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Monoclonal Anti-S-100 (beta-Subunit) antibody produced in mouse

RRID:AB_477499

Antibody ID

AB_477499

Target Antigen

S-100 (beta-Subunit) antibody produced in mouse rat, goat, rabbit, bovine, sheep, human, canine, feline, porcine, sheep, rat, pig, goat, rabbit, feline, human, canine, bovine

Proper Citation

(Sigma-Aldrich Cat# S2532, RRID:AB_477499)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Vendor recommendations: IgG1 indirect ELISA: suitable, dot blot: suitable

Vendor

Sigma-Aldrich

Cat Num

S2532

Epithelial Sodium Channel Regulates Adult Neural Stem Cell Proliferation in a Flow-Dependent Manner.

  • Petrik D
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

One hallmark of adult neurogenesis is its adaptability to environmental influences. Here, we uncovered the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) as a key regulator of adult neurogenesis as its deletion in neural stem cells (NSCs) and their progeny in the murine subependymal zone (SEZ) strongly impairs their proliferation and neurogenic output in the olfactory bulb. Importantly, alteration of fluid flow promotes proliferation of SEZ cells in an ENaC-dependent manner, eliciting sodium and calcium signals that regulate proliferation via calcium-release-activated channels and phosphorylation of ERK. Flow-induced calcium signals are restricted to NSCs in contact with the ventricular fluid, thereby providing a highly specific mechanism to regulate NSC behavior at this special interface with the cerebrospinal fluid. Thus, ENaC plays a central role in regulating adult neurogenesis, and among multiple modes of ENaC function, flow-induced changes in sodium signals are critical for NSC biology.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA CP005803-15(United States)

Cell-type specific differences in promoter activity of the ALS-linked C9orf72 mouse ortholog.

  • Langseth AJ
  • Sci Rep
  • 2017 Jul 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

A hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene is the most common cause of inherited forms of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mechanisms have been proposed to underlie this disease, but the pathogenic pathways are not fully understood. To better understand the involvement of different cell types in the pathogenesis of ALS, we systematically analyzed the distribution of promoter activity of the mouse ortholog of C9orf72 in the central nervous system. We demonstrate that C9orf72 promoter activity is widespread in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons as well as in oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. In contrast, few microglia and astrocytes exhibit detectable C9orf72 promoter activity. Although at a gross level, the distribution of C9orf72 promoter activity largely follows overall cellular density, we found that it is selectively enriched in subsets of neurons and glial cells that degenerate in ALS. Specifically, we show that C9orf72 promoter activity is enriched in corticospinal and spinal motor neurons as well as in oligodendrocytes in brain regions that are affected in ALS. These results suggest that cell autonomous changes in both neurons and glia may contribute to C9orf72-mediated disease, as has been shown for mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1).

Membrane-bound glucocorticoid receptors on distinct nociceptive neurons as potential targets for pain control through rapid non-genomic effects.

  • Shaqura M
  • Neuropharmacology
  • 2017 Jul 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glucocorticoids were long believed to primarily function through cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation and subsequent classical genomic pathways. Recently, however, evidence has emerged that suggests the presence of rapid non-genomic GR-dependent signaling pathways within the brain, though their existence in spinal and peripheral nociceptive neurons remains elusive. In this paper, we aim to systemically identify GR within the spinal cord and periphery, to verify their putative membrane location and to characterize possible G protein coupling and pain modulating properties. Double immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed that GR predominantly localized in peripheral peptidergic and non-peptidergic nociceptive C- and Aδ-neurons and existed only marginally in myelinated mechanoreceptive and proprioreceptive neurons. Within the spinal cord, GR predominantly localized in incoming presynaptic nociceptive neurons, in pre- and postsynaptic structures of the dorsal horn, as well as in microglia. GR saturation binding revealed that these receptors are linked to the cell membrane of sensory neurons and, upon activation, they trigger membrane targeted [35S]GTPγS binding, indicating G protein coupling to a putative receptor. Importantly, subcutaneous dexamethasone immediately and dose-dependently attenuated acute nociceptive behavior elicited in an animal model of formalin-induced pain hypersensitivity compared to naive rats. Overall, this study provides firm evidence for a novel neuronal mechanism of GR agonists that is rapid, non-genomic, dependent on membrane binding and G protein coupling, and acutely modulates nociceptive behavior, thus unraveling a yet unconsidered mechanism of pain relief.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - T32 NS061764(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U01 NS090595(United States)

S100B + A1 CELISA: A Novel Potency Assay and Screening Tool for Redifferentiation Stimuli of Human Articular Chondrocytes.

  • Diaz-Romero J
  • J. Cell. Physiol.
  • 2017 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

During monolayer expansion, a necessary step in autologous chondrocyte implantation, human articular chondrocytes (HAC) dedifferentiate and lose their capacity to produce stable hyaline cartilage. Determining HAC potency and learning how to trigger their redifferentiation would improve cell-based cartilage regeneration therapies. We previously identified S100B and S100A1 proteins as markers of HAC redifferentiation potential. Here, we aimed to: (i) demonstrate a correlation between S100B + A1-positive HAC in monolayer culture and their neochondrogenesis capacity in pellet culture; (ii) develop an S100B + A1 cell-based ELISA, and (iii) prove that S100B + A1 induction in HAC increases their chondrogenic capacity. Expression patterns of S100A1 and S100B were investigated in HAC during dedifferentiation (monolayer) or redifferentiation (pellet or high-osmolarity/BMP4 treatment in monolayer) using qRT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, or immunohistochemistry. A cell-based ELISA (CELISA) was developed as a 96-well microplate multiplex assay to measure S100B + A1 (chondrogenesis), alkaline phosphatase (hypertrophy), and DNA amount (normalization), and applied to HAC, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and the chondrocytic cell line ATDC5. The direct correlation between the percentage of S100B + A1-positive HAC in monolayer and their neochondrogenesis in pellets validates S100B + A1 as a marker of chondrogenic potency. The S100B + A1-CELISA accurately determines HAC differentiation status, allows identification of chondrogenic stimuli, and permits the simultaneous monitoring of the undesirable hypertrophic phenotype. This novel assay offers a high-throughput, comprehensive and versatile approach for measuring cell chondrogenic potency and for identifying redifferentiation factors/conditions. HAC improved neochondrogenesis in pellets-induced with high-osmolarity and BMP4 treatment in monolayer-suggests that cell instruction prior to implantation may improve cartilage repair. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1559-1570, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R21DE025352(United States)

Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers Reveals Distinct Sequential Functions of Lgl1 in Neural Stem Cells.

  • Beattie R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The concerted production of neurons and glia by neural stem cells (NSCs) is essential for neural circuit assembly. In the developing cerebral cortex, radial glia progenitors (RGPs) generate nearly all neocortical neurons and certain glia lineages. RGP proliferation behavior shows a high degree of non-stochasticity, thus a deterministic characteristic of neuron and glia production. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling RGP behavior and proliferation dynamics in neurogenesis and glia generation remain unknown. By using mosaic analysis with double markers (MADM)-based genetic paradigms enabling the sparse and global knockout with unprecedented single-cell resolution, we identified Lgl1 as a critical regulatory component. We uncover Lgl1-dependent tissue-wide community effects required for embryonic cortical neurogenesis and novel cell-autonomous Lgl1 functions controlling RGP-mediated glia genesis and postnatal NSC behavior. These results suggest that NSC-mediated neuron and glia production is tightly regulated through the concerted interplay of sequential Lgl1-dependent global and cell intrinsic mechanisms.

Amygdala EphB2 Signaling Regulates Glutamatergic Neuron Maturation and Innate Fear.

  • Zhu XN
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2016 Sep 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

The amygdala serves as emotional center to mediate innate fear behaviors that are reflected through neuronal responses to environmental aversive cues. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the initial neuron responses is poorly understood. In this study, we monitored the innate defensive responses to aversive stimuli of either elevated plus maze or predator odor in juvenile mice and found that glutamatergic neurons were activated in amygdala. Loss of EphB2, a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in amygdala neurons, suppressed the reactions and led to defects in spine morphogenesis and fear behaviors. We further found a coupling of spinogenesis with these threat cues induced neuron activation in developing amygdala that was controlled by EphB2. A constitutively active form of EphB2 was sufficient to rescue the behavioral and morphological defects caused by ablation of ephrin-B3, a brain-enriched ligand to EphB2. These data suggest that kinase-dependent EphB2 intracellular signaling plays a major role for innate fear responses during the critical developing period, in which spinogenesis in amygdala glutamatergic neurons was involved. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Generation of innate fear responses to threat as an evolutionally conserved brain feature relies on development of functional neural circuit in amygdala, but the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. We here identify that EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is specifically expressed in glutamatergic neurons, is required for the innate fear responses in the neonatal brain. We further reveal that EphB2 mediates coordination of spinogenesis and neuron activation in amygdala during the critical period for the innate fear. EphB2 catalytic activity plays a major role for the behavior upon EphB-ephrin-B3 binding and transnucleus neuronal connections. Our work thus indicates an essential synaptic molecular signaling within amygdala that controls synapse development and helps bring about innate fear emotions in the postnatal developing brain.

Enteric Neural Cells From Hirschsprung Disease Patients Form Ganglia in Autologous Aneuronal Colon.

  • Rollo BN
  • Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • 2016 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is caused by failure of cells derived from the neural crest (NC) to colonize the distal bowel in early embryogenesis, resulting in absence of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and failure of intestinal transit postnatally. Treatment is by distal bowel resection, but neural cell replacement may be an alternative. We tested whether aneuronal (aganglionic) colon tissue from patients may be colonized by autologous ENS-derived cells. METHODS: Cells were obtained and cryopreserved from 31 HSCR patients from the proximal resection margin of colon, and ENS cells were isolated using flow cytometry for the NC marker p75 (nine patients). Aneuronal colon tissue was obtained from the distal resection margin (23 patients). ENS cells were assessed for NC markers immunohistologically and by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and mitosis was detected by ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine labeling. The ability of human HSCR postnatal ENS-derived cells to colonize the embryonic intestine was demonstrated by organ coculture with avian embryo gut, and the ability of human postnatal HSCR aneuronal colon muscle to support ENS formation was tested by organ coculture with embryonic mouse ENS cells. Finally, the ability of HSCR patient ENS cells to colonize autologous aneuronal colon muscle tissue was assessed. RESULTS: ENS-derived p75-sorted cells from patients expressed multiple NC progenitor and differentiation markers and proliferated in culture under conditions simulating Wnt signaling. In organ culture, patient ENS cells migrated appropriately in aneural quail embryo gut, and mouse embryo ENS cells rapidly spread, differentiated, and extended axons in patient aneuronal colon muscle tissue. Postnatal ENS cells derived from HSCR patients colonized autologous aneuronal colon tissue in cocultures, proliferating and differentiating as neurons and glia. CONCLUSIONS: NC-lineage cells can be obtained from HSCR patient colon and can form ENS-like structures in aneuronal colonic muscle from the same patient.

Super-Resolution Microscopy Reveals Presynaptic Localization of the ALS/FTD Related Protein FUS in Hippocampal Neurons.

  • Schoen M
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2015 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) is a multifunctional RNA-/DNA-binding protein, which is involved in the pathogenesis of the neurodegenerative disorders amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). A common hallmark of these disorders is the abnormal accumulation of mutated FUS protein in the cytoplasm. Under normal conditions FUS is confined to the nuclear compartment, in neurons, however, additional somatodendritic localization can be observed. In this study, we carefully analyzed the subcellular localization of endogenous FUS at synaptic sites of hippocampal neurons which are among the most affected cell types in FTD with FUS pathology. We could confirm a strong nuclear localization of FUS as well as its prominent and widespread neuronal expression throughout the adult and developing rat brain, particularly in the hippocampus, the cerebellum and the outer layers of the cortex. Intriguingly, FUS was also consistently observed at synaptic sites as detected by neuronal subcellular fractionation as well as by immunolabeling. To define a pre- and/or postsynaptic localization of FUS, we employed super-resolution fluorescence localization microscopy. FUS was found to be localized within the axon terminal in close proximity to the presynaptic vesicle protein Synaptophysin1 and adjacent to the active zone protein Bassoon, but well separated from the postsynaptic protein PSD-95. Having shown the presynaptic localization of FUS in the nervous system, a novel extranuclear role of FUS at neuronal contact sites has to be considered. Since there is growing evidence that local presynaptic translation might also be an important mechanism for plasticity, FUS - like the fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP - might act as one of the presynaptic RNA-binding proteins regulating this machinery. Our observation of presynaptic FUS should foster further investigations to determine its role in neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS and FTD.

Decline in adult neurogenesis during aging follows a topographic pattern in the mouse hippocampus.

  • Jinno S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the rodent brain, diverse functions are topographically distributed within the hippocampus. For instance, the dorsal (septal) hippocampus is involved in spatial memory, whereas the ventral (temporal) hippocampus is related to emotion and anxiety. Accumulating evidence shows that age-dependent decline in hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with impairments of these functions. However, little is known about whether the decline in dentate granule cell production during aging follows a topographic pattern. Here we quantitatively estimated specific populations of adult-born cells in young adult and middle-aged mice by using endogenous markers and determined whether age-dependent reductions in adult neurogenesis exhibited topographic differences. The numerical densities (NDs) of putative primary progenitors, intermediate neuronal progenitors, and neuronal lineages were higher in the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) than in the ventral DG both in young adult and in middle-aged mice, but the ratios of the NDs in the dorsal DG to the NDs in the ventral DG noticeably increased with age. The age-related reductions in the numbers of these populations were larger in the ventral DG than in the dorsal DG. By contrast, the NDs of glial lineages were higher in the ventral DG than in the dorsal DG during life, and the numbers of glial lineages showed no significant age-related changes. Our findings suggest that neurogenesis, but not gliogenesis, wanes faster in the ventral hippocampus than in the dorsal hippocampus during aging. Such age-related topographic changes in hippocampal neurogenesis might be implicated in memory and affective impairments in older people.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - MH068457(United States)

Distribution of Na/K-ATPase alpha 3 isoform, a sodium-potassium P-type pump associated with rapid-onset of dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) in the adult mouse brain.

  • Bøttger P
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase1 alpha subunit 3 (ATP1α(3)) is one of many essential components that maintain the sodium and potassium gradients across the plasma membrane in animal cells. Mutations in the ATP1A3 gene cause rapid-onset of dystonia parkinsonism (RDP), a rare movement disorder characterized by sudden onset of dystonic spasms and slowness of movement. To achieve a better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, we used immunohistochemical approaches to describe the regional and cellular distribution of ATP1α(3) in the adult mouse brain. Our results show that localization of ATP1α(3) is restricted to neurons, and it is expressed mostly in projections (fibers and punctuates), but cell body expression is also observed. We found high expression of ATP1α(3) in GABAergic neurons in all nuclei of the basal ganglia (striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra), which is a key circuitry in the fine movement control. Several thalamic nuclei structures harboring connections to and from the cortex expressed high levels of the ATP1α(3) isoform. Other structures with high expression of ATP1α(3) included cerebellum, red nucleus, and several areas of the pons (reticulotegmental nucleus of pons). We also found high expression of ATP1α(3) in projections and cell bodies in hippocampus; most of these ATP1α(3)-positive cell bodies showed colocalization to GABAergic neurons. ATP1α(3) expression was not significant in the dopaminergic cells of substantia nigra. In conclusion, and based on our data, ATP1α(3) is widely expressed in neuronal populations but mainly in GABAergic neurons in areas and nuclei related to movement control, in agreement with RDP symptoms.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R01 EB007057(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH093725(United States)

Synaptic and nonsynaptic localization of protocadherin-gammaC5 in the rat brain.

  • Li Y
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

It has been proposed that gamma-protocadherins (Pcdh-gammas) are involved in the establishment of specific patterns of neuronal connectivity. Contrary to the other Pcdh-gammas, which are expressed in the embryo, Pcdh-gammaC5 is expressed postnatally in the brain, coinciding with the peak of synaptogenesis. We have developed an antibody specific for Pcdh-gammaC5 to study the expression and localization of Pcdh-gammaC5 in brain. Pcdh-gammaC5 is highly expressed in the olfactory bulb, corpus striatum, dentate gyrus, CA1 region of the hippocampus, layers I and II of the cerebral cortex, and molecular layer of the cerebellum. Pcdh-gammaC5 is expressed in both neurons and astrocytes. In hippocampal neuronal cultures, and in the absence of astrocytes, a significant percentage of synapses, more GABAergic than glutamatergic, have associated Pcdh-gammaC5 clusters. Some GABAergic axons show Pcdh-gammaC5 in the majority of their synapses. Nevertheless, many Pcdh-gammaC5 clusters are not associated with synapses. In the brain, significant numbers of Pcdh-gammaC5 clusters are located at contact points between neurons and astrocytes. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of the rat brain shows that 1) Pcdh-gammaC5 is present in some GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses both pre- and postsynaptically; 2) Pcdh-gammaC5 is also extrasynaptically localized in membranes and in cytoplasmic organelles of neurons and astrocytes; and 3) Pcdh-gammaC5 is also localized in perisynaptic astrocyte processes. The results support the notions that 1) Pcdh-gammaC5 plays a role in synaptic specificity and/or synaptic maturation and 2) Pcdh-gammaC5 is involved in neuron-neuron synaptic interactions and in neuron-astrocyte interactions, including perisynaptic neuron-astrocyte interactions.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32HL007638(United States)

Transplantation of subventricular zone neural precursors induces an endogenous precursor cell response in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

  • Madhavan L
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Realistically, future stem cell therapies for neurological conditions including Parkinson's disease (PD) will most probably entail combination treatment strategies, involving both the stimulation of endogenous cells and transplantation. Therefore, this study investigates these two modes of neural precursor cell (NPC) therapy in concert in order to determine their interrelationships in a rat PD model. Human placental alkaline phosphatase (hPAP)-labeled NPCs were transplanted unilaterally into host rats which were subsequently infused ipsilaterally with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The reaction of host NPCs to the transplantation and 6-OHDA was tracked by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling. Two weeks after transplantation, in animals transplanted with NPCs we found evidence of elevated host subventricular zone NPC proliferation, neurogenesis, and migration to the graft site. In these animals, we also observed a significant preservation of striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and substantia nigra TH cell number. We have seen no evidence that neuroprotection is a product of dopamine neuron replacement by NPC-derived cells. Rather, the NPCs expressed glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), sonic hedgehog (Shh), and stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF1alpha), providing a molecular basis for the observed neuroprotection and endogenous NPC response to transplantation. In summary, our data suggests plausible synergy between exogenous and endogenous NPC actions, and that NPC implantation before the 6-OHDA insult can create a host microenvironment conducive to stimulation of endogenous NPCs and protection of mature nigral neurons.

Altered cutaneous nerve regeneration in a simian immunodeficiency virus / macaque intracutaneous axotomy model.

  • Ebenezer GJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 May 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

To characterize the regenerative pattern of cutaneous nerves in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected and uninfected macaques, excisional axotomies were performed in nonglabrous skin at 14-day intervals. Samples were examined after immunostaining for the pan-axonal marker PGP 9.5 and the Schwann cell marker p75 nerve growth factor receptor. Collateral sprouting of axons from adjacent uninjured superficial dermal nerve bundles was the initial response to axotomy. Both horizontal collateral sprouts and dense vertical regeneration of axons from the deeper dermis led to complete, rapid reinnervation of the epidermis at the axotomy site. In contrast to the slower, incomplete reinnervation previously noted in humans after this technique, in both SIV-infected and uninfected macaques epidermal reinnervation was rapid and completed by 56 days postaxotomy. p75 was densely expressed on the Schwann cells of uninjured nerve bundles along the excision line and on epidermal Schwann cell processes. In both SIV-infected and uninfected macaques, Schwann cell process density was highest at the earliest timepoints postaxotomy and then declined at a similar rate. However, SIV-infection delayed epidermal nerve fiber regeneration and remodeling of new sprouts at every timepoint postaxotomy, and SIV-infected animals consistently had lower mean epidermal Schwann cell densities, suggesting that Schwann cell guidance and support of epidermal nerve fiber regeneration may account for altered nerve regeneration. The relatively rapid regeneration time and the completeness of epidermal reinnervation in this macaque model provides a useful platform for assessing the efficacy of neurotrophic or regenerative drugs for sensory neuropathies including those caused by HIV, diabetes mellitus, medications, and toxins.

NG2 cells are distinct from neurogenic cells in the postnatal mouse subventricular zone.

  • Komitova M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Feb 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

NG2 cells express the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 and are a fourth type of glia distinct from astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. NG2 cells generate oligodendrocytes but have also been reported to represent neuronal progenitor cells in the postnatal mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). We performed a detailed immunohistochemical analysis of NG2 cells in the mouse SVZ, rostral migratory stream (RMS), and olfactory bulb granule cell layer (OB GCL), which constitute a neurogenic niche in the postnatal forebrain. NG2 cells in the SVZ and RMS expressed the oligodendrocyte precursor cell antigen platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha but did not express antigens known to be expressed by neuronogenic cells in the SVZ, such as doublecortin, PSA-NCAM, beta-tubulin, Dlx2, or GFAP. More than 99.5% of the proliferating cells in the SVZ were NG2 negative. In the olfactory bulb, NG2 cells were found to generate primarily oligodendrocytes and a small number of astrocytes but not neurons. In the SVZ and RMS, NG2 cells were sparse and made up a much smaller fraction of the cells compared with the surrounding nonneurogenic parenchyma. Parenchymal NG2 cells were often located along the border of the SVZ and RMS. The abundance of NG2 cells increased in the distal parts of the RMS and especially in the OB GCL, where NG2 cell processes were seen in close proximity to many maturing interneurons. Our findings indicate that NG2 cells do not represent neuronal progenitor cells in the postnatal SVZ but are likely to be oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

Temporal and spatial regulation of alpha6 integrin expression during the development of the cochlear-vestibular ganglion.

  • Davies D
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Jun 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The neurons of the cochlear-vestibular ganglion (CVG) that innervate the sensory hair cells of the inner ear are derived from the otic epithelium early in development. Neuroblasts detach from neighboring cells, migrate into the mesenchyme where they coalesce to form the ganglion complex, then send processes back into the epithelium. Cell migration and neuronal process formation involve changes in cellular interactions with other cells and proteins in the extracellular matrix that are orchestrated by cell surface-expressed adhesion molecules, including the integrins. I studied the expression pattern of the alpha6 integrin subunit during the early development of the CVG using immunohistochemistry and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in murine tissue sections, otocyst, and ganglion explants. At embryonic day (E)10.5 alpha6 integrin was expressed in the otic epithelium but not in migrating neuroblasts. Importantly, the loss of alpha6 was associated with exit from the epithelium, not neuronal determination, revealing differentiation cues acutely associated with the cellular environment. Markers of glial and neuronal phenotype showed that alpha6-expressing cells present in the CVG at this stage were glia of neural crest origin. By E12.5 alpha6 expression in the ganglion increased alongside the elaboration of neuronal processes. Immunohistochemistry applied to otocyst cultures in the absence of glia revealed that neuronal processes remained alpha6-negative at this developmental stage and confirmed that alpha6 was expressed by closely apposed glia. The spatiotemporal modulation of alpha6 expression suggests changing roles for this integrin during the early development of inner ear innervation.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - Z01-HD008776(United States)

Clustering, migration, and neurite formation of neural precursor cells in the adult rat hippocampus.

  • Seki T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 May 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adult neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone and innermost part of the dentate granule cell layer. To examine how neural precursor cells proliferate, migrate, and extend their neurites, we performed BrdU- and improved retrovirus-green fluorescence protein (GFP)-labeling analyses. Soon after labeling the majority of BrdU+ cells and GFP+ cells expressed Ki67, a cell cycle marker, and formed clusters together with PSA+ neuroblasts. Most of the Ki67+ proliferating cells expressed Hu, an immature and mature neuronal marker, and the subpopulation expressed both Hu+ and GFAP+. In the clusters, Ki67+ and PSA+ cells strongly expressed beta-catenin and N-cadherin, but PSA+ cells outside the clusters did not. Therefore, it was mainly Hu+ neuronal precursor cells that proliferated within clusters in which the cluster cells are closely associated via cell adhesion molecules, such as N-cadherin/beta-cateninIn and PSA. The newly generated cells appeared to stay in the clusters for a few days and then disperse around the clusters. The findings of this in vivo analysis and in vitro time-lapse imaging of early postnatal hippocampal slices support the notion that most postmitotic neuroblasts migrate tangentially from clusters, extending tangentially oriented processes, one of which often retains close contact with the clusters, and finally extend radial processes, or prospective apical dendrites. These results suggest that the clustering cells and tangentially migrating cells have a systematic cellular arrangement and intercellular interaction.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS34439(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS046593(United States)