Both lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and antidepressants have been shown to affect neuronal survival and differentiation, but whether LPA signalling participates in the action of antidepressants is still unknown. In this study, we examined the role of LPA receptors in the regulation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activity and neuronal survival by the tetracyclic antidepressants, mianserin and mirtazapine in hippocampal neurons. In HT22 immortalized hippocampal cells, antidepressants and LPA induced a time- and concentration-dependent stimulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. This response was inhibited by either LPA1 and LPA1/3 selective antagonists or siRNA-induced LPA1 down-regulation, and enhanced by LPA1 over-expression. Conversely, the selective LPA2 antagonist H2L5186303 had no effect. Antidepressants induced cyclic AMP response element binding protein phosphorylation and this response was prevented by LPA1 blockade. ERK1/2 stimulation involved pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins, Src tyrosine kinases and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF-R) activity. Tyrosine phosphorylation of FGF-R was enhanced by antidepressants through LPA1 . Serum withdrawal induced apoptotic death, as indicated by increased annexin V staining, caspase activation and cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. Antidepressants inhibited the apoptotic cascade and this protective effect was curtailed by blockade of either LPA1 , ERK1/2 or FGF-R activity. Moreover, in primary mouse hippocampal neurons, mianserin acting through LPA1 increased phospho-ERK1/2 and protected from apoptosis induced by removal of growth supplement. These data indicate that in neurons endogenously expressed LPA1 receptors mediate intracellular signalling and neuroprotection by tetracyclic antidepressants.
Down syndrome (DS) is the most prevalent cause of intellectual disability (ID). Individuals with DS show a variety of cognitive deficits, most notably in hippocampal learning and memory, and display pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), with neurodegeneration of cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons. Elucidation of the molecular and cellular underpinnings of neuropathology has been assessed via gene expression analysis in a relevant animal model, termed the Ts65Dn mouse. The Ts65Dn mouse is a segmental trisomy model of DS that mimics DS/AD pathology, notably age-related cognitive dysfunction and degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs). To determine expression level changes, molecular fingerprinting of cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) pyramidal neurons was performed in adult (4-9 month-old) Ts65Dn mice, at the initiation of BFCN degeneration. To quantitate transcriptomic changes during this early time period, laser capture microdissection (LCM), terminal continuation (TC) RNA amplification, custom-designed microarray analysis, and subsequent validation of individual transcripts by qPCR and protein analysis via immunoblotting was performed. The results indicate significant alterations within CA1 pyramidal neurons of Ts65Dn mice compared with normal disomic (2N) littermates, notably in the downregulation of neurotrophins and their cognate neurotrophin receptors among other classes of transcripts relevant to neurodegeneration. The results of this single-population gene expression analysis at the time of septohippocampal deficits in a trisomic mouse model shed light on a vulnerable circuit that may cause the AD-like pathology invariably seen in DS that could help to identify mechanisms of degeneration, and provide novel gene targets for therapeutic interventions. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:61-74, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Modulation of phosphorylation states of ion channels is a critical step in the development of hyperalgesia during inflammation. Modulatory enhancement of channel activity may increase neuronal excitability and affect downstream targets such as gene transcription. The specificity required for such regulation of ion channels quickly occurs via targeting of protein kinases and phosphatases by the scaffolding A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 (AKAP79/150). AKAP79/150 has been implicated in inflammatory pain by targeting protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) to the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel in peripheral sensory neurons, thus lowering threshold for activation of the channel by multiple inflammatory reagents. However, the expression pattern of AKAP150 in peripheral sensory neurons is unknown. Here we identify the peripheral neuron subtypes that express AKAP150, the subcellular distribution of AKAP150, and the potential target ion channels in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) slices. We found that AKAP150 is expressed predominantly in a subset of small DRG sensory neurons, where it is localized at the plasma membrane of the soma, axon initial segment, and small fibers. Most of these neurons are peripherin positive and produce C fibers, although a small portion produce Aδ fibers. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AKAP79/150 colocalizes with TRPV1 and Ca(V) 1.2 in the soma and axon initial segment. Thus AKAP150 is expressed in small, nociceptive DRG neurons, where it is targeted to membrane regions and where it may play a role in the modulation of ion channel phosphorylation states required for hyperalgesia.