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Rabbit Anti-Bovine Neurofilament 200 Antibody, Unconjugated

RRID:AB_477272

Antibody ID

AB_477272

Target Antigen

Neurofilament 200 bovine, canine, chicken/avian, donkey, drosophila, feline, goat, guinea pig, hamster, horse, human, mouse, other, porcine, rabbit, rat, sheep, simian, xenopus, yeast, wide range, bovine

Proper Citation

(Sigma-Aldrich Cat# N4142, RRID:AB_477272)

Clonality

unknown

Comments

Vendor recommendations: Immunohistochemistry; Western Blot; Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin sections), Western Blot

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Sigma-Aldrich

Morphological and functional changes in TRPM8-expressing corneal cold thermoreceptor neurons during aging and their impact on tearing in mice.

  • Alcalde I
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Morphological and functional alterations of peripheral somatosensory neurons during the aging process lead to a decline of somatosensory perception. Here, we analyze the changes occurring with aging in trigeminal ganglion (TG), TRPM8-expressing cold thermoreceptor neurons innervating the mouse cornea, which participate in the regulation of basal tearing and blinking and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of dry eye disease (DED). TG cell bodies and axonal branches were examined in a mouse line (TRPM8BAC -EYFP) expressing a fluorescent reporter. In 3 months old animals, about 50% of TG cold thermoreceptor neurons were intensely fluorescent, likely providing strongly fluorescent axons and complex corneal nerve terminals with ongoing activity at 34°C and low-threshold, robust responses to cooling. The remaining TRPM8+ corneal axons were weakly fluorescent with nonbeaded axons, sparsely ramified nerve terminals, and exhibited a low-firing rate at 34°C, responding moderately to cooling pulses as do weakly fluorescent TG neurons. In aged (24 months) mice, the number of weakly fluorescent TG neurons was strikingly high while the morphology of TRPM8+ corneal axons changed drastically; 89% were weakly fluorescent, unbranched, and often ending in the basal epithelium. Functionally, 72.5% of aged cold terminals responded as those of young animals, but 27.5% exhibited very low-background activity and abnormal responsiveness to cooling pulses. These morpho-functional changes develop in parallel with an enhancement of tear's basal flow and osmolarity, suggesting that the aberrant sensory inflow to the brain from impaired peripheral cold thermoreceptors contributes to age-induced abnormal tearing and to the high incidence of DED in elderly people.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - DP1 OD003958(United States)

Reflex-based grasping, skilled forelimb reaching, and electrodiagnostic evaluation for comprehensive analysis of functional recovery-The 7-mm rat median nerve gap repair model revisited.

  • Stößel M
  • Brain Behav
  • 2018 Jul 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: The rat median nerve injury and repair model gets increasingly important for research on novel bioartificial nerve grafts. It allows follow-up evaluation of the recovery of the forepaw functional ability with several sensitive techniques. The reflex-based grasping test, the skilled forelimb reaching staircase test, as well as electrodiagnostic recordings have been described useful in this context. Currently, no standard values exist, however, for comparison or comprehensive correlation of results obtained in each of the three methods after nerve gap repair in adult rats. METHODS: Here, we bilaterally reconstructed 7-mm median nerve gaps with autologous nerve grafts (ANG) or autologous muscle-in-vein grafts (MVG), respectively. During 8 and 12 weeks of observation, functional recovery of each paw was separately monitored using the grasping test (weekly), the staircase test, and noninvasive electrophysiological recordings from the thenar muscles (both every 4 weeks). Evaluation was completed by histomorphometrical analyses at 8 and 12 weeks postsurgery. RESULTS: The comprehensive evaluation detected a significant difference in the recovery of forepaw functional motor ability between the ANG and MVG groups. The correlation between the different functional tests evaluated precisely displayed the recovery of distinct levels of forepaw functional ability over time. CONCLUSION: Thus, this multimodal evaluation model represents a valuable preclinical model for peripheral nerve reconstruction approaches.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P01 HD075750(United States)

TRPV1 Agonist, Capsaicin, Induces Axon Outgrowth after Injury via Ca2+/PKA Signaling.

  • Frey E
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Jun 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Preconditioning nerve injuries activate a pro-regenerative program that enhances axon regeneration for most classes of sensory neurons. However, nociceptive sensory neurons and central nervous system neurons regenerate poorly. In hopes of identifying novel mechanisms that promote regeneration, we screened for drugs that mimicked the preconditioning response and identified a nociceptive ligand that activates a preconditioning-like response to promote axon outgrowth. We show that activating the ion channel TRPV1 with capsaicin induces axon outgrowth of cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons, and that this effect is blocked in TRPV1 knockout neurons. Regeneration occurs only in NF200-negative nociceptive neurons, consistent with a cell-autonomous mechanism. Moreover, we identify a signaling pathway in which TRPV1 activation leads to calcium influx and protein kinase A (PKA) activation to induce a preconditioning-like response. Finally, capsaicin administration to the mouse sciatic nerve activates a similar preconditioning-like response and induces enhanced axonal outgrowth, indicating that this pathway can be induced in vivo. These findings highlight the use of local ligands to induce regeneration and suggest that it may be possible to target selective neuronal populations for repair, including cell types that often fail to regenerate.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - 1R01DK097087(United States)

Protease activated receptor 2 controls myelin development, resiliency and repair.

  • Yoon H
  • Glia
  • 2018 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oligodendrocytes are essential regulators of axonal energy homeostasis and electrical conduction and emerging target cells for restoration of neurological function. Here we investigate the role of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a unique protease activated G protein-coupled receptor, in myelin development and repair using the spinal cord as a model. Results demonstrate that genetic deletion of PAR2 accelerates myelin production, including higher proteolipid protein (PLP) levels in the spinal cord at birth and higher levels of myelin basic protein and thickened myelin sheaths in adulthood. Enhancements in spinal cord myelin with PAR2 loss-of-function were accompanied by increased numbers of Olig2- and CC1-positive oligodendrocytes, as well as in levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and extracellular signal related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. Parallel promyelinating effects were observed after blocking PAR2 expression in purified oligodendrocyte cultures, whereas inhibiting adenylate cyclase reversed these effects. Conversely, PAR2 activation reduced PLP expression and this effect was prevented by brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a promyelinating growth factor that signals through cAMP. PAR2 knockout mice also showed improved myelin resiliency after traumatic spinal cord injury and an accelerated pattern of myelin regeneration after focal demyelination. These findings suggest that PAR2 is an important controller of myelin production and regeneration, both in the developing and adult spinal cord.

Intraneural Injection of ATP Stimulates Regeneration of Primary Sensory Axons in the Spinal Cord.

  • Wu D
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Injury to the peripheral axons of sensory neurons strongly enhances the regeneration of their central axons in the spinal cord. It remains unclear on what molecules that initiate such conditioning effect. Because ATP is released extracellularly by nerve and other tissue injury, we hypothesize that injection of ATP into a peripheral nerve might mimic the stimulatory effect of nerve injury on the regenerative state of the primary sensory neurons. We found that a single injection of 6 μl of 150 μm ATP into female rat sciatic nerve quadrupled the number of axons growing into a lesion epicenter in spinal cord after a concomitant dorsal column transection. A second boost ATP injection 1 week after the first one markedly reinforced the stimulatory effect of a single injection. Single ATP injection increased expression of phospho-STAT3 and GAP43, two markers of regenerative activity, in sensory neurons. Double ATP injections sustained the activation of phospho-STAT3 and GAP43, which may account for the marked axonal growth across the lesion epicenter. Similar studies performed on P2X7 or P2Y2 receptor knock-out mice indicate P2Y2 receptors are involved in the activation of STAT3 after ATP injection or conditioning lesion, whereas P2X7 receptors are not. Injection of ATP at 150 μm caused little Wallerian degeneration and behavioral tests showed no significant long-term adverse effects on sciatic nerve functions. The results in this study reveal possible mechanisms underlying the stimulation of regenerative programs and suggest a practical strategy for stimulating axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Injury of peripheral axons of sensory neurons has been known to strongly enhance the regeneration of their central axons in the spinal cord. In this study, we found that injection of ATP into a peripheral nerve can mimic the effect of peripheral nerve injury and significantly increase the number of sensory axons growing across lesion epicenter in the spinal cord. ATP injection increased expression of several markers for regenerative activity in sensory neurons, including phospho-STAT3 and GAP43. ATP injection did not cause significant long-term adverse effects on the functions of the injected nerve. These results may lead to clinically applicable strategies for enhancing neuronal responses that support regeneration of injured axons.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U54 HG003273(United States)

Expression patterns of ion channels and structural proteins in a multimodal cell type of the avian optic tectum.

  • Lischka K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The midbrain is an important subcortical area involved in distinct functions such as multimodal integration, movement initiation, bottom-up, and top-down attention. Our group is particularly interested in cellular computation of multisensory integration. We focus on the visual part of the avian midbrain, the optic tectum (TeO, counterpart to mammalian superior colliculus). This area has a layered structure with the great advantage of distinct input and output regions. In chicken, the TeO is organized in 15 layers where visual input targets the superficial layers while auditory input terminates in deeper layers. One specific cell type, the Shepherd's crook neuron (SCN), extends dendrites in both input regions. The characteristic feature of these neurons is the axon origin at the apical dendrite. The molecular identity of this characteristic region and thus, the site of action potential generation are of particular importance to understand signal flow and cellular computation in this neuron. We present immunohistochemical data of structural proteins (NF200, Ankyrin G, and Myelin) and ion channels (Pan-Nav , Nav 1.6, and Kv 3.1b). NF200 is strongly expressed in the axon. Ankyrin G is mainly expressed at the axon initial segment (AIS). Myelination starts after the AIS as well as the distribution of Nav channels on the axon. The subtype Nav 1.6 has a high density in this region. Kv 3.1b is restricted to the soma, the primary neurite and the axon branch. The distribution of functional molecules in SCNs provides insight into the information flow and the integration of sensory modalities in the TeO of the avian midbrain.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA172461(United States)

Serotonin Receptor 5-HT3A Affects Development of Bladder Innervation and Urinary Bladder Function.

  • Ritter KE
  • Front Neurosci
  • 2018 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The autonomic and sensory nervous systems are required for proper function of all visceral organs, including the lower urinary tract (LUT). Despite the wide prevalence of bladder dysfunction, effective treatment options remain limited. Pelvic innervation regenerative strategies are promising, but surprisingly little is known about the molecular factors driving the development of bladder innervation. Given prior evidence that serotonin receptor 5-HT3A is expressed early in LUT development and is an important mediator of adult bladder function, we sought to determine if 5-HT3A is required for the development of autonomic innervation of the bladder. We found that 5-HT3A is expressed early in fetal mouse pelvic ganglia and is maintained through adulthood. Htr3a knockout male mice, but not females, exhibit increased urinary voiding frequency compared to wild type littermates. Analysis of LUT function via anesthetized cystometry revealed decreased voiding efficiency in male Htr3a mutants. Htr3a-/- mutant animals exhibit a transient disturbance of autonomic neuronal subtype markers (tyrosine hydroxylase and choline acetyl transferase) within the fetal pelvic ganglia, although the imbalance of neuronal subtype markers assayed is no longer apparent in adulthood. Loss of 5-HT3A activity results in a higher density of autonomic and sensory neuronal fibers supplying bladder smooth muscle in both fetal and adult mice. Collectively, our findings highlight 5-HT3A as a critical component in the autonomic control of micturition and identify a novel role for this serotonin receptor in peripheral nervous system development.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA068485()
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY008126()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P30 HD015052()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK-70813(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F31 DK097938()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK020593()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK058404()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P60 DK020593()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R13 DK103410()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01 DK101038()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50 MH096972()

Postinjury Induction of Activated ErbB2 Selectively Hyperactivates Denervated Schwann Cells and Promotes Robust Dorsal Root Axon Regeneration.

  • Han SB
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Nov 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Following nerve injury, denervated Schwann cells (SCs) convert to repair SCs, which enable regeneration of peripheral axons. However, the repair capacity of SCs and the regenerative capacity of peripheral axons are limited. In the present studies we examined a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance the repair capacity of SCs, and tested its efficacy in enhancing regeneration of dorsal root (DR) axons, whose regenerative capacity is particularly weak. We used male and female mice of a doxycycline-inducible transgenic line to induce expression of constitutively active ErbB2 (caErbB2) selectively in SCs after DR crush or transection. Two weeks after injury, injured DRs of induced animals contained far more SCs and SC processes. These SCs had not redifferentiated and continued to proliferate. Injured DRs of induced animals also contained far more axons that regrew along SC processes past the transection or crush site. Remarkably, SCs and axons in uninjured DRs remained quiescent, indicating that caErbB2 enhanced regeneration of injured DRs, without aberrantly activating SCs and axons in intact nerves. We also found that intraspinally expressed glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), but not the removal of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, greatly enhanced the intraspinal migration of caErbB2-expressing SCs, enabling robust penetration of DR axons into the spinal cord. These findings indicate that SC-selective, post-injury activation of ErbB2 provides a novel strategy to powerfully enhance the repair capacity of SCs and axon regeneration, without substantial off-target damage. They also highlight that promoting directed migration of caErbB2-expressing SCs by GDNF might be useful to enable axon regrowth in a non-permissive environment.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Repair of injured peripheral nerves remains a critical clinical problem. We currently lack a therapy that potently enhances axon regeneration in patients with traumatic nerve injury. It is extremely challenging to substantially increase the regenerative capacity of damaged nerves without deleterious off-target effects. It was therefore of great interest to discover that caErbB2 markedly enhances regeneration of damaged dorsal roots, while evoking little change in intact roots. To our knowledge, these findings are the first demonstration that repair capacity of denervated SCs can be efficaciously enhanced without altering innervated SCs. Our study also demonstrates that oncogenic ErbB2 signaling can be activated in SCs but not impede transdifferentiation of denervated SCs to regeneration-promoting repair SCs.

Identification of Two Classes of Somatosensory Neurons That Display Resistance to Retrograde Infection by Rabies Virus.

  • Albisetti GW
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Oct 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glycoprotein-deleted rabies virus-mediated monosynaptic tracing has become a standard method for neuronal circuit mapping, and is applied to virtually all parts of the rodent nervous system, including the spinal cord and primary sensory neurons. Here we identified two classes of unmyelinated sensory neurons (nonpeptidergic and C-fiber low-threshold mechanoreceptor neurons) resistant to direct and trans-synaptic infection from the spinal cord with rabies viruses that carry glycoproteins in their envelopes and that are routinely used for infection of CNS neurons (SAD-G and N2C-G). However, the same neurons were susceptible to infection with EnvA-pseudotyped rabies virus in tumor virus A receptor transgenic mice, indicating that resistance to retrograde infection was due to impaired virus adsorption rather than to deficits in subsequent steps of infection. These results demonstrate an important limitation of rabies virus-based retrograde tracing of sensory neurons in adult mice, and may help to better understand the molecular machinery required for rabies virus spread in the nervous system. In this study, mice of both sexes were used.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To understand the neuronal bases of behavior, it is important to identify the underlying neural circuitry. Rabies virus-based monosynaptic tracing has been used to identify neuronal circuits in various parts of the nervous system. This has included connections between peripheral sensory neurons and their spinal targets. These connections form the first synapse in the somatosensory pathway. Here we demonstrate that two classes of unmyelinated sensory neurons, which account for >40% of dorsal root ganglia neurons, display resistance to rabies infection. Our results are therefore critical for interpreting monosynaptic rabies-based tracing in the sensory system. In addition, identification of rabies-resistant neurons might provide a means for future studies addressing rabies pathobiology.

Sparse genetic tracing reveals regionally specific functional organization of mammalian nociceptors.

  • Olson W
  • Elife
  • 2017 Oct 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The human distal limbs have a high spatial acuity for noxious stimuli but a low density of pain-sensing neurites. To elucidate mechanisms underlying regional differences in processing nociception, we sparsely traced non-peptidergic nociceptors across the body using a newly generated MrgprdCreERT2 mouse line. We found that mouse plantar paw skin is also innervated by a low density of Mrgprd+ nociceptors, while individual arbors in different locations are comparable in size. Surprisingly, the central arbors of plantar paw and trunk innervating nociceptors have distinct morphologies in the spinal cord. This regional difference is well correlated with a heightened signal transmission for plantar paw circuits, as revealed by both spinal cord slice recordings and behavior assays. Taken together, our results elucidate a novel somatotopic functional organization of the mammalian pain system and suggest that regional central arbor structure could facilitate the "enlarged representation" of plantar paw regions in the CNS.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - K12 GM081259()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS092297()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083702()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS094224()

Spinal nociceptive circuit analysis with recombinant adeno-associated viruses: the impact of serotypes and promoters.

  • Haenraets K
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Sep 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector-mediated gene transfer into genetically defined neuron subtypes has become a powerful tool to study the neuroanatomy of neuronal circuits in the brain and to unravel their functions. More recently, this methodology has also become popular for the analysis of spinal cord circuits. To date, a variety of naturally occurring AAV serotypes and genetically modified capsid variants are available but transduction efficiency in spinal neurons, target selectivity, and the ability for retrograde tracing are only incompletely characterized. Here, we have compared the transduction efficiency of seven commonly used AAV serotypes after intraspinal injection. We specifically analyzed local transduction of different types of dorsal horn neurons, and retrograde transduction of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and of neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and the somatosensory cortex (S1). Our results show that most of the tested rAAV vectors have similar transduction efficiency in spinal neurons. All serotypes analyzed were also able to transduce DRG neurons and descending RVM and S1 neurons via their spinal axon terminals. When comparing the commonly used rAAV serotypes to the recently developed serotype 2 capsid variant rAAV2retro, a > 20-fold increase in transduction efficiency of descending supraspinal neurons was observed. Conversely, transgene expression in retrogradely transduced neurons was strongly reduced when the human synapsin 1 (hSyn1) promoter was used instead of the strong ubiquitous hybrid cytomegalovirus enhancer/chicken β-actin promoter (CAG) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter fragments. We conclude that the use of AAV2retro greatly increases transduction of neurons connected to the spinal cord via their axon terminals, while the hSyn1 promoter can be used to minimize transgene expression in retrogradely connected neurons of the DRG or brainstem. Cover Image for this issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.13813.

Dynamic Expression of Serotonin Receptor 5-HT3A in Developing Sensory Innervation of the Lower Urinary Tract.

  • Ritter KE
  • Front Neurosci
  • 2017 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sensory afferent signaling is required for normal function of the lower urinary tract (LUT). Despite the wide prevalence of bladder dysfunction and pelvic pain syndromes, few effective treatment options are available. Serotonin receptor 5-HT3A is a known mediator of visceral afferent signaling and has been implicated in bladder function. However, basic expression patterns for this gene and others among developing bladder sensory afferents that could be used to inform regenerative efforts aimed at treating deficiencies in pelvic innervation are lacking. To gain greater insight into the molecular characteristics of bladder sensory innervation, we conducted a thorough characterization of Htr3a expression in developing and adult bladder-projecting lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Using a transgenic Htr3a-EGFP reporter mouse line, we identified 5-HT3A expression at 10 days post coitus (dpc) in neural crest derivatives and in 12 dpc lumbosacral DRG. Using immunohistochemical co-localization we observed Htr3a-EGFP expression in developing lumbosacral DRG that partially coincides with neuropeptides CGRP and Substance P and capsaicin receptor TRPV1. A majority of Htr3a-EGFP+ DRG neurons also express a marker of myelinated Aδ neurons, NF200. There was no co-localization of 5-HT3A with the TRPV4 receptor. We employed retrograde tracing in adult Htr3a-EGFP mice to quantify the contribution of 5-HT3A+ DRG neurons to bladder afferent innervation. We found that 5-HT3A is expressed in a substantial proportion of retrograde traced DRG neurons in both rostral (L1, L2) and caudal (L6, S1) axial levels that supply bladder innervation. Most bladder-projecting Htr3a-EGFP+ neurons that co-express CGRP, Substance P, or TRPV1 are found in L1, L2 DRG, whereas Htr3a-EGFP+, NF200+ bladder-projecting neurons are from the L6, S1 axial levels. Our findings contribute much needed information regarding the development of LUT innervation and highlight the 5-HT3A serotonin receptor as a candidate for future studies of neurally mediated bladder control.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F31 DK097938()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01 DK101038()

The Cellular and Synaptic Architecture of the Mechanosensory Dorsal Horn.

  • Abraira VE
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jan 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The deep dorsal horn is a poorly characterized spinal cord region implicated in processing low-threshold mechanoreceptor (LTMR) information. We report an array of mouse genetic tools for defining neuronal components and functions of the dorsal horn LTMR-recipient zone (LTMR-RZ), a role for LTMR-RZ processing in tactile perception, and the basic logic of LTMR-RZ organization. We found an unexpectedly high degree of neuronal diversity in the LTMR-RZ: seven excitatory and four inhibitory subtypes of interneurons exhibiting unique morphological, physiological, and synaptic properties. Remarkably, LTMRs form synapses on between four and 11 LTMR-RZ interneuron subtypes, while each LTMR-RZ interneuron subtype samples inputs from at least one to three LTMR classes, as well as spinal cord interneurons and corticospinal neurons. Thus, the LTMR-RZ is a somatosensory processing region endowed with a neuronal complexity that rivals the retina and functions to pattern the activity of ascending touch pathways that underlie tactile perception.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR028832()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P30 DA035756()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA034022()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R21 DA023643()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R01 DE022750()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F32 NS077836()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P01 NS079419()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS072030()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R35 NS097344()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - T32 NS007292()

Distinctive Features of the Human Marginal Zone and Cajal-Retzius Cells: Comparison of Morphological and Immunocytochemical Features at Midgestation.

  • Tkachenko LA
  • Front Neuroanat
  • 2016 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite a long history of research of cortical marginal zone (MZ) organization and development, a number of issues remain unresolved. One particular issue is the problem of Cajal-Retzius cells (C-R) identification. It is currently based on morphology and Reelin expression. The aim of this research is to investigate MZ cytoarchitectonics and Reelin-producing cells morphotypes in the superior temporal, pre- and postcentral cortex at GW24-26. We used Reelin (Reln) as the marker for C-R cells and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and neurofilament heavy chain protein (N200) as markers of neuronal maturation. The MZ of all of the investigated areas had the distinct cytoarchitectonic of alternating cell sparse (MZP, SR) and cell dense (SGL, DGL) layers. The distribution of the neuromarkers across the MZ also showed layer specificity. MAP2-positive cells were only found in the SGL. N200 and Reelin-positive neurons in the MZP. N200-positive processes were forming a plexus at the DGL level. All of the N200-positive neurons found were in the MZP and had distinctive morphological features of C-R cells. All of the N200-positive neurons in MZ were also positive for Reelin, whereas MAP2-positive cells lack Reelin. Thus, the joint use of two immunomarkers allowed us to discern the C-R cells based on their morphotype and neurochemistry and indicate that the Reelin-positive cells of MZ at 24-26 GW were morphologically C-R cells. In the current study, we identified three C-R cells morphotypes. Using a 3D reconstruction, we made sure that all of them belonged to the single morphotype of triangular C-R cells. This approach will allow future studies to separate C-R cells from other Reelin-producing neurons which appear at later corticogenesis stages. In addition, our findings support the assumption that a plexus could be formed not only with C-R cells processes but also possibly by other cell processes by the poorly researched DGL, which is only allocated as a part of the human MZ.

Erratum to: Rectocutaneous fistula with transmigration of the suture: a rare delayed complication of vault fixation with the sacrospinous ligament.

  • Kadam PD
  • Int Urogynecol J
  • 2016 Mar 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

There was an oversight in the Authorship of a recent Images in Urogynecology article titled: Rectocutaneous fistula with transmigration of the suture: a rare delayed complication of vault fixation with the sacrospinous ligament (DOI 10.1007/ s00192-015-2823-5). We would like to include Adj A/P Han How Chuan’s name in the list of authors. Adj A/P Han is a Senior Consultant and Department Head of Urogynaecology at the KK Hospital for Women and Children, Singapore.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01HG005855(United States)

Connexin50 couples axon terminals of mouse horizontal cells by homotypic gap junctions.

  • Dorgau B
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Horizontal cells in the mouse retina are of the axon-bearing B-type and contribute to the gain control of photoreceptors and to the center-surround organization of bipolar cells by providing feedback and feedforward signals to photoreceptors and bipolar cells, respectively. Horizontal cells form two independent networks, coupled by dendro-dendritic and axo-axonal gap junctions composed of connexin57 (Cx57). In Cx57-deficient mice, occasionally the residual tracer coupling of horizontal cell somata was observed. Also, negative feedback from horizontal cells to photoreceptors, potentially mediated by connexin hemichannels, appeared unaffected. These results point to the expression of a second connexin in mouse horizontal cells. We investigated the expression of Cx50, which was recently identified in axonless A-type horizontal cells of the rabbit retina. In the mouse retina, Cx50-immunoreactive puncta were predominantly localized on large axon terminals of horizontal cells. Electron microscopy did not reveal any Cx50-immunolabeling at the membrane of horizontal cell tips invaginating photoreceptor terminals, ruling out the involvement of Cx50 in negative feedback. Moreover, Cx50 colocalized only rarely with Cx57 on horizontal cell processes, indicating that both connexins form homotypic rather than heterotypic or heteromeric gap junctions. To check whether the expression of Cx50 is changed when Cx57 is lacking, we compared the Cx50 expression in wildtype and Cx57-deficient mice. However, Cx50 expression was unaffected in Cx57-deficient mice. In summary, our results indicate that horizontal cell axon terminals form two independent sets of homotypic gap junctions, a feature which might be important for light adaptation in the retina.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS057674(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - 660060(United Kingdom)

Mice lacking GD3 synthase display morphological abnormalities in the sciatic nerve and neuronal disturbances during peripheral nerve regeneration.

  • Ribeiro-Resende VT
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2014 Oct 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ganglioside 9-O-acetyl GD3 is overexpressed in peripheral nerves after lesioning, and its expression is correlated with axonal degeneration and regeneration in adult rodents. However, the biological roles of this ganglioside during the regenerative process are unclear. We used mice lacking GD3 synthase (Siat3a KO), an enzyme that converts GM3 to GD3, which can be further converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3. Morphological analyses of longitudinal and transverse sections of the sciatic nerve revealed significant differences in the transverse area and nerve thickness. The number of axons and the levels of myelin basic protein were significantly reduced in adult KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. The G-ratio was increased in KO mice compared to WT mice based on quantification of thin transverse sections stained with toluidine blue. We found that neurite outgrowth was significantly reduced in the absence of GD3. However, addition of exogenous GD3 led to neurite growth after 3 days, similar to that in WT mice. To evaluate fiber regeneration after nerve lesioning, we compared the regenerated distance from the lesion site and found that this distance was one-fourth the length in KO mice compared to WT mice. KO mice in which GD3 was administered showed markedly improved regeneration compared to the control KO mice. In summary, we suggest that 9-O-acetyl GD3 plays biological roles in neuron-glia interactions, facilitating axonal growth and myelination induced by Schwann cells. Moreover, exogenous GD3 can be converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3 in mice lacking GD3 synthase, improving regeneration.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 261063(International)

Growth hormone secretion is correlated with neuromuscular innervation rather than motor neuron number in early-symptomatic male amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice.

  • Steyn FJ
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Dec 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

GH deficiency is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, therapy with GH and/or IGF-I has not shown benefit. To gain a better understanding of the role of GH secretion in ALS pathogenesis, we assessed endogenous GH secretion in wild-type and hSOD1(G93A) mice throughout the course of ALS disease. Male wild-type and hSOD1(G93A) mice were studied at the presymptomatic, onset, and end stages of disease. To assess the pathological features of disease, we measured motor neuron number and neuromuscular innervation. We report that GH secretion profile varies at different stages of disease progression in hSOD1(G93A) mice; compared with age-matched controls, GH secretion is unchanged prior to the onset of disease symptoms, elevated at the onset of disease symptoms, and reduced at the end stage of disease. In hSOD1(G93A) mice at the onset of disease, GH secretion is positively correlated with the percentage of neuromuscular innervation but not with motor neuron number. Moreover, this occurs in parallel with an elevation in the expression of muscle IGF-I relative to controls. Our data imply that increased GH secretion at symptom onset may be an endogenous endocrine response to increase the local production of muscle IGF-I to stimulate reinnervation of muscle, but that in the latter stages of disease this response no longer occurs.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 5P20GM103636(United States)

Chronic neurotrophin delivery promotes ectopic neurite growth from the spiral ganglion of deafened cochleae without compromising the spatial selectivity of cochlear implants.

  • Landry TG
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cochlear implants restore hearing cues in the severe-profoundly deaf by electrically stimulating spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). However, SGNs degenerate following loss of cochlear hair cells, due at least in part to a reduction in the endogenous neurotrophin (NT) supply, normally provided by hair cells and supporting cells of the organ of Corti. Delivering exogenous NTs to the cochlea can rescue SGNs from degeneration and can also promote the ectopic growth of SGN neurites. This resprouting may disrupt the cochleotopic organization upon which cochlear implants rely to impart pitch cues. Using retrograde labeling and confocal imaging of SGNs, we determined the extent of neurite growth following 28 days of exogenous NT treatment in deafened guinea pigs with and without chronic electrical stimulation (ES). On completion of this treatment, we measured the spread of neural activation to intracochlear ES by recording neural responses across the cochleotopically organized inferior colliculus using multichannel recording techniques. Although NT treatment significantly increased both the length and the lateral extent of growth of neurites along the cochlea compared with deafened controls, these anatomical changes did not affect the spread of neural activation when examined immediately after 28 days of NT treatment. NT treatment did, however, result in lower excitation thresholds compared with deafened controls. These data support the application of NTs for improved clinical outcomes for cochlear implant patients.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U01 HG02712(United States)

Neurochemical features of boar lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion neurons and characterization of sensory neurons innervating the urinary bladder trigone.

  • Russo D
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Porcine lumbosacral dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were neurochemically characterized by using six neuronal markers: calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), neurofilament 200kDa (NF200), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), and isolectin B4 (IB4) from Griffonia simplicifolia. In addition, the phenotype and cross-sectional area of DRG neurons innervating the urinary bladder trigone (UBT) were evaluated by coupling retrograde tracer technique and immunohistochemistry. Lumbar and sacral DRG neuronal subpopulations were immunoreactive (IR) for CGRP (30 ± 3% and 29 ± 3%, respectively), SP (26 ± 8% and 27 ± 12%, respectively), nNOS (21 ± 4% and 26 ± 7%, respectively), NF200 (75 ± 14% and 81 ± 7%, respectively), and TRPV1 (48 ± 13% and 43 ± 6%, respectively), and labeled for IB4 (56 ± 6% and 43 ± 10%, respectively). UBT sensory neurons, which were distributed from L2 to Ca1 DRG, had a segmental localization, showing their highest density in L4-L5 and S2-S4 DRG. Lumbar and sacral UBT sensory neurons expressed similar percentages of NF200 immunoreactivity (64 ± 33% and 58 ± 12%, respectively) but showed a significantly different immunoreactivity for CGRP, SP, nNOS, and TRPV1 (56 ± 9%, 39 ± 15%, 17 ± 13%, 62 ± 10% vs. 16 ± 6%, 16 ± 11%, 6 ± 1%, 45 ± 24%, respectively). Lumbar and sacral UBT sensory neurons also showed different IB4 labeling (67 ± 19% and 48 ± 16, respectively). Taken together, these data indicate that the lumbar and sacral pathways probably play different roles in sensory transmission from the UBT. The findings related to cell size also reinforced this hypothesis, because lumbar UBT sensory neurons were significantly larger than sacral ones (1,112 ± 624 μm(2) vs. 716 ± 421 μm(2) ).

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01GM079203(United States)

Transmitter release in the neuromuscular synapse of the protein kinase C theta-deficient adult mouse.

  • Besalduch N
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We studied structural and functional features of the neuromuscular junction in adult mice (P30) genetically deficient in the protein kinase C (PKC) theta isoform. Confocal and electron microscopy shows that there are no differences in the general morphology of the endplates between PKC theta-deficient and wild-type (WT) mice. Specifically, there is no difference in the density of the synaptic vesicles. However, the myelin sheath is not as thick in the intramuscular nerve fibers of the PKC theta-deficient mice. We found a significant reduction in the size of evoked endplate potentials and in the frequency of spontaneous, asynchronous, miniature endplate potentials in the PKC theta-deficient neuromuscular preparations in comparison with the WT, but the mean amplitude of the spontaneous potentials is not different. These changes indicate that PKC theta has a presynaptic role in the function of adult neuromuscular synapses.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP-12037(Canada)
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - 1P41 HG 02371-01(United States)

Neurodevelopmental expression and localization of the cellular prion protein in the central nervous system of the mouse.

  • Benvegnù S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are neurodegenerative disorders caused by PrP(Sc), or prion, an abnormally folded form of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). The abundant expression of PrP(C) in the central nervous system (CNS) is a requirement for prion replication, yet despite years of intensive research the physiological function of PrP(C) still remains unclear. Several routes of investigation point out a potential role for PrP(C) in axon growth and neuronal development. Thus, we undertook a detailed analysis of the spatial and temporal expression of PrP(C) during mouse CNS development. Our findings show regional differences of the expression of PrP, with some specific white matter structures showing the earliest and highest expression of PrP(C). Indeed, all these regions are part of the thalamolimbic neurocircuitry, suggesting a potential role of PrP(C) in the development and functioning of this specific brain system.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - 3P41RR024851-02S1(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS34309(United States)

Synaptic activity-related classical protein kinase C isoform localization in the adult rat neuromuscular synapse.

  • Besalduch N
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Protein kinase C (PKC) is essential for signal transduction in a variety of cells, including neurons and myocytes, and is involved in both acetylcholine release and muscle fiber contraction. Here, we demonstrate that the increases in synaptic activity by nerve stimulation couple PKC to transmitter release in the rat neuromuscular junction and increase the level of alpha, betaI, and betaII isoforms in the membrane when muscle contraction follows the stimulation. The phosphorylation activity of these classical PKCs also increases. It seems that the muscle has to contract in order to maintain or increase classical PKCs in the membrane. We use immunohistochemistry to show that PKCalpha and PKCbetaI were located in the nerve terminals, whereas PKCalpha and PKCbetaII were located in the postsynaptic and the Schwann cells. Stimulation and contraction do not change these cellular distributions, but our results show that the localization of classical PKC isoforms in the membrane is affected by synaptic activity.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R37 AR038648-21(United States)

Chronic nerve compression injury induces a phenotypic switch of neurons within the dorsal root ganglia.

  • Chao T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic nerve compression (CNC) injury initiates a series of pathological changes within the peripheral nerve at the site of injury. However, to date, little work has been performed to explore neuronal cell body responses to CNC injury. Here we show a preferential upregulation of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) and enhanced Fluoro Ruby uptake by the small-diameter calcitonin gene-related protein (CGRP) and isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive neurons in the L4 and L5 ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion (DRG) 2 weeks and 1 month post injury. Furthermore, L4 and L5 DRGs ipsilateral to CNC injury also demonstrated a marked reduction in neurofilament 200 (NF-200) neurons and an increase in CGRP and IB4 neurons at early time points. All numbers normalized to values comparable to those of control when the DRG was evaluated 6 months post injury. Quantification of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protein revealed an upregulation in L4 and L5 DRG followed by a return to baseline values at later stages following injury. Upregulation of GDNF expression by Schwann cells was also readily apparent with both immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of 1 month compressed sciatic nerve specimens. Thus, CNC induces a phenotypic change in the DRG that appears to be temporally associated with increases in GDNF protein expression at and near the site of the compression injury in the nerve.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM049831(United States)