascl1 has a unique role in m4, where it also regulates glutamatergic neurogenesis. Our results suggest that the m3-m5 midbrain neuroepithelium gives rise to the GABAergic neuron groups located in the midbrain reticular formation and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray. In contrast to m3-m5, Ascl1 is absolutely required in the dorsal midbrain domains m1-m2, for generation of the GABAergic neurons populating the superior and inferior colliculi as well as dorsal periaqueductal gray. These studies demonstrate different molecular regulatory mechanisms for the distinct midbrain GABAergic neuron subpopulations. Also, our results have implications on understanding the origins of the various midbrain GABAergic neuron groups in the embryonic neuroepithelium.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS061111(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - BB/D521865/1(United Kingdom)

Immunohistochemistry of pancreatic development in cattle and pig.

  • Carlsson GL
  • Anat Histol Embryol
  • 2010 Apr 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

The aim of this study was to characterize bovine and porcine pancreatic development by immunohistochemistry. In the pig, staining for both glucagon and insulin was noted at day 19. In cattle, glucagon staining was observed at day 25 and insulin staining from day 26. In both species, glucagon-stained cells were abundant initially, but later insulin-stained cells became most abundant. A few cells displayed co-localization of glucagon and insulin staining during initial development in both species. Initially, most of the cells of the pancreatic primordia and the duodenal epithelium displayed Pdx-1-staining. All insulin-stained cells displayed Pdx-1-stained nuclei, whereas no glucagon-stained cells did so. Many Pdx-1-stained cells lacked insulin staining, but with development, the relative number of these cells diminished. Nkx6.1-staining was initially seen in a pattern similar to that for Pdx-1, but was lacking duodenal staining. Subsequently, the number of Nkx6.1-stained cells diminished, but increased again to a level where practically all insulin-stained cells also presented Nkx6.1-staining. Glucagon-stained cells, on the other hand, never had Nkx6.1 staining. In conclusion, the localization of the two transcription factors, Pdx-1 and Nkx6.1, demonstrated that pancreas development appears to be controlled by mechanisms comparable with those operating in humans.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY11640(United States)

Dynamic expression of the Onecut transcription factors HNF-6, OC-2 and OC-3 during spinal motor neuron development.

  • Francius C
  • Neuroscience
  • 2010 Jan 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Onecut (OC) transcription factors, namely Hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 (HNF-6), OC-2 and OC-3, are transcriptional activators expressed in liver, pancreas and nervous system during development. Although their expression and roles in endoderm-derived tissues and in the trigeminal ganglia have been investigated, their expression in the CNS has not been described yet. In this study, we report a qualitative and quantitative expression profile of the OC factors in the developing spinal motor neurons (MN). We provide evidence that OC expression is initiated in newly-born MN. At later stages, they are differentially and dynamically expressed in subsets of differentiating motor neuron within the four motor columns. We also show that the expression profile of HNF-6 in spinal MN is conserved in chick embryos. Together, our data unveil a complex and dynamic expression profile of the OC proteins in spinal MN, which suggests that these factors may participate in regulatory networks that control different steps of motor neuron development.

Sonic hedgehog is a polarized signal for motor neuron regeneration in adult zebrafish.

  • Reimer MM
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2009 Dec 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

In contrast to mammals, the spinal cord of adult zebrafish has the capacity to reinitiate generation of motor neurons after a lesion. Here we show that genes involved in motor neuron development, i.e., the ventral morphogen sonic hedgehog a (shha), as well as the transcription factors nkx6.1 and pax6, together with a Tg(olig2:egfp) transgene, are expressed in the unlesioned spinal cord of adult zebrafish. Expression is found in ependymoradial glial cells lining the central canal in ventrodorsal positions that match expression domains of these genes in the developing neural tube. Specifically, Tg(olig2:egfp)(+) ependymoradial glial cells, the adult motor neuron progenitors (pMNs), coexpress Nkx6.1 and Pax6, thus defining an adult pMN-like zone. shha is expressed in distinct ventral ependymoradial glial cells. After a lesion, expression of all these genes is strongly increased, while relative spatial expression domains are maintained. In addition, expression of the hedgehog (hh) receptors patched1 and smoothened becomes detectable in ependymoradial glial cells including those of the pMN-like zone. Cyclopamine-induced knock down of hh signaling significantly reduces ventricular proliferation and motor neuron regeneration. Expression of indicator genes for the FGF and retinoic acid signaling pathways was also increased in the lesioned spinal cord. This suggests that a subclass of ependymoradial glial cells retain their identity as motor neuron progenitors into adulthood and are capable of reacting to a sonic hedgehog signal and potentially other developmental signals with motor neuron regeneration after a spinal lesion.

Loss of Dnmt1 catalytic activity reveals multiple roles for DNA methylation during pancreas development and regeneration.

  • Anderson RM
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2009 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Developmental mechanisms regulating gene expression and the stable acquisition of cell fate direct cytodifferentiation during organogenesis. Moreover, it is likely that such mechanisms could be exploited to repair or regenerate damaged organs. DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) are enzymes critical for epigenetic regulation, and are used in concert with histone methylation and acetylation to regulate gene expression and maintain genomic integrity and chromosome structure. We carried out two forward genetic screens for regulators of endodermal organ development. In the first, we screened for altered morphology of developing digestive organs, while in the second we screed for the lack of terminally differentiated cell types in the pancreas and liver. From these screens, we identified two mutant alleles of zebrafish dnmt1. Both lesions are predicted to eliminate dnmt1 function; one is a missense mutation in the catalytic domain and the other is a nonsense mutation that eliminates the catalytic domain. In zebrafish dnmt1 mutants, the pancreas and liver form normally, but begin to degenerate after 84 h post fertilization (hpf). Acinar cells are nearly abolished through apoptosis by 100 hpf, though neither DNA replication, nor entry into mitosis is halted in the absence of detectable Dnmt1. However, endocrine cells and ducts are largely spared. Surprisingly, dnmt1 mutants and dnmt1 morpholino-injected larvae show increased capacity for pancreatic beta cell regeneration in an inducible model of pancreatic beta cell ablation. Thus, our data suggest that Dnmt1 is dispensable for pancreatic duct or endocrine cell formation, but not for acinar cell survival. In addition, Dnmt1 may influence the differentiation of pancreatic beta cell progenitors or the reprogramming of cells toward the pancreatic beta cell fate.

Tulp3 is a critical repressor of mouse hedgehog signaling.

  • Cameron DA
  • Dev. Dyn.
  • 2009 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Precise regulation of the morphogen sonic hedgehog (Shh) and modulation of the Shh signaling pathway is required for proper specification of cell fate within the developing limbs and neural tube, and resultant tissue morphogenesis. Tulp3 (tubby-like protein 3) is a protein of unknown function which has been implicated in nervous system development through gene knockout studies. We demonstrate here that mice lacking the Tulp3 gene develop abnormalities of both the neural tube and limbs consistent with improper regulation of Shh signaling. Tulp3(-/-) embryos show expansion of Shh target gene expression and display a ventralization of neural progenitor cells in the caudal neural tube. We further show that Tulp3(-/-)/Shh(-/-) compound mutant embryos resemble Tulp3 mutants, and express Shh target genes in the neural tube and limbs which are not expressed in Shh(-/-) embryos. This work uncovers a novel role for Tulp3 as a negative regulatory factor in the Hh pathway.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U24NS050606(United States)

Analysis of hedgehog signaling in mouse intraflagellar transport mutants.

  • Ko HW
  • Methods Cell Biol.
  • 2009 Apr 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intraflagellar transport (IFT) has been studied for decades in model systems such as Chlamydomonas and Caenorhabditis elegans. More recently, IFT has been investigated using genetic approaches in mammals using the mouse as a model system. Through such studies, a new appreciation of the importance of IFT and cilia in mammalian signal transduction has emerged. Specifically, IFT has been shown to play a key role in controlling signaling by Sonic and Indian Hedgehog (Hh) ligands. The effects of mutations in IFT components on Sonic Hh signaling in the embryo are complex and differ depending on the nature of the components, alleles, and tissues examined. For this reason, we provide a basis for analyzing the phenotype as a guide for those investigators who study IFT in cell culture or use invertebrate systems and wish to extend their studies to include development of the mouse embryo. We provide an overview of Sonic Hh-dependent tissue patterning in the developing neural tube and limb buds, the two systems in which it has been studied most extensively, and we show examples of how this patterning is disrupted by mutations in mouse IFT components.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - HG 2 P50 HG002790-06(United States)

Gata2 is a tissue-specific post-mitotic selector gene for midbrain GABAergic neurons.

  • Kala K
  • Development
  • 2009 Jan 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Midbrain GABAergic neurons control several aspects of behavior, but regulation of their development and diversity is poorly understood. Here, we further refine the midbrain regions active in GABAergic neurogenesis and show their correlation with the expression of the transcription factor Gata2. Using tissue-specific inactivation and ectopic expression, we show that Gata2 regulates GABAergic neuron development in the mouse midbrain, but not in rhombomere 1, where it is needed in the serotonergic lineage. Without Gata2, all the precursors in the embryonic midbrain fail to activate GABAergic neuron-specific gene expression and instead switch to a glutamatergic phenotype. Surprisingly, this fate switch is also observed throughout the neonatal midbrain, except for the GABAergic neurons located in the ventral dopaminergic nuclei, suggesting a distinct developmental pathway for these neurons. These studies identify Gata2 as an essential post-mitotic selector gene of the GABAergic neurotransmitter identity and demonstrate developmental heterogeneity of GABAergic neurons in the midbrain.

Adult human spinal cord harbors neural precursor cells that generate neurons and glial cells in vitro.

  • Dromard C
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2008 Jul 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adult human and rodent brains contain neural stem and progenitor cells, and the presence of neural stem cells in the adult rodent spinal cord has also been described. Here, using electron microscopy, expression of neural precursor cell markers, and cell culture, we investigated whether neural precursor cells are also present in adult human spinal cord. In well-preserved nonpathological post-mortem human adult spinal cord, nestin, Sox2, GFAP, CD15, Nkx6.1, and PSA-NCAM were found to be expressed heterogeneously by cells located around the central canal. Ultrastructural analysis revealed the existence of immature cells close to the ependymal cells, which display characteristics of type B and C cells found in the adult rodent brain subventricular region, which are considered to be stem and progenitor cells, respectively. Completely dissociated spinal cord cells reproducibly formed Sox2(+) nestin(+) neurospheres containing proliferative precursor cells. On differentiation, these generate glial cells and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurons. These results provide the first evidence for the existence in the adult human spinal cord of neural precursors with the potential to differentiate into neurons and glia. They represent a major interest for endogenous regeneration of spinal cord after trauma and in degenerative diseases.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R03 DE024490(United States)

Specificity of four monoclonal anti-NKx6-1 antibodies.

  • Klinck R
  • J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • 2008 Apr 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

The homeodomain transcription factor Nkx6-1 is essential for proper motor neuron development and development of insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells. Nkx6-1 is closely related to Nkx6-2 and Nkx6-3, and all three are expressed in the developing central nervous system and in the developing foregut. Immunohistochemical detection of protein expression is an important tool for description of the temporal differences in expression patterns. When several gene family members like the Nkx6 factors have overlapping or juxtaposed expression domains, there is an elevated risk of unrecognized cross-reactivity, and it is therefore crucial to determine the specificities of antibodies against such targets. In this study we have determined the epitope consensus sequences of four monoclonal antibodies against Nkx6-1 using SPOT membranes, and we refined the results by combined peptide recognition and blocking assays. We show that two of the monoclonal anti-Nkx6-1 antibodies specifically recognize Nkx6-1 and do not cross-react to Nkx6-2 and Nkx6-3. The other two monoclonal anti-Nkx6-1 antibodies are specific to Nkx6-1 in mice but do not recognize Nkx6-1 in chicken and human.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - HD 32050(United States)

An improved method for three-dimensional reconstruction of protein expression patterns in intact mouse and chicken embryos and organs.

  • Ahnfelt-Rønne J
  • J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • 2007 Sep 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have developed a wholemount immunofluorescence protocol for the simultaneous detection of up to three proteins in mouse and chicken embryos. Combined with Murray's clearing reagent (BABB) and microscope objectives with long working ranges and high numerical apertures mounted on a confocal microscope, cellular resolution can be obtained in depths offering the possibility of examining expression patterns in entire organs or embryos. Three-dimensional projections of the optical confocal sections can be computed with computer software allowing rotation around any axis. The protocol is robust and we find that most antibodies working on tissue sections also work with this protocol. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - U01 MH105960(United States)

Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against the transcription factor Nkx6.1.

  • Pedersen IL
  • J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • 2006 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

We present the generation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies (F55A10, F55A12, F64A6B4, and F65A2) against the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx6.1, one of the essential transcription factors that regulates the multistep differentiation process of precursor cells into endocrine beta-cells in the pancreas. Expression of Nkx6.1 can be detected in developing pancreatic epithelium and in adult insulin-producing beta-cells, making this transcription factor a unique beta-cell marker. For production of monoclonal antibodies, RBF mice were immunized with a GST-Nkx6.1 fusion protein containing a 66-amino acid C-terminal fragment of rat Nkx6.1. Four clones were established as stable hybridoma cell lines and the produced antibodies were of the mouse IgG1/kappa subtype. When applied for immunohistochemistry on frozen sections of adult mouse pancreas, monoclonal antibodies stain specifically the beta-cells in the endocrine islets of Langerhans with patterns comparable to that of a previously produced polyclonal rabbit serum. Monoclonal antibodies can be divided into two groups that appear to recognize different epitopes, as determined by competition ELISA. The presented antibodies are useful tools for the further characterization of the role and function of Nkx6.1 in pancreatic development, especially for use in double-labeling experiments with existing polyclonal rabbit antibodies.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 242635(International)

Mycobacteria, cytokines and antibiotics.

  • Rook GA
  • Pathol. Biol.
  • 1990 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

We still do not understand the mechanism of immunity ty mycobacteria in man, and convincing reproducible kill of M. tuberculosis by human macrophages has not been achieved. The pathways so far elucidated, involving gamma interferon, 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3, and TNF release seem more likely to lead to immunopathology than to protection. Meanwhile the major problem for the clinician is the existence of "persister" bacteria, which are not eliminated by the immune response, even when therapy has greatly reduced the bacterial load. It seems unlikely that it will be possible to design antibiotics which will rapidly kill dormant persister bacilli, so new strategies for therapy may need to concentrate on modulation of the host response. The objectives of such therapies would be: 1) "Reawakening" of dormant persisters. 2) Rapid immune recognition of persisters. 3) Suppression of the tissue-damaging pathway. 4) Enhancement of the optimally protective mechanism, but this has not yet been defined.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - F31 AG044061(United States)

[The possibility of subcutaneous rupture of the Achilles tendon under the effect of a vertical tensile force (experimental study)].

  • Karasev VI
  • Ortop Travmatol Protez
  • 1969 Dec 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01-DK61249(United States)