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Monoclonal Anti-Parvalbumin antibody produced in mouse

RRID:AB_477329

Antibody ID

AB_477329

Target Antigen

Parvalbumin feline, human, bovine, rat, frog, fish, goat, canine, pig, rabbit

Proper Citation

(Sigma-Aldrich Cat# P3088, RRID:AB_477329)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: immunohistochemistry (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections), indirect ELISA, western blot

Clone ID

Clone PARV-19

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Sigma-Aldrich

Cat Num

P3088

Publications that use this research resource

Localization, distribution, and connectivity of neuropeptide Y in the human and porcine retinas-A comparative study.

  • Christiansen AT
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a peptide neurotransmitter abundantly expressed in the mammalian retina. Since its discovery, NPY has been studied in retinas of several species, but detailed characterization of morphology, cell-type, and connectivity has never been conducted in larger mammals including humans and pigs. As the pig due to size and cellular composition is a well-suited animal for retinal research, we chose to compare the endogenous NPY system of the human retina to that of pigs to support future research in this field. In the present study, using immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy and 3D reconstructions, we found NPY to be expressed in GABAergic and calretinin-immunoreactive (-ir) amacrine cells of both species as well as parvalbumin-ir amacrine cells of humans. Furthermore, we identified at least two different types of medium- to wide-field NPY-ir amacrine cells. Finally, we detected likely synaptic appositions between the NPY-ir amacrine cells and melanopsin- and nonmelanopsin-ir ganglion cells, GABAergic and dopaminergic amacrine cells, rod bipolar cells, and horizontal cells, suggesting that NPY-ir cells play diverse roles in modulation of both image and non-image forming retinal signaling. These findings extend existing knowledge on NPY and NPY-expressing cells in the human and porcine retina showing a high degree of comparability. The extensive distribution and connectivity of NPY-ir cells described in the present study further highlights the potential importance of NPY signaling in retinal function.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG012423(United States)

Architectonic characteristics of the visual thalamus and superior colliculus in titi monkeys.

  • Baldwin MKL
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Titi monkeys are arboreal, diurnal New World monkeys whose ancestors were the first surviving branch of the New World radiation. In the current study, we use cytoarchitectonic and immunohistochemical characteristics to compare titi monkey subcortical structures associated with visual processing with those of other well-studied primates. Our goal was to appreciate features that are similar across all New World monkeys, and primates in general, versus those features that are unique to titi monkeys and other primate taxa. We examined tissue stained for Nissl substance, cytochrome oxidase (CO), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), calbindin (Cb), parvalbumin (Pv), and vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) to characterize the superior colliculus, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual pulvinar. This is the first study to characterize VGLUT2 in multiple subcortical structures of any New World monkey. Our results from tissue processed for VGLUT2, in combination with other histological stains, revealed distinct features of subcortical structures that are similar to other primates, but also some features that are slightly modified compared to other New World monkeys and other primates. These included subdivisions of the inferior pulvinar, sublamina within the stratum griseum superficiale (SGS) of the superior colliculus, and specific koniocellular layers within the lateral geniculate nucleus. Compared to other New World primates, many features of the subcortical structures that we examined in titi monkeys were most similar to those in owl monkeys and marmosets, with the lateral geniculate nucleus consisting of two main parvocellular layers and two magnocellular layers separated by interlaminar zones or koniocellular layers.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL27255(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F32 NS093721()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS035103()

Immunolocalization of muscarinic M1 receptor in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

  • Oda S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been considered to participate in many higher cognitive functions, such as memory formation and spatial navigation. These cognitive functions are modulated by cholinergic afferents via muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Previous pharmacological studies have strongly suggested that the M1 receptor (M1R) is the most important subtype among muscarinic receptors to perform these cognitive functions. Actually, M1R is abundant in mPFC. However, the proportion of somata containing M1R among cortical cellular types, and the precise intracellular localization of M1R remain unclear. In this study, to clarify the precise immunolocalization of M1R in rat mPFC, we examined three major cellular types, pyramidal neurons, inhibitory neurons, and astrocytes. M1R immunopositivity signals were found in the majority of the somata of both pyramidal neurons and inhibitory neurons. In pyramidal neurons, strong M1R immunopositivity signals were usually found throughout their somata and dendrites including spines. On the other hand, the signal strength of M1R immunopositivity in the somata of inhibitory neurons significantly varied. Some neurons showed strong signals. Whereas about 40% of GAD67-immunopositive neurons and 30% of parvalbumin-immunopositive neurons (PV neurons) showed only weak signals. In PV neurons, M1R immunopositivity signals were preferentially distributed in somata. Furthermore, we found that many astrocytes showed substantial M1R immunopositivity signals. These signals were also mainly distributed in their somata. Thus, the distribution pattern of M1R markedly differs between cellular types. This difference might underlie the cholinergic modulation of higher cognitive functions subserved by mPFC.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30DK056336(United States)

Differential inputs to striatal cholinergic and parvalbumin interneurons imply functional distinctions.

  • Klug JR
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Striatal cholinergic (ChAT) and parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exert powerful influences on striatal function in health and disease, yet little is known about the organization of their inputs. Here using rabies tracing, electrophysiology and genetic tools, we compare the whole-brain inputs to these two types of striatal interneurons and dissect their functional connectivity in mice. ChAT interneurons receive a substantial cortical input from associative regions of cortex, such as the orbitofrontal cortex. Amongst subcortical inputs, a previously unknown inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus input to striatal PV interneurons is identified. Additionally, the external segment of the globus pallidus targets striatal ChAT interneurons, which is sufficient to inhibit tonic ChAT interneuron firing. Finally, we describe a novel excitatory pathway from the pedunculopontine nucleus that innervates ChAT interneurons. These results establish the brain-wide direct inputs of two major types of striatal interneurons and allude to distinct roles in regulating striatal activity and controlling behavior.

Funding information:
  • National Institutes of Health - R01AG047669()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01NS083815()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL073085-08(United States)

Deletion of the endogenous TrkB.T1 receptor isoform restores the number of hippocampal CA1 parvalbumin-positive neurons and rescues long-term potentiation in pre-symptomatic mSOD1(G93A) ALS mice.

  • Quarta E
  • Mol. Cell. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Mar 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes rapidly progressive paralysis and death within 5 years from diagnosis due to degeneration of the motor circuits. However, a significant population of ALS patients also shows cognitive impairments and progressive hippocampal pathology. Likewise, the mutant SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS (mSOD1), in addition to loss of spinal motor neurons, displays altered spatial behavior and hippocampal abnormalities including loss of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVi) and enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these morpho-functional features are not well understood. Since removal of TrkB.T1, a receptor isoform of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor, can partially rescue the phenotype of the mSOD1 mice, here we tested whether removal of TrkB.T1 can normalize the number of PVi and the LTP in this model. Stereological analysis of hippocampal PVi in control, TrkB.T1-/-, mSOD1, and mSOD1 mice deficient for TrkB.T1 (mSOD1/T1-/-) showed that deletion of TrkB.T1 restored the number of PVi to physiological level in the mSOD1 hippocampus. The rescue of PVi neuron number is paralleled by a normalization of high-frequency stimulation-induced LTP in the pre-symptomatic mSOD1/T1-/- mice. Our experiments identified TrkB.T1 as a cellular player involved in the homeostasis of parvalbumin expressing interneurons and, in the context of murine ALS, show that TrkB.T1 is involved in the mechanism underlying structural and functional hippocampal degeneration. These findings have potential implications for hippocampal degeneration and cognitive impairments reported in ALS patients at early stages of the disease.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P20 RR017702-09(United States)

Collateral Projections Innervate the Mammillary Bodies and Retrosplenial Cortex: A New Category of Hippocampal Cells.

  • Kinnavane L
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Mar 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

To understand the hippocampus, it is necessary to understand the subiculum. Unlike other hippocampal subfields, the subiculum projects to almost all distal hippocampal targets, highlighting its critical importance for external networks. The present studies, in male rats and mice, reveal a new category of dorsal subiculum neurons that innervate both the mammillary bodies (MBs) and the retrosplenial cortex (RSP). These bifurcating neurons comprise almost half of the hippocampal cells that project to RSP. The termination of these numerous collateral projections was visualized within the medial mammillary nucleus and the granular RSP (area 29). These collateral projections included subiculum efferents that cross to the contralateral MBs. Within the granular RSP, the collateral projections form a particularly dense plexus in deep Layer II and Layer III. This retrosplenial termination site colocalized with markers for VGluT2 and neurotensin. While efferents from the hippocampal CA fields standardly collateralize, subiculum projections often have only one target site. Consequently, the many collateral projections involving the RSP and the MBs present a relatively unusual pattern for the subiculum, which presumably relates to how both targets have complementary roles in spatial processing. Furthermore, along with the anterior thalamic nuclei, the MBs and RSP are key members of a memory circuit, which is usually described as both starting and finishing in the hippocampus. The present findings reveal how the hippocampus simultaneously engages different parts of this circuit, so forcing an important revision of this network.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM63024(United States)

Architectonic features and relative locations of primary sensory and related areas of neocortex in mouse lemurs.

  • Saraf MP
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Feb 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mouse lemurs are the smallest of the living primates, and are members of the understudied radiation of strepsirrhine lemurs of Madagascar. They are thought to closely resemble the ancestral primates that gave rise to present day primates. Here we have used multiple histological and immunochemical methods to identify and characterize sensory areas of neocortex in four brains of adult lemurs obtained from a licensed breeding colony. We describe the laminar features for the primary visual area (V1), the secondary visual area (V2), the middle temporal visual area (MT) and area prostriata, somatosensory areas S1(3b), 3a, and area 1, the primary motor cortex (M1), and the primary auditory cortex (A1). V1 has "blobs" with "nonblob" surrounds, providing further evidence that this type of modular organization might have evolved early in the primate lineage to be retained in all extant primates. The laminar organization of V1 further supports the view that sublayers of layer 3 of primates have been commonly misidentified as sublayers of layer 4. S1 (area 3b) is proportionately wider than the elongated area observed in anthropoid primates, and has disruptions that may distinguish representations of the hand, face, teeth, and tongue. Primary auditory cortex is located in the upper temporal cortex and may include a rostral area, R, in addition to A1. The resulting architectonic maps of cortical areas in mouse lemurs can usefully guide future studies of cortical connectivity and function.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32-CA09151(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY002686()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY025422()

Radial Glial Fibers Promote Neuronal Migration and Functional Recovery after Neonatal Brain Injury.

  • Jinnou H
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jan 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Radial glia (RG) are embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) that produce neuroblasts and provide fibers that act as a scaffold for neuroblast migration during embryonic development. Although they normally disappear soon after birth, here we found that RG fibers can persist in injured neonatal mouse brains and act as a scaffold for postnatal ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate to the lesion site. This injury-induced maintenance of RG fibers has a limited time window during post-natal development and promotes directional saltatory movement of neuroblasts via N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts that promote RhoA activation. Transplanting an N-cadherin-containing scaffold into injured neonatal brains likewise promotes migration and maturation of V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts, leading to functional improvements in impaired gait behaviors. Together these results suggest that RG fibers enable postnatal V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts to migrate toward sites of injury, thereby enhancing neuronal regeneration and functional recovery from neonatal brain injuries.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK082659(United States)

Interneuron-specific signaling evokes distinctive somatostatin-mediated responses in adult cortical astrocytes.

  • Mariotti L
  • Nat Commun
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The signaling diversity of GABAergic interneurons to post-synaptic neurons is crucial to generate the functional heterogeneity that characterizes brain circuits. Whether this diversity applies to other brain cells, such as the glial cells astrocytes, remains unexplored. Using optogenetics and two-photon functional imaging in the adult mouse neocortex, we here reveal that parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing interneurons, two key interneuron classes in the brain, differentially signal to astrocytes inducing weak and robust GABAB receptor-mediated Ca2+ elevations, respectively. Furthermore, the astrocyte response depresses upon parvalbumin interneuron repetitive stimulations and potentiates upon somatostatin interneuron repetitive stimulations, revealing a distinguished astrocyte plasticity. Remarkably, the potentiated response crucially depends on the neuropeptide somatostatin, released by somatostatin interneurons, which activates somatostatin receptors at astrocytic processes. Our study unveils, in the living brain, a hitherto unidentified signaling specificity between interneuron subtypes and astrocytes opening a new perspective into the role of astrocytes as non-neuronal components of inhibitory circuits.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA137102(United States)

Meis1 Coordinates Cerebellar Granule Cell Development by Regulating Pax6 Transcription, BMP Signaling and Atoh1 Degradation.

  • Owa T
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) and granule cells (GCs) represent good models to study neuronal development. Here, we report that the transcription factor myeloid ectopic viral integration site 1 homolog (Meis1) plays pivotal roles in the regulation of mouse GC development. We found that Meis1 is expressed in GC lineage cells and astrocytes in the cerebellum during development. Targeted disruption of the Meis1 gene specifically in the GC lineage resulted in smaller cerebella with disorganized lobules. Knock-down/knock-out (KO) experiments for Meis1 and in vitro assays showed that Meis1 binds to an upstream sequence of Pax6 to enhance its transcription in GCPs/GCs and also suggested that the Meis1-Pax6 cascade regulates morphology of GCPs/GCs during development. In the conditional KO (cKO) cerebella, many Atoh1-positive GCPs were observed ectopically in the inner external granule layer (EGL) and a similar phenomenon was observed in cultured cerebellar slices treated with a bone morphogenic protein (BMP) inhibitor. Furthermore, expression of Smad proteins and Smad phosphorylation were severely reduced in the cKO cerebella and Meis1-knock-down GCPs cerebella. Reduction of phosphorylated Smad was also observed in cerebellar slices electroporated with a Pax6 knock-down vector. Because it is known that BMP signaling induces Atoh1 degradation in GCPs, these findings suggest that the Meis1-Pax6 pathway increases the expression of Smad proteins to upregulate BMP signaling, leading to degradation of Atoh1 in the inner EGL, which contributes to differentiation from GCPs to GCs. Therefore, this work reveals crucial functions of Meis1 in GC development and gives insights into the general understanding of the molecular machinery underlying neural differentiation from neural progenitors.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We report that myeloid ectopic viral integration site 1 homolog (Meis1) plays pivotal roles in the regulation of mouse granule cell (GC) development. Here, we show Meis1 is expressed in GC precursors (GCPs) and GCs during development. Our knock-down and conditional knock-out (cKO) experiments and in vitro assays revealed that Meis1 is required for proper cerebellar structure formation and for Pax6 transcription in GCPs and GCs. The Meis1-Pax6 cascade regulates the morphology of GCs. In the cKO cerebella, Smad proteins and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling are severely reduced and Atoh1-expressing GCPs are ectopically detected in the inner external granule layer. These findings suggest that Meis1 regulates degradation of Atoh1 via BMP signaling, contributing to GC differentiation in the inner EGL, and should provide understanding into GC development.

Funding information:
  • British Heart Foundation - RG/07/008/23674(United Kingdom)

Parvalbumin-producing striatal interneurons receive excitatory inputs onto proximal dendrites from the motor thalamus in male mice.

  • Nakano Y
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

In rodents, the dorsolateral striatum regulates voluntary movement by integrating excitatory inputs from the motor-related cerebral cortex and thalamus to produce contingent inhibitory output to other basal ganglia nuclei. Striatal parvalbumin (PV)-producing interneurons receiving this excitatory input then inhibit medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and modify their outputs. To understand basal ganglia function in motor control, it is important to reveal the precise synaptic organization of motor-related cortical and thalamic inputs to striatal PV interneurons. To examine which domains of the PV neurons receive these excitatory inputs, we used male bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice expressing somatodendritic membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein in PV neurons. An anterograde tracing study with the adeno-associated virus vector combined with immunodetection of pre- and postsynaptic markers visualized the distribution of the excitatory appositions on PV dendrites. Statistical analysis revealed that the density of thalamostriatal appositions along the dendrites was significantly higher on the proximal than distal dendrites. In contrast, there was no positional preference in the density of appositions from axons of the dorsofrontal cortex. Population observations of thalamostriatal and corticostriatal appositions by immunohistochemistry for pathway-specific vesicular glutamate transporters confirmed that thalamic inputs preferentially, and cortical ones less preferentially, made apposition on proximal dendrites of PV neurons. This axodendritic organization suggests that PV neurons produce fast and reliable inhibition of MSNs in response to thalamic inputs and process excitatory inputs from motor cortices locally and plastically, possibly together with other GABAergic and dopaminergic dendritic inputs, to modulate MSN inhibition.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01-EY020535(United States)

Increased acetylcholine and glutamate efflux in the prefrontal cortex following intranasal orexin-A (hypocretin-1).

  • Calva CB
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Orexin/hypocretin neurons of the lateral hypothalamus and perifornical area are integrators of physiological function. Previous work from our laboratory and others has shown the importance of orexin transmission in cognition. Age-related reductions in markers of orexin function further suggest that this neuropeptide may be a useful target for the treatment of age-related cognitive dysfunction. Intranasal administration of orexin-A (OxA) has shown promise as a therapeutic option for cognitive dysfunction. However, the neurochemical mechanisms of intranasal OxA administration are not fully understood. Here, we use immunohistochemistry and in vivo microdialysis to define the effects of acute intranasal OxA administration on: (i) activation of neuronal populations in the cortex, basal forebrain, and brainstem and (ii) acetylcholine (ACh) and glutamate efflux in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of Fischer 344/Brown Norway F1 rats. Acute intranasal administration of OxA significantly increased c-Fos expression, a marker for neuronal activation, in the PFC and in subpopulations of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Subsequently, we investigated the effects of acute intranasal OxA on neurotransmitter efflux in the PFC and found that intranasal OxA significantly increased both ACh and glutamate efflux in this region. These findings were independent from any changes in c-Fos expression in orexin neurons, suggesting that these effects are not resultant from direct activation of orexin neurons. In total, these data indicate that intranasal OxA may enhance cognition through activation of distinct neuronal populations in the cortex and basal forebrain and through increased neurotransmission of ACh and glutamate in the PFC.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG050518()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK53813(United States)

Thalamic connections of the core auditory cortex and rostral supratemporal plane in the macaque monkey.

  • Scott BH
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the primate auditory cortex, information flows serially in the mediolateral dimension from core, to belt, to parabelt. In the caudorostral dimension, stepwise serial projections convey information through the primary, rostral, and rostrotemporal (AI, R, and RT) core areas on the supratemporal plane, continuing to the rostrotemporal polar area (RTp) and adjacent auditory-related areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STGr) and temporal pole. In addition to this cascade of corticocortical connections, the auditory cortex receives parallel thalamocortical projections from the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). Previous studies have examined the projections from MGN to auditory cortex, but most have focused on the caudal core areas AI and R. In this study, we investigated the full extent of connections between MGN and AI, R, RT, RTp, and STGr using retrograde and anterograde anatomical tracers. Both AI and R received nearly 90% of their thalamic inputs from the ventral subdivision of the MGN (MGv; the primary/lemniscal auditory pathway). By contrast, RT received only ∼45% from MGv, and an equal share from the dorsal subdivision (MGd). Area RTp received ∼25% of its inputs from MGv, but received additional inputs from multisensory areas outside the MGN (30% in RTp vs. 1-5% in core areas). The MGN input to RTp distinguished this rostral extension of auditory cortex from the adjacent auditory-related cortex of the STGr, which received 80% of its thalamic input from multisensory nuclei (primarily medial pulvinar). Anterograde tracers identified complementary descending connections by which highly processed auditory information may modulate thalamocortical inputs.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0400247(United Kingdom)

Loss of CLOCK Results in Dysfunction of Brain Circuits Underlying Focal Epilepsy.

  • Li P
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Oct 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Because molecular mechanisms underlying refractory focal epilepsy are poorly defined, we performed transcriptome analysis on human epileptogenic tissue. Compared with controls, expression of Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) is decreased in epileptogenic tissue. To define the function of CLOCK, we generated and tested the Emx-Cre; Clockflox/flox and PV-Cre; Clockflox/flox mouse lines with targeted deletions of the Clock gene in excitatory and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing inhibitory neurons, respectively. The Emx-Cre; Clockflox/flox mouse line alone has decreased seizure thresholds, but no laminar or dendritic defects in the cortex. However, excitatory neurons from the Emx-Cre; Clockflox/flox mouse have spontaneous epileptiform discharges. Both neurons from Emx-Cre; Clockflox/flox mouse and human epileptogenic tissue exhibit decreased spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Finally, video-EEG of Emx-Cre; Clockflox/flox mice reveals epileptiform discharges during sleep and also seizures arising from sleep. Altogether, these data show that disruption of CLOCK alters cortical circuits and may lead to generation of focal epilepsy.

Cerebellins are differentially expressed in selective subsets of neurons throughout the brain.

  • Seigneur E
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cerebellins are secreted hexameric proteins that form tripartite complexes with the presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules neurexins or 'deleted-in-colorectal-cancer', and the postsynaptic glutamate-receptor-related proteins GluD1 and GluD2. These tripartite complexes are thought to regulate synapses. However, cerebellins are expressed in multiple isoforms whose relative distributions and overall functions are not understood. Three of the four cerebellins, Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4, autonomously assemble into homohexamers, whereas the Cbln3 requires Cbln1 for assembly and secretion. Here, we show that Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4 are abundantly expressed in nearly all brain regions, but exhibit strikingly different expression patterns and developmental dynamics. Using newly generated knockin reporter mice for Cbln2 and Cbln4, we find that Cbln2 and Cbln4 are not universally expressed in all neurons, but only in specific subsets of neurons. For example, Cbln2 and Cbln4 are broadly expressed in largely non-overlapping subpopulations of excitatory cortical neurons, but only sparse expression was observed in excitatory hippocampal neurons of the CA1- or CA3-region. Similarly, Cbln2 and Cbln4 are selectively expressed, respectively, in inhibitory interneurons and excitatory mitral projection neurons of the main olfactory bulb; here, these two classes of neurons form dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses with each other. A few brain regions, such as the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, exhibit astoundingly high Cbln2 expression levels. Viewed together, our data show that cerebellins are abundantly expressed in relatively small subsets of neurons, suggesting specific roles restricted to subsets of synapses.

Heterogeneous organization and connectivity of the chicken auditory thalamus (Gallus gallus).

  • Wang Y
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The auditory ascending system contains parallel pathways in vertebrate brains. In chickens (Gallus gallus), three pathways arise from nucleus laminaris (NL), nucleus angularis (NA), and regio intermedius (RI) in the brainstem, innervating three subdivisions of the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd) in the midbrain. The current study reveals the segregation of these pathways in their subsequent projections to the nucleus ovoidalis (Ov) in the thalamus. Based on cytoarchitecture and myelin distribution, we identified seven Ov subregions, including five neuronal clusters within the Ov proper, the nucleus semilunaris parovoidalis (SPO), and the circum-ovoidalis (cOv). Immunocytochemistry further revealed that a ventromedial cluster of the Ov proper (Ovvm) contains unique cell types expressing α8 subunit nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, while SPO and cOv are characterized with expression of calcitonin-gene-related peptide and cholecystokinin. Tract tracing studies demonstrated that Ovvm is a major target of the NL-recipient zone of MLd, while the RI-recipient zone of MLd predominantly projects to a ventrolateral cluster of the Ov proper. Afferent inputs to the remaining regions of the Ov proper mostly arise from the NA-recipient zone of MLd. SPO and cOv receive a projection from the surrounding areas of MLd, named the nucleus intercollicularis. Importantly, the Ov proper, SPO and cOv all project to the Field L2 in the forebrain, the avian auditory cortex. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the avian auditory thalamus is a structurally and functionally heterogeneous structure, implicating an important role in generating novel representations for specific acoustic features.

Study of retinal neurodegeneration and maculopathy in diabetic Meriones shawi: A particular animal model with human-like macula.

  • Hammoum I
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The purpose of this work was to evaluate a potentially useful animal model, Meriones shawi (M.sh)-developing metabolic X syndrome, diabetes and possessing a visual streak similar to human macula-in the study of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema (DME). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) was induced by high fat diet administration in M.sh. Body weights, blood glucose levels were monitored throughout the study. Diabetic retinal histopathology was evaluated 3 and 7 months after diabetes induction. Retinal thickness was measured, retinal cell types were labeled by immunohistochemistry and the number of stained elements were quantified. Apoptosis was determined with TUNEL assay. T2D induced progressive changes in retinal histology. A significant decrease of retinal thickness and glial reactivity was observed without an increase in apoptosis rate. Photoreceptor outer segment degeneration was evident, with a significant decrease in the number of all cones and M-cone subtype, but-surprisingly-an increase in S-cones. Damage of the pigment epithelium was also confirmed. A decrease in the number and labeling intensity of parvalbumin- and calretinin-positive amacrine cells and a loss of ganglion cells was detected. Other cell types showed no evident alterations. No DME-like condition was noticed even after 7 months. M.sh could be a useful model to study the evolution of diabetic retinal pathology and to identify the role of hypertension and dyslipidemia in the development of the reported alterations. Longer follow up would be needed to evaluate the potential use of the visual streak in modeling human macular diseases.

Parvalbumin-positive interneurons mediate neocortical-hippocampal interactions that are necessary for memory consolidation.

  • Xia F
  • Elife
  • 2017 Sep 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Following learning, increased coupling between spindle oscillations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ripple oscillations in the hippocampus is thought to underlie memory consolidation. However, whether learning-induced increases in ripple-spindle coupling are necessary for successful memory consolidation has not been tested directly. In order to decouple ripple-spindle oscillations, here we chemogenetically inhibited parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons, since their activity is important for regulating the timing of spiking activity during oscillations. We found that contextual fear conditioning increased ripple-spindle coupling in mice. However, inhibition of PV+ cells in either CA1 or mPFC eliminated this learning-induced increase in ripple-spindle coupling without affecting ripple or spindle incidence. Consistent with the hypothesized importance of ripple-spindle coupling in memory consolidation, post-training inhibition of PV+ cells disrupted contextual fear memory consolidation. These results indicate that successful memory consolidation requires coherent hippocampal-neocortical communication mediated by PV+ cells.

The centrifugal visual system of a palaeognathous bird, the Chilean Tinamou (Nothoprocta perdicaria).

  • Krabichler Q
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The avian centrifugal visual system, which projects from the brain to the retina, has been intensively studied in several Neognathous birds that have a distinct isthmo-optic nucleus (ION). However, birds of the order Palaeognathae seem to lack a proper ION in histologically stained brain sections. We had previously reported in the palaeognathous Chilean Tinamou (Nothoprocta perdicaria) that intraocular injections of Cholera Toxin B subunit retrogradely label a considerable number of neurons, which form a diffuse isthmo-optic complex (IOC). In order to better understand how this IOC-based centrifugal visual system is organized, we have studied its major components by means of in vivo and in vitro tracing experiments. Our results show that the IOC, though structurally less organized than an ION, possesses a dense core region consisting of multipolar neurons. It receives afferents from neurons in L10a of the optic tectum, which are distributed with a wider interneuronal spacing than in Neognathae. The tecto-IOC terminals are delicate and divergent, unlike the prominent convergent tecto-ION terminals in Neognathae. The centrifugal IOC terminals in the retina are exclusively divergent, resembling the terminals from "ectopic" centrifugal neurons in Neognathae. We conclude that the Tinamou's IOC participates in a comparable general IOC-retina-TeO-IOC circuitry as the neognathous ION. However, the connections between the components are structurally different and their divergent character suggests a lower spatial resolution. Our findings call for further comparative studies in a broad range of species for advancing our understanding of the evolution, plasticity and functional roles of the avian centrifugal visual system.

Developmental Dysfunction of VIP Interneurons Impairs Cortical Circuits.

  • Batista-Brito R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

GABAergic interneurons play important roles in cortical circuit development. However, there are multiple populations of interneurons and their respective developmental contributions remain poorly explored. Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its interneuron-specific receptor ERBB4 are critical genes for interneuron maturation. Using a conditional ErbB4 deletion, we tested the role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing interneurons in the postnatal maturation of cortical circuits in vivo. ErbB4 removal from VIP interneurons during development leads to changes in their activity, along with severe dysregulation of cortical temporal organization and state dependence. These alterations emerge during adolescence, and mature animals in which VIP interneurons lack ErbB4 exhibit reduced cortical responses to sensory stimuli and impaired sensory learning. Our data support a key role for VIP interneurons in cortical circuit development and suggest a possible contribution to pathophysiology in neurodevelopmental disorders. These findings provide a new perspective on the role of GABAergic interneuron diversity in cortical development. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022951()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH102365()

Input-Timing-Dependent Plasticity in the Hippocampal CA2 Region and Its Potential Role in Social Memory.

  • Leroy F
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Input-timing-dependent plasticity (ITDP) is a circuit-based synaptic learning rule by which paired activation of entorhinal cortical (EC) and Schaffer collateral (SC) inputs to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons (PNs) produces a long-term enhancement of SC excitation. We now find that paired stimulation of EC and SC inputs also induces ITDP of SC excitation of CA2 PNs. However, whereas CA1 ITDP results from long-term depression of feedforward inhibition (iLTD) as a result of activation of CB1 endocannabinoid receptors on cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons, CA2 ITDP results from iLTD through activation of δ-opioid receptors on parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. Furthermore, whereas CA1 ITDP has been previously linked to enhanced specificity of contextual memory, we find that CA2 ITDP is associated with enhanced social memory. Thus, ITDP may provide a general synaptic learning rule for distinct forms of hippocampal-dependent memory mediated by distinct hippocampal regions.

Activity-Dependent Gating of Parvalbumin Interneuron Function by the Perineuronal Net Protein Brevican.

  • Favuzzi E
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Activity-dependent neuronal plasticity is a fundamental mechanism through which the nervous system adapts to sensory experience. Several lines of evidence suggest that parvalbumin (PV+) interneurons are essential in this process, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the influence of experience on interneuron plasticity remain poorly understood. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) enwrapping PV+ cells are long-standing candidates for playing such a role, yet their precise contribution has remained elusive. We show that the PNN protein Brevican is a critical regulator of interneuron plasticity. We find that Brevican simultaneously controls cellular and synaptic forms of plasticity in PV+ cells by regulating the localization of potassium channels and AMPA receptors, respectively. By modulating Brevican levels, experience introduces precise molecular and cellular modifications in PV+ cells that are required for learning and memory. These findings uncover a molecular program through which a PNN protein facilitates appropriate behavioral responses to experience by dynamically gating PV+ interneuron function.

Perineuronal Nets in the Adult Sensory Cortex Are Necessary for Fear Learning.

  • Banerjee SB
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lattice-like structures known as perineuronal nets (PNNs) are key components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Once fully crystallized by adulthood, they are largely stable throughout life. Contrary to previous reports that PNNs inhibit processes involving plasticity, here we report that the dynamic regulation of PNN expression in the adult auditory cortex is vital for fear learning and consolidation in response to pure tones. Specifically, after first confirming the necessity of auditory cortical activity for fear learning and consolidation, we observed that mRNA levels of key proteoglycan components of PNNs were enhanced 4 hr after fear conditioning but were no longer different from the control groups 24 hr later. A similar pattern of regulation was observed in numbers of cells surrounded by PNNs and area occupied by them in the auditory cortex. Finally, the removal of auditory cortex PNNs resulted in a deficit in fear learning and consolidation.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC008343()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH096764()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH108665()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R21 MH102191()

Distinct Ventral Pallidal Neural Populations Mediate Separate Symptoms of Depression.

  • Knowland D
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jul 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients display a common but often variable set of symptoms making successful, sustained treatment difficult to achieve. Separate depressive symptoms may be encoded by differential changes in distinct circuits in the brain, yet how discrete circuits underlie behavioral subsets of depression and how they adapt in response to stress has not been addressed. We identify two discrete circuits of parvalbumin-positive (PV) neurons in the ventral pallidum (VP) projecting to either the lateral habenula or ventral tegmental area contributing to depression. We find that these populations undergo different electrophysiological adaptations in response to social defeat stress, which are normalized by antidepressant treatment. Furthermore, manipulation of each population mediates either social withdrawal or behavioral despair, but not both. We propose that distinct components of the VP PV circuit can subserve related, yet separate depressive-like phenotypes in mice, which could ultimately provide a platform for symptom-specific treatments of depression.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH107742()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH108594()

Ultrastructural analysis of parvalbumin synapses in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  • Glausier JR
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Coordinated activity of neural circuitry in the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) supports a range of cognitive functions. Altered DLPFC activation is implicated in a number of human psychiatric and neurological illnesses. Proper DLPFC activity is, in part, maintained by two populations of neurons containing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV): local inhibitory interneurons that form Type II synapses, and long-range glutamatergic inputs from the thalamus that form Type I synapses. Understanding the contributions of each PV neuronal population to human DLPFC function requires a detailed examination of their anatomical properties. Consequently, we performed an electron microscopic analysis of (1) the distribution of PV immunoreactivity within the neuropil, (2) the properties of dendritic shafts of PV-IR interneurons, (3) Type II PV-IR synapses from PV interneurons, and (4) Type I PV-IR synapses from long-range projections, within the superficial and middle laminar zones of the human DLPFC. In both laminar zones, Type II PV-IR synapses from interneurons comprised ∼60% of all PV-IR synapses, and Type I PV-IR synapses from putative thalamocortical terminals comprised the remaining ∼40% of PV-IR synapses. Thus, the present study suggests that innervation from PV-containing thalamic nuclei extends across superficial and middle layers of the human DLPFC. These findings contrast with previous ultrastructural studies in monkey DLPFC where Type I PV-IR synapses were not identified in the superficial laminar zone. The presumptive added modulation of DLPFC circuitry by the thalamus in human may contribute to species-specific, higher-order functions.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR019003()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - K01 MH107735()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH043784()

The related neuronal endosomal proteins NEEP21 (Nsg1) and P19 (Nsg2) have divergent expression profiles in vivo.

  • Barford K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Endosomal maturation and transport constitutes a complex trafficking system present in all cell types. Neurons have adapted their endosomal system to meet their unique and complex needs. These adaptations include repurposing existing proteins to diversify endocytosis and trafficking, as well as preferential expression of certain regulators more highly in neurons than other cell types. These neuronal regulators include the family of Neuron-Specific Gene family members (Nsg), NEEP21 (Nsg1), and P19 (Nsg2). NEEP21/Nsg1 plays a role in the trafficking of multiple receptors, including the cell adhesion molecule L1/NgCAM, the neurotransmitter receptor GluA2, and β-APP. Recently, we showed that NEEP2/Nsg1 and P19/Nsg2 are not expressed in all neuronal cell types in vitro. However, it is not known where and when NEEP21/Nsg1 and P19/Nsg2 are expressed in vivo, and whether both proteins are always coexpressed. Here, we show that NEEP21/Nsg1 and P19/Nsg2 are present in both overlapping and distinct cell populations in the hippocampus, neocortex, and cerebellum during development. NEEP21/Nsg1 and P19/Nsg2 levels are highest during embryonic development, and expression persists in the juvenile mouse brain. In particular, a subset of layer V cortical neurons retains relatively high expression of both NEEP21/Nsg1 and P19/Nsg2 at postnatal day 16 as well as in the CA1-3 regions of the hippocampus. In the cerebellum, NEEP21/Nsg1 expression becomes largely restricted to Purkinje neurons in adulthood whereas P19/Nsg2 expression strikingly disappears from the cerebellum with age. This divergent and restricted expression likely reflects differential needs for this class of trafficking regulators in different neurons during different stages of maturation.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS076640()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083378()

An inhibitory gate for state transition in cortex.

  • Zucca S
  • Elife
  • 2017 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Large scale transitions between active (up) and silent (down) states during quiet wakefulness or NREM sleep regulate fundamental cortical functions and are known to involve both excitatory and inhibitory cells. However, if and how inhibition regulates these activity transitions is unclear. Using fluorescence-targeted electrophysiological recording and cell-specific optogenetic manipulation in both anesthetized and non-anesthetized mice, we found that two major classes of interneurons, the parvalbumin and the somatostatin positive cells, tightly control both up-to-down and down-to-up state transitions. Inhibitory regulation of state transition was observed under both natural and optogenetically-evoked conditions. Moreover, perturbative optogenetic experiments revealed that the inhibitory control of state transition was interneuron-type specific. Finally, local manipulation of small ensembles of interneurons affected cortical populations millimetres away from the modulated region. Together, these results demonstrate that inhibition potently gates transitions between cortical activity states, and reveal the cellular mechanisms by which local inhibitory microcircuits regulate state transitions at the mesoscale.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U01 NS090576()

An exercise in brain genoarchitectonics: Analysis of AZIN2-Lacz expressing neuronal populations in the mouse hindbrain.

  • Martinez-de-la-Torre M
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

We examined in detail the distribution of AZIN2 (antizyme inhibitor 2) expression in the adult mouse hindbrain and neighboring spinal cord. AZIN2, similar to previously known AZIN1, is a recently-discovered, a functional paralog of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Due to their structural similarity to ODC, both AZIN1 and AZIN2 counteract the inhibitory action of 3 known antizymes (AZ1-3) on the ODC synthesis of polyamines, thus increasing intracytoplasmic levels of polyamines. AZIN2 is strongly, but heterogeneously, expressed in the brain. Our study uses a mouse line carrying an AZIN2-LacZ construct, and, in our topographic analysis of AZIN2-positive structures, we intend to share new knowledge about the rhombomeric segmentation of the hindbrain (a function of Hox paralogs and other genes). The observed labeled cell populations predominantly coincide with known cholinergic and glutamatergic cells, but occasionally also correspond to GABAergic, and possibly glycinergic cells. Some imperfectly known hindbrain populations stood out in unprecedented detail, and some axonal tracts were also differentially stained. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Molecular heterogeneity of aggrecan-based perineuronal nets around five subclasses of parvalbumin-expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus.

  • Yamada J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Subsets of GABAergic neurons are surrounded by perineuronal nets (PNNs), which play a critical role in the regulation of neural plasticity and neuroprotection. Although the plant lectin Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) has been commonly used to label PNNs, WFA only detects N-acetyl-d-galactosamine on aggrecan, a member of the lectican family. In this study, we used WFA and the antibody against the core protein of aggrecan (ACAN) to investigate the molecular heterogeneity of aggrecan-based PNNs around five subclasses of parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the mouse hippocampus. The vast majority of ACAN+ PNNs were colocalized with WFA in the stratum pyramidale, whereas a substantial population of ACAN+ PNNs lacked WFA labeling in the stratum oriens. We then defined the subclasses of PV+ neurons based on their cellular locations, molecular expression, and septal projection. Like the WFA+ PNNs, ACAN+ PNNs surrounded PV+ basket cells and bistratified cells but not axo-axonic cells. Unlike the WFA+ PNNs, ACAN+ PNNs frequently surrounded PV+ oriens-lacunosum moleculare cells and hippocampo-septal cells. Interestingly, the relative densities of GABAergic synapses were higher around PV+ neurons with ACAN+ PNNs than around those without ACAN+ PNNs. Degradation of WFA+ PNNs by chondroitinase ABC did not affect the GABAergic synaptic densities around PV+ neurons. Our findings suggest that the molecular composition of aggrecan-based PNNs around PV+ neurons may differ in a subclass-specific manner, and also might help determine the functional involvement of PNNs in the regulation of GABAergic synapses around PV+ neurons in the hippocampus. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1234-1249, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U54 HG003067(United States)

Cortical hierarchy governs rat claustrocortical circuit organization.

  • White MG
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The claustrum is a telencephalic gray matter structure with various proposed functions, including sensory integration and attentional allocation. Underlying these concepts is the reciprocal connectivity of the claustrum with most, if not all, areas of the cortex. What remains to be elucidated to inform functional hypotheses further is whether a pattern exists in the strength of connectivity between a given cortical area and the claustrum. To this end, we performed a series of retrograde neuronal tract tracer injections into rat cortical areas along the cortical processing hierarchy, from primary sensory and motor to frontal cortices. We observed that the number of claustrocortical projections increased as a function of processing hierarchy; claustrum neurons projecting to primary sensory cortices were scant and restricted in distribution across the claustrum, whereas neurons projecting to the cingulate cortex were densely packed and more evenly distributed throughout the claustrum. This connectivity pattern suggests that the claustrum may preferentially subserve executive functions orchestrated by the cingulate cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1347-1362, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG009975(United States)

NPTX2 and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease.

  • Xiao MF
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Memory loss in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is attributed to pervasive weakening and loss of synapses. Here, we present findings supporting a special role for excitatory synapses connecting pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex with fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) interneurons that control network excitability and rhythmicity. Excitatory synapses on PV interneurons are dependent on the AMPA receptor subunit GluA4, which is regulated by presynaptic expression of the synaptogenic immediate early gene NPTX2 by pyramidal neurons. In a mouse model of AD amyloidosis, Nptx2-/- results in reduced GluA4 expression, disrupted rhythmicity, and increased pyramidal neuron excitability. Postmortem human AD cortex shows profound reductions of NPTX2 and coordinate reductions of GluA4. NPTX2 in human CSF is reduced in subjects with AD and shows robust correlations with cognitive performance and hippocampal volume. These findings implicate failure of adaptive control of pyramidal neuron-PV circuits as a pathophysiological mechanism contributing to cognitive failure in AD.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG005131()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG005146()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50 MH100024()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R35 NS097966()

Intrastriatally Infused Exogenous CDNF Is Endocytosed and Retrogradely Transported to Substantia Nigra.

  • Mätlik K
  • eNeuro
  • 2017 Mar 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) protects the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons in rodent models of Parkinson's disease and restores DA circuitry when delivered after these neurons have begun to degenerate. These DA neurons have been suggested to transport striatal CDNF retrogradely to the substantia nigra (SN). However, in cultured cells the binding and internalization of extracellular CDNF has not been reported. The first aim of this study was to examine the cellular localization and pharmacokinetic properties of recombinant human CDNF (rhCDNF) protein after its infusion into rat brain parenchyma. Second, we aimed to study whether the transport of rhCDNF from the striatum to the SN results from its retrograde transport via DA neurons or from its anterograde transport via striatal GABAergic projection neurons. We show that after intrastriatal infusion, rhCDNF diffuses rapidly and broadly, and is cleared with a half-life of 5.5 h. Confocal microscopy analysis of brain sections at 2 and 6 h after infusion of rhCDNF revealed its widespread unspecific internalization by cortical and striatal neurons, exhibiting different patterns of subcellular rhCDNF distribution. Electron microscopy analysis showed that rhCDNF is present inside the endosomes and multivesicular bodies. In addition, we present data that after intrastriatal infusion the rhCDNF found in the SN is almost exclusively localized to the DA neurons, thus showing that it is retrogradely transported.

Anatomical characterization of subcortical descending projections to the inferior colliculus in mouse.

  • Patel MB
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Descending projections from the thalamus and related structures to the midbrain are evolutionarily highly conserved. However, the basic organization of this auditory thalamotectal pathway has not yet been characterized. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the anatomical and neurochemical features of this pathway. Analysis of the distributions of retrogradely labeled cells after focal injections of retrograde tracer into the inferior colliculus (IC) of the mouse revealed that most of the subcortical descending projections originated in the brachium of the IC and the paralaminar portions of the auditory thalamus. In addition, the vast majority of thalamotectal cells were found to be negative for the calcium-binding proteins calbindin, parvalbumin, or calretinin. Using two different strains of GAD-GFP mice, as well as immunostaining for GABA, we found that a subset of neurons in the brachium of the IC is GABAergic, suggesting that part of this descending pathway is inhibitory. Finally, dual retrograde injections into the IC and amygdala plus corpus striatum as well into the IC and auditory cortex did not reveal any double labeling. These data suggest that the thalamocollicular pathway comprises a unique population of thalamic neurons that do not contain typical calcium-binding proteins and do not project to other paralaminar thalamic forebrain targets, and that a previously undescribed descending GABAergic pathway emanates from the brachium of the IC. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:885-900, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Selective plasticity of hippocampal GABAergic interneuron populations following kindling of different brain regions.

  • Botterill JJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The vulnerability and plasticity of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons is a topic of broad interest and debate in the field of epilepsy. In this experiment, we used the electrical kindling model of epilepsy to determine whether seizures that originate in different brain regions have differential effects on hippocampal interneuron subpopulations. Long-Evans rats received 99 electrical stimulations of the hippocampus, amygdala, or caudate nucleus, followed by sacrifice and immunohistochemical or western blot analyses. We analyzed markers of dendritic (somatostatin), perisomatic (parvalbumin), and interneuron-selective (calretinin) inhibition, as well as an overall indicator (GAD67) of interneuron distribution across all major hippocampal subfields. Our results indicate that kindling produces selective effects on the number and morphology of different functional classes of GABAergic interneurons. In particular, limbic kindling appears to enhance dendritic inhibition, indicated by a greater number of somatostatin-immunoreactive (-ir) cells in the CA1 pyramidal layer and robust morphological sprouting in the dentate gyrus. We also found a reduction in the number of interneuron-selective calretinin-ir cells in the dentate gyrus of hippocampal-kindled rats, which suggests a possible reduction of synchronized dendritic inhibition. In contrast, perisomatic inhibition indicated by parvalbumin immunoreactivity appears to be largely resilient to the effects of kindling. Finally, we found a significant induction in the number of GAD67-cells in caudate-kindled rats in the dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampal subfields. Taken together, our results demonstrate that kindling has subfield-selective effects on the different functional classes of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:389-406, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

A Thalamo-Hypothalamic Pathway That Activates Oxytocin Neurons in Social Contexts in Female Rats.

  • Cservenák M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oxytocin is released from neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) in mothers upon suckling and during adult social interactions. However, neuronal pathways that activate oxytocin neurons in social contexts are not yet established. Neurons in the posterior intralaminar complex of the thalamus (PIL), which contain tuberoinfundibular peptide 39 (TIP39) and are activated by pup exposure in lactating mothers, provide a candidate projection. Innervation of oxytocin neurons by TIP39 neurons was examined by double labeling in combination with electron microscopy and retrograde tract-tracing. Potential classic neurotransmitters in TIP39 neurons were investigated by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Neurons activated after encounter with a familiar conspecific female in a familiar environment were mapped with the c-Fos technique. PVN and the supraoptic nucleus oxytocin neurons were closely apposed by an average of 2.0 and 0.4 TIP39 terminals, respectively. Asymmetric (presumed excitatory) synapses were found between TIP39 terminals and cell bodies of oxytocin neurons. In lactating rats, PIL TIP39 neurons were retrogradely labeled from the PVN. TIP39 neurons expressed vesicular glutamate transporter 2 but not glutamic acid decarboxylase 67. PIL contained a markedly increased number of c-Fos-positive neurons in response to social encounter with a familiar conspecific female. Furthermore, the PIL received ascending input from the spinal cord and the inferior colliculus. Thus, TIP39 neurons in the PIL may receive sensory input in response to social interactions and project to the PVN to innervate and excite oxytocin neurons, suggesting that the PIL-PVN projection contributes to the activation of oxytocin neurons in social contexts.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01-CA78266(United States)

The evolution of whisker-mediated somatosensation in mammals: Sensory processing in barrelless S1 cortex of a marsupial, Monodelphis domestica.

  • Ramamurthy DL
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Movable tactile sensors in the form of whiskers are present in most mammals, but sensory coding in the cortical whisker representation has been studied almost exclusively in mice and rats. Many species that possess whiskers lack the modular "barrel" organization found in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) of mice and rats, but it is unclear how whisker-related input is represented in these species. We used single-unit extracellular recording techniques to characterize receptive fields and response properties in S1 of Monodelphis domestica (short-tailed opossum), a nocturnal, terrestrial marsupial that shared its last common ancestor with placental mammals over 160 million years ago. Short-tailed opossums lack barrels and septa in S1 but show active whisking behavior similar to that of mice and rats. Most neurons in short-tailed opossum S1 exhibited multiwhisker receptive fields, including a single best whisker (BW) and lower magnitude responses to the deflection of surrounding whiskers. Mean tuning width was similar to that reported for mice and rats. Both symmetrical and asymmetrical receptive fields were present. Neurons tuned to ventral whiskers tended to show broad tuning along the rostrocaudal axis. Thus, despite the absence of barrels, most receptive field properties were similar to those reported for mice and rats. However, unlike those species, S1 neuronal responses to BW and surround whisker deflection showed comparable latencies in short-tailed opossums. This dissimilarity suggests that some aspects of barrel cortex function may not generalize to tactile processing across mammalian species and may be related to differences in the architecture of the whisker-to-cortex pathway. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3587-3613, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Posterior parietal cortex of the rat: Architectural delineation and thalamic differentiation.

  • Olsen GM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

This study refines the characterization of the rat parietal cortical domain in terms of cyto- and chemoarchitecture as well as thalamic connectivity. We recognize three subdivisions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), which are architectonically distinct from the neighboring somatosensory and visual cortices. Furthermore, we show that the different parietal areas are differently connected with thalamic nuclei. The medial portion of PPC (mPPC) is connected primarily with the medial portion of the lateral posterior nucleus (LP), whereas the lateral portion (lPPC) connects with the posterior complex (Po). The more caudolateral part of PPC (PtP) also projects to Po but can be distinguished from lPPC based on architectonic criteria. The primary somatic and visual cortices, neighboring PPC, are preferentially connected with the primary ventral posterior and dorsolateral geniculate nuclei, respectively, and less with the associational Po and LP. Particularly the border between the secondary visual cortex and the PPC has been a matter of controversy, but here we show that, although PPC subareas are connected with Po and medial LP, the medial and lateral secondary visual cortices are connected with lateral LP and a portion of medial LP different from that connected with PPC. The resulting delineations and specifications of connectivity with thalamic nuclei together with upcoming studies of cortical connectivity will facilitate detailed studies on the role of the subdivisions of PPC in the rat as diverse, higher order associative cortical areas, comparable to those described in the primate.for J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3774-3809, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL062571(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH084812(United States)

Developmental and adult expression patterns of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR88 in the rat: Establishment of a dual nuclear-cytoplasmic localization.

  • Massart R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

GPR88 is a neuronal cerebral orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been linked to various psychiatric disorders. However, no extensive description of its localization has been provided so far. Here, we investigate the spatiotemporal expression of the GPR88 in prenatal and postnatal rat tissues by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. GPR88 protein was initially detected at embryonic day 16 (E16) in the striatal primordium. From E16-E20 to adulthood, the highest expression levels of both protein and mRNA were observed in striatum, olfactory tubercle, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and neocortex, whereas in spinal cord, pons, and medulla GPR88 expression remains discrete. We observed an intracellular redistribution of GPR88 during cortical lamination. In the cortical plate of the developing cortex, GPR88 presents a classical GPCR plasma membrane/cytoplasmic localization that shifts, on the day of birth, to nuclei of neurons progressively settling in layers V to II. This intranuclear localization remains throughout adulthood and was also detected in monkey and human cortex as well as in the amygdala and hypothalamus of rats. Apart from the central nervous system, GPR88 was transiently expressed at high levels in peripheral tissues, including adrenal cortex (E16-E21) and cochlear ganglia (E19-P3), and also at moderate levels in retina (E18-E19) and spleen (E21-P7). The description of the GPR88 anatomical expression pattern may provide precious functional insights into this novel receptor. Furthermore, the GRP88 nuclear localization suggests nonclassical GPCR modes of action of the protein that could be relevant for cortical development and psychiatric disorders. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2776-2802, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

A GABAergic tecto-tegmento-tectal pathway in pigeons.

  • Stacho M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Previous studies have demonstrated that the optic tecta of the left and right brain halves reciprocally inhibit each other in birds. In mammals, the superior colliculus receives inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic input from the basal ganglia via both the ipsilateral and the contralateral substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). This contralateral SNr projection is important in intertectal inhibition. Because the basal ganglia are evolutionarily conserved, the tectal projections of the SNr may show a similar pattern in birds. Therefore, the SNr could be a relay station in an indirect tecto-tectal pathway constituting the neuronal substrate for the tecto-tectal inhibition. To test this hypothesis, we performed bilateral anterograde and retrograde tectal tracing combined with GABA immunohistochemistry in pigeons. Suprisingly, the SNr has only ipsilateral projections to the optic tectum, and these are non-GABAergic. Inhibitory GABAergic input to the contralateral optic tectum arises instead from a nearby tegmental region that receives input from the ipsilateral optic tectum. Thus, a disynaptic pathway exists that possibly constitutes the anatomical substrate for the inhibitory tecto-tectal interaction. This pathway likely plays an important role in attentional switches between the laterally placed eyes of birds. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2886-2913, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS072202(United States)

Strategies and Tools for Combinatorial Targeting of GABAergic Neurons in Mouse Cerebral Cortex.

  • He M
  • Neuron
  • 2016 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Systematic genetic access to GABAergic cell types will facilitate studying the function and development of inhibitory circuitry. However, single gene-driven recombinase lines mark relatively broad and heterogeneous cell populations. Although intersectional approaches improve precision, it remains unclear whether they can capture cell types defined by multiple features. Here we demonstrate that combinatorial genetic and viral approaches target restricted GABAergic subpopulations and cell types characterized by distinct laminar location, morphology, axonal projection, and electrophysiological properties. Intersectional embryonic transcription factor drivers allow finer fate mapping of progenitor pools that give rise to distinct GABAergic populations, including laminar cohorts. Conversion of progenitor fate restriction signals to constitutive recombinase expression enables viral targeting of cell types based on their lineage and birth time. Properly designed intersection, subtraction, conversion, and multi-color reporters enhance the precision and versatility of drivers and viral vectors. These strategies and tools will facilitate studying GABAergic neurons throughout the mouse brain.

Development of early-born γ-Aminobutyric acid hub neurons in mouse hippocampus from embryogenesis to adulthood.

  • Villette V
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Early-born γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons (EBGNs) are major components of the hippocampal circuit because at early postnatal stages they form a subpopulation of "hub cells" transiently supporting CA3 network synchronization (Picardo et al. [2011] Neuron 71:695-709). It is therefore essential to determine when these cells acquire the remarkable morphofunctional attributes supporting their network function and whether they develop into a specific subtype of interneuron into adulthood. Inducible genetic fate mapping conveniently allows for the labeling of EBGNs throughout their life. EBGNs were first analyzed during the perinatal week. We observed that EBGNs acquired mature characteristics at the time when the first synapse-driven synchronous activities appeared in the form of giant depolarizing potentials. The fate of EBGNs was next analyzed in the adult hippocampus by using anatomical characterization. Adult EBGNs included a significant proportion of cells projecting selectively to the septum; in turn, EBGNs were targeted by septal and entorhinal inputs. In addition, most EBGNs were strongly targeted by cholinergic and monoaminergic terminals, suggesting significant subcortical innervation. Finally, we found that some EBGNs located in the septum or the entorhinal cortex also displayed a long-range projection that we traced to the hippocampus. Therefore, this study shows that the maturation of the morphophysiological properties of EBGNs mirrors the evolution of early network dynamics, suggesting that both phenomena may be causally linked. We propose that a subpopulation of EBGNs forms into adulthood a scaffold of GABAergic projection neurons linking the hippocampus to distant structures. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2440-2461, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - F31 CA189437(United States)

Cell adhesion molecule contactin-associated protein 3 is expressed in the mouse basal ganglia during early postnatal stages.

  • Hirata H
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2016 Jan 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cell adhesion molecules play important roles in the development of the nervous system. Among the contactin-associated protein (Caspr; also known as Cntnap) family, which belongs to the neurexin superfamily of proteins, Caspr and Caspr2 are indispensable for the formation and maintenance of myelinated nerves. In contrast, a physiological role for Caspr3 remains to be elucidated. This study examines the expression and localization of Caspr3 in the mouse brain using newly generated Caspr3 antibodies. Caspr3 was expressed abundantly between the first and the second postnatal weeks. During this period, Caspr3 was localized especially to the basal ganglia, including the striatum, external segment of the globus pallidus, and substantia nigra, and no gross abnormalities were apparent in the basal ganglia of Caspr3 knockout mice. In the striatum, Caspr3 was expressed by a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons that constitute the direct and indirect pathways. Caspr3 immunostaining was observed as punctate around the cell bodies as well as in the soma. These Caspr3 signals did not, however, overlap with those of synaptic markers. Our findings suggest that Caspr3 may play an important role in basal ganglia development during early postnatal stages.

The Role of Sonic Hedgehog in the Specification of Human Cortical Progenitors In Vitro.

  • Radonjić NV
  • Cereb. Cortex
  • 2016 Jan 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Impaired sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is involved in the pathology of cortical formation found in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, its role in the specification of human cortical progenitors is not known. Here, we report that Shh is expressed in the human developing cortex at mid-gestation by radial glia cells (RGCs) and cortical neurons. We used RGC cultures, established from the dorsal (cortical) telencephalon of human brain at mid-gestation to study the effect of Shh signaling. Cortical RGCs in vitro maintained their regional characteristics, expressed components of Shh signaling, and differentiated into Nkx2.1, Lhx6, and calretinin-positive (CalR(+)) cells, potential cortical interneuron progenitors. Treatment with exogenous Shh increased the pool of Nkx2.1(+) progenitors, decreased Lhx6 expression, and suppressed the generation of CalR(+) cells. The blockade of endogenous Shh signaling increased the number of CalR(+) cells, but did not affect Nkx2.1 expression, implying the existence of parallel Shh-independent pathways for cortical Nkx2.1 regulation. These results support the idea that, during human brain development, Shh plays an important role in the specification of cortical progenitors. Since direct functional studies in humans are limited, the in vitro system that we established here could be of great interest for modeling the development of human cortical progenitors.

Sources of input to the rostromedial tegmental nucleus, ventral tegmental area, and lateral habenula compared: A study in rat.

  • Yetnikoff L
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Profound inhibitory control exerted on midbrain dopaminergic neurons by the lateral habenula (LHb), which has mainly excitatory outputs, is mediated by the GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which strongly innervates dopaminergic neurons in the ventral midbrain. Early reports indicated that the afferent connections of the RMTg, excepting its very strong LHb inputs, do not differ appreciably from those of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Presumably, however, the RMTg contributes more to behavioral synthesis than to simply invert the valence of the excitatory signal coming from the LHb. Therefore, the present study was done to directly compare the inputs to the RMTg and VTA and, in deference to its substantial involvement with this circuitry, the LHb was also included in the comparison. Data indicated that, while the afferents of the RMTg, VTA, and LHb do originate within the same large pool of central nervous system (CNS) structures, each is also related to structures that project more strongly to it than to the others. The VTA gets robust input from ventral striatopallidum and extended amygdala, whereas RMTg biased inputs arise in structures with a more direct impact on motor function, such as deep layers of the contralateral superior colliculus, deep cerebellar and several brainstem nuclei, and, via a relay in the LHb, the entopeduncular nucleus. Input from the ventral pallidal-lateral preoptic-lateral hypothalamus continuum is strong in the RMTg and VTA and dominant in the LHb. Axon collateralization was also investigated, providing additional insights into the organization of the circuitry of this important triad of structures.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - 6027(Canada)

Increased anxiety-like behavior and selective learning impairments are concomitant to loss of hippocampal interneurons in the presymptomatic SOD1(G93A) ALS mouse model.

  • Quarta E
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by motor neuron death, causes damages beyond motor-related areas. In particular, cognitive impairments and hippocampal damage have been reported in ALS patients. We investigated spatial navigation learning and hippocampal interneurons in a mutant SOD1(G93A) mouse (mSOD1) model of ALS. Behavioral tests were performed by using presymptomatic mSOD1 mice. General motor activity was comparable to that of wild-type mice in the open-field test, in which, however mSOD1 exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior. In the Barnes maze test, mSOD1 mice displayed a delay in learning, outperformed wild-type mice during the first probe trial, and exhibited impaired long-term memory. Stereological counts of parvalbumin-positive interneurons, which are crucial for hippocampal physiology and known to be altered in other central nervous system regions of mSOD1 mice, were also performed. At postnatal day (P) 56, the population of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in mSOD1 mice was already reduced in CA1 and in CA3, and at P90 the reduction extended to the dentate gyrus. Loss of parvalbumin-positive hippocampal interneurons occurred mostly during the presymptomatic stage. Western blot analysis showed that hippocampal parvalbumin expression levels were already reduced in mSOD1 mice at P56. The hippocampal alterations in mSOD1 mice could at least partly account for the increased anxiety-like behavior and deficits in spatial navigation learning. Our study provides evidence for cognitive alterations and damage to the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system in the hippocampus of murine ALS, thereby revealing selective deficits antecedent to the onset of motor symptoms.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH094714(United States)

In vivo clonal overexpression of neuroligin 3 and neuroligin 2 in neurons of the rat cerebral cortex: Differential effects on GABAergic synapses and neuronal migration.

  • Fekete CD
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

We studied the effect of clonal overexpression of neuroligin 3 (NL3) or neuroligin 2 (NL2) in the adult rat cerebral cortex following in utero electroporation (IUEP) at embryonic stage E14. Overexpression of NL3 leads to a large increase in vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (vGAT) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 in the GABAergic contacts that the overexpressing neurons receive. Overexpression of NL2 produced a similar effect but to a lesser extent. In contrast, overexpression of NL3 or NL2 after IUEP does not affect vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (vGlut1) in the glutamatergic contacts that the NL3 or NL2-overexpressing neurons receive. The NL3 or NL2-overexpressing neurons do not show increased innervation by parvalbumin-containing GABAergic terminals or increased parvalbumin in the same terminals that show increased vGAT. These results indicate that the observed increase in vGAT and GAD65 is not due to increased GABAergic innervation but to increased expression of vGAT and GAD65 in the GABAergic contacts that NL3 or NL2-overexpressing neurons receive. The majority of bright vGAT puncta contacting the NL3-overexpressing neurons have no gephyrin juxtaposed to them, indicating that many of these contacts are nonsynaptic. This contrasts with the majority of the NL2-overexpressing neurons, which show plenty of synaptic gephyrin clusters juxtaposed to vGAT. Besides having an effect on GABAergic contacts, overexpression of NL3 interferes with the neuronal radial migration, in the cerebral cortex, of the neurons overexpressing NL3.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R21 MH083614(United States)

Immunofluorescent visualization of mouse interneuron subtypes.

  • Molgaard S
  • F1000Res
  • 2014 Dec 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

The activity of excitatory neurons is controlled by a highly diverse population of inhibitory interneurons. These cells show a high level of physiological, morphological and neurochemical heterogeneity, and play highly specific roles in neuronal circuits. In the mammalian hippocampus, these are divided into 21 different subtypes of GABAergic interneurons based on their expression of different markers, morphology and their electrophysiological properties. Ideally, all can be marked using an antibody directed against the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, but parvalbumin, calbindin, somatostatin, and calretinin are also commonly used as markers to narrow down the specific interneuron subtype. Here, we describe a journey to find the necessary immunological reagents for studying GABAergic interneurons of the mouse hippocampus. Based on web searches there are several hundreds of different antibodies on the market directed against these four markers. Searches in the literature databases allowed us to narrow it down to a subset of antibodies most commonly used in publications. However, in our hands the most cited ones did not work for immunofluorescence stainings of formaldehyde fixed tissue sections and cultured hippocampal neurons, and we had to immunostain our way through thirteen different commercial antibodies before finally finding a suitable antibody for each of the four markers. The antibodies were evaluated based on signal-to-noise ratios as well as if positive cells were found in layers of the hippocampus where they have previously been described. Additionally, the antibodies were also tested on sections from mouse spinal cord with similar criteria for specificity of the antibodies. Using the antibodies with a high rating on pAbmAbs, an antibody review database, stainings with high signal-to-noise ratios and location of the immunostained cells in accordance with the literature could be obtained, making these antibodies suitable choices for studying the GABAergic system.

Regional and age-related differences in GAD67 expression of parvalbumin- and calbindin-expressing neurons in the rhesus macaque auditory midbrain and brainstem.

  • Gray DT
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurons expressing the calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin (CB) have shown age-related density changes throughout the ascending auditory system of both rodents and macaque monkeys. In the cerebral cortex, neurons expressing these CaBPs express markers of γ-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission, such as GAD67, and have well-understood physiological response properties. Recent evidence suggests that, in the rodent auditory brainstem, CaBP-containing cells do not express GAD67. It is unknown whether PV- and CB-containing cells in subcortical auditory structures of macaques similarly do not express GAD67, and a better understanding of the neurotransmission of neurons expressing these proteins is necessary for understanding the age-related changes in their density throughout the macaque auditory system. This was investigated with immunofluorescent double-labeling techniques to coregister PV- and CB-expressing neurons with GAD67 in the superior olivary complex and the inferior colliculus of young and aged rhesus macaques. The proportions of GAD67-expressing PV- and CB-positive neurons were computed with unbiased sampling techniques. Our results indicate that between 42% and 62% of PV- and CB-positive neurons in the auditory brainstem and midbrain express GAD67, which is significantly less than in the cerebrum. In general, fewer PV(+) neurons and more CB(+) neurons expressed GAD67 as a function of age. These results demonstrate that the inhibitory molecular profile of PV- and CB-expressing neurons can change with age in subcortical auditory structures and that these neurons are distinct from the well-described inhibitory interneurons that express these proteins in the cerebral cortex.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM08464(United States)

Large basolateral processes on type II hair cells are novel processing units in mammalian vestibular organs.

  • Pujol R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sensory receptors in the vestibular system (hair cells) encode head movements and drive central motor reflexes that control gaze, body movements, and body orientation. In mammals, type I and II vestibular hair cells are defined by their shape, contacts with vestibular afferent nerves, and membrane conductance. Here we describe unique morphological features of type II vestibular hair cells in mature rodents (mice and gerbils) and bats. These features are cytoplasmic processes that extend laterally from the hair cell base and project under type I hair cells. Closer analysis of adult mouse utricles demonstrated that the basolateral processes of type II hair cells vary in shape, size, and branching, with the longest processes extending three to four hair cell widths. The hair cell basolateral processes synapse upon vestibular afferent nerves and receive inputs from vestibular efferent nerves. Furthermore, some basolateral processes make physical contacts with the processes of other type II hair cells, forming some sort of network among type II hair cells. Basolateral processes are rare in perinatal mice and do not attain their mature form until 3-6 weeks of age. These observations demonstrate that basolateral processes are significant signaling regions of type II vestibular hair cells and suggest that type II hair cells may directly communicate with each other, which has not been described in vertebrates.

Thalamic input to representations of the teeth, tongue, and face in somatosensory area 3b of macaque monkeys.

  • Cerkevich CM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Representations of the parts of the oral cavity and face in somatosensory area 3b of macaque monkeys were identified with microelectrode recordings and injected with different neuroanatomical tracers to reveal patterns of thalamic projections to tongue, teeth, and other representations in primary somatosensory cortex. The locations of injection sites and resulting labeled neurons were further determined by relating sections processed to reveal tracers to those processed for myeloarchitecture in the cortex and multiple architectural stains in the thalamus. The ventroposterior medial subnucleus (VPM) for touch was identified as separate from the ventroposterior medial parvicellular nucleus (VPMpc) for taste by differential expression of several types of proteins. Our results revealed somatotopically matched projections from VPM to the part of 3b representing intra-oral structures and the face. Retrogradely labeled cells resulting from injections in area 3b were also found in other thalamic nuclei including: anterior pulvinar (Pa), ventroposterior inferior (VPI), ventroposterior superior (VPS), ventroposterior lateral (VPL), ventral lateral (VL), center median (CM), central lateral (CL), and medial dorsal (MD). None of our injections, including those into the representation of the tongue, labeled neurons in VPMpc, the thalamic taste nucleus. Thus, area 3b does not appear to be involved in processing taste information from the thalamus. This result stands in contrast to those reported for New World monkeys.

Spatial resolution of an eye containing a grouped retina: ganglion cell morphology and tectal physiology in the weakly electric fish Gnathonemus petersii.

  • Pusch R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The retina of the weakly electric fish Gnathonemus petersii is a so-called grouped retina where photoreceptors are bundled. These bundles are regarded as functional units and this type of retinal specialization is uniquely found in teleosts. To understand how this anatomical organization influences visual information processing we investigated the morphology and distribution of retinal ganglion cells (GCs) and the response properties of retinal afferents terminating in the major retinorecipient area, the optic tectum. GCs were classified based on their dendritic morphology (dendritic field diameters <90-100 μm: narrow-field GCs; 110-280 μm: widefield GCs; >280 μm: giant GCs). Within these classes subtypes were distinguished based on the ramification patterns of the dendrites in the sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer. Properties of presumed optic nerve terminals were investigated in the optic tectum using extracellular recordings. Physiological classes could be observed based on their response to visual stimuli (on; off; on-off, and fast units). Receptive field sizes and spatiotemporal properties were classified and the topographical representation of the visual space was mapped in the tectum. Gratings of low spatial frequencies were best responded to and followed up to high temporal frequencies (>30 Hz). Most of the recorded units were directionally selective. No evidence of distorted topographies in the tectum was found, i.e., no overrepresentation of the retina was seen in the tectum opticum. The grouped retina of G. petersii seems to be optimized for the detection of large, fast objects in an environment of low optical quality.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - HG00022(United Kingdom)

Mapping kainate activation of inner neurons in the rat retina.

  • Nivison-Smith L
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kainate receptors mediate fast, excitatory synaptic transmission for a range of inner neurons in the mammalian retina. However, allocation of functional kainate receptors to known cell types and their sensitivity remains unresolved. Using the cation channel probe 1-amino-4-guanidobutane agmatine (AGB), we investigated kainate sensitivity of neurochemically identified cell populations within the structurally intact rat retina. Most inner retinal neuron populations responded to kainate in a concentration-dependent manner. OFF cone bipolar cells demonstrated the highest sensitivity of all inner neurons to kainate. Immunocytochemical localization of AGB and macromolecular markers confirmed that type 2 bipolar cells were part of this kainate-sensitive population. The majority of amacrine (ACs) and ganglion cells (GCs) showed kainate responses with different sensitivities between major neurochemical classes (γ-aminobutyric acid [GABA]/glycine ACs > glycine ACs > GABA ACs; glutamate [Glu]/weakly GABA GCs > Glu GCs). Conventional and displaced cholinergic ACs were highly responsive to kainate, whereas dopaminergic ACs do not appear to express functional kainate receptors. These findings further contribute to our understanding of neuronal networks in complex multicellular tissues.

Müller cells express the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in the vervet monkey retina.

  • Bouskila J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The presence of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) has been largely documented in the rodent and primate retinae in recent years. There is, however, some controversy concerning the presence of the CB2 receptor (CB2R) within the central nervous system. Only recently, CB2R has been found in the rodent retina, but its presence in the primate retina has not yet been demonstrated. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to characterize the distribution patterns of CB2R in the monkey retina and compare this distribution with that previously reported for CB1R and 2) to resolve the controversy on the presence of CB2R in the neural component of the retina. We therefore thoroughly examined the cellular localization of CB2R in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus) retina, using confocal microscopy. Our results demonstrate that CB2R, like CB1R, is present throughout the retinal layers, but with striking dissimilarities. Double labeling of CB2R and glutamine synthetase shows that CB2R is restricted to Müller cell processes, extending from the internal limiting membrane, with very low staining, to the external limiting membrane, with heavy labeling. We conclude that CB2R is indeed present in the retina but exclusively in the retinal glia, whereas CB1R is expressed only in the neuroretina. These results extend our knowledge on the expression and distribution of cannabinoid receptors in the monkey retina, although further experiments are still needed to clarify their role in retinal functions.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM081084(United States)

Morphological and neurochemical comparisons between pulvinar and V1 projections to V2.

  • Marion R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The flow of visual information is clear at the earliest stages: the retina provides the driving (main signature) activity for the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), which in turn drives the primary visual cortex (V1). These driving pathways can be distinguished anatomically from other modulatory pathways that innervate LGN and V1. The path of visual information after V1, however, is less clear. There are two primary feedforward projections to the secondary visual cortex (V2), one from the lateral/inferior pulvinar and the other from V1. Because both lateral/inferior pulvinar and V2 cannot be driven visually following V1 removal, either or both of these inputs to V2 could be drivers. Retinogeniculate and geniculocortical projections are privileged over modulatory projections by their layer of termination, their bouton size, and the presence of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2) or parvalbumin (PV). It has been suggested that such properties might also distinguish drivers from modulators in extrastriate cortex. We tested this hypothesis by comparing lateral pulvinar to V2 and V1 to V2 projections with LGN to V1 projections. We found that V1 and lateral pulvinar projections to V2 are similar in that they target the same layers and lack PV. Projections from pulvinar to V2, however, bear a greater similarity to projections from LGN to V1 because of their larger boutons (measured at the same location in V2) and positive staining for Vglut2. These data lend support to the hypothesis that the pulvinar could act as a driver for V2.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS078435(United States)

Altered dendritic distribution of dopamine D2 receptors and reduction in mitochondrial number in parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex of cannabinoid-1 (CB1) receptor knockout mice.

  • Fitzgerald ML
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL) is a brain region integral to complex behaviors that are highly influenced by cannabinoids and by dopamine D2 receptor (D2R)-mediated regulation of fast-firing parvalbumin-containing interneurons. We have recently shown that constitutive deletion of the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) greatly reduces parvalbumin levels in these neurons. The effects of CB1R deletion on PL parvalbumin interneurons may be ascribed to loss of CB1R-mediated retrograde signaling on mesocortical dopamine transmission, and, in turn, altered expression and/or subcellular distribution of D2R in the PL. Furthermore, diminished parvalbumin expression could indicate metabolic changes in fast-firing interneurons that may be reflected in changes in mitochondrial density in this population. We therefore comparatively examined electron microscopic dual labeling of D2R and parvalbumin in CB1 (-/-) and CB1 (+/+) mice to test the hypothesis that absence of CB1R produces changes in D2R localization and mitochondrial distribution in parvalbumin-containing interneurons of the PL. CB1 (-/-) mice had a significantly lower density of cytoplasmic D2R-immunogold particles in medium parvalbumin-labeled dendrites and a concomitant increase in the density of these particles in small dendrites. These dendrites received both excitatory and inhibitory-type synapses from unlabeled terminals and contained many mitochondria, whose numbers were significantly reduced in CB1 (-/-) mice. Non-parvalbumin dendrites showed no between-group differences in either D2R distribution or mitochondrial number. These results suggest that cannabinoid signaling provides an important determinant of dendritic D2 receptor distribution and mitochondrial availability in fast-spiking interneurons.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - (United Kingdom)

Neural cell adhesion molecule ablation in mice causes hippocampal dysplasia and loss of septal cholinergic neurons.

  • Tereshchenko Y
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is implicated in nervous system development and plasticity. In humans, abnormal NCAM expression has been linked to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders accompanied by cognitive dysfunctions. Impaired cognition is also observed in NCAM-deficient (NCAM(-/-) ) mice. Considering the importance of the septal cholinergic nuclei and the hippocampus for cognition, we performed quantitative morphological analyses of these areas in young and adult (2 and 13 months old, respectively) NCAM(-/-) mice and wild-type (NCAM(+/+) ) littermates. In young mice, we found lower numbers of septal cholinergic neurons in NCAM(-/-) than in NCAM(+/+) mice. Despite deficient numbers of neurons, total lengths of cholinergic axons and choline acetyltransferase protein levels in the hippocampus of NCAM(-/-) mice were normal. The hippocampus of NCAM(-/-) mice was atrophic, notably in the CA3 subfield and the dentate gyrus (DG). The atrophy appeared to have different primary causes in the two subfields: loss of pyramidal cells in CA3 and reduced branching and volume of granule cell dendrites in the DG. The frequency of dendritic spines on dentate granule cells in NCAM(-/-) mice was normal. Numbers of parvalbumin-positive (PV(+) ) interneurons were reduced in NCAM(-/-) mice in proportion to subfield volume loss, and the ratios of principal cells to PV(+) interneurons were similar to those of NCAM(+/+) mice. None of the observed abnormalities was exaggerated or alleviated in adult NCAM(-/-) mice. Our observations indicate that NCAM ablation causes structural abnormalities in the hippocampus and the forebrain cholinergic system in adult mice, which may contribute to impaired cognition in NCAM(-/-) mice.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - R01 RR025030-01(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY08120-20S1(United States)

Low-threshold calcium channel subunit Ca(v) 3.3 is specifically localized in GABAergic neurons of rodent thalamus and cerebral cortex.

  • Liu XB
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Relatively little is known about the subcellular localization of low threshold Ca²+ channels (T-channels) in the brain. Using immunocytochemical labeling and preembedding immunoperoxidase and silver-enhanced immunogold electron microscopy, we localized T-channel subunit Ca(v) 3.3 in rodent cerebral cortex and thalamus. Double immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that Ca(v) 3.3-labeled neurons in cerebral cortex are a subgroup of GABAergic interneurons that coexpress calbindin and in half of the cases parvalbumin. In the thalamus, virtually all reticular nucleus (RTN) neurons were immunopositive for Ca(v) 3.3, while neurons in dorsal thalamic nuclei were nonimmunoreactive. At the electron microscopic (EM) level, in cortical layers IV-V and RTN neurons, Ca(v) 3.3 immunoreactivity was mainly associated with membranes of dendrites but with some localization in cytoplasm. None was found in axon terminals. In cortex, ≈73% of immunogold particles were present in close proximity to synaptic contacts (<0.5 μm from the postsynaptic density), while 27% were distributed along membranes at extrasynaptic sites (>0.5 μm from the postsynaptic density). In RTN, ≈57% particles were evenly distributed along perisynaptic membranes and the remaining 43% of particles were diffusely localized at extrasynaptic membranes. The density of particles along the dendritic membranes of cortical neurons was 40% higher than in RTN neurons. These results suggest that Ca(v) 3.3 plays a role in regulating GABAergic neurons whose actions underlie thalamocortical rhythmicity.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U01AI068635-01(United States)

Cell-poor septa separate representations of digits in the ventroposterior nucleus of the thalamus in monkeys and prosimian galagos.

  • Qi HX
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The architectonic features of the ventroposterior nucleus (VP) were visualized in coronal brain sections from two macaque monkeys, two owl monkeys, two squirrel monkeys, and three galagos that were processed for cytochrome oxidase, Nissl bodies, or the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2). The traditional ventroposterior medial (VPM) and ventroposterior lateral (VPL) subnuclei were easily identified, as well as the forelimb and hindlimb compartments of VPL, as they were separated by poorly staining, cell-poor septa. Septa also separated other cell groups within VPM and VPL, specifically in the medial compartment of VPL representing the hand (hand VPL). In one squirrel monkey and one galago we demonstrated that these five groups of cells represent digits 1-5 in a mediolateral sequence by injecting tracers into the cortical representation of single digits, defined by microelectrode recordings, and relating concentrations of labeled neurons to specific cell groups in hand VPL. The results establish the existence of septa that isolate the representation of the five digits in VPL of primates and demonstrate that the isolated cell groups represent digits 1-5 in a mediolateral sequence. The present results show that the septa are especially prominent in brain sections processed for vGluT2, which is expressed in the synaptic terminals of excitatory neurons in most nuclei of the brainstem and thalamus. As vGluT2 is expressed in the synaptic terminations from dorsal columns and trigeminal brainstem nuclei, the effectiveness of vGluT2 preparations in revealing septa in VP likely reflects a lack of synapses using glutamate in the septa.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - U54GM62119(United States)

Architecture of cannabinoid signaling in mouse retina.

  • Hu SS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Sep 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands constitute an endogenous signaling system that is found throughout the body, including the eye. This system can be activated by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a major drug of abuse. Cannabinoids offer considerable therapeutic potential in modulating ocular immune and inflammatory responses and in regulating intraocular pressure. The location of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)) in the retina is known, but recently a constellation of proteins has been identified that produce and break down endocannabinoids (eCBs) and modulate CB(1) function. Localization of these proteins is critical to defining specific cannabinoid signaling circuitry in the retina. Here we show the localization of diacylglycerol lipase-alpha and -beta (DGLalpha/beta), implicated in the production of the eCB 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG); monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) and alpha/beta-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6), both implicated in the breakdown of 2-AG; cannabinoid receptor-interacting protein 1a (CRIP1a), a protein that may modulate CB(1) function; and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA), which have been shown to break down the eCB anandamide and related acyl amides. Our most prominent finding was that DGLalpha is present in postsynaptic type 1 OFF cone bipolar cells juxtaposed to CB(1)-containing cone photoreceptor terminals. CRIP1a is reliably presynaptic to DGLalpha, consistent with a possible role in cannabinoid signaling, and NAAA is restricted to retinal pigment epithelium, whereas DGLbeta is limited to retinal blood vessels. These results taken together with previous anatomical and functional studies define specific cannabinoid circuitry likely to modulate eCB signaling at the first synapse of the retina as well as in the inner plexiform layer.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21 CA149548(United States)

Projections of preBötzinger complex neurons in adult rats.

  • Tan W
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The preBötzinger Complex (preBötC) contains neural microcircuitry essential for normal respiratory rhythm generation in rodents. A subpopulation of preBötC neurons expresses somatostatin, a neuropeptide with a modulatory action on breathing. Acute silencing of a subpopulation of preBötC neurons transfected by a virus driving protein expression under the somatostatin promoter results in persistent apnea in awake adult rats. Given the profound effect of silencing these neurons, their projections are of interest. We used an adeno-associated virus to overexpress enhanced green fluorescent protein driven by the somatostatin promoter in preBötC neurons to label their axons and terminal fields. These neurons send brainstem projections to: 1) contralateral preBötC; 2) ipsi- and contralateral Bötzinger Complex; 3) ventral respiratory column caudal to preBötC; 4) parafacial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus; 5) parahypoglossal nucleus/nucleus of the solitary tract; 6) parabrachial/Kölliker-Fuse nuclei; and 7) periaqueductal gray. We did not find major projections to either cerebellum or spinal cord. We conclude that there are widespread projections from preBötC somatostatin-expressing neurons specifically targeted to brainstem regions implicated in control of breathing, and provide a network basis for the profound effects and the essential role of the preBötC in breathing.

Basal ganglia and thalamic input from neurons located within the ventral tier cell cluster region of the substantia nigra pars compacta in the rat.

  • Cebrián C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The most caudally located dopaminergic (DA) ventral tier neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) form typical cell clusters that are deeply embedded in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Here we examine the efferent projections of 35 neurons located in the SNr region where these SNc cell clusters reside. The neuronal cell body was injected with biotinylated dextran amine so as to trace each complete axon in the sagittal or the coronal plane. Electrophysiological guidance guaranteed that the tracer was ejected among neurons displaying a typical SNc discharge pattern. Furthermore, double immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical labeling ensured that the tracer deposits were placed within the DA cell clusters. Three types of projection neurons occurred in the SNc ventral tier cell cluster region: type I neurons, projecting to basal ganglia; type II neurons, targeting both the basal ganglia and thalamus; and type III neurons, projecting only to the thalamus. The striatum was targeted by most of the type I and II neurons and the innervation reached both the striosome/subcallosal streak and matrix compartments. Many nigrostriatal fibers provided collaterals to the globus pallidus and, less frequently, to the subthalamic nucleus. At a thalamic level, type II and III neurons preferentially targeted the reticular, ventral posterolateral, and ventral medial nuclei. Our results reveal that the SNr region where DA ventral tier cell clusters reside harbors neurons projecting to the basal ganglia and/or the thalamus, thus suggesting that neurodegeneration of nigral neurons in Parkinson's disease might affect various extrastriatal basal ganglia structures and multiple thalamic nuclei.

Decreased number of parvalbumin and cholinergic interneurons in the striatum of individuals with Tourette syndrome.

  • Kataoka Y
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Corticobasal ganglia neuronal ensembles bring automatic motor skills into voluntary control and integrate them into ongoing motor behavior. A 5% decrease in caudate (Cd) nucleus volume is the most consistent structural finding in the brain of patients with Tourette syndrome (TS), but the cellular abnormalities that underlie this decrease in volume are unclear. In this study the density of different types of interneurons and medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum was assessed in the postmortem brains of 5 TS subjects as compared with normal controls (NC) by unbiased stereological analyses. TS patients demonstrated a 50%-60% decrease of both parvalbumin (PV)+ and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)+ cholinergic interneurons in the Cd and the putamen (Pt). Cholinergic interneurons were decreased in TS patients in the associative and sensorimotor regions but not in the limbic regions of the striatum, such that the normal gradient in density of cholinergic cells (highest in associative regions, intermediate in sensorimotor and lowest in limbic regions) was abolished. No significant difference was present in the densities of medium-sized calretinin (CR)+ interneurons, MSNs, and total neurons. The selective deficit of PV+ and cholinergic striatal interneurons in TS subjects may result in an impaired cortico/thalamic control of striatal neuron firing in TS.

Expression of PTPRO in the interneurons of adult mouse olfactory bulb.

  • Kotani T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

PTPRO is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) with a single catalytic domain in its cytoplasmic region and multiple fibronectin type III-like domains in its extracellular region. In the chick, PTPRO mRNA has been shown to be particularly abundant in embryonic brain, and PTPRO is implicated in axon growth and guidance during embryonic development. However, the temporal and spatial expression of PTPRO protein in the mammalian CNS, particularly in the juvenile and adult mammalian brain, has not been evaluated in any detail. By immunohistofluorescence analysis with a monoclonal antibody to PTPRO, we show that PTPRO is widely expressed throughout the mouse brain from embryonic day 16 to postnatal day 1, while expression is largely confined to the olfactory bulb (OB) and olfactory tubercle in the adult brain. In the OB, PTPRO protein is expressed predominantly in the external plexiform layer, the granule cell layer, and the glomerular layer (GL). In these regions, expression of PTPRO is predominant in interneurons such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic or calretinin (CR)-positive granule cells. In addition, PTPRO is expressed in GABAergic, CR-positive, tyrosine hydroxylase-positive, or neurocalcin-positive periglomerular cells in the GL. Costaining of PTPRO with other neuronal markers suggests that PTPRO is likely to be localized to the dendrites or dendritic spines of these olfactory interneurons. Thus, PTPRO might participate in regulation of dendritic morphology or synapse formation of interneurons in the adult mouse OB.

Associative pairing involving monocular stimulation selectively mobilizes a subclass of GABAergic interneurons in the mouse visual cortex.

  • Liguz-Lecznar M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its synthesizing enzyme in cerebral cortex are regulated by sensory experience. Previously we found that associative pairing of vibrissae stimulation and tail shock results in upregulation of GABAergic markers in the mouse barrel cortex. In order to ascertain whether GABAergic upregulation also accompanies associative pairing in other sensory modalities, we examined the mouse visual cortex after analogous training with visual stimulus. During pairing, visual stimulus (CS) was coupled with a tail shock (UCS). We examined the density of cells expressing glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and parvalbumin (PV) in monocular and binocular segments of the primary visual cortex (V1). The auditory cortex was used as a control. After monocular training, the density of cells expressing GAD rose significantly in the monocular segment of V1 contralateral to the stimulated eye, compared with the opposite hemisphere. This effect was due to the association of CS and UCS, as no changes were found after visual stimulation alone or in the auditory cortex. No changes were noted in the density of PV(+) neurons, so the effect was attributed to GAD(+)/PV(-) neurons. Mobilization of a specific subclass of GABAergic cells, observed after associative pairing in the somatosensory and visual cortices, may reflect the necessity to restrict the activity of circuits involved in sensory association.

Close homologue of adhesion molecule L1 promotes survival of Purkinje and granule cells and granule cell migration during murine cerebellar development.

  • Jakovcevski I
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Several L1-related adhesion molecules, expressed in a well-coordinated temporospatial pattern during development, are important for fine tuning of specific cerebellar circuitries. We tested the hypothesis that CHL1, the close homologue of L1, abundantly expressed in the developing and adult cerebellum, is also required for normal cerebellar histogenesis. We found that constitutive ablation of CHL1 in mice caused significant loss (20-23%) of Purkinje and granule cells in the mature 2-month-old cerebellum. The ratio of stellate/basket interneurons to Purkinje cells was abnormally high (+38%) in CHL1-deficient (CHL1-/-) mice compared with wild-type (CHL1+/+) littermates, but the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synaptic inputs to Purkinje cell bodies and dendrites were normal, as were numbers of Golgi interneurons, microglia, astrocytes, and Bergmann glia. Purkinje cell loss occurred before the first postnatal week and was associated with enhanced apoptosis, presumably as a consequence of CHL1 deficiency in afferent axons. In contrast, generation of granule cells, as indicated by in vivo analyses of cell proliferation and death, was unaffected in 1-week-old CHL1-/- mice, but numbers of migrating granule cells in the molecular layer were increased. This increase was likely related to retarded cell migration because CHL1-/- granule cells migrated more slowly than CHL1+/+ cells in vitro, and Bergmann glial processes guiding migration in vivo expressed CHL1 in wild-type mice. Granule cell deficiency in adult CHL1-/- mice appeared to result from decreased precursor cell proliferation after the first postnatal week. Our results indicate that CHL1 promotes Purkinje and granule cell survival and granule cell migration during cerebellar development.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P30 HD15052(United States)

"Fast" plasma membrane calcium pump PMCA2a concentrates in GABAergic terminals in the adult rat brain.

  • Burette AC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPases (PMCA) represent the major high-affinity Ca(2+) extrusion system in the brain. PMCAs comprise four isoforms and over 20 splice variants. Their different functional properties may permit different PMCA splice variants to accommodate different kinds of local [Ca(2+)] transients, but for a specific PMCA to play a unique role in local Ca(2+) handling it must be targeted to the appropriate subcellular compartment. We used immunohistochemistry to study the spatial distribution of PMCA2a-one of the two major carboxyl-terminal splice variants of PMCA2-in the adult rat brain, testing whether this isoform, with especially high basal activity, is targeted to specific subcellular compartments. In striking contrast to the widespread distribution of PMCA2 as a whole, we found that PMCA2a is largely restricted to parvalbumin-positive inhibitory presynaptic terminals throughout the brain. The only major exception to this targeting pattern was in the cerebellar cortex, where PMCA2a also concentrates postsynaptically, in the spines of Purkinje cells. We propose that the fast Ca(2+) activation kinetics and high V(max) of PMCA2a make this pump especially suited for rapid clearance of presynaptic Ca(2+) in fast-spiking inhibitory nerve terminals, which face severe transient calcium loads.

Thalamic connections of architectonic subdivisions of temporal cortex in grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).

  • Wong P
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The temporal cortex of grey squirrels contains three architectonically distinct regions. One of these regions, the temporal anterior (Ta) region has been identified in previous physiological and anatomical studies as containing several areas that are largely auditory in function. Consistent with this evidence, Ta has architectonic features that are internally somewhat variable, but overall sensory in nature. In contrast, the caudally adjoining temporal intermediate region (Ti) has architectonic features that suggest higher order and possibly multisensory processing. Finally, the most caudal region, composed of previously defined temporal medial (Tm) and temporal posterior (Tp) fields, again has more of the appearance of sensory cortex. To understand their functional roles better, we injected anatomical tracers into these regions to reveal their thalamic connections. As expected, the dorsal portion of Ta, containing two primary or primary-like auditory areas, received inputs from the ventral and magnocellular divisions of the auditory medial geniculate complex (MGv and MGm). The most caudal region, Tm plus Tp, received inputs from the large visual pulvinar of squirrels, possibly accounting for the sensory architectonic characteristics of this region. However, Tp additionally receives inputs from the magnocellular (MGm) and dorsal (MGd) divisions of the medial geniculate complex, implicating Tp in multisensory processing. Finally, the middle region, Ti, had auditory inputs from MGd and MGm, but not from the visual pulvinar, providing evidence that Ti has higher order auditory functions. The results indicate that the architectonically distinct regions of temporal cortex of squirrels are also functionally distinct. Understanding how temporal cortex is functionally organized in squirrels can guide interpretations of temporal cortex organization in other rodents in which architectonic subdivisions are not as obvious.

Distinct molecular pathways for development of telencephalic interneuron subtypes revealed through analysis of Lhx6 mutants.

  • Zhao Y
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Here we analyze the role of the Lhx6 lim-homeobox transcription factor in regulating the development of subsets of neocortical, hippocampal, and striatal interneurons. An Lhx6 loss-of-function allele, which expresses placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), allowed analysis of the development and fate of Lhx6-expressing interneurons in mice lacking this homeobox transcription factor. There are Lhx6+;Dlx+ and Lhx6-;Dlx+ subtypes of tangentially migrating interneurons. Most interneurons in Lhx6(PLAP/PLAP) mutants migrate to the cortex, although less efficiently, and exhibit defects in populating the marginal zone and superficial parts of the neocortical plate. By contrast, migration to superficial parts of the hippocampus is not seriously affected. Furthermore, whereas parvalbumin+ and somatostatin+ interneurons do not differentiate, NPY+ interneurons are present; we suggest that these NPY+ interneurons are derived from the Lhx6-;Dlx+ subtype. Striatal interneurons show deficits distinct from pallial interneurons, including a reduction in the NPY+ subtype. We provide evidence that Lhx6 mediates these effects through promoting expression of receptors that regulate interneuron migration (ErbB4, CXCR4, and CXCR7), and through promoting the expression of transcription factors either known (Arx) or implicated (bMaf, Cux2, and NPAS1) in controlling interneuron development.

Immunolocalization of NMDA receptor subunit NR3B in selected structures in the rat forebrain, cerebellum, and lumbar spinal cord.

  • Wee KS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have been implicated in many neurological disorders. Although NMDA receptors are best known for their high calcium permeability, the recently discovered NR3 subunits, NR3A and NR3B, have been shown to reduce the calcium permeability of the NMDA receptor. Thus, NR3 subunits may be important players in modulating synaptic plasticity in neurons. Although NR3B expression in the rodent and human brain has been studied, little is known about its distribution in different cell types. Here we used immunolabeling with a specific NR3B antibody together with antibodies against established neurochemical markers to determine the cellular and subcellular localization of NR3B. The nucleus was concurrently stained with NR3B immunolabeling to show that NR3B is widely expressed by many cells in each brain region. Our findings indicate that NR3B is widely expressed in the structures examined in the rat forebrain (hippocampus, cerebral cortex, caudoputamen, and nucleus accumbens), cerebellum, and lumbar sections of the spinal cord. Within these regions NR3B was found to be expressed in all the substructures of the hippocampus (CA1, CA3, dentate gyrus), the various layers of the cerebral cortex, projection neurons and interneurons of the striatum, different cell types of the cerebellum, and motor neurons of the spinal cord. Furthermore, when stained with NR1-the obligatory subunit responsible for forming functional NMDA receptors-the distribution of NR3B appears to be as ubiquitous as NR1. Taken together, our data suggest that there may be a population of NR3B-containing NMDA receptors conferring new functional roles in the mammalian central nervous system.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - DE-015576(United States)

Activation of phenotypically distinct neuronal subpopulations in the anterior subdivision of the rat basolateral amygdala following acute and repeated stress.

  • Reznikov LR
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 May 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The effects of acute and repeated stress on expression of the early immediate gene c-fos in the basolateral amygdala have previously been reported; however, characterization of which neuronal subpopulations are activated by these stimuli has not been investigated. This question is of considerable relevance, insofar as the basolateral amygdala houses a heterogeneous population of neurons, including those of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and glutamatergic phenotypes that may be subcategorized based on their expression of various calcium-binding proteins, including parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, and the calcium-sensitive enzyme calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. Characterization of these subpopulations has revealed unique differences in their physiology, synaptology, and morphology, suggesting that each distinct phenotype may have profound effects on the local circuitry of the amygdala. Therefore, we examined the effects of acute and repeated restraint stress on expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in neurons containing parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, or calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in the basolateral amygdala. Double-label immunohistochemistry revealed that acute restraint stress activated a proportion of parvalbumin-, calbindin-, or calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II-positive neurons. Prior exposure to repeated restraint stress markedly attenuated acute-stress mediated activation of these neuronal populations, although not equally. Expression of c-Fos protein was not detected in calretinin-positive neurons in any experimental group. These results demonstrate that distinct neuronal phenotypes in the basolateral amygdala are activated by acute restraint stress and that prior repeated restraint stress differentially affects this response.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - 401616(United Kingdom)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01DA030304(United States)

Evidence for nonreciprocal organization of the mouse auditory thalamocortical-corticothalamic projection systems.

  • Llano DA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Mar 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

We tested the hypothesis that information is routed from one area of the auditory cortex (AC) to another via the dorsal division of the medial geniculate body (MGBd) by analyzing the degree of reciprocal connectivity between the auditory thalamus and cortex. Biotinylated dextran amine injected into the primary AC (AI) or anterior auditory field (AAF) of mice produced large, "driver-type" terminals primarily in the MGBd, with essentially no such terminals in the ventral MGB (MGBv). In contrast, small, "modulator-type" terminals were found primarily in the MGBv, and this coincided with areas of retrogradely labeled thalamocortical cell bodies. After MGBv injections, anterograde label was observed in layers 4 and 6 of the AI and AAF, which coincided with retrogradely labeled layer 6 cell bodies. After MGBd injections, thalamocortical terminals were seen in layers 1, 4, and 6 of the secondary AC and dorsoposterior AC, which coincided with labeled layer 6 cell bodies. Notably, after MGBd injection, a substantial number of layer 5 cells were labeled in all AC areas, whereas very few were seen after MGBv injection. Further, the degree of anterograde label in layer 4 of cortical columns containing labeled layer 6 cell bodies was greater than in columns containing labeled layer 5 cell bodies. These data suggest that auditory layer 5 corticothalamic projections are targeted to the MGBd in a nonreciprocal fashion and that the MGBd may route this information to the nonprimary AC.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL-07718(United States)

Complementary circuits connecting the orbital and medial prefrontal networks with the temporal, insular, and opercular cortex in the macaque monkey.

  • Saleem KS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The origin and termination of axonal connections between the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) and the temporal, insular, and opercular cortex have been analyzed with anterograde and retrograde axonal tracers, injected in the OMPFC or temporal cortex. The results show that there are two distinct, complementary, and reciprocal neural systems, related to the previously defined "orbital" and "medial" prefrontal networks. The orbital prefrontal network, which includes areas in the central and lateral part of the orbital cortex, is connected with vision-related areas in the inferior temporal cortex (especially area TEav) and the fundus and ventral bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STSf/v), and with somatic sensory-related areas in the frontal operculum (OPf) and dysgranular insular area (Id). No connections were found between the orbital network and auditory areas. The orbital network is also connected with taste and olfactory cortical areas and the perirhinal cortex and appears to be involved in assessment of sensory objects, especially food. The medial prefrontal network includes areas on the medial surface of the frontal lobe, medial orbital areas, and two caudolateral orbital areas. It is connected with the rostral superior temporal gyrus (STGr) and the dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STSd). This region is rostral to the auditory parabelt areas, and there are only relatively light connections between the auditory areas and the medial network. This system, which is also connected with the entorhinal, parahippocampal, and cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, may be involved in emotion and other self-referential processes.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM071603(United States)

Origin of calretinin-containing, vesicular glutamate transporter 2-coexpressing fiber terminals in the entorhinal cortex of the rat.

  • Wouterlood FG
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The entorhinal cortex of the rat (EC) contains a dense fiber plexus that expresses the calcium-binding protein calretinin (CR). Some CR fibers contain vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGluT2, associated with glutamatergic neurotransmission). CR-VGluT2 coexpressing fibers may have an extrinsic origin, for instance, the midline thalamic nucleus reuniens. Alternatively, they may belong to cortical interneurons. We studied the first possibility with anterograde and retrograde neuroanatomical tracing methods combined with CR and VGluT2 immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning. The alternative possibility was studied with in situ hybridization fluorescence histochemistry for VGluT2 mRNA combined with CR immunofluorescence. In the anterograde tracing experiments, we observed many labeled reuniens fibers in EC expressing CR. Some of these labeled fibers contained immunoreactivity for VGluT2 and CR. In the complementary retrograde tracing experiments, we found retrogradely labeled cell bodies in nucleus reuniens of the thalamus that coexpressed CR. We also examined the colocalization of VGluT2 and CR in the entorhinal cortex by using in situ hybridization and CR immunofluorescence. In these experiments, we observed CR-immunopositive cortical neurons that coexpressed VGluT2. For the same sections, with CR as the principal marker and parvalbumin as a control marker, we found that parvalbumin neurons were negative for VGluT2 mRNA. Thus, CR-VGluT2-expressing axon terminals in EC belong to two sources: projection fibers from the thalamus and axon collaterals of local interneurons. VGluT2 expression is linked to the synaptic transmission of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, so these thalamic CR-VGluT2 projection neurons and entorhinal CR-VGluT2 interneurons should be regarded as excitatory.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI038382(United States)

Emergence of cellular markers and functional ionotropic glutamate receptors on tangentially dispersed cells in the developing mouse retina.

  • Acosta ML
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jan 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tangential cell dispersion in the retina is a spacing mechanism that establishes a regular mosaic organization among cell types and contributes to their final positioning. The present study has used the X-inactivation transgenic mouse expressing the lacZ reporter gene on one X chromosome. Due to X chromosome inactivation, 50% of early progenitor cells express beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal); therefore, all cells derived from a particular beta-Gal-expressing progenitor cell can be identified in labeled columns. The radial segregation of clonally related beta-Gal-positive and beta-Gal-negative cells can be used to determine whether single cells transgress a clonal boundary in the retina. We investigated the extent to which particular cell classes tangentially disperse by analyzing the placement of labeled cells expressing particular markers at several ages and quantifying their tangential displacement. Retinal neurons expressing cell markers at postnatal day (P) 1 have a greater degree of tangential dispersion compared with amacrine and bipolar cells at P5-6. We also studied whether there is a functional correlation with these dispersion patterns by investigating the emergence of functional ionotropic glutamate receptors. To determine the degree of functional glutamate receptor activation, agmatine (AGB) was used in combination with cell-specific labeling. AGB permeates functional glutamate receptor channels following activation with alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), kainate or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Within these receptor groups, high concentrations of AMPA, kainate, and NMDA are associated with a high degree of tangential dispersion in the adult. Developmentally, functional kainate and AMPA receptors were detected by P1 and were associated with tangentially dispersed cells. Functional NMDA receptors were not detected as early as kainate and AMPA receptors. These results indicate that cells generated early during development are more likely to disperse tangentially compared with those generated later in development. Therefore, functional AMPA and kainate receptors may play a critical role in tangentially displacing cell types.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM090158(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS29367(United States)

Distribution of Kv3.3 potassium channel subunits in distinct neuronal populations of mouse brain.

  • Chang SY
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kv3.3 proteins are pore-forming subunits of voltage-dependent potassium channels, and mutations in the gene encoding for Kv3.3 have recently been linked to human disease, spinocerebellar ataxia 13, with cerebellar and extracerebellar symptoms. To understand better the functions of Kv3.3 subunits in brain, we developed highly specific antibodies to Kv3.3 and analyzed immunoreactivity throughout mouse brain. We found that Kv3.3 subunits are widely expressed, present in important forebrain structures but particularly prominent in brainstem and cerebellum. In forebrain and midbrain, Kv3.3 expression was often found colocalized with parvalbumin and other Kv3 subunits in inhibitory neurons. In brainstem, Kv3.3 was strongly expressed in auditory and other sensory nuclei. In cerebellar cortex, Kv3.3 expression was found in Purkinje and granule cells. Kv3.3 proteins were observed in axons, terminals, somas, and, unlike other Kv3 proteins, also in distal dendrites, although precise subcellular localization depended on cell type. For example, hippocampal dentate granule cells expressed Kv3.3 subunits specifically in their mossy fiber axons, whereas Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex strongly expressed Kv3.3 subunits in axons, somas, and proximal and distal, but not second- and third-order, dendrites. Expression in Purkinje cell dendrites was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. Kv3 channels have been demonstrated to rapidly repolarize action potentials and support high-frequency firing in various neuronal populations. In this study, we identified additional populations and subcellular compartments that are likely to sustain high-frequency firing because of the expression of Kv3.3 and other Kv3 subunits.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - K23NS078056(United States)

Immunohistochemical characterization of substance P receptor (NK(1)R)-expressing interneurons in the entorhinal cortex.

  • Wolansky T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 May 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

It has been reported that application of substance P (SP) to the medial portion of the entorhinal cortex (EC) induces a powerful antiepileptic effect (Maubach et al. [1998] Neuroscience 83:1047-1062). This effect is presumably mediated via inhibitory interneurons expressing the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK(1)R), but the existence of NK(1)R-expressing inhibitory interneurons in the EC has not yet been reported. The present immunohistochemical study was performed in the rat to examine the existence and distribution of NK(1)R-expressing neurons in the EC as well as any co-expression of other neurotransmitters/neuromodulators known to be associated with inhibitory interneurons: gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), parvalbumin (PARV), calretinin (CT), calbindin (CB), somatostatin (SST), and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Our results indicated that NK(1)R-positive neurons were distributed rather sparsely (especially in the medial EC), primarily in layers II, V, and VI. The results of our double-immunohistochemical staining indicated that the vast majority of NK(1)R-expressing neurons also expressed GABA, SST, and NPY. In addition, CT was co-expressed in a weakly stained subgroup of NK(1)R-expressing neurons, and CB was co-expressed very rarely in the lateral EC, but not in the medial EC. In contrast, SP-immunopositive axons with fine varicosities were distributed diffusely throughout all layers of the EC, appearing to radiate from the angular bundle. SP may be released in a paracrine manner to activate a group of NK(1)R-expressing entorhinal neurons that co-express GABA, SST, and NPY, exerting a profound inhibitory influence on synchronized network activity in the EC.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS074256(United States)

Developmental origin and identity of song system neurons born during vocal learning in songbirds.

  • Scott BB
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 May 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

New neurons are added to the forebrain song control regions high vocal center (HVC) and Area X of juvenile songbirds but the identity and site of origin of these cells have not been fully characterized. We used oncoretroviral vectors to genetically label neuronal progenitors in different regions of the zebra finch lateral ventricle. A region corresponding to the mammalian medial and lateral ganglionic eminences generated medium spiny neurons found in Area X and in the striatum surrounding Area X, and at least two classes of interneurons found in HVC. In addition, our experiments indicate that the HVC projection neurons that project into nucleus robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) are born locally from the ventricular region immediately dorsal to HVC. The ability to genetically target neuron subpopulations that give rise to different song system cell types provides a tool for specific genetic manipulations of these cell types. In addition, our results suggest striking similarities between neurogenesis in the embryonic mammalian brain and in the brain of the juvenile songbird and provide further evidence for the existence of conserved cell types in the forebrain for birds and mammals.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01NS038752(United States)

Distribution of soluble guanylyl cyclase in rat retina.

  • Ding JD
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway is implicated in modulation of visual information processing in the retina. Despite numerous functional studies of this pathway, information about the retinal distribution of the major downstream effector of NO, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), is very limited. In the present work, we have used immunohistochemistry and multiple labeling to determine the distribution of sGC in rat retina. sGC was present at high levels in inner retina but barely detectable in outer retina. Photoreceptors and horizontal cells, as well as Müller cells, were immunonegative, whereas retinal ganglion cells exhibited moderate staining for sGC. Strong immunostaining was found in subpopulations of bipolar and amacrine cells, but staining was weak in rod bipolar cells, and AII amacrine cells were immunonegative. Double labeling of sGC with neuronal nitric oxide synthase showed that the two proteins are generally located in adjacent puncta in inner plexiform layer, implying paracrine interactions. Our results suggest that the NO-cGMP pathway modulates the neural circuitry in inner retina, preferentially within the cone pathway.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01-HG006677(United States)

Cytoarchitectonic and chemoarchitectonic subdivisions of the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices in macaque monkeys.

  • Saleem KS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Feb 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices have been shown to be critically involved in memory processing, the boundaries and extent of these areas have been controversial. To produce a more objective and reproducible description, the architectonic boundaries and structure of the perirhinal (areas 35 and 36) and parahippocampal (areas TF and TH) cortices were analyzed in three macaque species, with four different staining methods [Nissl and immunohistochemistry for parvalbumin, nonphosphorylated neurofilaments (with SMI-32), and the m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor]. We further correlated the architectonic boundary of the parahippocampal cortex with connections to and from different subregions of anterior area TE and with previously published connections with the prefrontal cortex and temporal pole (Kondo et al. [2005] J. Comp. Neurol. 493:479-509). Together, these data provided a clear delineation of the perirhinal and parahippocampal areas, although it differs from previous descriptions. In particular, we did not extend the perirhinal cortex into the temporal pole, and the lateral boundaries of areas 36 and TF with area TE were placed more medially than in other studies. The lateral boundary of area TF in Macaca fuscata was located more laterally than in Macaca fascicularis or Macaca mulatta, although there was no difference in architectonic structure. We recognized a caudal, granular part of the parahippocampal cortex that we termed "area TFO." This area closely resembles the laterally adjacent area TE and the caudally adjacent area V4 but is clearly different from the more rostral area TF. These areas are likely to have distinct functions.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01-EY14202(United States)

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4-immunopositive terminals of medium-sized spiny neurons selectively form synapses with cholinergic interneurons in the rat neostriatum.

  • Kuramoto E
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Feb 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) is localized mainly to presynaptic membranes in the brain. Rat neostriatum has been reported to contain two types of mGluR4-immunoreactive axon varicosities: small, weakly immunoreactive varicosities that were distributed randomly (type 1) and large, intensely immunoreactive ones that were often aligned linearly (type 2). In the present study, most type 1 terminals formed asymmetric synapses on dendritic spines, whereas type 2 terminals made symmetric synapses on dendritic shafts, showing immunoreactivity for GABAergic markers. After depletion of neostriatal neurons, type 2 but not type 1 varicosities were largely decreased in the damaged region. When medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) were labeled with Sindbis virus expressing membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein, mGluR4 immunoreactivity was observed on some varicosities of their axon collaterals in immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopies. Furthermore, type 2 varicosities were often positive for substance P but mostly negative for striatal interneuron markers and preproenkephalin. Thus, striatonigral/striato-entopeduncular MSNs are likely to be the largest source of type 2 mGluR4-immunopositive axon terminals in the neostriatum. Next, in the double-immunofluorescence study, almost all choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunopositive and 41% of NK1 receptor-positive dendrites were heavily associated with type 2 mGluR4-immunoreactive varicosities. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive dendrites, in contrast, seemed associated with only a few type 2 varicosities. Conversely, almost all type 2 varicosities were closely apposed to NK1 receptor-positive dendrites that were known to be derived from cholinergic and nNOS-producing interneurons. These findings indicate that the mGluR4-positive terminals of MSN axon collaterals selectively form synapses with neostriatal cholinergic interneurons.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P20 RR017677(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS34865(United States)

Selective loss of dentate hilar interneurons contributes to reduced synaptic inhibition of granule cells in an electrical stimulation-based animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

  • Sun C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Feb 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuropeptide-containing hippocampal interneurons and dentate granule cell inhibition were investigated at different periods following electrical stimulation-induced, self-sustaining status epilepticus (SE) in rats. Immunohistochemistry for somatostatin (SOM), neuropeptide Y (NPY), parvalbumin (PV), cholecystokinin (CCK), and Fluoro-Jade B was performed on sections from hippocampus contralateral to the stimulated side and studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Compared to paired age-matched control animals, there were fewer SOM and NPY-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus in animals with epilepsy (40-60 days after SE), and 1, 3, and 7 days following SE. In the hilus of animals that had recently undergone SE, some SOM-IR and NPY-IR interneurons also stained for Fluoro-Jade B. Furthermore, there was electron microscopic evidence of the degeneration of SOM-IR interneurons following SE. In contrast, the number of CCK and PV-IR basket cells in epileptic animals was similar to that in controls, although it was transiently diminished following SE; there was no evidence of degeneration of CCK or PV-IR interneurons. Patch-clamp recordings revealed a diminished frequency of inhibitory postsynaptic currents in dentate granule cells (DGCs) recorded from epileptic animals and animals that had recently undergone SE compared with controls. These results confirm the selective vulnerability of a particular subset of dentate hilar interneurons after prolonged SE. This loss may contribute to the reduced GABAergic synaptic inhibition of granule cells in epileptic animals.

Funding information:
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R21 ES021983(United States)

Morphological and physiological properties of parvalbumin- and calretinin-containing gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons in the substantia nigra.

  • Lee CR
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Feb 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Evidence for the existence of different populations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic neurons in the substantia nigra comes partially from anatomical studies, which have shown there to be little if any overlap between the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin and calretinin in individual neurons, suggesting that these may represent neuronal subtypes with distinct electrophysiological and/or anatomical properties. We obtained whole-cell recordings from neurons in the substantia nigra pars reticulata in rat brain slices and labeled them with biocytin, followed by immunocytochemical staining for parvalbumin and calretinin. In other cases, neurons were retrogradely labeled from the thalamus or tectum and immunocytochemically identified to determine their projection sites. Intracellularly stained neurons were found to have a variety of somatic sizes and shapes. Reconstructions revealed that all parvalbumin- and calretinin-positive neurons issued at least one axon collateral, which ramified within the substantia nigra pars reticulata and/or pars compacta. Local collaterals were of medium caliber and branched modestly, expressing many long, smooth segments that then issued numerous en passant or terminal boutons, consistent with previous in vivo studies. There were no clear differences in the electrophysiological or morphological properties of neurons expressing parvalbumin or calretinin. Retrograde tracing experiments revealed that both parvalbumin- and calretinin-containing neurons project nonpreferentially to the thalamus or tectum. In sum, the parvalbumin- and calretinin-containing GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata cannot be differentiated on the basis of their electrophysiological properties, morphological properties, or target nuclei, and both parvalbumin- and calretinin-containing projection neurons issue local axon collaterals that arborize within the substantia nigra.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01-GM069415(United States)

Motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mutant superoxide dismutase-1 transgenic mice: mechanisms of mitochondriopathy and cell death.

  • Martin LJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mechanisms of human mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (mSOD1) toxicity to motor neurons (MNs) are unresolved. We show that MNs in G93A-mSOD1 transgenic mice undergo slow degeneration lacking similarity to apoptosis structurally and biochemically. It is characterized by somal and mitochondrial swelling and formation of DNA single-strand breaks prior to double-strand breaks occurring in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. p53 and p73 are activated in degenerating MNs, but without nuclear import. The MN death is independent of activation of caspases-1, -3, and -8 or apoptosis-inducing factor within MNs, with a blockade of apoptosis possibly mediated by Aven up-regulation. MN swelling is associated with compromised Na,K-ATPase activity and aggregation. mSOD1 mouse MNs accumulate mitochondria from the axon terminals and generate higher levels of superoxide, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite than MNs in control mice. Nitrated and aggregated cytochrome c oxidase subunit-I and alpha-synuclein as well as nitrated SOD2 accumulate in mSOD1 mouse spinal cord. Mitochondria in mSOD1 mouse MNs accumulate NADPH diaphorase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-like immunoreactivity, and iNOS gene deletion extends significantly the life span of G93A-mSOD1 mice. Prior to MN loss, spinal interneurons degenerate. These results identify novel mechanisms for mitochondriopathy and MN degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice involving blockade of apoptosis, accumulation of MN mitochondria with enhanced toxic potential from distal terminals, NOS localization in MN mitochondria and peroxynitrite damage, and early degeneration of alpha-synuclein(+) interneurons. The data support roles for oxidative stress, protein nitration and aggregation, and excitotoxicity as participants in the process of MN degeneration caused by mSOD1.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG004069-03(United States)

Differences in chemo- and cytoarchitectural features within pars principalis of the rat anterior olfactory nucleus suggest functional specialization.

  • Meyer EA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) lies between the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex and is the first bilaterally innervated structure in the olfactory system. It is typically divided into two subregions: pars externa and pars principalis. We examined the cytoarchitecture of pars principalis, the largest cellular area of the region, to determine whether it is homogeneously organized. Quantitative Nissl studies indicated that large cells (cell body area >2 standard deviations (SD) larger than the mean cell size) are densest in lateral and dorsolateral regions, while small cells (>1 SD smaller than the mean) are more numerous in medial and ventral areas. Further evidence for regional differences in the organization of the AON were obtained with immunohistochemistry for calbindin (CALB), parvalbumin (PARV), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and choline transporter (CHT). Cells immunopositive for CALB (CALB+) were denser in the deep portion of Layer II, although homogeneously dispersed throughout the circumference of the AON. PARV+ cells were located in the superficial half of Layer II and were sparse in ventral and medial regions. CHT+ and GAD+ fibers were denser in lateral versus medial regions. No regional differences were found in GAD+ somata, or in norepinephrine transporter or serotonin transporter immunoreactivity. The observed regional differences in cyto- and chemoarchitectural features may reflect functional heterogeneity within the AON.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM074255(United States)

Physiological and morphological characterization of parvalbumin-containing interneurons of the rat basolateral amygdala.

  • Rainnie DG
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is critical for the generation of emotional behavior and the formation of emotional memory. Understanding the neuronal mechanisms that contribute to emotional information processing in the BLA will ultimately require knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of its constituent neurons. Two major cell classes exist in the BLA, pyramidal projection neurons and nonpyramidal interneurons. Although the properties of projection neurons have been studied in detail, little is known about the properties of BLA interneurons. We have used whole-cell patch clamp recording techniques to examine the physiological properties of 48 visually identified putative interneurons from the rat anterior basolateral amygdalar nucleus. Here, we report that BLA interneurons can be differentiated into four electrophysiologically distinct subtypes based on their intrinsic membrane properties and their response to afferent synaptic input. Interneuron subtypes were named according to their characteristic firing pattern generated in response to transient depolarizing current injection and were grouped as follows: 1) burst-firing interneurons (n = 13), 2) regular-firing interneurons (n = 11), 3) fast-firing interneurons (n = 10), and 4) stutter-firing interneurons (n = 14). Post hoc histochemical visualization confirmed that all 48 recorded neurons had morphological properties consistent with their being local circuit interneurons. Moreover, by using triple immunofluorescence (for biocytin, calcium-binding proteins, and neuropeptides) in conjunction with patch clamp recording, we further demonstrated that over 60% of burst-firing and stutter-firing interneurons also expressed the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV(+)). These data demonstrate that interneurons of the BLA show both physiological and neurochemical diversity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the burst- and stutter-firing patterns positively correlate with PV(+) immunoreactivity, suggesting that these neurons may represent functionally distinct subpopulations.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - JPA 1729(United Kingdom)

Synaptic input to OFF parasol ganglion cells in macaque retina.

  • Bordt AS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

A Neurobiotin-injected OFF parasol cell from midperipheral macaque retina was studied by reconstruction of serial ultrathin sections and compared with ON parasol cells studied previously. In most respects, the synaptic inputs to the two subtypes were similar. Only a few of the amacrine cell processes that provided input to the labeled OFF parasol ganglion cell dendrites made or received inputs within the series, and none of these interactions were with the bipolar cells or other amacrine cells presynaptic to the OFF parasol cell. These findings suggest that the direct inhibitory input to OFF parasol cells originates from other areas of the retina. OFF parasol cells were known to receive inputs from two types of diffuse bipolar cells. To identify candidates for the presynaptic amacrine cells, OFF parasol cells were labeled with Lucifer yellow by using a juxtacellular labeling technique, and amacrine cells known to costratify with them were labeled via immunofluorescent methods. Appositions were observed with amacrine cells containing immunoreactive calretinin, parvalbumin, choline acetylatransferase, and G6-Gly, a cholecystokinin precursor. These findings suggest that the inhibitory input to parasol cells conveys information about several different attributes of visual stimuli and, particularly, about their global properties.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - HHSN267200715002C(United States)