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GSK-3beta (27C10) Rabbit mAb antibody

RRID:AB_490890

Antibody ID

AB_490890

Target Antigen

GSK-3beta (27C10) Rabbit mAb mouse, non-human primate, human, rat, h, m, r, mk

Proper Citation

(Cell Signaling Technology Cat# 9315, RRID:AB_490890)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: W, IP, IHC-P

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Cell Signaling Technology

Early-Ethanol Exposure Induced Region-Specific Changes in Metabolic Proteins in the Rat Brain: A Proteomics Study.

  • Swart PC
  • J. Mol. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

In utero exposure to alcohol has been shown to cause a spectrum of cognitive and behavioral deficits. This study aimed to explore the long-term effects of early-ethanol exposure on proteins in the brain. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to 12% ethanol (4 g/kg/day i.p.) or volume-controlled saline during the third human trimester equivalent (P4-P9). At P31, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) proteins were analyzed by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Early-ethanol exposure increased the capacity for metabolism of NADH and oxidative phosphorylation, as shown by an upregulation of NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone, 1 alpha subcomplex 9) while simultaneously decreasing the capacity to protect against oxidative stress in the PFC. Early-ethanol exposure decreased the capacity for ATP synthesis (> 2-fold down regulation of ATP synthase) and increased glycogen synthesis in the DH (> 2-fold decrease in glycogen synthase kinase-3β). The effects of early-ethanol exposure on glucose metabolism and ATP production appeared to be region specific. In addition, early-ethanol exposure decreased structural proteins in both the PFC and DH. A greater number of proteins were altered in the DH than in the PFC, indicating that the DH may be more susceptible to the effects of early-ethanol exposure. These proteomic profiles provide valuable insight into the long-term molecular changes in the brain induced by early-ethanol exposure.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - P41 EB002027(United States)

FGF23 Regulates Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling-Mediated Osteoarthritis in Mice Overexpressing High-Molecular-Weight FGF2.

  • Meo Burt P
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although humans with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) and the Hyp mouse, a murine homolog of XLH, are known to develop degenerative joint disease, the exact mechanism that drives the osteoarthritis (OA) phenotype remains unclear. Mice that overexpress high-molecular-weight fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 isoforms (HMWTg mice) phenocopy both XLH and Hyp, including OA with increased FGF23 production in bone and serum. Because HMWTg cartilage also has increased FGF23 and there is cross-talk between FGF23-Wnt/β-catenin signaling, the purpose of this study was to determine if OA observed in HMWTg mice is due to FGF23-mediated canonical Wnt signaling in chondrocytes, given that both pathways are implicated in OA pathogenesis. HMWTg OA joints had decreased Dkk1, Sost, and Lrp6 expression with increased Wnt5a, Wnt7b, Lrp5, Axin2, phospho-GSK3β, Lef1, and nuclear β-catenin, as indicated by immunohistochemistry or quantitative PCR analysis. Chondrocytes from HMWTg mice had enhanced alcian blue and alkaline phosphatase staining as well as increased FGF23, Adamts5, Il-1β, Wnt7b, Wnt16, and Wisp1 gene expression and phospho-GSK3β protein expression as indicated by Western blot, compared with chondrocytes of vector control and chondrocytes from mice overexpressing the low-molecular-weight isoform, which were protected from OA. Canonical Wnt inhibitor treatment rescued some of those parameters in HMWTg chondrocytes, seemingly delaying the initially accelerated chondrogenic differentiation. FGF23 neutralizing antibody treatment was able to partly ameliorate OA abnormalities in subchondral bone and reduce degradative/hypertrophic chondrogenic marker expression in HMWTg joints in vivo. These results demonstrate that osteoarthropathy of HMWTg is at least partially due to FGF23-modulated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in chondrocytes.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK087960(United States)

Maternal separation stress reduced prenatal-ethanol-induced increase in exploratory behaviour and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity.

  • Swart PC
  • Behav. Brain Res.
  • 2018 Jun 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

In an attempt to better represent the aetiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) and the associated psychological deficits, prenatal-ethanol exposure was followed by maternal separation in a rat model in order to account for the effects of early-life adversities in addition to in utero alcohol exposure. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3β) are converging points for many signalling cascades and have been implicated in models of FASD and models of early-life stress. Therefore, these kinases may also contribute to the behavioural changes observed after the combination of both developmental insults. In this study, ethanol-dams voluntarily consumed a 0.066% saccharin-sweetened 10% ethanol (EtOH) solution for 10 days prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation while control-dams had ad libitumaccess to a 0.066% saccharin (sacc) solution. Whole litters were randomly assigned to undergo maternal separation (MS) for 3 h/day from P2 to P14 while the remaining litters were left undisturbed (nMS). This resulted in 4 experimental groups: control (sacc + nMS), MS (sacc + MS), EtOH (EtOH + nMS) and EtOH + MS. Throughout development, EtOH-rats weighed less than control rats. However, subsequent maternal separation stress caused EtOH + MS-rats to weigh more than EtOH-rats. In adulthood both MS- and EtOH-rats were hyperactive but the combination produced activity levels similar to that of control rats. All treated animals (MS-, EtOH- and EtOH + MS-rats) demonstrated a negative affective state shown by increased number and duration of 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations compared to control rats. Prenatal-ethanol exposure increased the P-GSK3β/GSK3β ratio in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and maternal separation decreased the P-GSK3β/GSK3β ratio in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) of adult rats. However, maternal separation stress decreased the effect of prenatal-ethanol exposure on the P-ERK/ERK ratio in the PFC and DH and reduced prenatal-ethanol-induced hyperactivity. Therefore, indicating a significant interaction between prenatal-ethanol exposure and early-life stress on behaviour and the brain and may implicate P-ERK1/2 signalling in exploratory behaviour.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI048562-07(United States)

Evidence of altered depression and dementia-related proteins in the brains of young rats after ovariectomy.

  • Fang YY
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Jun 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Menopause, a risk factor for brain dysfunction in women, is characterized by neuropsychological symptoms including depression and dementia, which are closely related to alterations in different brain regions after menopause. However, little is known about the variability of pathophysiologic changes associated with menopause in the brain. Here, we observed that menopause in rats induced by bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) showed depressive and dementia-related behaviors along with neuronal loss in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HIP), hypothalamus (HYP) and amygdala (AMY) by Nissl staining. Meanwhile, by immunohistochemical staining, increased microglia in the HIP and AMY and increased astrocytes in the PFC, HYP and AMY were shown. By using quantitative proteomics, we identified 146 differentially expressed proteins in the brains of OVX rats, e.g., 20 in the PFC, 41 in the HIP, 17 in the HYP and 79 in the AMY, and performed further detection by Western blotting. A link between neuronal loss and apoptosis was suggested, as evidenced by increases in adenylate kinase 2 (AK2), B-cell lymphoma 2 associated X (Bax), cleaved caspase-3 and phosphorylated p53 and decreases in Huntingtin-interacting protein K (HYPK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphorylated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and apoptosis might be triggered by endoplasmic reticulum stress (probed by increased glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), cleaved caspase-12, phosphorylated protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE-1) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6)) and mitochondrial dysfunction (probed by increased cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 and decreased sideroflexin-1 (SFXN1) and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 α subcomplex 11 (NDUFA11)). Activation of autophagy was also indicated by increased autophagy-related 7 (ATG7), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-associated protein-like 2 (GABARAPL2) and oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 1 (ORP1) and confirmed by increased microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3II/I), autophagy-related 5 (ATG5), and Beclin1 in the HIP and AMY. In the AMY, which is important in emotion, higher GABA transporter 3 (GAT3) and lower vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VgluT1) levels indicated an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, and the increased calretinin and decreased calbindin levels suggested an adjustment of GABAergic transmission after OVX. In addition, cytoskeletal abnormalities including tau hyperphosphorylation, dysregulated Ca²+ signals and glutamic synaptic impairments were observed in the brains of OVX rats. Collectively, our study showed the changes in different brain regions related to depression and dementia during menopause. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - 1K08AI097238-01(United States)

Juvenile treatment with mGluR2/3 agonist prevents schizophrenia-like phenotypes in adult by acting through GSK3β.

  • Xing B
  • Neuropharmacology
  • 2018 May 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prodromal memory deficits represent an important marker for the development of schizophrenia (SZ), in which glutamatergic hypofunction occurs in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The mGluR2/3 agonist LY379268 (LY37) attenuates excitatory N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-induced neurotoxicity, a central pathological characteristic of glutamatergic hypofunction. We therefore hypothesized that early treatment with LY37 would rescue cognitive deficits and confer benefits for SZ-like behaviors in adults. To test this, we assessed whether early intervention with LY37 would improve learning outcomes in the Morris Water Maze for rats prenatally exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM), a neurodevelopmental SZ model. We found that a medium dose of LY37 prevents learning deficits in MAM rats. These effects were mediated through postsynaptic mGluR2/3 via improving GluN2B-NMDAR function by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β). Furthermore, dendritic spine loss and learning and memory deficits observed in adult MAM rats were restored by juvenile LY37 treatment, which did not change prefrontal neuronal excitability and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in adult normal rats. Our results provide a mechanism for mGluR2/3 agonists against NMDAR hypofunction, which may prove to be beneficial in the prophylactic treatment of SZ.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R56AI1691785(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH085666()

Lithium Inhibits GSK3β and Augments GluN2A Receptor Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex.

  • Monaco SA
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2018 Feb 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in both psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer's disease; therefore regulating its activity has become an important strategy for treatment of cognitive impairments in these disorders. This study examines the effects of lithium on GSK3β and its interaction with β-catenin and NMDA receptors within the prefrontal cortex. Lithium, a clinically relevant drug commonly prescribed as a mood stabilizer for psychiatric disorders, significantly increased levels of phosphorylated GSK3β serine 9, an inhibitory phosphorylation site, and decreased β-catenin ser33/37/thr41 phosphorylation in vitro, indicating GSK3β inhibition and reduced β-catenin degradation. GluN2A subunit levels were concurrently increased following lithium treatment. Similar alterations were also demonstrated in vivo; lithium administration increased GSK3β serine 9 phosphorylation and GluN2A levels, suggesting a reduced GSK3β activity and augmented GluN2A expression. Correspondingly, we observed that the amplitudes of evoked GluN2A-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents in mPFC pyramidal neurons were significantly increased following lithium administration. Our data suggest that GSK3β activity negatively regulates GluN2A expression, likely by mediating upstream β-catenin phosphorylation, in prefrontal cortical neurons. Furthermore, our biochemical and electrophysiological experiments demonstrate that lithium mediates a specific increase in GluN2A subunit expression, ultimately augmenting GluN2A-mediated currents in the prefrontal cortex.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA100193(United States)

Maternal exercise modifies body composition and energy substrates handling in male offspring fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet.

  • Quiclet C
  • J. Physiol. (Lond.)
  • 2017 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

KEY POINTS: Maternal training during gestation enhances offspring body composition and energy substrates handling in early adulthood. Offspring nutrition also plays a role as some beneficial effects of maternal training during gestation disappear after consumption of a high-fat diet. ABSTRACT: Maternal exercise during gestation has been reported to modify offspring metabolism and health. Whether these effects are exacerbated when offspring are receiving a high-fat diet remains unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of maternal exercise before and during gestation on the offspring fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF) by assessing its body composition, pancreatic function and energy substrates handling by two major glucose-utilizing tissues: liver and muscle. Fifteen-week-old nulliparous female Wistar rats exercised 4 weeks before as well as during gestation at a constant submaximal intensity (TR) or remained sedentary (CT). At weaning, pups from each group were fed either a standard diet (TRCD or CTCD) or a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (TRHF or CTHF) for 10 weeks. Offspring from TR dams gained less weight compared to those from CT dams. Selected fat depots were larger with the HF diet compared to control diet (CD) but significantly smaller in TRHF compared to CTHF. Surprisingly, the insulin secretion index was higher in islets from HF offspring compared to CD. TR offspring showed a higher muscle insulin sensitivity estimated by the ratio of phosphorylated protein kinase B to total protein kinase B compared with CT offspring (+48%, P < 0.05). With CD, permeabilized isolated muscle fibres from TR rats displayed a lower apparent affinity constant (Km ) for pyruvate and palmitoyl coenzyme A as substrates compared to the CT group (-46% and -58%, respectively, P < 0.05). These results suggest that maternal exercise has positive effects on young adult offspring body composition and on muscle carbohydrate and lipid metabolism depending on the nutritional status.

AKT isoforms have distinct hippocampal expression and roles in synaptic plasticity.

  • Levenga J
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

AKT is a kinase regulating numerous cellular processes in the brain, and mutations in AKT are known to affect brain function. AKT is indirectly implicated in synaptic plasticity, but its direct role has not been studied. Moreover, three highly related AKT isoforms are expressed in the brain, but their individual roles are poorly understood. We find in Mus musculus, each AKT isoform has a unique expression pattern in the hippocampus, with AKT1 and AKT3 primarily in neurons but displaying local differences, while AKT2 is in astrocytes. We also find isoform-specific roles for AKT in multiple paradigms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in area CA1. AKT1, but not AKT2 or AKT3, is required for L-LTP through regulating activity-induced protein synthesis. Interestingly, AKT activity inhibits mGluR-LTD, with overlapping functions for AKT1 and AKT3. In summary, our studies identify distinct expression patterns and roles in synaptic plasticity for AKT isoforms in the hippocampus.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01-CA106456(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH019524()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS083277()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS086933()

Apolipoprotein E4 Impairs Neuronal Insulin Signaling by Trapping Insulin Receptor in the Endosomes.

  • Zhao N
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diabetes and impaired brain insulin signaling are linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The association between diabetes and AD-associated amyloid pathology is stronger among carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 gene allele, the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset AD. Here we report that apoE4 impairs neuronal insulin signaling in human apoE-targeted replacement (TR) mice in an age-dependent manner. High-fat diet (HFD) accelerates these effects in apoE4-TR mice at middle age. In primary neurons, apoE4 interacts with insulin receptor and impairs its trafficking by trapping it in the endosomes, leading to impaired insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. In aging brains, the increased apoE4 aggregation and compromised endosomal function further exacerbate the inhibitory effects of apoE4 on insulin signaling and related functions. Together, our study provides novel mechanistic insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of apoE4 and insulin resistance in AD.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG016574()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG027924()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG035355()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG046205()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R37 AG027924()
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG051504()

ApoE4-associated phospholipid dysregulation contributes to development of Tau hyper-phosphorylation after traumatic brain injury.

  • Cao J
  • Sci Rep
  • 2017 Sep 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) genotype combines with traumatic brain injury (TBI) to increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanism(s) is not well-understood. We found that after exposure to repetitive blast-induced TBI, phosphoinositol biphosphate (PIP2) levels in hippocampal regions of young ApoE3 mice were elevated and associated with reduction in expression of a PIP2 degrading enzyme, synaptojanin 1 (synj1). In contrast, hippocampal PIP2 levels in ApoE4 mice did not increase after blast TBI. Following blast TBI, phospho-Tau (pTau) levels were unchanged in ApoE3 mice, whereas in ApoE4 mice, levels of pTau were significantly increased. To determine the causal relationship between changes in pTau and PIP2/synj1 levels after TBI, we tested if down-regulation of synj1 prevented blast-induced Tau hyper-phosphorylation. Knockdown of synj1 decreased pTau levels in vitro, and abolished blast-induced elevation of pTau in vivo. Blast TBI increased glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β activities in ApoE4 mice, and synj1 knockdown inhibited GSK3β phosphorylation of Tau. Together, these data suggest that ApoE proteins regulate brain phospholipid homeostasis in response to TBI and that the ApoE4 isoform is dysfunctional in this process. Down-regulation of synj1 rescues blast-induced phospholipid dysregulation and prevents development of Tau hyper-phosphorylation in ApoE4 carriers.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG048923()
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG054014()
  • RRD VA - I21 RX001558()

Effects of the Activation of Three Major Hepatic Akt Substrates on Glucose Metabolism in Male Mice.

  • Sakai G
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Insulin suppresses glucose output from the liver via Akt activation; however, which substrate of Akt plays the major role in transducing this effect is unclear. We tested the postnatal expression of Akt-unresponsive, constitutively active mutants of three major Akt substrates widely considered to regulate glucose metabolism [i.e., FoxO1, PGC1α, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β)] using adenoviral gene delivery to the mouse liver. We performed physiological hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies using these mice under awake and nonrestrained conditions with blood sampling via an arterial catheter. Hepatic expression of constitutively active FoxO1 induced significant hepatic and systemic insulin resistance. However, neither the expression of constitutively active PGC1α nor that of GSK3β significantly changed insulin sensitivity. Simultaneous expression of all three mutants together induced no further insulin resistance compared with that of the FoxO1 mutant. The glycogen content in the liver was significantly reduced by constitutively active GSK3β expression. In cultured hepatocytes, constitutively active PGC1α induced markedly stronger transcriptional enhancement of gluconeogenic key enzymes than did constitutively active FoxO1. From these results, we conclude that FoxO1 has the most prominent role in transducing insulin's effect downstream from Akt to suppress hepatic glucose output, involving mechanisms independent of the transcriptional regulation of key gluconeogenic enzymes.

Brief isoflurane anesthesia regulates striatal AKT-GSK3β signaling and ameliorates motor deficits in a rat model of early-stage Parkinson's disease.

  • Leikas JV
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Aug 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder primarily affecting the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. The link between heightened activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and neurodegene-rative processes has encouraged investigation into the potential disease-modifying effects of novel GSK3β inhibitors in experimental models of PD. Therefore, the intriguing ability of several anesthetics to readily inhibit GSK3β within the cortex and hippocampus led us to investigate the effects of brief isoflurane anesthesia on striatal GSK3β signaling in naïve rats and in a rat model of early-stage PD. Deep but brief (20-min) isoflurane anesthesia exposure increased the phosphorylation of GSK3β at the inhibitory Ser9 residue, and induced phosphorylation of AKTThr308 (protein kinase B; negative regulator of GSK3β) in the striatum of naïve rats and rats with unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion. The 6-OHDA protocol produced gradual functional deficiency within the nigrostriatal pathway, reflected as a preference for using the limb ipsilateral to the lesioned striatum at 2 weeks post 6-OHDA. Interestingly, such motor impairment was not observed in animals exposed to four consecutive isoflurane treatments (20-min anesthesia every 48 h; treatments started 7 days after 6-OHDA delivery). However, isoflurane had no effect on striatal or nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (a marker of dopaminergic neurons) protein levels. This brief report provides promising results regarding the therapeutic potential and neurobiological mechanisms of anesthetics in experimental models of PD and guides development of novel disease-modifying therapies.

Heparan sulfate alterations in extracellular matrix structures and fibroblast growth factor-2 signaling impairment in the aged neurogenic niche.

  • Yamada T
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Aug 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle decreases with age. In the subventricular zone, the specialized extracellular matrix structures, known as fractones, contact neural stem cells and regulate neurogenesis. Fractones are composed of extracellular matrix components, such as heparan sulfate proteoglycans. We previously found that fractones capture and store fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) via heparan sulfate binding, and may deliver FGF-2 to neural stem cells in a timely manner. The heparan sulfate (HS) chains in the fractones of the aged subventricular zone are modified based on immunohistochemistry. However, how aging affects fractone composition and subsequent FGF-2 signaling and neurogenesis remains unknown. The formation of the FGF-fibroblast growth factor receptor-HS complex is necessary to activate FGF-2 signaling and induce the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2). In this study, we observed a reduction in HS 6-O-sulfation, which is critical for FGF-2 signal transduction, and failure of the FGF-2-induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 in the aged subventricular zone. In addition, we observed increased HS 6-O-endo-sulfatase, an enzyme that may be responsible for the HS modifications in aged fractones. In conclusion, the data revealed that heparan sulfate 6-O-sulfation is reduced and FGF-2-dependent Erk1/2 signaling is impaired in the aged subventricular zone. HS modifications in fractones might play a role in the reduced neurogenic activity in aging brains.

Persistent Expression of VCAM1 in Radial Glial Cells Is Required for the Embryonic Origin of Postnatal Neural Stem Cells.

  • Hu XL
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jul 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

During development, neural stem cells (NSCs) undergo transitions from neuroepithelial cells to radial glial cells (RGCs), and later, a subpopulation of slowly dividing RGCs gives rise to the quiescent adult NSCs that populate the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ). Here we show that VCAM1, a transmembrane protein previously found in quiescent adult NSCs, is expressed by a subpopulation of embryonic RGCs, in a temporal and region-specific manner. Loss of VCAM1 reduced the number of active embryonic RGCs by stimulating their premature neuronal differentiation while preventing quiescence in the slowly dividing RGCs. This in turn diminished the embryonic origin of postnatal NSCs, resulting in loss of adult NSCs and defective V-SVZ regeneration. VCAM1 affects the NSC fate by signaling through its intracellular domain to regulate β-catenin signaling in a context-dependent manner. Our findings provide new insight on how stem cells in the embryo are preserved to meet the need for growth and regeneration.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS019904(United States)

Angiotensin-II-induced Muscle Wasting is Mediated by 25-Hydroxycholesterol via GSK3β Signaling Pathway.

  • Shen C
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2017 Feb 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

While angiotensin II (ang II) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiac cachexia (CC), the molecules that mediate ang II's wasting effect have not been identified. It is known TNF-α level is increased in patients with CC, and TNF-α release is triggered by ang II. We therefore hypothesized that ang II induced muscle wasting is mediated by TNF-α. Ang II infusion led to skeletal muscle wasting in wild type (WT) but not in TNF alpha type 1 receptor knockout (TNFR1KO) mice, suggesting that ang II induced muscle loss is mediated by TNF-α through its type 1 receptor. Microarray analysis identified cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (Ch25h) as the down stream target of TNF-α. Intraperitoneal injection of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OHC), the product of Ch25h, resulted in muscle loss in C57BL/6 mice, accompanied by increased expression of atrogin-1, MuRF1 and suppression of IGF-1/Akt signaling pathway. The identification of 25-OHC as an inducer of muscle wasting has implications for the development of specific treatment strategies in preventing muscle loss.

Modelling TFE renal cell carcinoma in mice reveals a critical role of WNT signaling.

  • Calcagnì A
  • Elife
  • 2016 Sep 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

TFE-fusion renal cell carcinomas (TFE-fusion RCCs) are caused by chromosomal translocations that lead to overexpression of the TFEB and TFE3 genes (Kauffman et al., 2014). The mechanisms leading to kidney tumor development remain uncharacterized and effective therapies are yet to be identified. Hence, the need to model these diseases in an experimental animal system (Kauffman et al., 2014). Here, we show that kidney-specific TFEB overexpression in transgenic mice, resulted in renal clear cells, multi-layered basement membranes, severe cystic pathology, and ultimately papillary carcinomas with hepatic metastases. These features closely recapitulate those observed in both TFEB- and TFE3-mediated human kidney tumors. Analysis of kidney samples revealed transcriptional induction and enhanced signaling of the WNT β-catenin pathway. WNT signaling inhibitors normalized the proliferation rate of primary kidney cells and significantly rescued the disease phenotype in vivo. These data shed new light on the mechanisms underlying TFE-fusion RCCs and suggest a possible therapeutic strategy based on the inhibition of the WNT pathway.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM064709(United States)

Mice lacking circadian clock components display different mood-related behaviors and do not respond uniformly to chronic lithium treatment.

  • Schnell A
  • Chronobiol. Int.
  • 2015 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Genomic studies suggest an association of circadian clock genes with bipolar disorder (BD) and lithium response in humans. Therefore, we tested mice mutant in various clock genes before and after lithium treatment in the forced swim test (FST), a rodent behavioral test used for evaluation of depressive-like states. We find that expression of circadian clock components, including Per2, Cry1 and Rev-erbα, is affected by lithium treatment, and thus, these clock components may contribute to the beneficial effects of lithium therapy. In particular, we observed that Cry1 is important at specific times of the day to transmit lithium-mediated effects. Interestingly, the pathways involving Per2 and Cry1, which regulate the behavior in the FST and the response to lithium, are distinct as evidenced by the phosphorylation of GSK3β after lithium treatment and the modulation of dopamine levels in the striatum. Furthermore, we observed the co-existence of depressive and mania-like symptoms in Cry1 knock-out mice, which resembles the so-called mixed state seen in BD patients. Taken together our results strengthen the concept that a defective circadian timing system may impact directly or indirectly on mood-related behaviors.

miR-144/451 Promote Cell Proliferation via Targeting PTEN/AKT Pathway in Insulinomas.

  • Jiang X
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Insulinoma is the main type of functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The functional microRNAs (miRNAs) regulating tumor growth and progression in insulinomas are still unknown. We conducted the miRNA expression profile analysis using miRNA quantitative RT-PCR array and identified 114 differentially expressed miRNAs in human insulinomas compared with normal pancreatic islets. Forty-one differentially expressed miRNAs belonged to 7 miRNA families, and 28 miRNAs in 3 of the families localized in the epigenetically regulated imprinted chromosome 14q32 region. We validated the most significant differentially expressed miRNA cluster miR-144/451 in another 8 human normal islet samples and 25 insulinomas. Our data showed that the overexpression of miR-144/451 in mouse pancreatic β-cells promoted cell proliferation by targeting the β-cell regulator phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog pathway and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2D. Our findings highlight the importance of functional miRNAs in insulinomas.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/H00002X/1(United Kingdom)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM08464(United States)

The protective effect of FGF21 on diabetes-induced male germ cell apoptosis is associated with up-regulated testicular AKT and AMPK/Sirt1/PGC-1α signaling.

  • Jiang X
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Mar 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator that is required for normal spermatogenesis and protects against diabetes-induced germ cell apoptosis. Here, we tried to define whether diabetes-induced germ cell apoptosis that is predominantly due to increased oxidative stress was associated with impaired glucose and fatty acid metabolism, by examining the effects of Fgf21 gene knockout (FGF21-KO) or FGF21 treatment on the glucose and fatty acid metabolic pathways in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Western blottings revealed that protein kinase B (AKT)-mediated glucose signaling was down-regulated in diabetic testes and further decreased in FGF21-KO diabetic group both 10 days and 2 months after diabetes onset, reflected by reduced glycogen synthase (GS) kinase (GSK)-3β phosphorylation and increased GS phosphorylation. Deletion of the Fgf21 gene also inactivated fatty acid metabolism-related factors, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), along with exacerbating diabetes-induced testicular oxidative stress and damage. Treatment with recombinant FGF21 partially prevented these diabetic effects. In FGF21-KO nondiabetic mice, testicular AMPK/Sirt1/PGC-1α signaling was down-regulated and AKT1 and murine double minute 2 were inactivated along with the increased p53 expression but not AKT2, GSK-3β, and GS. These results suggest that the role of FGF21 in maintaining spermatogenesis is associated with its activation of AKT1 and inhibition of p53. Deletion of the Fgf21gene significantly exacerbates diabetes-induced down-regulation of testicular AKT/GSK-3β/GS and AMPK/Sirt1/PGC-1α pathways and testicular oxidative stress and cell apoptosis.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG05146(United States)

Activated AKT pathway promotes establishment of endometriosis.

  • Kim TH
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The pathogenesis of endometriosis remains unclear, and relatively little is known about the mechanisms that promote establishment and survival of the disease. Previously, we demonstrated that v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) activity was increased in endometriosis tissues and cells from ovarian endometriomas and that this increase promoted cell survival as well as decreased levels of progesterone receptor. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a role for AKT in the establishment of ectopic lesions. First, a dose-dependent inhibition of AKT in stromal cells from human ovarian endometriomas (OSIS) as well as endometrial stromal cells from disease-free patients (ESC) with the allosteric AKT inhibitor MK-2206 was demonstrated by decreased levels of phosphorylated (p)(Ser473)-AKT. Levels of the AKT target protein, p(Ser256)-forkhead box O1 were increased in OSIS cells, which decreased with MK-2206 treatment, whereas levels of p(Ser9)-glycogen synthase kinase 3β did not change in response to MK-2206. Although MK-2206 decreased viability of both OSIS and ESC in a dose-dependent manner, proliferation of OSIS cells was differentially decreased significantly compared with ESC. Next, the role of hyperactive AKT in the establishment of ectopic lesions was studied using the bigenic, PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) heterozygous mouse. Autologous implantation of uterine tissues was performed in these mice. After 4 weeks, an average of 4 ± 0.33 lesions per Pten(f/+) mouse and 7.5 ± 0.43 lesions in the PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) mouse were found. Histological examination of the lesions showed endometrial tissue-like morphology, which was similar in both the Pten(f/+) and PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) mice. Treatment of mice with MK-2206 resulted in a significantly decreased number of lesions established. Immunohistochemical staining of ectopic lesions revealed decreased p(Ser473)-AKT and the proliferation marker Ki67 from MK-2206-treated mice compared with vehicle-treated mice. Furthermore, levels of FOXO1 and progesterone receptor increased in lesions of mice receiving MK-2206. These results demonstrate that heightened AKT activity plays an active role in the establishment of ectopic endometrial tissues.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01MH097062(United States)

Rosiglitazone inhibits expression and secretion of PEDF in adipose tissue and liver of male SD rats via a PPAR-γ independent mechanism.

  • Yang S
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Mar 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) plays an important role in insulin resistance (IR). The study aims to investigate the effect of rosiglitazone, an insulin sensitizer, on PEDF production and release both in vivo and in vitro. Male SD rats were divided into normal control group, high-fat group, and rosiglitazone group. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp was performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity. IR models of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HepG2 cells were established by the hyperinsulinemic method. Glucose uptake was examined to validate IR of adipocytes, and phosphorylation of protein kinase B and glycogen synthesis kinase 3β were examined to validate IR of HepG2 cells. Rosiglitazone, 2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide (GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ), and compound C (inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase [AMPK]) were used for the in vitro intervention. In vivo, the high-fat group showed increased serum PEDF levels, which negatively correlated with insulin sensitivity, whereas the rosiglitazone treatment decreased the serum PEDF and down-regulated PEDF expression in fat and liver of the obese rats, concomitant with significantly enhanced insulin sensitivity. In vitro, the IR cells showed increased PEDF secretion and expression, whereas rosiglitazone lowered PEDF secretion and expression, accompanied with increased insulin sensitivity. Interestingly, combination with 2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide did not influence the effect of rosiglitazone on PEDF. However, rosiglitazone stimulated AMPK phosphorylation in fat and liver of the obese rats, whereas in vitro, when combined with compound C, the effect of rosiglitazone on PEDF was abrogated. In summary, rosiglitazone inhibits the expression and secretion of PEDF in fat and liver via promoting AMPK phosphorylation rather than peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and changes of PEDF induced by rosiglitazone are closely associated with IR improvement.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS048425(United States)

GSK-3β function in bone regulates skeletal development, whole-body metabolism, and male life span.

  • Gillespie JR
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK-3β) is an essential negative regulator or "brake" on many anabolic-signaling pathways including Wnt and insulin. Global deletion of GSK-3β results in perinatal lethality and various skeletal defects. The goal of our research was to determine GSK-3β cell-autonomous effects and postnatal roles in the skeleton. We used the 3.6-kb Col1a1 promoter to inactivate the Gsk3b gene (Col1a1-Gsk3b knockout) in skeletal cells. Mutant mice exhibit decreased body fat and postnatal bone growth, as well as delayed development of several skeletal elements. Surprisingly, the mutant mice display decreased circulating glucose and insulin levels despite normal expression of GSK-3β in metabolic tissues. We showed that these effects are due to an increase in global insulin sensitivity. Most of the male mutant mice died after weaning. Prior to death, blood glucose changed from low to high, suggesting a possible switch from insulin sensitivity to resistance. These male mice die with extremely large bladders that are preceded by damage to the urogenital tract, defects that are also seen type 2 diabetes. Our data suggest that skeletal-specific deletion of GSK-3β affects global metabolism and sensitizes male mice to developing type 2 diabetes.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R03 NS087359(United States)

High-fat feeding-induced hyperinsulinemia increases cardiac glucose uptake and mitochondrial function despite peripheral insulin resistance.

  • Gupte AA
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Aug 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

In obesity, reduced cardiac glucose uptake and mitochondrial abnormalities are putative causes of cardiac dysfunction. However, high-fat diet (HFD) does not consistently induce cardiac insulin resistance and mitochondrial damage, and recent studies suggest HFD may be cardioprotective. To determine cardiac responses to HFD, we investigated cardiac function, glucose uptake, and mitochondrial respiration in young (3-month-old) and middle-aged (MA) (12-month-old) male Ldlr(-/-) mice fed chow or 3 months HFD to induce obesity, systemic insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia. In MA Ldlr(-/-) mice, HFD induced accelerated atherosclerosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, common complications of human obesity. Surprisingly, HFD-fed mice demonstrated increased cardiac glucose uptake, which was most prominent in MA mice, in the absence of cardiac contractile dysfunction or hypertrophy. Moreover, hearts of HFD-fed mice had enhanced mitochondrial oxidation of palmitoyl carnitine, glutamate, and succinate and greater basal insulin signaling compared with those of chow-fed mice, suggesting cardiac insulin sensitivity was maintained, despite systemic insulin resistance. Streptozotocin-induced ablation of insulin production markedly reduced cardiac glucose uptake and mitochondrial dysfunction in HFD-fed, but not in chow-fed, mice. Insulin injection reversed these effects, suggesting that insulin may protect cardiac mitochondria during HFD. These results have implications for cardiac metabolism and preservation of mitochondrial function in obesity.

Funding information:
  • HHMI - (United States)

RANTES has a potential to play a neuroprotective role in an autocrine/paracrine manner after ischemic stroke.

  • Tokami H
  • Brain Res.
  • 2013 Jun 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Regulated upon Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed, and Secreted (RANTES) is a well-known pro-inflammatory chemokine and its role in ischemic stroke remains controversial. We examined the significance of RANTES in ischemic stroke and aimed to elucidate the direct effect of RANTES on neurons. Plasma concentrations of major C-C chemokines, including RANTES, and neurotrophic factors were examined in 171 ischemic stroke patients and age- and gender- matched healthy subjects. Plasma concentrations of RANTES at day 0 after onset were significantly elevated in stroke patients, compared with controls, and were highly correlated with those of BDNF, EGF, and VEGF. In a mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO), plasma RANTES was significantly elevated and the expression of RANTES was markedly upregulated in neurons particularly in peri-infarct areas. The expression of CCR3 and CCR5, receptors for RANTES, was also induced in neurons, while another receptor, CCR1, was observed in vascular cells, in peri-infarct areas after MCAO. We examined the effects of RANTES on differentiated PC12 cells, a model of neuronal cells. Treatment with RANTES induced the activation of Akt and Erk1/2, and attenuated the cleavage of caspase-3 in the cells. RANTES increased the expression of BDNF, EGF, and VEGF in the cells. Moreover, RANTES maintained the number of cells under serum free conditions. The RANTES-mediated upregulation of neurotrophic factors and cell survival were significantly attenuated by the inhibition of Akt or Erk1/2. Taken together, RANTES is an interesting chemokine that is produced from neurons after ischemic stroke and has the potential to protect neurons directly or indirectly through the production of neurotrophic factors in peri-infarct areas.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - 5R01DK069983-02(United States)