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Mouse Anti-beta-Tubulin Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone TUB 2.1

RRID:AB_477577

Antibody ID

AB_477577

Target Antigen

Tubulin, beta bovine, chicken/avian, hamster, human, mouse, other, rabbit, rat, xenopus, chicken, human, bovine, rabbit, mouse, rat, hamster, frog, moth, wheat, sea urchin, plant

Proper Citation

(Sigma-Aldrich Cat# T4026, RRID:AB_477577)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Vendor recommendations: Immunofluorescence; Western Blot; Indirect Immunofluorescence, Western Blot

Clone ID

Clone TUB 2.1

Host Organism

mouse

Sustained Expression of Negative Regulators of Myelination Protects Schwann Cells from Dysmyelination in a Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B Mouse Model.

  • Florio F
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Schwann cell differentiation and myelination in the PNS are the result of fine-tuning of positive and negative transcriptional regulators. As myelination starts, negative regulators are downregulated, whereas positive ones are upregulated. Fully differentiated Schwann cells maintain an extraordinary plasticity and can transdifferentiate into "repair" Schwann cells after nerve injury. Reactivation of negative regulators of myelination is essential to generate repair Schwann cells. Negative regulators have also been implicated in demyelinating neuropathies, although their role in disease remains elusive. Here, we used a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1B (CMT1B), the P0S63del mouse characterized by ER stress and the activation of the unfolded protein response, to show that adult Schwann cells are in a partial differentiation state because they overexpress transcription factors that are normally expressed only before myelination. We provide evidence that two of these factors, Sox2 and Id2, act as negative regulators of myelination in vivo However, their sustained expression in neuropathy is protective because ablation of Sox2 or/and Id2 from S63del mice of both sexes results in worsening of the dysmyelinating phenotype. This is accompanied by increased levels of mutant P0 expression and exacerbation of ER stress, suggesting that limited differentiation may represent a novel adaptive mechanism through which Schwann cells counter the toxic effect of a mutant terminal differentiation protein.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In many neuropathies, Schwann cells express high levels of early differentiation genes, but the significance of these altered expression remained unclear. Because many of these factors may act as negative regulators of myelination, it was suggested that their misexpression could contribute to dysmyelination. Here, we show that the transcription factors Sox2 and Id2 act as negative regulators of myelination in vivo, but that their sustained expression in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1B (CMT1B) represents an adaptive response activated by the Schwann cells to reduce mutant protein toxicity and prevent demyelination.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP 68926(Canada)

A Glial Signature and Wnt7 Signaling Regulate Glioma-Vascular Interactions and Tumor Microenvironment.

  • Griveau A
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 May 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gliomas comprise heterogeneous malignant glial and stromal cells. While blood vessel co-option is a potential mechanism to escape anti-angiogenic therapy, the relevance of glial phenotype in this process is unclear. We show that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor-like glioma cells invade by single-cell vessel co-option and preserve the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Conversely, Olig2-negative glioma cells form dense perivascular collections and promote angiogenesis and BBB breakdown, leading to innate immune cell activation. Experimentally, Olig2 promotes Wnt7b expression, a finding that correlates in human glioma profiling. Targeted Wnt7a/7b deletion or pharmacologic Wnt inhibition blocks Olig2+ glioma single-cell vessel co-option and enhances responses to temozolomide. Finally, Olig2 and Wnt7 become upregulated after anti-VEGF treatment in preclinical models and patients. Thus, glial-encoded pathways regulate distinct glioma-vascular microenvironmental interactions.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ES016005(United States)

Opposing Effects of CREBBP Mutations Govern the Phenotype of Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome and Adult SHH Medulloblastoma.

  • Merk DJ
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recurrent mutations in chromatin modifiers are specifically prevalent in adolescent or adult patients with Sonic hedgehog-associated medulloblastoma (SHH MB). Here, we report that mutations in the acetyltransferase CREBBP have opposing effects during the development of the cerebellum, the primary site of origin of SHH MB. Our data reveal that loss of Crebbp in cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (GNPs) during embryonic development of mice compromises GNP development, in part by downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf). Interestingly, concomitant cerebellar hypoplasia was also observed in patients with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, a congenital disorder caused by germline mutations of CREBBP. By contrast, loss of Crebbp in GNPs during postnatal development synergizes with oncogenic activation of SHH signaling to drive MB growth, thereby explaining the enrichment of somatic CREBBP mutations in SHH MB of adult patients. Together, our data provide insights into time-sensitive consequences of CREBBP mutations and corresponding associations with human diseases.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM068388(United States)

Importin-β Directly Regulates the Motor Activity and Turnover of a Kinesin-4.

  • Ganguly A
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spatiotemporal regulation of kinesins is essential for microtubule-dependent intracellular transport. In plants, cell wall deposition depends on the FRA1 kinesin, whose abundance and motility are tightly controlled to match cellular growth rate. Here, we show that an importin-β, IMB4, regulates FRA1 activity in a developmental manner. IMB4 physically interacts with a PY motif in the FRA1 motor domain and inhibits its motility by preventing microtubule binding, while also protecting FRA1 against proteasome-mediated degradation, thus providing a mechanism to couple the motility and stability of FRA1. This regulatory mechanism is likely to be broadly applicable, based on the conservation of the PY motif in the motor domains of plant and animal kinesins and the direct interaction of multiple plant kinesins with IMB4. Together, our data establish IMB4 as a multi-functional regulator of FRA1 and reveal a mechanism for how plants control the magnitude of cargo transport needed for cell wall assembly.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA158383(United States)

Mitochondrial MDM2 Regulates Respiratory Complex I Activity Independently of p53.

  • Arena G
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Accumulating evidence indicates that the MDM2 oncoprotein promotes tumorigenesis beyond its canonical negative effects on the p53 tumor suppressor, but these p53-independent functions remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a fraction of endogenous MDM2 is actively imported in mitochondria to control respiration and mitochondrial dynamics independently of p53. Mitochondrial MDM2 represses the transcription of NADH-dehydrogenase 6 (MT-ND6) in vitro and in vivo, impinging on respiratory complex I activity and enhancing mitochondrial ROS production. Recruitment of MDM2 to mitochondria increases during oxidative stress and hypoxia. Accordingly, mice lacking MDM2 in skeletal muscles exhibit higher MT-ND6 levels, enhanced complex I activity, and increased muscular endurance in mild hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, increased mitochondrial MDM2 levels enhance the migratory and invasive properties of cancer cells. Collectively, these data uncover a previously unsuspected function of the MDM2 oncoprotein in mitochondria that play critical roles in skeletal muscle physiology and may contribute to tumor progression.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - HG007233-01(United States)

Nuclear Receptor Nur77 Facilitates Melanoma Cell Survival under Metabolic Stress by Protecting Fatty Acid Oxidation.

  • Li XX
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is crucial for cells to overcome metabolic stress by providing ATP and NADPH. However, the mechanism by which FAO is regulated in tumors remains elusive. Here we show that Nur77 is required for the metabolic adaptation of melanoma cells by protecting FAO. Glucose deprivation activates ERK2 to phosphorylate and induce Nur77 translocation to the mitochondria, where Nur77 binds to TPβ, a rate-limiting enzyme in FAO. Although TPβ activity is normally inhibited by oxidation under glucose deprivation, the Nur77-TPβ association results in Nur77 self-sacrifice to protect TPβ from oxidation. FAO is therefore able to maintain NADPH and ATP levels and prevent ROS increase and cell death. The Nur77-TPβ interaction further promotes melanoma metastasis by facilitating circulating melanoma cell survival. This study demonstrates a novel regulatory function of Nur77 with linkage of the FAO-NADPH-ROS pathway during metabolic stress, suggesting Nur77 as a potential therapeutic target in melanoma.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR052785(United States)

The cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT, Slc7a11) is expressed in significant concentrations in a subpopulation of astrocytes in the mouse brain.

  • Ottestad-Hansen S
  • Glia
  • 2018 Jan 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) promotes glutathione synthesis by catalyzing cystine uptake and glutamate release. The released glutamate may modulate normal neural signaling and contribute to excitotoxicity in pathological situations. Uncertainty, however, remains as neither the expression levels nor the distribution of xCT have been unambiguously determined. In fact, xCT has been reported in astrocytes, neurons, oligodendrocytes and microglia, but most of the information derives from cell cultures. Here, we show by immunohistochemistry and by Western blotting that xCT is widely expressed in the central nervous system of both sexes. The labeling specificity was validated using tissue from xCT knockout mice as controls. Astrocytes were selectively labeled, but showed greatly varying labeling intensities. This astroglial heterogeneity resulted in an astrocyte domain-like labeling pattern. Strong xCT labeling was also found in the leptomeninges, along some blood vessels, in selected circumventricular organs and in a subpopulation of tanycytes residing the lateral walls of the ventral third ventricle. Neurons, oligodendrocytes and resting microglia, as well as reactive microglia induced by glutamine synthetase deficiency, were unlabeled. The concentration of xCT protein in hippocampus was compared with that of the EAAT3 glutamate transporter by immunoblotting using a chimeric xCT-EAAT3 protein to normalize xCT and EAAT3 labeling intensities. The immunoblots suggested an xCT/EAAT3 ratio close to one (0.75 ± 0.07; average ± SEM; n = 4) in adult C57BL6 mice. CONCLUSIONS: xCT is present in select blood/brain/CSF interface areas and in an astrocyte subpopulation, in sufficient quantities to support the notion that system xc- provides physiologically relevant transport activity.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50 MH106934(United States)

A dual role for Integrin α6β4 in modulating hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies.

  • Poitelon Y
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is a component of compact myelin in the peripheral nervous system. The amount of PMP22 in myelin is tightly regulated, and PMP22 over or under-expression cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) and Hereditary Neuropathy with Pressure Palsies (HNPP). Despite the importance of PMP22, its function remains largely unknown. It was reported that PMP22 interacts with the β4 subunit of the laminin receptor α6β4 integrin, suggesting that α6β4 integrin and laminins may contribute to the pathogenesis of CMT1A or HNPP. Here we asked if the lack of α6β4 integrin in Schwann cells influences myelin stability in the HNPP mouse model. Our data indicate that PMP22 and β4 integrin may not interact directly in myelinating Schwann cells, however, ablating β4 integrin delays the formation of tomacula, a characteristic feature of HNPP. In contrast, ablation of integrin β4 worsens nerve conduction velocities and non-compact myelin organization in HNPP animals. This study demonstrates that indirect interactions between an extracellular matrix receptor and a myelin protein influence the stability and function of myelinated fibers.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS038902(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS045630()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS100464()

Nek9 Phosphorylation Defines a New Role for TPX2 in Eg5-Dependent Centrosome Separation before Nuclear Envelope Breakdown.

  • Eibes S
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Centrosomes [1, 2] play a central role during spindle assembly in most animal cells [3]. In early mitosis, they organize two symmetrical microtubule arrays that upon separation define the two poles of the forming spindle. Centrosome separation is tightly regulated [4, 5], occurring through partially redundant mechanisms that rely on the action of microtubule-based dynein and kinesin motors and the actomyosin system [6]. While centrosomes can separate in prophase or in prometaphase after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD), prophase centrosome separation optimizes spindle assembly and minimizes the occurrence of abnormal chromosome attachments that could end in aneuploidy [7, 8]. Prophase centrosome separation relies on the activity of Eg5/KIF11, a mitotic kinesin [9] that accumulates around centrosomes in early mitosis under the control of CDK1 and the Nek9/Nek6/7 kinase module [10-17]. Here, we show that Eg5 localization and centrosome separation in prophase depend on the nuclear microtubule-associated protein TPX2 [18], a pool of which localizes to the centrosomes before NEBD. This localization involves RHAMM/HMMR [19] and the kinase Nek9 [20], which phosphorylates TPX2 nuclear localization signal (NLS) preventing its interaction with importin and nuclear import. The pool of centrosomal TPX2 in prophase has a critical role for both microtubule aster organization and Eg5 localization, and thereby for centrosome separation. Our results uncover an unsuspected role for TPX2 before NEBD and define a novel regulatory mechanism for centrosome separation in prophase. They furthermore suggest NLS phosphorylation as a novel regulatory mechanism for spindle assembly factors controlled by the importin/Ran system.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM041804(United States)

Deciphering caveolar functions by syndapin III KO-mediated impairment of caveolar invagination.

  • Seemann E
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Several human diseases are associated with a lack of caveolae. Yet, the functions of caveolae and the molecular mechanisms critical for shaping them still are debated. We show that muscle cells of syndapin III KO mice show severe reductions of caveolae reminiscent of human caveolinopathies. Yet, different from other mouse models, the levels of the plasma membrane-associated caveolar coat proteins caveolin3 and cavin1 were both not reduced upon syndapin III KO. This allowed for dissecting bona fide caveolar functions from those supported by mere caveolin presence and also demonstrated that neither caveolin3 nor caveolin3 and cavin1 are sufficient to form caveolae. The membrane-shaping protein syndapin III is crucial for caveolar invagination and KO rendered the cells sensitive to membrane tensions. Consistent with this physiological role of caveolae in counterpoising membrane tensions, syndapin III KO skeletal muscles showed pathological parameters upon physical exercise that are also found in CAVEOLIN3 mutation-associated muscle diseases.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL095590(United States)

Molecular Mechanisms of Synaptic Vesicle Priming by Munc13 and Munc18.

  • Lai Y
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Munc13 catalyzes the transit of syntaxin from a closed complex with Munc18 into the ternary SNARE complex. Here we report a new function of Munc13, independent of Munc18: it promotes the proper syntaxin/synaptobrevin subconfiguration during assembly of the ternary SNARE complex. In cooperation with Munc18, Munc13 additionally ensures the proper syntaxin/SNAP-25 subconfiguration. In a reconstituted fusion assay with SNAREs, complexin, and synaptotagmin, inclusion of both Munc13 and Munc18 quadruples the Ca2+-triggered amplitude and achieves Ca2+ sensitivity at near-physiological concentrations. In Munc13-1/2 double-knockout neurons, expression of a constitutively open mutant of syntaxin could only minimally restore neurotransmitter release relative to Munc13-1 rescue. Together, the physiological functions of Munc13 may be related to regulation of proper SNARE complex assembly.

Food Intake Affects Sperm-Egg Fusion Through the GIP/PSG17 Axis in Mice.

  • Shimizu T
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In addition to overeating, starvation also reduces fecundity in mammals. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms linking food intake to fertility, especially in males. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), which is released from intestinal K-cells after meal ingestion, stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells through the action of incretin and has several extrapancreatic effects. Here, we identified GIP receptor (Gipr) expression in mouse spermatids. Microarray analysis revealed that pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 17 (Psg17), a potential CD9-binding partner, was significantly decreased in GIP receptor-knockout (Gipr-/-) testes. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored PSG17 was expressed on the surface of acrosome-reacted sperm, and Gipr-/- sperm led to a lower fertilization rate in vitro, compared with that of Gipr+/+ sperm, both in the absence and presence of the zona pellucida. Plasma GIP concentrations and Psg17 messenger RNA (mRNA) were immediately increased in the testis after a single meal, whereas ingestion of a chronic high-fat diet markedly decreased Gipr and Psg17 mRNA. These results suggest that reduced GIP signaling, by decreased GIP levels or the downregulation of Gipr, is associated with the reduction of fecundity due to starvation or overeating. Thus, proper regulation of GIP signaling in the testis could be a potential unique therapeutic target for male infertility in obese and diabetic individuals.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL129178(United States)
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - T32 DC009401(United States)

Integrin α7 Is a Functional Marker and Potential Therapeutic Target in Glioblastoma.

  • Haas TL
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Functionally relevant markers of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) have potential for therapeutic targeting to treat this aggressive disease. Here we used generation and screening of thousands of monoclonal antibodies to search for receptors and signaling pathways preferentially enriched in GSCs. We identified integrin α7 (ITGA7) as a major laminin receptor in GSCs and in primary high-grade glioma specimens. Analyses of mRNA profiles in comprehensive datasets revealed that high ITGA7 expression negatively correlated with survival of patients with both low- and high-grade glioma. In vitro and in vivo analyses showed that ITGA7 plays a key functional role in growth and invasiveness of GSCs. We also found that targeting of ITGA7 by RNAi or blocking mAbs impaired laminin-induced signaling, and it led to a significant delay in tumor engraftment plus a strong reduction in tumor size and invasion. Our data, therefore, highlight ITGA7 as a glioblastoma biomarker and candidate therapeutic target.

Diencephalic Size Is Restricted by a Novel Interplay Between GCN5 Acetyltransferase Activity and Retinoic Acid Signaling.

  • Wilde JJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diencephalic defects underlie an array of neurological diseases. Previous studies have suggested that retinoic acid (RA) signaling is involved in diencephalic development at late stages of embryonic development, but its roles and mechanisms of action during early neural development are still unclear. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking enzymatic activity of the acetyltransferase GCN5 ((Gcn5hat/hat )), which were previously characterized with respect to their exencephalic phenotype, exhibit significant diencephalic expansion, decreased diencephalic RA signaling, and increased diencephalic WNT and SHH signaling. Using a variety of molecular biology techniques in both cultured neuroepithelial cells treated with a GCN5 inhibitor and forebrain tissue from (Gcn5hat/hat ) embryos, we demonstrate that GCN5, RARα/γ, and the poorly characterized protein TACC1 form a complex in the nucleus that binds specific retinoic acid response elements in the absence of RA. Furthermore, RA triggers GCN5-mediated acetylation of TACC1, which results in dissociation of TACC1 from retinoic acid response elements and leads to transcriptional activation of RA target genes. Intriguingly, RA signaling defects caused by in vitro inhibition of GCN5 can be rescued through RA-dependent mechanisms that require RARβ. Last, we demonstrate that the diencephalic expansion and transcriptional defects seen in (Gcn5hat/hat ) mutants can be rescued with gestational RA supplementation, supporting a direct link between GCN5, TACC1, and RA signaling in the developing diencephalon. Together, our studies identify a novel, nonhistone substrate for GCN5 whose modification regulates a previously undescribed, tissue-specific mechanism of RA signaling that is required to restrict diencephalic size during early forebrain development.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Changes in diencephalic size and shape, as well as SNPs associated with retinoic acid (RA) signaling-associated genes, have been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the mechanisms that regulate diencephalic morphogenesis and the involvement of RA signaling in this process are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate a novel role of the acetyltransferase GCN5 in a previously undescribed mechanism of RA signaling in the developing forebrain that is required to maintain the appropriate size of the diencephalon. Together, our experiments identify a novel nonhistone substrate of GCN5, highlight an essential role for both GCN5 and RA signaling in early diencephalic development, and elucidate a novel molecular regulatory mechanism for RA signaling that is specific to the developing forebrain.

Protective upregulation of activating transcription factor-3 against glutamate neurotoxicity in neuronal cells under ischemia.

  • Takarada T
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2016 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

This study evaluates the pathological role of the stress sensor activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) in ischemic neurotoxicity. Upregulation of the transcript and protein for ATF3 was seen 2-10 hr after reperfusion in the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere of mice with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 hr. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the expression of ATF3 by cells immunoreactive for a neuronal marker in neocortex, hippocampus, and striatum within 2 hr after reperfusion. In murine neocortical neurons previously cultured under ischemic conditions for 2 hr, transient upregulation of both Atf3 and ATF3 expression was similarly found during subsequent culture for 2-24 hr under normoxia. Lentiviral overexpression of ATF3 ameliorated the neurotoxicity of glutamate (Glu) in cultured murine neurons along with a slight but statistically significant inhibition of both Fluo-3 and rhodamine-2 fluorescence increases by N-methyl-D-aspartate. Similarly, transient upregulation was seen in Atf3 and ATF3 expression during the culture for 48 hr in neuronal Neuro2A cells previously cultured under ischemic conditions for 2 hr. Luciferase reporter analysis with ATF3 promoter together with immunoblotting revealed the possible involvement of several transcription factors responsive to extracellular and intracellular stressors in the transactivation of the Atf3 gene in Neuro2A cells. ATF3 could be upregulated to play a role in mechanisms underlying mitigation of the neurotoxicity mediated by the endogenous neurotoxin Glu at an early stage after ischemic signal inputs.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R43HG007130(United States)

Cell adhesion molecule contactin-associated protein 3 is expressed in the mouse basal ganglia during early postnatal stages.

  • Hirata H
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2016 Jan 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cell adhesion molecules play important roles in the development of the nervous system. Among the contactin-associated protein (Caspr; also known as Cntnap) family, which belongs to the neurexin superfamily of proteins, Caspr and Caspr2 are indispensable for the formation and maintenance of myelinated nerves. In contrast, a physiological role for Caspr3 remains to be elucidated. This study examines the expression and localization of Caspr3 in the mouse brain using newly generated Caspr3 antibodies. Caspr3 was expressed abundantly between the first and the second postnatal weeks. During this period, Caspr3 was localized especially to the basal ganglia, including the striatum, external segment of the globus pallidus, and substantia nigra, and no gross abnormalities were apparent in the basal ganglia of Caspr3 knockout mice. In the striatum, Caspr3 was expressed by a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons that constitute the direct and indirect pathways. Caspr3 immunostaining was observed as punctate around the cell bodies as well as in the soma. These Caspr3 signals did not, however, overlap with those of synaptic markers. Our findings suggest that Caspr3 may play an important role in basal ganglia development during early postnatal stages.

Expression profiling of the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme UbcM2 in murine brain reveals modest age-dependent decreases in specific neurons.

  • Larabee CM
  • BMC Neurosci
  • 2015 Nov 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: UbcM2 is a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme with roles in the turnover of damaged and misfolded proteins, cell cycle progression, development, and regulation of the antioxidant transcription factor, Nrf2. Recent screens have identified binding partners of the enzyme that are associated with various neurodegenerative diseases, and our previous studies have shown that UbcM2 is enriched in retina and brain. RESULTS: In the current study, we characterized UbcM2 protein expression in various structures and cell types in the murine brain. Immunofluorescence analysis of paraffin-embedded brain sections revealed that UbcM2 is ubiquitously expressed throughout the brain, is enriched in hindbrain and cortex, and is robustly expressed in neurons. In contrast, the enzyme is undetectable in most astrocytes and microglia. As dysfunction of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) has been linked to many age-related neurological diseases, we compared UbcM2 expression levels in young versus aged wild-type mice and found a global decrease in expression in aged brains, with reductions of 10 % or greater in five substructures (cerebellar granule cell layer, primary motor cortex, olfactory nucleus, superior colliculus, and secondary visual cortex). CONCLUSIONS: These studies represent the first protein expression profiling of a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in the brain and support the notion that deficits in protein degradation and proteostasis associated with neurodegenerative diseases may be, in part, attributable to age-dependent reductions in the enzymatic machinery of the UPS.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC006640(United States)

Reelin receptors ApoER2 and VLDLR are expressed in distinct spatiotemporal patterns in developing mouse cerebral cortex.

  • Hirota Y
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

In mammalian developing brain, neuronal migration is regulated by a variety of signaling cascades, including Reelin signaling. Reelin is a glycoprotein that is mainly secreted by Cajal-Retzius neurons in the marginal zone, playing essential roles in the formation of the layered neocortex via its receptors, apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR). However, the precise mechanisms by which Reelin signaling controls the neuronal migration process remain unclear. To gain insight into how Reelin signaling controls individual migrating neurons, we generated monoclonal antibodies against ApoER2 and VLDLR and examined the localization of Reelin receptors in the developing mouse cerebral cortex. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that VLDLR is localized to the distal portion of leading processes in the marginal zone (MZ), whereas ApoER2 is mainly localized to neuronal processes and the cell membranes of multipolar cells in the multipolar cell accumulation zone (MAZ). These different expression patterns may contribute to the distinct actions of Reelin on migrating neurons during both the early and late migratory stages in the developing cerebral cortex.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS092786(United States)

Glucocorticoids induce gastroparesis in mice through depletion of l-arginine.

  • Reichardt SD
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glucocorticoids (GCs) constitute a highly pleiotropic class of drugs predominantly employed in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In our search for new mechanisms of action, we identified a hitherto unknown effect of GCs in the gastrointestinal tract. We found that oral administration of dexamethasone (Dex) to mice caused an enlargement of the stomach due to the induction of gastroparesis and that this effect was abolished in GR(dim) mice carrying the A458T mutation in the GC receptor (GR). Gastroparesis was unrelated to the enhanced gastric acid secretion observed after Dex treatment, although both effects were mediated by the same molecular mechanism of the GR. Using conditional GR-knockout mice, we could further rule out that GC effects on enterocytes or myeloid cells were involved in the induction of gastroparesis. In contrast, we found that Dex upregulated arginase 2 (Arg2) in the stomach both at the mRNA and protein level. This suggests that GC treatment leads to a depletion of l-arginine thereby impeding the production of nitric oxide (NO), which is required for gastric motility. We tested this hypothesis by supplementing the drinking water of the mice with exogenous l-arginine to compensate for the presumed shortage of this major substrate of NO synthases. Importantly, this measure completely prevented both the enlargement of the stomach and the induction of gastroparesis after Dex treatment. Our findings raise considerations of combining orally applied GCs with l-arginine to improve tolerability of GC treatment and provide a possible explanation for the antiemetic effects of GCs widely exploited in chemotherapy.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P20 GM104937(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008471(United States)

Cytoskeletal changes during development and aging in the cortex of neurofilament light protein knockout mice.

  • Liu Y
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The neurofilament light (NFL) subunit is considered as an obligate subunit polymer for neuronal intermediate filaments comprising the neurofilament (NF) triplet proteins. We examined cytoskeletal protein levels in the cerebral cortex of NFL knockout (KO) mice at postnatal day 4 (P4), 5 months, and 12 months of age compared with age-matched wild-type (WT) mice of a similar genetic background (C57BL/6). The absence of NFL protein resulted in a significant reduction of phosphorylated and dephosphorylated NFs (NF-P, NF-DP), the medium NF subunit (NFM), and the intermediate filament α-internexin (INT) at P4. At 5 months, NF-DP, NFM, and INT remained significantly lower in knockouts. At 12 months, NF-P was again significantly decreased, and INT significantly increased, in KOs compared with wild type. In addition, protein levels of class III neuron-specific β-tubulin and microtubule-associated protein 2 were significantly increased in NFL KO mice at P4, 5 months, and 12 months, whereas β-actin levels were significantly decreased at P4. Immunocytochemical studies demonstrated that NF-DP accumulated abnormally in the perikarya of cortical neurons by 5 months of age in NFL KO mice. Neurons that lacked NF triplet proteins, such as calretinin-immunolabeled nonpyramidal cells, showed no alterations in density or cytoarchitectural distribution in NFL KO mice at 5 months relative to WT mice, although calretinin protein levels were decreased significantly after 12 months in NFL KO mice. These findings suggest that a lack of NFL protein alters the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and disrupts other NF subunits, causing intracellular aggregation but not gross structural changes in cortical neurons or cytoarchitecture. The data also indicate that changes in expression of other cytoskeletal proteins may compensate for decreased NFs.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS064675(United States)

Distribution of EphB receptors and ephrin-B1 in the developing vertebrate spinal cord.

  • Jevince AR
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Aug 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Contact-dependent interactions between EphB receptors and ephrin-B ligands mediate a variety of cell-cell communication events in the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). These predominantly repulsive interactions occur at the interface between what are considered to be mutually exclusive EphB and ephrin-B expression domains. We previously used receptor and ligand affinity probes to show that ephrin-B ligands are expressed in the floor plate and within a dorsal region of the embryonic mouse spinal cord, while EphB receptors are present on decussated segments of commissural axons that navigate between these ephrin-B domains. Here we present the generation and characterization of two new monoclonal antibodies, mAb EfB1-3, which recognizes EphB1, EphB2, and EphB3, and mAb efrnB1, which is specific for ephrin-B1. We use these reagents and polyclonal antibodies specific for EphB1, EphB2, EphB3, or ephrin-B1 to describe the spatiotemporal expression patterns of EphB receptors and ephrin-B1 in the vertebrate spinal cord. Consistent with affinity probe binding, we show that EphB1, EphB2, and EphB3 are each preferentially expressed on decussated segments of commissural axons in vivo and in vitro, and that ephrin-B1 is expressed in a dorsal domain of the spinal cord that includes the roof plate. In contrast to affinity probe binding profiles, we show here that EphB1, EphB2, and EphB3 are present on the ventral commissure, and that EphB1 and EphB3 are expressed on axons that compose the dorsal funiculus. In addition, we unexpectedly find that mesenchymal cells, which surround the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion, express ephrin-B1.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - HHSN272200900018C(United States)