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Monoclonal Anti-Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) antibody produced in mouse

RRID:AB_477010

Antibody ID

AB_477010

Target Antigen

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) antibody produced in mouse pig, rat, human, porcine, human, rat

Proper Citation

(Sigma-Aldrich Cat# G3893, RRID:AB_477010)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Vendor recommendations: IgG1 microarray: suitable, immunohistochemistry: 1:400; Other; Immunohistochemistry

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Sigma-Aldrich

Cat Num

G3893

Publications that use this research resource

Chronic Liver Injury Induces Conversion of Biliary Epithelial Cells into Hepatocytes.

  • Deng X
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic liver injury can cause cirrhosis and impaired liver regeneration, impairing organ function. Adult livers can regenerate in response to parenchymal insults, and multiple cellular sources have been reported to contribute to this response. In this study, we modeled human chronic liver injuries, in which such responses are blunted, without genetic manipulations, and assessed potential contributions of non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) to hepatocyte regeneration. We show that NPC-derived hepatocytes replenish a large fraction of the liver parenchyma following severe injuries induced by long-term thioacetamide (TAA) or 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) treatment. Through lineage tracing of biliary epithelial cells (BECs), we show that BECs are a source of new hepatocytes and gain an Hnf4α+CK19+ bi-phenotypic state in periportal regions and fibrotic septa. Bi-phenotypic cells were also detected in cirrhotic human livers. Together, these data provide further support for hepatocyte regeneration from BECs without genetic interventions and show their cellular plasticity during severe liver injury.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA172027(United States)

Inactivation of hepatic ATRX in Atrx Foxg1cre mice prevents reversal of aging-like phenotypes by thyroxine.

  • Rowland ME
  • Aging (Albany NY)
  • 2018 Jun 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

ATRX is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler required for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We previously reported that conditional Atrx ablation in the mouse embryonic forebrain and anterior pituitary using the Foxg1cre driver causes reduced health and lifespan. In these mice, premature aging-like phenotypes were accompanied by low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and thyroxine (T4), hormones that maintain stem cell pools and normal metabolic profiles, respectively. Based on emerging evidence that T4 stimulates expression of IGF-1 in pre-pubertal mice, we tested whether T4 supplementation in Atrx Foxg1cre mice could restore IGF-1 levels and ameliorate premature aging-like phenotypes. Despite restoration of normal serum T4 levels, we did not observe improvements in circulating IGF-1. In the liver, thyroid hormone target genes were differentially affected upon T4 treatment, with Igf1 and several other thyroid hormone responsive genes failing to recover normal expression levels. These findings hinted at Cre-mediated Atrx inactivation in the liver of Atrx Foxg1cre mice, which we confirmed. We conclude that the phenotypes observed in the Atrx Foxg1cre mice can be explained in part by a role of ATRX in the liver to promote T4-mediated Igf1 expression, thus explaining the inefficacy of T4 therapy observed in this study.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01MH090910(United States)

Functional Consequences of Synapse Remodeling Following Astrocyte-Specific Regulation of Ephrin-B1 in the Adult Hippocampus.

  • Koeppen J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Astrocyte-derived factors can control synapse formation and functions, making astrocytes an attractive target for regulating neuronal circuits and associated behaviors. Abnormal astrocyte-neuronal interactions are also implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases associated with impaired learning and memory. However, little is known about astrocyte-mediated mechanisms that regulate learning and memory. Here, we propose astrocytic ephrin-B1 as a regulator of synaptogenesis in adult hippocampus and mouse learning behaviors. We found that astrocyte-specific ablation of ephrin-B1 in male mice triggers an increase in the density of immature dendritic spines and excitatory synaptic sites in the adult CA1 hippocampus. However, the prevalence of immature dendritic spines is associated with decreased evoked postsynaptic firing responses in CA1 pyramidal neurons, suggesting impaired maturation of these newly formed and potentially silent synapses or increased excitatory drive on the inhibitory neurons resulting in the overall decreased postsynaptic firing. Nevertheless, astrocyte-specific ephrin-B1 knock-out male mice exhibit normal acquisition of fear memory but enhanced contextual fear memory recall. In contrast, overexpression of astrocytic ephrin-B1 in the adult CA1 hippocampus leads to the loss of dendritic spines, reduced excitatory input, and impaired contextual memory retention. Our results suggest that astrocytic ephrin-B1 may compete with neuronal ephrin-B1 and mediate excitatory synapse elimination through its interactions with neuronal EphB receptors. Indeed, a deletion of neuronal EphB receptors impairs the ability of astrocytes expressing functional ephrin-B1 to engulf synaptosomes in vitro Our findings demonstrate that astrocytic ephrin-B1 regulates long-term contextual memory by restricting new synapse formation in the adult hippocampus.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT These studies address a gap in our knowledge of astrocyte-mediated regulation of learning and memory by unveiling a new role for ephrin-B1 in astrocytes and elucidating new mechanisms by which astrocytes regulate learning. Our studies explore the mechanisms underlying astrocyte regulation of hippocampal circuit remodeling during learning using new genetic tools that target ephrin-B signaling in astrocytes in vivo On a subcellular level, astrocytic ephrin-B1 may compete with neuronal ephrin-B1 and trigger astrocyte-mediated elimination of EphB receptor-containing synapses. Given the role EphB receptors play in neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, these findings establish a foundation for future studies of astrocyte-mediated synaptogenesis in clinically relevant conditions that can help to guide the development of clinical applications for a variety of neurological disorders.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01CA142106(United States)

The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and the Intergeniculate Leaflet of the Flat-Faced Fruit-Eating Bat (Artibeus planirostris): Retinal Projections and Neurochemical Anatomy.

  • Santana NNM
  • Front Neuroanat
  • 2018 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) are the main components of the circadian timing system. The SCN, classically known as the master circadian clock, generates rhythms and synchronizes them to environmental cues. The IGL is a key structure that modulates SCN activity. Strategies on the use of time by animals can provide important clues about how some species are adapted to competitive process in nature. Few studies have provided information about temporal niche in bats with special attention on the neural substrate underlies circadian rhythms. The aim of this study was to investigate these circadian centers with respect to their cytoarchitecture, chemical content and retinal projections in the flat-faced fruit-eating bat (Artibeus planirostris), a chiropteran endemic to South America. Unlike other species of phyllostomid bats, the flat-faced fruit-eating bat's peak of activity occurs 5 h after sunset. This raises several questions about the structure and function of the SCN and IGL in this species. We carried out a mapping of the retinal projections and cytoarchitectural study of the nuclei using qualitative and quantitative approaches. Based on relative optical density findings, the SCN and IGL of the flat-faced fruit-eating bat receive bilaterally symmetric retinal innervation. The SCN contains vasopressin (VP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) neurons with neuropeptide Y (NPY), serotonin (5-HT) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) immunopositive fibers/terminals and is marked by intense glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity. The IGL contains NPY perikarya as well as GAD and 5-HT immunopositive terminals and is characterized by dense GFAP immunostaining. In addition, stereological tools were combined with Nissl stained sections to estimate the volumes of the circadian centers. Taken together, the present results in the flat-faced fruit-eating bat reveal some differences compared to other bat species which might explain the divergence in the hourly activity among bats in order to reduce the competitive potential and resource partitioning in nature.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM069818(United States)

Epithelial Sodium Channel Regulates Adult Neural Stem Cell Proliferation in a Flow-Dependent Manner.

  • Petrik D
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

One hallmark of adult neurogenesis is its adaptability to environmental influences. Here, we uncovered the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) as a key regulator of adult neurogenesis as its deletion in neural stem cells (NSCs) and their progeny in the murine subependymal zone (SEZ) strongly impairs their proliferation and neurogenic output in the olfactory bulb. Importantly, alteration of fluid flow promotes proliferation of SEZ cells in an ENaC-dependent manner, eliciting sodium and calcium signals that regulate proliferation via calcium-release-activated channels and phosphorylation of ERK. Flow-induced calcium signals are restricted to NSCs in contact with the ventricular fluid, thereby providing a highly specific mechanism to regulate NSC behavior at this special interface with the cerebrospinal fluid. Thus, ENaC plays a central role in regulating adult neurogenesis, and among multiple modes of ENaC function, flow-induced changes in sodium signals are critical for NSC biology.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA CP005803-15(United States)

Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Displays a Particular Time Response to Acute Stress: Variation in Its Levels and Activity Distribution in Rat Hippocampus.

  • Aguayo FI
  • ACS Chem Neurosci
  • 2018 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

A single stress exposure facilitates memory formation through neuroplastic processes that reshape excitatory synapses in the hippocampus, probably requiring changes in extracellular matrix components. We tested the hypothesis that matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), an enzyme that degrades components of extracellular matrix and synaptic proteins such as β-dystroglycan (β-DG43), changes their activity and distribution in rat hippocampus during the acute stress response. After 2.5 h of restraint stress, we found (i) increased MMP-9 levels and potential activity in whole hippocampal extracts, accompanied by β-DG43 cleavage, and (ii) a significant enhancement of MMP-9 immunoreactivity in dendritic fields such as stratum radiatum and the molecular layer of hippocampus. After 24 h of stress, we found that (i) MMP-9 net activity rises at somatic field, i.e., stratum pyramidale and granule cell layers, and also at synaptic field, mainly stratum radiatum and the molecular layer of hippocampus, and (ii) hippocampal synaptoneurosome fractions are enriched with MMP-9, without variation of its potential enzymatic activity, in accordance with the constant level of cleaved β-DG43. These findings indicate that stress triggers a peculiar timing response in the MMP-9 levels, net activity, and subcellular distribution in the hippocampus, suggesting its involvement in the processing of substrates during the stress response.

Funding information:
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - P42ES04911(United States)

Genetic deletion of xCT attenuates peripheral and central inflammation and mitigates LPS-induced sickness and depressive-like behavior in mice.

  • Albertini G
  • Glia
  • 2018 Apr 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

The communication between the immune and central nervous system (CNS) is affected in many neurological disorders. Peripheral injections of the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are widely used to study this communication: an LPS challenge leads to a biphasic syndrome that starts with acute sickness and is followed by persistent brain inflammation and chronic behavioral alterations such as depressive-like symptoms. In vitro, the response to LPS treatment has been shown to involve enhanced expression of system xc-. This cystine-glutamate antiporter, with xCT as specific subunit, represents the main glial provider of extracellular glutamate in mouse hippocampus. Here we injected male xCT knockout and wildtype mice with a single intraperitoneal dose of 5 mg/kg LPS. LPS-injection increased hippocampal xCT expression but did not alter the mainly astroglial localization of the xCT protein. Peripheral and central inflammation (as defined by cytokine levels and morphological activation of microglia) as well as LPS-induced sickness and depressive-like behavior were significantly attenuated in xCT-deficient mice compared with wildtype mice. Our study is the first to demonstrate the involvement of system xc- in peripheral and central inflammation in vivo and the potential therapeutic relevance of its inhibition in brain disorders characterized by peripheral and central inflammation, such as depression.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM091896(United States)

Kir4.1-Dependent Astrocyte-Fast Motor Neuron Interactions Are Required for Peak Strength.

  • Kelley KW
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diversified neurons are essential for sensorimotor function, but whether astrocytes become specialized to optimize circuit performance remains unclear. Large fast α-motor neurons (FαMNs) of spinal cord innervate fast-twitch muscles that generate peak strength. We report that ventral horn astrocytes express the inward-rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 (a.k.a. Kcnj10) around MNs in a VGLUT1-dependent manner. Loss of astrocyte-encoded Kir4.1 selectively altered FαMN size and function and led to reduced peak strength. Overexpression of Kir4.1 in astrocytes was sufficient to increase MN size through activation of the PI3K/mTOR/pS6 pathway. Kir4.1 was downregulated cell autonomously in astrocytes derived from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with SOD1 mutation. However, astrocyte Kir4.1 was dispensable for FαMN survival even in the mutant SOD1 background. These findings show that astrocyte Kir4.1 is essential for maintenance of peak strength and suggest that Kir4.1 downregulation might uncouple symptoms of muscle weakness from MN cell death in diseases like ALS.

Funding information:
  • FIC NIH HHS - K01 TW000001(United States)

Unveiling the Role of Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase/CD73 in Astrocyte Migration by Using Pharmacological Tools.

  • Adzic M
  • Front Pharmacol
  • 2018 Mar 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

CD73 is a bifunctional glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein which functions as ecto-5'-nucleotidase and a membrane receptor for extracellular matrix protein (ECM). A large body of evidence demonstrates a critical involvement of altered purine metabolism and particularly, increased expression of CD73 in a number of human disorders, including cancer and immunodeficiency. Massive up-regulation of CD73 was also found in reactive astrocytes in several experimental models of human neuropathologies. In all the pathological contexts studied so far, the increased expression of CD73 has been associated with the altered ability of cells to adhere and/or migrate. Thus, we hypothesized that increased expression of CD73 in reactive astrocytes has a role in the process of astrocyte adhesion and migration. In the present study, the involvement of CD73 in astrocyte migration was investigated in the scratch wound assay (SW), using primary astrocyte culture prepared from neonatal rat cortex. The cultures were treated with one of the following pharmacological inhibitors which preferentially target individual functions of CD73: (a) α,β-methylene ADP (APCP), which inhibits the catalytic activity of CD73 (b) polyclonal anti-CD73 antibodies, which bind to the internal epitope of CD73 molecule and mask their surface exposure and (c) small interfering CD73-RNA (siCD73), which silences the expression of CD73 gene. It was concluded that approaches that reduce surface expression of CD73 increase migration velocity and promote wound closure in the scratch wound assay, while inhibition of the enzyme activity by APCP induces redistribution of CD73 molecules at the cell surface, thus indirectly affecting cell adhesion and migration. Application of anti-CD73 antibodies induces a decrease in CD73 activity and membrane expression, through CD73 molecules shedding and their release to the culture media. In addition, all applied pharmacological inhibitors differentially affect other aspects of astrocyte function in vitro, including reduced cell proliferation, altered expression of adenosine receptors and increased expression of ERK1/2. Altogether these data imply that CD73 participates in cell adhesion/migration and transmits extracellular signals through interactions with ECM.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - CA11867(United States)

Long-Term Neuroinflammation Induced by Influenza A Virus Infection and the Impact on Hippocampal Neuron Morphology and Function.

  • Hosseini S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Mar 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Acute influenza infection has been reported to be associated with neurological symptoms. However, the long-term consequences of an infection with neurotropic and non-neurotropic influenza A virus (IAV) variants for the CNS remain elusive. We can show that spine loss in the hippocampus after infection with neurotropic H7N7 (rSC35M) and non-neurotropic H3N2 (maHK68) in female C57BL/6 mice persists well beyond the acute phase of the disease. Although spine number was significantly reduced at 30 d postinfection (dpi) with H7N7 or H3N2, full recovery could only be observed much later at 120 dpi. Infection with H1N1 virus, which was shown previously to affect spine number and hippocampus-dependent learning acutely, had no significant long-term effects. Spine loss was associated with an increase in the number of activated microglia, reduced long-term potentiation in the hippocampus, and impairment in spatial memory formation, indicating that IAV-associated inflammation induced functional and structural alterations in hippocampal networks. Transcriptome analyses revealed regulation of many inflammatory and neuron- and glia-specific genes in H3N2- and H7N7-infected mice at day 18 and in H7N7-infected mice at day 30 pi that related to the structural and functional alterations. Our data provide evidence that neuroinflammation induced by neurotropic H7N7 and infection of the lung with a non-neurotropic H3N2 IAV result in long-term impairments in the CNS. IAV infection in humans may therefore not only lead to short-term responses in infected organs, but may also trigger neuroinflammation and associated chronic alterations in the CNS.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the acute phase of influenza infection, neuroinflammation can lead to alterations in hippocampal neuronal morphology and cognitive deficits. The results of this study now also provide evidence that neuroinflammation induced by influenza A virus (IAV) infection can induce longer-lasting, virus-specific alterations in neuronal connectivity that are still detectable 1 month after infection and are associated with impairments in spatial memory formation. IAV infection in humans may therefore not only lead to short-term responses in infected organs, but may also trigger neuroinflammation and associated chronic alterations in the CNS.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01CA75253(United States)

Localization of the cannabinoid type-1 receptor in subcellular astrocyte compartments of mutant mouse hippocampus.

  • Gutiérrez-Rodríguez A
  • Glia
  • 2018 Feb 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Astroglial type-1 cannabinoid (CB1 ) receptors are involved in synaptic transmission, plasticity and behavior by interfering with the so-called tripartite synapse formed by pre- and post-synaptic neuronal elements and surrounding astrocyte processes. However, little is known concerning the subcellular distribution of astroglial CB1 receptors. In particular, brain CB1 receptors are mostly localized at cells' plasmalemma, but recent evidence indicates their functional presence in mitochondrial membranes. Whether CB1 receptors are present in astroglial mitochondria has remained unknown. To investigate this issue, we included conditional knock-out mice lacking astroglial CB1 receptor expression specifically in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-containing astrocytes (GFAP-CB1 -KO mice) and also generated genetic rescue mice to re-express CB1 receptors exclusively in astrocytes (GFAP-CB1 -RS). To better identify astroglial structures by immunoelectron microscopy, global CB1 knock-out (CB1 -KO) mice and wild-type (CB1 -WT) littermates were intra-hippocampally injected with an adeno-associated virus expressing humanized renilla green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) under the control of human GFAP promoter to generate GFAPhrGFP-CB1 -KO and -WT mice, respectively. Furthermore, double immunogold (for CB1 ) and immunoperoxidase (for GFAP or hrGFP) revealed that CB1 receptors are present in astroglial mitochondria from different hippocampal regions of CB1 -WT, GFAP-CB1 -RS and GFAPhrGFP-CB1 -WT mice. Only non-specific gold particles were detected in mouse hippocampi lacking CB1 receptors. Altogether, we demonstrated the existence of a precise molecular architecture of the CB1 receptor in astrocytes that will have to be taken into account in evaluating the functional activity of cannabinergic signaling at the tripartite synapse.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA105304-06A1(United States)

Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation of Alpha-synuclein Demonstrates its Oligomerization with Dopaminergic Phenotype in Mice.

  • Cai W
  • EBioMedicine
  • 2018 Feb 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alpha-synuclein (αSyn) is encoded by the first causal gene identified in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is the main component of Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of PD. aSyn-based animal models have contributed to our understanding of PD pathophysiology and to the development of therapeutics. Overexpression of human wildtype αSyn by viral vectors in rodents recapitulates the loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra, another defining pathological feature of the disease. The development of a rat model exhibiting bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) of αSyn by recombinant adeno-associated virus facilitates detection of the toxic αSyn oligomers species. We report here neurochemical, neuropathological and behavioral characterization of BiFC of αSyn in mice. Overexpression and oligomerization of αSyn through BiFC is detected by conjugated fluorescence. Reduced striatal dopamine and loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons are accompanied neuroinflammation and abnormal motor activities. Our mouse model may provide a valuable tool to study the role of αSyn in PD and to explore therapeutic approaches.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI045928-08(United States)

Phospholipid localization implies microglial morphology and function via Cdc42 in vitro.

  • Tokizane K
  • Glia
  • 2018 Feb 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Under a quiescent state, microglia exhibit a ramified shape, rather than the amoeboid-like morphology following injury or inflammation. The manipulation of microglial morphology in vitro has not been very successful, which has impeded the progress of microglial studies. We demonstrate that lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS), a kind of lysophospholipids, rapidly and substantially alters the morphology of primary cultured microglia to an in vivo-like ramified shape in a receptor independent manner. This mechanism is mediated by Cdc42 activity. LysoPS is incorporated into the plasma membrane and converted to phosphatidylserine (PS) via the Lands' cycle. The accumulated PS on the membrane recruits Cdc42. Both Cdc42 and PS colocalize predominantly in primary and secondary processes, but not in peripheral branches or tips of microglia. Along with the morphological changes LysoPS suppresses inflammatory cytokine production and NF-kB activity. The present study provides a tool to manipulate a microglial phenotype from an amoeboid to a fully ramified in vitro, which certainly contributes to studies exploring microglial physiology and pathology.

Radial Glial Fibers Promote Neuronal Migration and Functional Recovery after Neonatal Brain Injury.

  • Jinnou H
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jan 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Radial glia (RG) are embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) that produce neuroblasts and provide fibers that act as a scaffold for neuroblast migration during embryonic development. Although they normally disappear soon after birth, here we found that RG fibers can persist in injured neonatal mouse brains and act as a scaffold for postnatal ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate to the lesion site. This injury-induced maintenance of RG fibers has a limited time window during post-natal development and promotes directional saltatory movement of neuroblasts via N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts that promote RhoA activation. Transplanting an N-cadherin-containing scaffold into injured neonatal brains likewise promotes migration and maturation of V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts, leading to functional improvements in impaired gait behaviors. Together these results suggest that RG fibers enable postnatal V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts to migrate toward sites of injury, thereby enhancing neuronal regeneration and functional recovery from neonatal brain injuries.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK082659(United States)

Phosphorylated CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β Contributes to Rat HIV-Related Neuropathic Pain: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

  • Yi H
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chronic pain is increasingly recognized as an important comorbidity of HIV-infected patients, however, the exact molecular mechanisms of HIV-related pain are still elusive. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are expressed in various tissues, including the CNS. C/EBPβ, one of the C/EBPs, is involved in the progression of HIV/AIDS, but the exact role of C/EBPβ and its upstream factors are not clear in HIV pain state. Here, we used a neuropathic pain model of perineural HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 application onto the rat sciatic nerve to test the role of phosphorylated C/EBPβ (pC/EBPβ) and its upstream pathway in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH). HIV gp120 induced overexpression of pC/EBPβ in the ipsilateral SCDH compared with contralateral SCDH. Inhibition of C/EBPβ using siRNA against C/EBPβ reduced mechanical allodynia. HIV gp120 also increased TNFα, TNFRI, mitochondrial superoxide (mtO2·-), and pCREB in the ipsilateral SCDH. ChIP-qPCR assay showed that pCREB enrichment on the C/EBPβ gene promoter regions in rats with gp120 was higher than that in sham rats. Intrathecal TNF soluble receptor I (functionally blocking TNFα bioactivity) or knockdown of TNFRI using antisense oligodeoxynucleotide against TNFRI reduced mechanical allodynia, and decreased mtO2·-, pCREB and pC/EBPβ. Intrathecal Mito-tempol (a mitochondria-targeted O2·-scavenger) reduced mechanical allodynia and decreased pCREB and pC/EBPβ. Knockdown of CREB with antisense oligodeoxynucleotide against CREB reduced mechanical allodynia and lowered pC/EBPβ. These results suggested that the pathway of TNFα/TNFRI-mtO2·--pCREB triggers pC/EBPβ in the HIV gp120-induced neuropathic pain state. Furthermore, we confirmed the pathway using both cultured neurons treated with recombinant TNFα in vitro and repeated intrathecal injection of recombinant TNFα in naive rats. This finding provides new insights in the understanding of the HIV neuropathic pain mechanisms and treatment.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy is a neurological complication of HIV infection. Phosphorylated C/EBPβ (pC/EBPβ) influences AIDS progression, but it is still not clear about the exact role of pC/EBPβ and the detailed upstream factors of pC/EBPβ in HIV-related pain. In a neuropathic pain model of perineural HIV gp120 application onto the sciatic nerve, we found that pC/EBPβ was triggered by TNFα/TNFRI-mtO2·--pCREB signaling pathway. The pathway was confirmed by using cultured neurons treated with recombinant TNFα in vitro, and by repeated intrathecal injection of recombinant TNFα in naive rats. The present results revealed the functional significance of TNFα/TNFRI-mtO2·--pCREB-pC/EBPβ signaling in HIV neuropathic pain, and should help in the development of more specific treatments for neuropathic pain.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - 79634(Canada)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA034749()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS066792()

The Hypothalamic Inflammatory/Gliosis Response to Neonatal Overnutrition Is Sex and Age Dependent.

  • Argente-Arizón P
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Astrocytes participate in both physiological and pathophysiological responses to metabolic and nutrient signals. Although most studies have focused on the astrocytic response to weight gain due to high-fat/high-carbohydrate intake, surplus intake of a balanced diet also induces excess weight gain. We have accessed the effects of neonatal overnutrition, which has both age- and sex-dependent effects on weight gain, on hypothalamic inflammation/gliosis. Although both male and female Wistar rats accumulate excessive fat mass as early as postnatal day (PND) 10 with neonatal overnutrition, no increase in hypothalamic cytokine levels, markers of astrocytes or microglia, or inflammatory signaling pathways were observed. At PND 50, no effect of neonatal overnutriton was found in either sex, whereas at PND 150, males again weighed significantly more than their controls, and this was coincident with an increase in markers of inflammation and astrogliosis in the hypothalamus. Circulating triglycerides and free fatty acids were also elevated in these males, but not in females or in either sex at PND 10. Thus, the effects of fatty acids and estrogens on astrocytes in vitro were analyzed. Our results indicate that changes in circulating fatty acid levels may be involved in the induction of hypothalamic inflammation/gliosis in excess weight gain, even on a normal diet, and that estrogens could participate in the protection of females from these processes. In conclusion, the interaction of developmental influences, dietary composition, age, and sex determines the central inflammatory response and the associated long-term outcomes of excess weight gain.

Astroglial major histocompatibility complex class I following immune activation leads to behavioral and neuropathological changes.

  • Sobue A
  • Glia
  • 2018 Jan 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the central nervous system, major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules are mainly expressed in neurons, and neuronal MHCI have roles in synapse elimination and plasticity. However, the pathophysiological significance of astroglial MHCI remains unclear. We herein demonstrate that MHCI expression is up-regulated in astrocytes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) following systemic immune activation by an intraperitoneal injection of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) or hydrodynamic interferon (IFN)-γ gene delivery in male C57/BL6J mice. In cultured astrocytes, MHCI/H-2D largely co-localized with exosomes. To investigate the role of astroglial MHCI, H-2D, or sH-2D was expressed in the mPFC of male C57/BL6J mice using an adeno-associated virus vector under the control of a glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter. The expression of astroglial MHCI in the mPFC impaired sociability and recognition memory in mice. Regarding neuropathological changes, MHCI expression in astrocytes significantly activated microglial cells, decreased parvalbumin-positive cell numbers, and reduced dendritic spine density in the mPFC. A treatment with GW4869 that impairs exosome synthesis ameliorated these behavioral and neuropathological changes. These results suggest that the overexpression of MHCI in astrocytes affects microglial proliferation as well as neuronal numbers and spine densities, thereby leading to social and cognitive deficits in mice, possibly via exosomes created by astrocytes.

The cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT, Slc7a11) is expressed in significant concentrations in a subpopulation of astrocytes in the mouse brain.

  • Ottestad-Hansen S
  • Glia
  • 2018 Jan 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) promotes glutathione synthesis by catalyzing cystine uptake and glutamate release. The released glutamate may modulate normal neural signaling and contribute to excitotoxicity in pathological situations. Uncertainty, however, remains as neither the expression levels nor the distribution of xCT have been unambiguously determined. In fact, xCT has been reported in astrocytes, neurons, oligodendrocytes and microglia, but most of the information derives from cell cultures. Here, we show by immunohistochemistry and by Western blotting that xCT is widely expressed in the central nervous system of both sexes. The labeling specificity was validated using tissue from xCT knockout mice as controls. Astrocytes were selectively labeled, but showed greatly varying labeling intensities. This astroglial heterogeneity resulted in an astrocyte domain-like labeling pattern. Strong xCT labeling was also found in the leptomeninges, along some blood vessels, in selected circumventricular organs and in a subpopulation of tanycytes residing the lateral walls of the ventral third ventricle. Neurons, oligodendrocytes and resting microglia, as well as reactive microglia induced by glutamine synthetase deficiency, were unlabeled. The concentration of xCT protein in hippocampus was compared with that of the EAAT3 glutamate transporter by immunoblotting using a chimeric xCT-EAAT3 protein to normalize xCT and EAAT3 labeling intensities. The immunoblots suggested an xCT/EAAT3 ratio close to one (0.75 ± 0.07; average ± SEM; n = 4) in adult C57BL6 mice. CONCLUSIONS: xCT is present in select blood/brain/CSF interface areas and in an astrocyte subpopulation, in sufficient quantities to support the notion that system xc- provides physiologically relevant transport activity.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50 MH106934(United States)

Increased ceruloplasmin expression caused by infiltrated leukocytes, activated microglia, and astrocytes in injured female rat spinal cords.

  • Wu Y
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Jan 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ceruloplasmin (Cp), an enzyme containing six copper atoms, has important roles in iron homeostasis and antioxidant defense. After spinal cord injury (SCI), the cellular components in the local microenvironment are very complex and include functional changes of resident cells and the infiltration of leukocytes. It has been confirmed that Cp is elevated primarily in astrocytes and to a lesser extent in macrophages following SCI in mice. However, its expression in other cell types is still not very clear. In this manuscript, we provide a sensible extension of these findings by examining this system within a female Sprague-Dawley rat model and expanding the scope of inquiry to include additional cell types. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed that the Cp mRNA and protein in SCI tissue homogenates were quite consistent with prior publications. However, we observed that Cp was expressed not only in GFAP+ astrocytes (consistent with prior reports) but also in CD11b+ microglia, CNPase+ oligodendrocytes, NeuN+ neurons, CD45+ leukocytes, and CD68+ activated microglia/macrophages. Quantitative analysis proved that infiltrated leukocytes, activated microglia/macrophages, and astrocytes should be the major sources of increased Cp.

Bridging pro-inflammatory signals, synaptic transmission and protection in spinal explants in vitro.

  • Medelin M
  • Mol Brain
  • 2018 Jan 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Multiple sclerosis is characterized by tissue atrophy involving the brain and the spinal cord, where reactive inflammation contributes to the neurodegenerative processes. Recently, the presence of synapse alterations induced by the inflammatory responses was suggested by experimental and clinical observations, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model and in patients, respectively. Further knowledge on the interplay between pro-inflammatory agents, neuroglia and synaptic dysfunction is crucial to the design of unconventional protective molecules. Here we report the effects, on spinal cord circuits, of a cytokine cocktail that partly mimics the signature of T lymphocytes sub population Th1. In embryonic mouse spinal organ-cultures, containing neuronal cells and neuroglia, cytokines induced inflammatory responses accompanied by a significant increase in spontaneous synaptic activity. We suggest that cytokines specifically altered signal integration in spinal networks by speeding the decay of GABAA responses. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that synapse protection by a non-peptidic NGF mimetic molecule prevented both the changes in the time course of GABA events and in network activity that were left unchanged by the cytokine production from astrocytes and microglia present in the cultured tissue. In conclusion, we developed an important tool for the study of synaptic alterations induced by inflammation, that takes into account the role of neuronal and not neuronal resident cells.

Funding information:
  • FP7-NMP - 604263()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R21ES020010(United States)
  • PRIN-MIUR - n. 2012MYESZW()

Intracerebroventricular administration of Cystatin C ameliorates disease in SOD1-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice.

  • Watanabe S
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cystatin C (CysC) is a major protein component of Bunina bodies, which are a pathological hallmark observed in the remaining motor neurons of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Dominant mutations in the SOD1 gene, encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), are causative for a subset of inherited ALS cases. Our previous study showed that CysC exerts a neuroprotective effect against mutant SOD1-mediated toxicity in vitro; however, in vivo evidence of the beneficial effects mediated by CysC remains obscure. Here we examined the therapeutic potential of recombinant human CysC in vivo using a mouse model of ALS in which the ALS-linked mutated SOD1 gene is expressed (SOD1G93A mice). Intracerebroventricular administration of CysC during the early symptomatic SOD1G93A mice extended their survival times. Administered CysC was predominantly distributed in ventral horn neurons including motor neurons, and induced autophagy through AMP-activated kinase activation to reduce the amount of insoluble mutant SOD1 species. Moreover, PGC-1α, a disease modifier of ALS, was restored by CysC through AMP-activated kinase activation. Finally, the administration of CysC also promoted aggregation of CysC in motor neurons, which is similar to Bunina bodies. Taken together, our findings suggest that CysC represents a promising therapeutic candidate for ALS.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01-AR050478(United States)

LRP1 regulates peroxisome biogenesis and cholesterol homeostasis in oligodendrocytes and is required for proper CNS myelin development and repair.

  • Lin JP
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) is a large endocytic and signaling molecule broadly expressed by neurons and glia. In adult mice, global inducible (Lrp1flox/flox;CAG-CreER) or oligodendrocyte (OL)-lineage specific ablation (Lrp1flox/flox;Pdgfra-CreER) of Lrp1 attenuates repair of damaged white matter. In oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), Lrp1 is required for cholesterol homeostasis and differentiation into mature OLs. Lrp1-deficient OPC/OLs show a strong increase in the sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-2 yet are unable to maintain normal cholesterol levels, suggesting more global metabolic deficits. Mechanistic studies revealed a decrease in peroxisomal biogenesis factor-2 and fewer peroxisomes in OL processes. Treatment of Lrp1-/- OPCs with cholesterol or activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ with pioglitazone alone is not sufficient to promote differentiation; however, when combined, cholesterol and pioglitazone enhance OPC differentiation into mature OLs. Collectively, our studies reveal a novel role for Lrp1 in peroxisome biogenesis, lipid homeostasis, and OPC differentiation during white matter development and repair.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01-CA148761(United States)

Gyrification of the cerebral cortex requires FGF signaling in the mammalian brain.

  • Matsumoto N
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although it has been believed that the evolution of cortical folds was a milestone, allowing for an increase in the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex, the mechanisms underlying the formation of cortical folds are largely unknown. Here we show regional differences in the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in the developing cerebral cortex of ferrets even before cortical folds are formed. By taking the advantage of our in utero electroporation technique for ferrets, we found that cortical folding was impaired in the ferret cerebral cortex when FGF signaling was inhibited. We also found that FGF signaling was crucial for producing Pax6-positive neural progenitors in the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) of the developing cerebral cortex. Furthermore, we found that upper layers of the cerebral cortex were preferentially reduced by inhibiting FGF signaling. Our results shed light on the mechanisms of cortical folding in gyrencephalic mammalian brains.

Possible involvement of a cell adhesion molecule, Migfilin, in brain development and pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders.

  • Ishizuka K
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Nov 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Migfilin, encoded by FBLIM1 at the 1p36 locus, is a multi-domain adaptor protein essential for various cellular processes such as cell morphology and migration. Small deletions and duplications at the 1p36 locus, monosomy of which results in neurodevelopmental disorders and multiple congenital anomalies, have also been identified in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the impact of FBLIM1, the gene within 1p36, on the pathogenesis of ASD is unknown. In this study, we performed morphological analyses of migfilin to elucidate its role in brain development. Migfilin was detected specifically in the embryonic and perinatal stages of the mouse brain. Either silencing or overexpression of migfilin in embryos following in utero electroporation disrupted Neocortical neuronal migration. Additionally, neurite elongation was impaired when migfilin was silenced in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. We then screened FBLIM1 for rare exonic deletions/duplications in 549 Japanese ASD patients and 824 controls, detecting one case of ASD and intellectual delay that harbored a 26-kb deletion at 1p36.21 that solely included the C-terminal exon of FBLIM1. The FBLIM1 mRNA expression level in this case was reduced compared to levels in individuals without FBLIM1 deletion. Our findings indicate that tightly regulated expression of migfilin is essential for neuronal development and that FBLIM1 disruption may be related to the phenotypes associated with ASD and related neurodevelopmental disorders.

Postinjury Induction of Activated ErbB2 Selectively Hyperactivates Denervated Schwann Cells and Promotes Robust Dorsal Root Axon Regeneration.

  • Han SB
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Nov 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Following nerve injury, denervated Schwann cells (SCs) convert to repair SCs, which enable regeneration of peripheral axons. However, the repair capacity of SCs and the regenerative capacity of peripheral axons are limited. In the present studies we examined a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance the repair capacity of SCs, and tested its efficacy in enhancing regeneration of dorsal root (DR) axons, whose regenerative capacity is particularly weak. We used male and female mice of a doxycycline-inducible transgenic line to induce expression of constitutively active ErbB2 (caErbB2) selectively in SCs after DR crush or transection. Two weeks after injury, injured DRs of induced animals contained far more SCs and SC processes. These SCs had not redifferentiated and continued to proliferate. Injured DRs of induced animals also contained far more axons that regrew along SC processes past the transection or crush site. Remarkably, SCs and axons in uninjured DRs remained quiescent, indicating that caErbB2 enhanced regeneration of injured DRs, without aberrantly activating SCs and axons in intact nerves. We also found that intraspinally expressed glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), but not the removal of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, greatly enhanced the intraspinal migration of caErbB2-expressing SCs, enabling robust penetration of DR axons into the spinal cord. These findings indicate that SC-selective, post-injury activation of ErbB2 provides a novel strategy to powerfully enhance the repair capacity of SCs and axon regeneration, without substantial off-target damage. They also highlight that promoting directed migration of caErbB2-expressing SCs by GDNF might be useful to enable axon regrowth in a non-permissive environment.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Repair of injured peripheral nerves remains a critical clinical problem. We currently lack a therapy that potently enhances axon regeneration in patients with traumatic nerve injury. It is extremely challenging to substantially increase the regenerative capacity of damaged nerves without deleterious off-target effects. It was therefore of great interest to discover that caErbB2 markedly enhances regeneration of damaged dorsal roots, while evoking little change in intact roots. To our knowledge, these findings are the first demonstration that repair capacity of denervated SCs can be efficaciously enhanced without altering innervated SCs. Our study also demonstrates that oncogenic ErbB2 signaling can be activated in SCs but not impede transdifferentiation of denervated SCs to regeneration-promoting repair SCs.

Dmrt5, a Novel Neurogenic Factor, Reciprocally Regulates Lhx2 to Control the Neuron-Glia Cell-Fate Switch in the Developing Hippocampus.

  • Muralidharan B
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Regulation of the neuron-glia cell-fate switch is a critical step in the development of the CNS. Previously, we demonstrated that Lhx2 is a necessary and sufficient regulator of this process in the mouse hippocampal primordium, such that Lhx2 overexpression promotes neurogenesis and suppresses gliogenesis, whereas loss of Lhx2 has the opposite effect. We tested a series of transcription factors for their ability to mimic Lhx2 overexpression and suppress baseline gliogenesis, and also to compensate for loss of Lhx2 and suppress the resulting enhanced level of gliogenesis in the hippocampus. Here, we demonstrate a novel function of Dmrt5/Dmrta2 as a neurogenic factor in the developing hippocampus. We show that Dmrt5, as well as known neurogenic factors Neurog2 and Pax6, can each not only mimic Lhx2 overexpression, but also can compensate for loss of Lhx2 to different extents. We further uncover a reciprocal regulatory relationship between Dmrt5 and Lhx2, such that each can compensate for loss of the other. Dmrt5 and Lhx2 also have opposing regulatory control on Pax6 and Neurog2, indicating a complex bidirectionally regulated network that controls the neuron-glia cell-fate switch.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We identify Dmrt5 as a novel regulator of the neuron-glia cell-fate switch in the developing hippocampus. We demonstrate Dmrt5 to be neurogenic, and reciprocally regulated by Lhx2: loss of either factor promotes gliogenesis; overexpression of either factor suppresses gliogenesis and promotes neurogenesis; each can substitute for loss of the other. Furthermore, each factor has opposing effects on established neurogenic genes Neurog2 and Pax6 Dmrt5 is known to suppress their expression, and we show that Lhx2 is required to maintain it. Our study reveals a complex regulatory network with bidirectional control of a fundamental feature of CNS development, the control of the production of neurons versus astroglia in the developing hippocampus.Finally, we confirm that Lhx2 binds a highly conserved putative enhancer of Dmrt5, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved regulatory relationship between these factors. Our findings uncover a complex network that involves Lhx2, Dmrt5, Neurog2, and Pax6, and that ensures the appropriate amount and timing of neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the developing hippocampus.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - (United States)

PPARα is essential for retinal lipid metabolism and neuronal survival.

  • Pearsall EA
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2017 Nov 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear receptor. The role of endogenous PPARα in retinal neuronal homeostasis is unknown. Retinal photoreceptors are the highest energy-consuming cells in the body, requiring abundant energy substrates. PPARα is a known regulator of lipid metabolism, and we hypothesized that it may regulate lipid use for oxidative phosphorylation in energetically demanding retinal neurons. RESULTS: We found that endogenous PPARα is essential for the maintenance and survival of retinal neurons, with Pparα -/- mice developing retinal degeneration first detected at 8 weeks of age. Using extracellular flux analysis, we identified that PPARα mediates retinal utilization of lipids as an energy substrate, and that ablation of PPARα ultimately results in retinal bioenergetic deficiency and neurodegeneration. This may be due to PPARα regulation of lipid transporters, which facilitate the internalization of fatty acids into cell membranes and mitochondria for oxidation and ATP production. CONCLUSION: We identify an endogenous role for PPARα in retinal neuronal survival and lipid metabolism, and furthermore underscore the importance of fatty acid oxidation in photoreceptor survival. We also suggest PPARα as a putative therapeutic target for age-related macular degeneration, which may be due in part to decreased mitochondrial efficiency and subsequent energetic deficits.

Funding information:
  • European Commission - 305485 PREVENT-ROP()
  • JDRF - 2-SRA-2014-147-Q-R()
  • Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International - 3-PDF-2014-107-A-N()
  • National Eye Institute - EY018659()
  • National Eye Institute - EY019309()
  • National Eye Institute - EY021725()
  • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute - HL125625()
  • National Institutes of Health - GM103639()
  • National Institutes of Health - GM104934()
  • National Institutes of Health - HD18655()
  • National Institutes of Health - P20GM104934()
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY021725()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY005318()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY012231()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY017017()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY018659()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY019309()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R24 EY024864()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL125625()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P30 AG050911()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P30 HD018655()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD090255()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P20 GM103639()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P20 GM104934()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM056800(United States)

The Glia-Neuron Lactate Shuttle and Elevated ROS Promote Lipid Synthesis in Neurons and Lipid Droplet Accumulation in Glia via APOE/D.

  • Liu L
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Nov 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce the formation of lipids in neurons that are transferred to glia, where they form lipid droplets (LDs). We show that glial and neuronal monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs), and apolipoproteins are critical for glial LD formation. MCTs enable glia to secrete and neurons to absorb lactate, which is converted to pyruvate and acetyl-CoA in neurons. Lactate metabolites provide a substrate for synthesis of fatty acids, which are processed and transferred to glia by FATP and apolipoproteins. In the presence of high ROS, inhibiting lactate transfer or lowering FATP or apolipoprotein levels decreases glial LD accumulation in flies and in primary mouse glial-neuronal cultures. We show that human APOE can substitute for a fly glial apolipoprotein and that APOE4, an Alzheimer's disease susceptibility allele, is impaired in lipid transport and promotes neurodegeneration, providing insights into disease mechanisms.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P30 AI036211()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM067858()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM084947()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM120033()

Study of retinal neurodegeneration and maculopathy in diabetic Meriones shawi: A particular animal model with human-like macula.

  • Hammoum I
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The purpose of this work was to evaluate a potentially useful animal model, Meriones shawi (M.sh)-developing metabolic X syndrome, diabetes and possessing a visual streak similar to human macula-in the study of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema (DME). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) was induced by high fat diet administration in M.sh. Body weights, blood glucose levels were monitored throughout the study. Diabetic retinal histopathology was evaluated 3 and 7 months after diabetes induction. Retinal thickness was measured, retinal cell types were labeled by immunohistochemistry and the number of stained elements were quantified. Apoptosis was determined with TUNEL assay. T2D induced progressive changes in retinal histology. A significant decrease of retinal thickness and glial reactivity was observed without an increase in apoptosis rate. Photoreceptor outer segment degeneration was evident, with a significant decrease in the number of all cones and M-cone subtype, but-surprisingly-an increase in S-cones. Damage of the pigment epithelium was also confirmed. A decrease in the number and labeling intensity of parvalbumin- and calretinin-positive amacrine cells and a loss of ganglion cells was detected. Other cell types showed no evident alterations. No DME-like condition was noticed even after 7 months. M.sh could be a useful model to study the evolution of diabetic retinal pathology and to identify the role of hypertension and dyslipidemia in the development of the reported alterations. Longer follow up would be needed to evaluate the potential use of the visual streak in modeling human macular diseases.

Ryk controls remapping of motor cortex during functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

  • Hollis ER
  • Nat. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Aug 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Limited functional recovery can be achieved through rehabilitation after incomplete spinal cord injury. Eliminating the function of a repulsive Wnt receptor, Ryk, in mice and rats by either conditional knockout in the motor cortex or monoclonal antibody infusion resulted in increased corticospinal axon collateral branches with presynaptic puncta in the spinal cord and enhanced recovery of forelimb reaching and grasping function following a cervical dorsal column lesion. Using optical stimulation, we observed that motor cortical output maps underwent massive changes after injury and that hindlimb cortical areas were recruited to control the forelimb over time. Furthermore, a greater cortical area was dedicated to controlling the forelimb in Ryk conditional knockout mice than in controls (wild-type or heterozygotes). In the absence of weekly task-specific training, recruitment of ectopic cortical areas was greatly reduced and there was no significant functional recovery even in Ryk conditional knockout mice. Our study provides evidence that maximal circuit reorganization and functional recovery can be achieved by combining molecular manipulation and targeted rehabilitation.

Corticosterone primes the neuroinflammatory response to Gulf War Illness-relevant organophosphates independently of acetylcholinesterase inhibition.

  • Locker AR
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Aug 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom disorder affecting veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. Among the symptoms of GWI are those associated with sickness behavior, observations suggestive of underlying neuroinflammation. We have shown that exposure of mice to the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), and to diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), as a nerve agent mimic, results in marked neuroinflammation, findings consistent with a stress/neuroimmune basis of GWI. Here, we examined the contribution of irreversible and reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors to neuroinflammation in our mouse model of GWI. Male C57BL/6J mice received 4 days of CORT (400 mg/L) in the drinking water followed by a single dose of chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO; 8 mg/kg, i.p.), DFP (4 mg/kg, i.p.), pyridostigmine bromide (PB; 3 mg/kg, i.p.), or physostigmine (PHY; 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). CPO and DFP alone caused cortical and hippocampal neuroinflammation assessed by qPCR of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6, C-C chemokine ligand 2, IL-1β, leukemia inhibitory factor and oncostatin M; CORT pretreatment markedly augmented these effects. Additionally, CORT exposure prior to DFP or CPO enhanced activation of the neuroinflammation signal transducer, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). In contrast, PHY or PB alone or with CORT pretreatment did not produce neuroinflammation or STAT3 activation. While all of the CNS-acting AChE inhibitors (DFP, CPO, and PHY) decreased brain AChE activity, CORT pretreatment abrogated these effects for the irreversible inhibitors. Taken together, these findings suggest that irreversible AChE inhibitor-induced neuroinflammation and particularly its exacerbation by CORT, result from non-cholinergic effects of these compounds, pointing potentially to organophosphorylation of other neuroimmune targets.

Cellular Localization of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1 in Rat Nucleus Tractus Solitarii.

  • Lin LH
  • Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
  • 2017 Aug 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

By determining its cellular localization in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), we sought anatomical support for a putative physiological role for acid-sensing ion channel Type 1 (ASIC1) in chemosensitivity. Further, we sought to determine the effect of a lesion that produces gliosis in the area. In rats, we studied ASIC1 expression in control tissue with that in tissue with gliosis, which is associated with acidosis, after saporin lesions. We hypothesized that saporin would increase ASIC1 expression in areas of gliosis. Using fluorescent immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, we found that cells and processes containing ASIC1-immunoreactivity (IR) were present in the NTS, the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus, and the area postrema. In control tissue, ASIC1-IR predominantly colocalized with IR for the astrocyte marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), or the microglial marker, integrin αM (OX42). The subpostremal NTS was the only NTS region where neurons, identified by protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), contained ASIC1-IR. ASIC1-IR increased significantly (157 ± 8.6% of control, p < 0.001) in the NTS seven days after microinjection of saporin. As we reported previously, GFAP-IR was decreased in the center of the saporin injection site, but GFAP-IR was increased in the surrounding areas where OX42-IR, indicative of activated microglia, was also increased. The over-expressed ASIC1-IR colocalized with GFAP-IR and OX42-IR in those reactive astrocytes and microglia. Our results support the hypothesis that ASIC1 would be increased in activated microglia and in reactive astrocytes after injection of saporin into the NTS.

Activity-Dependent Gating of Parvalbumin Interneuron Function by the Perineuronal Net Protein Brevican.

  • Favuzzi E
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Activity-dependent neuronal plasticity is a fundamental mechanism through which the nervous system adapts to sensory experience. Several lines of evidence suggest that parvalbumin (PV+) interneurons are essential in this process, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the influence of experience on interneuron plasticity remain poorly understood. Perineuronal nets (PNNs) enwrapping PV+ cells are long-standing candidates for playing such a role, yet their precise contribution has remained elusive. We show that the PNN protein Brevican is a critical regulator of interneuron plasticity. We find that Brevican simultaneously controls cellular and synaptic forms of plasticity in PV+ cells by regulating the localization of potassium channels and AMPA receptors, respectively. By modulating Brevican levels, experience introduces precise molecular and cellular modifications in PV+ cells that are required for learning and memory. These findings uncover a molecular program through which a PNN protein facilitates appropriate behavioral responses to experience by dynamically gating PV+ interneuron function.

Membrane-bound glucocorticoid receptors on distinct nociceptive neurons as potential targets for pain control through rapid non-genomic effects.

  • Shaqura M
  • Neuropharmacology
  • 2017 Jul 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glucocorticoids were long believed to primarily function through cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation and subsequent classical genomic pathways. Recently, however, evidence has emerged that suggests the presence of rapid non-genomic GR-dependent signaling pathways within the brain, though their existence in spinal and peripheral nociceptive neurons remains elusive. In this paper, we aim to systemically identify GR within the spinal cord and periphery, to verify their putative membrane location and to characterize possible G protein coupling and pain modulating properties. Double immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed that GR predominantly localized in peripheral peptidergic and non-peptidergic nociceptive C- and Aδ-neurons and existed only marginally in myelinated mechanoreceptive and proprioreceptive neurons. Within the spinal cord, GR predominantly localized in incoming presynaptic nociceptive neurons, in pre- and postsynaptic structures of the dorsal horn, as well as in microglia. GR saturation binding revealed that these receptors are linked to the cell membrane of sensory neurons and, upon activation, they trigger membrane targeted [35S]GTPγS binding, indicating G protein coupling to a putative receptor. Importantly, subcutaneous dexamethasone immediately and dose-dependently attenuated acute nociceptive behavior elicited in an animal model of formalin-induced pain hypersensitivity compared to naive rats. Overall, this study provides firm evidence for a novel neuronal mechanism of GR agonists that is rapid, non-genomic, dependent on membrane binding and G protein coupling, and acutely modulates nociceptive behavior, thus unraveling a yet unconsidered mechanism of pain relief.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - T32 NS061764(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U01 NS090595(United States)

Lunatic fringe-mediated Notch signaling regulates adult hippocampal neural stem cell maintenance.

  • Semerci F
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) integrate inputs from multiple sources to balance quiescence and activation. Notch signaling plays a key role during this process. Here, we report that Lunatic fringe (Lfng), a key modifier of the Notch receptor, is selectively expressed in NSCs. Further, Lfng in NSCs and Notch ligands Delta1 and Jagged1, expressed by their progeny, together influence NSC recruitment, cell cycle duration, and terminal fate. We propose a new model in which Lfng-mediated Notch signaling enables direct communication between a NSC and its descendants, so that progeny can send feedback signals to the 'mother' cell to modify its cell cycle status. Lfng-mediated Notch signaling appears to be a key factor governing NSC quiescence, division, and fate.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA125123()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR024574()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P30 AI036211()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD083092()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC006185()
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC014832()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD016167()

Alleviation of Neuropathology by Inhibition of Monoacylglycerol Lipase in APP Transgenic Mice Lacking CB2 Receptors.

  • Zhang J
  • Mol. Neurobiol.
  • 2017 Jul 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary enzyme that hydrolyzes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the brain, produces profound anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects and improves synaptic and cognitive functions in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects produced by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism are still not clear. The cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) has been thought to be a therapeutic target for AD. Here, we provide evidence, however, that CB2R does not play a role in ameliorating AD neuropathology produced by inactivation of MAGL in 5XFAD APP transgenic mice, an animal model of AD. We observed that expression of APP and β-secretase as well as production of total Aβ and Aβ42 were significantly reduced in APP transgenic mice lacking CB2R (TG-CB2-KO) treated with JZL184, a selective and potent inhibitor for MAGL. Inactivation of MAGL also alleviated neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in TG-CB2-KO mice. Importantly, TG-CB2-KO mice treated with JZL184 still exhibited improvements in spatial learning and memory. In addition, MAGL inhibition prevented deterioration in expression of important synaptic proteins in TG-CB2-KO mice. Our results suggest that CB2R is not required in ameliorating neuropathology and preventing cognitive decline by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism in AD model animals.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS076815()

Serotonergic Projections Govern Postnatal Neuroblast Migration.

  • García-González D
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

In many vertebrates, postnatally generated neurons often migrate long distances to reach their final destination, where they help shape local circuit activity. Concerted action of extrinsic stimuli is required to regulate long-distance migration. Some migratory principles are evolutionarily conserved, whereas others are species and cell type specific. Here we identified a serotonergic mechanism that governs migration of postnatally generated neurons in the mouse brain. Serotonergic axons originating from the raphe nuclei exhibit a conspicuous alignment with subventricular zone-derived neuroblasts. Optogenetic axonal activation provides functional evidence for serotonergic modulation of neuroblast migration. Furthermore, we show that the underlying mechanism involves serotonin receptor 3A (5HT3A)-mediated calcium influx. Thus, 5HT3A receptor deletion in neuroblasts impaired speed and directionality of migration and abolished calcium spikes. We speculate that serotonergic modulation of postnatally generated neuroblast migration is evolutionarily conserved as indicated by the presence of serotonergic axons in migratory paths in other vertebrates.

Diazepam Binding Inhibitor Promotes Stem Cell Expansion Controlling Environment-Dependent Neurogenesis.

  • Dumitru I
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Apr 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Plasticity of adult neurogenesis supports adaptation to environmental changes. The identification of molecular mediators that signal these changes to neural progenitors in the niche has remained elusive. Here we report that diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) is crucial in supporting an adaptive mechanism in response to changes in the environment. We provide evidence that DBI is expressed in stem cells in all neurogenic niches of the postnatal brain. Focusing on the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) and employing multiple genetic manipulations in vivo, we demonstrate that DBI regulates the balance between preserving the stem cell pool and neurogenesis. Specifically, DBI dampens GABA activity in stem cells, thereby sustaining the proproliferative effect of physical exercise and enriched environment. Our data lend credence to the notion that the modulatory effect of DBI constitutes a general mechanism that regulates postnatal neurogenesis.

Immunosuppression via Loss of IL2rγ Enhances Long-Term Functional Integration of hESC-Derived Photoreceptors in the Mouse Retina.

  • Zhu J
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Mar 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Loss of photoreceptors is a common endpoint in degenerative retinal diseases. Human pluripotent stem cells provide a potential source for photoreceptor replacement, but, even in mouse models, the efficiency and efficacy of transplantation-based repair remains poor. In this study, we examined the degree to which immune rejection contributes to these disappointing outcomes using an immunodeficient IL2 receptor γ (IL2rγ)-null mouse model. Our results show that prevention of cell rejection in the normal and degenerating retinal environment significantly improves long-term survival and integration of hESC-derived donor retinal cells. Transplanted cells are able to differentiate into mature photoreceptors expressing various opsins and can functionally integrate into congenitally blind mice. Our work suggests that even though the retina is often considered immune-privileged, suppression of host immune-mediated cell rejection may well be a useful approach for improving long-term integration of transplanted cells with a view to successful clinical outcomes.

Synaptic Activity Drives a Genomic Program That Promotes a Neuronal Warburg Effect.

  • Bas-Orth C
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2017 Mar 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synaptic activity drives changes in gene expression to promote long lasting adaptations of neuronal structure and function. One example of such an adaptive response is the buildup of acquired neuroprotection, a synaptic activity- and gene transcription-mediated increase in the resistance of neurons against harmful conditions. A hallmark of acquired neuroprotection is the stabilization of mitochondrial structure and function. We therefore re-examined previously identified sets of synaptic activity-regulated genes to identify genes that are directly linked to mitochondrial function. In mouse and rat primary hippocampal cultures, synaptic activity caused an up-regulation of glycolytic genes and a concomitant down-regulation of genes required for oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial biogenesis, and maintenance. Changes in metabolic gene expression were induced by action potential bursting, but not by glutamate bath application activating extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. The specific and coordinate pattern of gene expression changes suggested that synaptic activity promotes a shift of neuronal energy metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation toward aerobic glycolysis, also known as the Warburg effect. The ability of neurons to up-regulate glycolysis has, however, been debated. We therefore used FACS sorting to show that, in mixed neuron glia co-cultures, activity-dependent regulation of metabolic gene expression occurred in neurons. Changes in gene expression were accompanied by changes in the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the key metabolic enzyme, pyruvate dehydrogenase. Finally, increased synaptic activity caused an increase in the ratio of l-lactate production to oxygen consumption in primary hippocampal cultures. Based on these data we suggest the existence of a synaptic activity-mediated neuronal Warburg effect that may promote mitochondrial homeostasis and neuroprotection.

miR-219 Cooperates with miR-338 in Myelination and Promotes Myelin Repair in the CNS.

  • Wang H
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

A lack of sufficient oligodendrocyte myelination contributes to remyelination failure in demyelinating disorders. miRNAs have been implicated in oligodendrogenesis; however, their functions in myelin regeneration remained elusive. Through developmentally regulated targeted mutagenesis, we demonstrate that miR-219 alleles are critical for CNS myelination and remyelination after injury. Further deletion of miR-338 exacerbates the miR-219 mutant hypomyelination phenotype. Conversely, miR-219 overexpression promotes precocious oligodendrocyte maturation and regeneration processes in transgenic mice. Integrated transcriptome profiling and biotin-affinity miRNA pull-down approaches reveal stage-specific miR-219 targets in oligodendrocytes and further uncover a novel network for miR-219 targeting of differentiation inhibitors including Lingo1 and Etv5. Inhibition of Lingo1 and Etv5 partially rescues differentiation defects of miR-219-deficient oligodendrocyte precursors. Furthermore, miR-219 mimics enhance myelin restoration following lysolecithin-induced demyelination as well as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, principal animal models of multiple sclerosis. Together, our findings identify context-specific miRNA-regulated checkpoints that control myelinogenesis and a therapeutic role for miR-219 in CNS myelin repair.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS065808()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072427()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS075243()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS087474()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS096359()

Nogo-A does not inhibit retinal axon regeneration in the lizard Gallotia galloti.

  • Lang DM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The myelin-associated protein Nogo-A contributes to the failure of axon regeneration in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Inhibition of axon growth by Nogo-A is mediated by the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR). Nonmammalian vertebrates, however, are capable of spontaneous CNS axon regeneration, and we have shown that retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons regenerate in the lizard Gallotia galloti. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed spatiotemporal regulation of Nogo-A and NgR in cell bodies and axons of RGCs during ontogeny. In the adult lizard, expression of Nogo-A was associated with myelinated axon tracts and upregulated in oligodendrocytes during RGC axon regeneration. NgR became upregulated in RGCs following optic nerve injury. In in vitro studies, Nogo-A-Fc failed to inhibit growth of lizard RGC axons. The inhibitor of protein kinase A (pkA) activity KT5720 blocked growth of lizard RGC axons on substrates of Nogo-A-Fc, but not laminin. On patterned substrates of Nogo-A-Fc, KT5720 caused restriction of axon growth to areas devoid of Nogo-A-Fc. Levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were elevated over sustained periods in lizard RGCs following optic nerve lesion. We conclude that Nogo-A and NgR are expressed in a mammalian-like pattern and are upregulated following optic nerve injury, but the presence of Nogo-A does not inhibit RGC axon regeneration in the lizard visual pathway. The results of outgrowth assays suggest that outgrowth-promoting substrates and activation of the cAMP/pkA signaling pathway play a key role in spontaneous lizard retinal axon regeneration in the presence of Nogo-A. Restriction of axon growth by patterned Nogo-A-Fc substrates suggests that Nogo-A may contribute to axon guidance in the lizard visual system. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:936-954, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - F31 DE022237(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008151(United States)

Sex-Dependent Regulation of Aromatase-Mediated Synaptic Plasticity in the Basolateral Amygdala.

  • Bender RA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The basolateral amygdala (BLA) integrates sensory input from cortical and subcortical regions, a function that requires marked synaptic plasticity. Here we provide evidence that cytochrome P450 aromatase (AROM), the enzyme converting testosterone to 17β-estradiol (E2), contributes to the regulation of this plasticity in a sex-specific manner. We show that AROM is expressed in the BLA, particularly in the basolateral nucleus (BL), in male and female rodents. Systemic administration of the AROM inhibitor letrozole reduced spine synapse density in the BL of adult female mice but not in the BL of male mice. Similarly, in organotypic corticoamygdalar slice cultures from immature rats, treatment with letrozole significantly reduced spine synapses in the BL only in cultures derived from females. In addition, letrozole sex-specifically altered synaptic properties in the BL: in acute slices from juvenile (prepubertal) female rats, wash-in of letrozole virtually abolished long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas it did not prevent the generation of LTP in the slices from males. Together, these data indicate that neuron-derived E2 modulates synaptic plasticity in rodent BLA sex-dependently. As protein expression levels of AROM, estrogen and androgen receptors did not differ between males and females and were not sex-specifically altered by letrozole, the findings suggest sex-specific mechanisms of E2 signaling.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key structure of the fear circuit. This research reveals a sexually dimorphic regulation of synaptic plasticity in the BLA involving neuronal aromatase, which produces the neurosteroid 17β-estradiol (E2). As male and female neurons in rodent BLA responded differently to aromatase inhibition both in vivo and in vitro, our findings suggest that E2 signaling in BLA neurons is regulated sex-dependently, presumably via mechanisms that have been established during sexual determination. These findings could be relevant for the understanding of sex differences in mood disorders and of the side effects of cytochrome P450 aromatase inhibitors, which are frequently used for breast cancer therapy.

Time-Specific Effects of Spindle Positioning on Embryonic Progenitor Pool Composition and Adult Neural Stem Cell Seeding.

  • Falk S
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The developmental mechanisms regulating the number of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) are largely unknown. Here we show that the cleavage plane orientation in murine embryonic radial glia cells (RGCs) regulates the number of aNSCs in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE). Randomizing spindle orientation in RGCs by overexpression of Insc or a dominant-negative form of Lgn (dnLgn) reduces the frequency of self-renewing asymmetric divisions while favoring symmetric divisions generating two SNPs. Importantly, these changes during embryonic development result in reduced seeding of aNSCs. Interestingly, no effects on aNSC numbers were observed when Insc was overexpressed in postnatal RGCs or aNSCs. These data suggest a new mechanism for controlling aNSC numbers and show that the role of spindle orientation during brain development is highly time and region dependent.

Surface topography during neural stem cell differentiation regulates cell migration and cell morphology.

  • Czeisler C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We sought to determine the contribution of scaffold topography to the migration and morphology of neural stem cells by mimicking anatomical features of scaffolds found in vivo. We mimicked two types of central nervous system scaffolds encountered by neural stem cells during development in vitro by constructing different diameter electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber mats, a substrate that we have shown to be topographically similar to brain scaffolds. We compared the effects of large fibers (made to mimic blood vessel topography) with those of small-diameter fibers (made to mimic radial glial process topography) on the migration and differentiation of neural stem cells. Neural stem cells showed differential migratory and morphological reactions with laminin in different topographical contexts. We demonstrate, for the first time, that neural stem cell biological responses to laminin are dependent on topographical context. Large-fiber topography without laminin prevented cell migration, which was partially reversed by treatment with rock inhibitor. Cell morphology complexity assayed by fractal dimension was inhibited in nocodazole- and cytochalasin-D-treated neural precursor cells in large-fiber topography, but was not changed in small-fiber topography with these inhibitors. These data indicate that cell morphology has different requirements on cytoskeletal proteins dependent on the topographical environment encountered by the cell. We propose that the physical structure of distinct scaffolds induces unique signaling cascades that regulate migration and morphology in embryonic neural precursor cells. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3485-3502, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA92880(United States)

Immunohistochemical localization of the calcitonin gene-related peptide binding site in the primate trigeminovascular system using functional antagonist antibodies.

  • Miller S
  • Neuroscience
  • 2016 Jul 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent vasodilator and a neuromodulator implicated in the pathophysiology of migraine. It binds to the extracellular domains of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 1 that together form the CGRP receptor. Antagonist antibodies against CGRP and its binding site at the receptor are clinically effective in preventing migraine attacks. The blood-brain barrier penetration of these antagonist antibodies is limited, suggesting that a potential peripheral site of action is sufficient to prevent migraine attacks. To further understand the sites of CGRP-mediated signaling in migraine, we used immunohistochemical staining with recently developed antagonist antibodies specifically recognizing a fusion protein of the extracellular domains of RAMP1 and CLR that comprise the CGRP binding pocket at the CGRP receptor in monkey and man. We confirmed binding of the antagonist antibodies to human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of dural meningeal arteries and neurons in the trigeminal ganglion, both of which are likely sites of action for therapeutic antibodies in migraine patients. We further used one of these antibodies for detailed mapping on cynomolgus monkey tissue and found antagonist antibody binding sites at multiple levels in the trigeminovascular system: in the dura mater VSMCs, in neurons and satellite glial cells in the trigeminal ganglion, and in neurons in the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis. These data reinforce and clarify our understanding of CGRP receptor localization in a pattern consistent with a role for CGRP receptors in trigeminal sensitization and migraine pathology.

A biofidelic 3D culture model to study the development of brain cellular systems.

  • Ren M
  • Sci Rep
  • 2016 Apr 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Little is known about how cells assemble as systems during corticogenesis to generate collective functions. We built a neurobiology platform that consists of fetal rat cerebral cortical cells grown within 3D silk scaffolds (SF). Ivermectin (Ivm), a glycine receptor (GLR) agonist, was used to modulate cell resting membrane potential (Vmem) according to methods described in a previous work that implicated Ivm in the arrangement and connectivity of cortical cell assemblies. The cells developed into distinct populations of neuroglial stem/progenitor cells, mature neurons or epithelial-mesenchymal cells. Importantly, the synchronized electrical activity in the newly developed cortical assemblies could be recorded as local field potential (LFP) measurements. This study therefore describes the first example of the development of a biologically relevant cortical plate assembly outside of the body. This model provides i) a preclinical basis for engineering cerebral cortex tissue autografts and ii) a biofidelic 3D culture model for investigating biologically relevant processes during the functional development of cerebral cortical cellular systems.

Funding information:
  • Doris Duke Charitable Foundation - T32 AI007387(United States)

The carbocyanine dye DiD labels in vitro and in vivo neural stem cells of the subventricular zone as well as myelinated structures following in vivo injection in the lateral ventricle.

  • Carradori D
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2016 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Carbocyanines are fluorescent lipophilic cationic dyes used since the early 1980s as neuronal tracers. Several applications of these compounds have been developed thanks to their low cell toxicity, lateral diffusion within the cellular membranes, and good photostability. 1,1'-Dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindodicarbocyanine 4-chlorobenzenesulfonate (DiD) is an interesting component of this family because, in addition to the classic carbocyanine properties, it has a longer wavelength compared with its analogues. That makes DiD an excellent carbocyanine for labeling cells and tissues with significant intrinsic fluorescence. Drug encapsulation, drug delivery, and cellular transplantation are also fields using DiD-based systems where having detailed knowledge about its behavior as a single entity is important. Recently, promising studies concerned neural stem cells from the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle in the brain (their natural niche) and their potential therapeutic use. Here, we show that DiD is able to label these stem cells in vitro and present basilar information concerning its pharmacokinetics, concentrations, and microscope protocols. Moreover, when DiD is injected in vivo in the cerebrospinal fluid present in the lateral ventricle of rat, it also labels stem cells as well as myelinated structures of the caudoputamen. This analysis provides a database to consult when planning experiments concerning DiD and neural stem cells from the subventricular zone.

Cell adhesion molecule contactin-associated protein 3 is expressed in the mouse basal ganglia during early postnatal stages.

  • Hirata H
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2016 Jan 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cell adhesion molecules play important roles in the development of the nervous system. Among the contactin-associated protein (Caspr; also known as Cntnap) family, which belongs to the neurexin superfamily of proteins, Caspr and Caspr2 are indispensable for the formation and maintenance of myelinated nerves. In contrast, a physiological role for Caspr3 remains to be elucidated. This study examines the expression and localization of Caspr3 in the mouse brain using newly generated Caspr3 antibodies. Caspr3 was expressed abundantly between the first and the second postnatal weeks. During this period, Caspr3 was localized especially to the basal ganglia, including the striatum, external segment of the globus pallidus, and substantia nigra, and no gross abnormalities were apparent in the basal ganglia of Caspr3 knockout mice. In the striatum, Caspr3 was expressed by a subpopulation of medium spiny neurons that constitute the direct and indirect pathways. Caspr3 immunostaining was observed as punctate around the cell bodies as well as in the soma. These Caspr3 signals did not, however, overlap with those of synaptic markers. Our findings suggest that Caspr3 may play an important role in basal ganglia development during early postnatal stages.

Neural stem/progenitor cell-laden microfibers promote transplant survival in a mouse transected spinal cord injury model.

  • Sugai K
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2015 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Previous studies have demonstrated that transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) into the lesioned spinal cord can promote functional recovery following incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models. However, this strategy is insufficient following complete SCI because of the gap at the lesion epicenter. To obtain functional recovery in a mouse model of complete SCI, this study uses a novel collagen-based microfiber as a scaffold for engrafted NS/PCs. We hypothesized that the NS/PC-microfiber combination would facilitate lesion closure as well as transplant survival in the transected spinal cord. NS/PCs were seeded inside the novel microfibers, where they maintained their capacity to differentiate and proliferate. After transplantation, the stumps of the transected spinal cord were successfully bridged by the NS/PC-laden microfibers. Moreover, the transplanted cells migrated into the host spinal cord and differentiated into three neural lineages (astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes). However, the NS/PC-laden scaffold could not achieve a neural connection between the rostral end of the injury and the intact caudal area of the spinal cord, nor could it achieve recovery of motor function. To obtain optimal functional recovery, a microfiber design with a modified composition may be useful. Furthermore, combinatorial therapy with rehabilitation and/or medications should also be considered for practical success of biomaterial/cell transplantation-based approaches to regenerative medicine.

Red nucleus glutamate facilitates neuropathic allodynia induced by spared nerve injury through non-NMDA and metabotropic glutamate receptors.

  • Yu J
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2015 Dec 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Previous studies have demonstrated that glutamate plays an important role in the development of pathological pain. This study investigates the expression changes of glutamate and the roles of different types of glutamate receptors in the red nucleus (RN) in the development of neuropathic allodynia induced by spared nerve injury (SNI). Immunohistochemistry indicated that glutamate was constitutively expressed in the RN of normal rats. After SNI, the expression levels of glutamate were significantly increased in the RN at 1 week and reached the highest level at 2 weeks postinjury compared with sham-operated and normal rats. The RN glutamate was colocalized with neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes but not microglia under physiological and neuropathic pain conditions. To elucidate further the roles of the RN glutamate and different types of glutamate receptors in the development of neuropathic allodynia, antagonists to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), non-NMDA, or metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) were microinjected into the RN contralateral to the nerve-injury side of rats with SNI, and the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) was dynamically assessed with von Frey filaments. Microinjection of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 into the RN did not show any effect on SNI-induced mechanical allodynia. However, microinjection of the non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione or the mGluR antagonist (±)-α-methyl-(4-carboxyphenyl) glycine into the RN significantly increased the PWT and alleviated SNI-induced mechanical allodynia. These findings suggest that RN glutamate is involved in regulating neuropathic pain and facilitates the development of SNI-induced neuropathic allodynia. The algesic effect of glutamate is transmitted by the non-NMDA glutamate receptor and mGluRs.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R21 EY023714(United States)
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD018537(United States)

Induction of neural differentiation in rat C6 glioma cells with taxol.

  • Chao CC
  • Brain Behav
  • 2015 Dec 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is a common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor. Several anticancer drugs affect GBM (glioblastoma multiforme) cells on cell growth and morphology. Taxol is one of the widely used antineoplastic drugs against many types of solid tumors, such as breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers. However, the effect of taxol on GBM cells remains unclear and requires further investigation. METHODS: Survival rate of C6 glioma cells under different taxol concentrations was quantified. To clarify the differentiation patterns of rat C6 glioma cells under taxol challenge, survived glioma cells were characterized by immunocytochemical, molecular biological, and cell biological approaches. RESULTS: After taxol treatment, not only cell death but also morphological changes, including cell elongation, cellular processes thinning, irregular shapes, and fragmented nucleation or micronuclei, occurred in the survived C6 cells. Neural differentiation markers NFL (for neurons), β III-tubulin (for neurons), GFAP (for astrocytes), and CNPase (for oligodendrocytes) were detected in the taxol-treated C6 cells. Quantitative analysis suggested a significant increase in the percentage of neural differentiated cells. The results exhibited that taxol may trigger neural differentiation in C6 glioma cells. Increased expression of neural differentiation markers in C6 cells after taxol treatment suggest that some anticancer drugs could be applied to elimination of the malignant cancer cells as well as changing proliferation and differentiation status of tumor cells.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 098362/Z/12/Z(United Kingdom)

Distribution of the creatine transporter throughout the human brain reveals a spectrum of creatine transporter immunoreactivity.

  • Lowe MT
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Creatine is a molecule that supports energy metabolism in cells. It is carried across the plasma membrane by the creatine transporter. There has been recent interest in creatine for its neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases and its potential as a therapeutic agent. This study represents the first systematic investigation of the distribution of the creatine transporter in the human brain. We have used immunohistochemical techniques to map out its location and the intensity of staining. The transporter was found to be strongly expressed, especially in the large projection neurons of the brain and spinal cord. These include the pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex, Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex, and motor neurons of the somatic motor and visceromotor cranial nerve nuclei and the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Many other neurons in the brain also had some degree of creatine transporter immunoreactivity. By contrast, the medium spiny neurons of the striatum and the catecholaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus, which are implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, showed a very low to almost absent level of immunoreactivity for the transporter. We propose that the distribution may reflect the energy consumption by different cell types and that the extent of creatine transporter expression is proportional to the cell's energy requirements. Furthermore, the distribution indicates that supplemented creatine would be widely taken up by brain cells, although possibly less by those cells that degenerate in Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA030161(United States)

Super-Resolution Microscopy Reveals Presynaptic Localization of the ALS/FTD Related Protein FUS in Hippocampal Neurons.

  • Schoen M
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2015 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) is a multifunctional RNA-/DNA-binding protein, which is involved in the pathogenesis of the neurodegenerative disorders amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). A common hallmark of these disorders is the abnormal accumulation of mutated FUS protein in the cytoplasm. Under normal conditions FUS is confined to the nuclear compartment, in neurons, however, additional somatodendritic localization can be observed. In this study, we carefully analyzed the subcellular localization of endogenous FUS at synaptic sites of hippocampal neurons which are among the most affected cell types in FTD with FUS pathology. We could confirm a strong nuclear localization of FUS as well as its prominent and widespread neuronal expression throughout the adult and developing rat brain, particularly in the hippocampus, the cerebellum and the outer layers of the cortex. Intriguingly, FUS was also consistently observed at synaptic sites as detected by neuronal subcellular fractionation as well as by immunolabeling. To define a pre- and/or postsynaptic localization of FUS, we employed super-resolution fluorescence localization microscopy. FUS was found to be localized within the axon terminal in close proximity to the presynaptic vesicle protein Synaptophysin1 and adjacent to the active zone protein Bassoon, but well separated from the postsynaptic protein PSD-95. Having shown the presynaptic localization of FUS in the nervous system, a novel extranuclear role of FUS at neuronal contact sites has to be considered. Since there is growing evidence that local presynaptic translation might also be an important mechanism for plasticity, FUS - like the fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP - might act as one of the presynaptic RNA-binding proteins regulating this machinery. Our observation of presynaptic FUS should foster further investigations to determine its role in neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS and FTD.

Membrane potential depolarization causes alterations in neuron arrangement and connectivity in cocultures.

  • Özkucur N
  • Brain Behav
  • 2015 Jan 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The disruption of neuron arrangement is associated with several pathologies. In contrast to action potentials, the role of resting potential (Vmem) in regulating connectivity remains unknown. METHODS: Neuron assemblies were quantified when their Vmem was depolarized using ivermectin (Ivm), a drug that opens chloride channels, for 24 h in cocultures with astrocytes. Cell aggregation was analyzed using automated cluster analysis methods. Neural connectivity was quantified based on the identification of isolated somas in phase-contrast images using image processing. Vmem was measured using voltage-sensitive dyes and whole-cell patch clamping. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting were used to detect changes in the distribution and production of the proteins. RESULTS: Data show that Vmem regulates cortical tissue shape and connectivity. Automated cluster analysis methods revealed that the degree of neural aggregation was significantly increased (0.26 clustering factor vs. 0.21 in controls, P ≤ 0.01). The number of beta-tubulin III positive neural projections was also significantly increased in the neural aggregates in cocultures with Ivm. Hyperpolarized neuron cells formed fewer connections (33% at 24 h, P ≤ 0.05) compared to control cells in 1-day cultures. Glia cell densities increased (33.3%, P ≤ 0.05) under depolarizing conditions. CONCLUSION: Vmem can be a useful tool to probe neuronal cells, disease tissues models, and cortical tissue arrangements.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01MH097062(United States)

Synaptic and cognitive improvements by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism are through upregulation of microRNA-188-3p in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

  • Zhang J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Nov 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Abnormal accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) is the major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying aberrant Aβ formation in AD remain unclear. We showed previously that inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary enzyme that metabolizes the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the brain, robustly reduces Aβ by inhibiting β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), a key enzyme responsible for Aβ formation. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for suppression of BACE1 by inhibition of 2-AG metabolism are largely unknown. We demonstrate here that expression of the noncoding small RNA miR-188-3p that targets BACE1 was significantly downregulated both in the brains of AD humans and APP transgenic (TG) mice, a mouse model of AD. The downregulated miR-188-3p expression was restored by MAGL inhibition. Overexpression of miR-188-3p in the hippocampus reduced BACE1, Aβ, and neuroinflammation and prevented deteriorations in hippocampal basal synaptic transmission, long-term potentiation, spatial learning, and memory in TG mice. 2-AG-induced suppression of BACE1 was prevented by miR-188-3p loss of function. Moreover, miR-188-3p expression was upregulated by 2-AG or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists and suppressed by PPARγ antagonism or NF-κB activation. Reducing Aβ and neuroinflammation by MAGL inhibition was occluded by PPARγ antagonism. In addition, BACE1 suppression by 2-AG and PPARγ activation was eliminated by knockdown of NF-κB. Our study provides a novel molecular mechanism underlying improved synaptic and cognitive function in TG mice by 2-AG signaling, which upregulates miR-188-3p expression through PPARγ and NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in suppressions of BACE1 expression and Aβ formation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA193419(United States)

The BCL-2 family protein Bid is critical for pro-inflammatory signaling in astrocytes.

  • König HG
  • Neurobiol. Dis.
  • 2014 Oct 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of motoneurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex. Mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene represent a frequent genetic determinant and recapitulate a disease phenotype similar to ALS when expressed in mice. Previous studies using SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice have suggested a paracrine mechanism of neuronal loss, in which cytokines and other toxic factors released from astroglia or microglia trigger motoneuron degeneration. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines activate death receptors and may downstream from this activate the Bcl-2 family protein, Bid. We here sought to investigate the role of Bid in astrocyte activation and non-cell autonomous motoneuron degeneration. We found that spinal cord Bid protein levels increased significantly during disease progression in SOD1(G93A) mice. Subsequent experiments in vitro indicated that Bid was expressed at relatively low levels in motoneurons, but was enriched in astrocytes and microglia. Bid was strongly induced in astrocytes in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines or exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Experiments in bid-deficient astrocytes or astrocytes treated with a small molecule Bid inhibitor demonstrated that Bid was required for the efficient activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-κB in response to these pro-inflammatory stimuli. Finally, we found that conditioned medium from wild-type astrocytes, but not from bid-deficient astrocytes, was toxic when applied to primary motoneuron cultures. Collectively, our data demonstrate a new role for the Bcl-2 family protein Bid as a mediator of astrocyte activation during neuroinflammation, and suggest that Bid activation may contribute to non-cell autonomous motoneuron degeneration in ALS.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG031782(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007413(United States)

The opposing effects of ghrelin on hypothalamic and systemic inflammatory processes are modulated by its acylation status and food intake in male rats.

  • García-Cáceres C
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Aug 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ghrelin is an endogenous hormone that stimulates appetite and adipose tissue accrual. Both the acylated (AG) and non-acylated (DAG) isoforms of this hormone are also reported to exert anti-inflammatory and protective effects systemically and in the central nervous system. As inflammatory processes have been implicated in obesity-associated secondary complications, we hypothesized that this natural appetite stimulator may protect against negative consequences resulting from excessive food intake. Adult male Wistar rats were treated icv (5 μg/day) with AG, DAG, the ghrelin mimetic GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-6, AG, and pair-fed with controls (AG-pf) or saline for 14 days. Regardless of food intake AG increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and decreased circulating cytokine levels. However, AG reduced cytokine production in VAT only in rats fed ad libitum. Hypothalamic cytokine production was increased in AG-treated rats fed ad libitum and by DAG, but intracellular inflammatory signaling pathways associated with insulin and leptin resistance were unaffected. Gliosis was not observed in response to any treatment as glial markers were either reduced or unaffected. AG, DAG, and GHRP-6 stimulated production of hypothalamic insulin like-growth factor I that is involved in cell protective mechanisms. In hypothalamic astrocyte cell cultures AG decreased tumor necrosis factorα and DAG decreased interleukin-1β mRNA levels, suggesting direct anti-inflammatory effects on astrocytes. Thus, whereas ghrelin stimulates food intake and weight gain, it may also induce mechanisms of cell protection that help to detour or delay systemic inflammatory responses and hypothalamic gliosis due to excess weight gain, as well as its associated pathologies.

Funding information:
  • HHMI - R01ES021557(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS062158(United States)

Huntingtin is required for normal excitatory synapse development in cortical and striatal circuits.

  • McKinstry SU
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Jul 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a poly-glutamine (poly-Q) stretch in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. Gain-of-function effects of mutant Htt have been extensively investigated as the major driver of neurodegeneration in HD. However, loss-of-function effects of poly-Q mutations recently emerged as potential drivers of disease pathophysiology. Early synaptic problems in the excitatory cortical and striatal connections have been reported in HD, but the role of Htt protein in synaptic connectivity was unknown. Therefore, we investigated the role of Htt in synaptic connectivity in vivo by conditionally silencing Htt in the developing mouse cortex. When cortical Htt function was silenced, cortical and striatal excitatory synapses formed and matured at an accelerated pace through postnatal day 21 (P21). This exuberant synaptic connectivity was lost over time in the cortex, resulting in the deterioration of synapses by 5 weeks. Synaptic decline in the cortex was accompanied with layer- and region-specific reactive gliosis without cell loss. To determine whether the disease-causing poly-Q mutation in Htt affects synapse development, we next investigated the synaptic connectivity in a full-length knock-in mouse model of HD, the zQ175 mouse. Similar to the cortical conditional knock-outs, we found excessive excitatory synapse formation and maturation in the cortices of P21 zQ175, which was lost by 5 weeks. Together, our findings reveal that cortical Htt is required for the correct establishment of cortical and striatal excitatory circuits, and this function of Htt is lost when the mutant Htt is present.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM072881(United States)

Sustained alterations of hypothalamic tanycytes during posttraumatic hypopituitarism in male mice.

  • Osterstock G
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of hypopituitarism, which compromises patients' recovery, quality of life, and life span. To date, there are no means other than standardized animal studies to provide insights into the mechanisms of posttraumatic hypopituitarism. We have found that GH levels were impaired after inducing a controlled cortical impact (CCI) in mice. Furthermore, GHRH stimulation enhanced GH to lower level in injured than in control or sham mice. Because many characteristics were unchanged in the pituitary glands of CCI mice, we looked for changes at the hypothalamic level. Hypertrophied astrocytes were seen both within the arcuate nucleus and the median eminence, two pivotal structures of the GH axis, spatially remote to the injury site. In the arcuate nucleus, GHRH neurons were unaltered. In the median eminence, injured mice exhibited unexpected alterations. First, the distributions of claudin-1 and zonula occludens-1 between tanycytes were disorganized, suggesting tight junction disruptions. Second, endogenous IgG was increased in the vicinity of the third ventricle, suggesting abnormal barrier properties after CCI. Third, intracerebroventricular injection of a fluorescent-dextran derivative highly stained the hypothalamic parenchyma only after CCI, demonstrating an increased permeability of the third ventricle edges. This alteration of the third ventricle might jeopardize the communication between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. In conclusion, the phenotype of CCI mice had similarities to the posttraumatic hypopituitarism seen in humans with intact pituitary gland and pituitary stalk. It is the first report of a pathological status in which tanycyte dysfunctions appear as a major acquired syndrome.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM055040(United States)

Hypothalamic inflammation without astrogliosis in response to high sucrose intake is modulated by neonatal nutrition in male rats.

  • Fuente-Martín E
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hypothalamic inflammation and gliosis are proposed to participate in the pathogenesis of high-fat diet-induced obesity. Because other factors and nutrients also induce weight gain and adiposity, we analyzed the inflammatory and glial responses to a sucrose (S)-enriched diet. Neonatal overnutrition (NON) exacerbates weight gain in response to metabolic challenges; thus, we compared the inflammatory response of male Wistar rats with NON (4 pups/litter) and controls (12 pups/litter) to increased S intake. At weaning rats received water or a 33% sucrose solution and normal chow ad libitum for 2 months. Sucrose increased serum IL-1β and -6 and hypothalamic IL-6 mRNA levels in NON and TNFα mRNA levels in control and NON rats, whereas NON alone had no effect. The astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased by NON but decreased by S. This was associated with hypothalamic nuclei specific changes in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cell number and morphology. Sucrose increased the number of microglia and phosphorylation of inhibitor of -κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in control but not NON rats, with no effect on microglia activation markers. Proteins highly expressed in astrocytes (glutamate, glucose, and lactate transporters) were increased by NON but not S, with no increase in vimentin expression in astrocytes, further suggesting that S-induced adiposity is not associated with hypothalamic astrogliosis. Hence, activation of hypothalamic inflammatory processes and gliosis depend not only on weight gain but also on the diet inducing this weight gain and the early nutritional status. These diverse inflammatory processes could indicate a differential disposition to obesity-induced pathologies.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS090390(United States)

Progesterone antagonism of neurite outgrowth depends on microglial activation via Pgrmc1/S2R.

  • Bali N
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuronal plasticity is regulated by the ovarian steroids estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) in many normal brain functions, as well as in acute response to injury and chronic neurodegenerative disease. In a female rat model of axotomy, the E2-dependent compensatory neuronal sprouting is antagonized by P4. To resolve complex glial-neuronal cell interactions, we used the "wounding-in-a-dish" model of neurons cocultured with astrocytes or mixed glia (microglia to astrocytes, 1:3). Although both astrocytes and mixed glia supported E2-enhanced neurite outgrowth, P4 antagonized E2-induced neurite outgrowth only with mixed glia, but not astrocytes alone. We now show that P4-E2 antagonism of neurite outgrowth is mediated by microglial expression of progesterone receptor (Pgr) membrane component 1 (Pgrmc1)/S2R, a putative nonclassical Pgr mediator with multiple functions. The P4-E2 antagonism of neurite outgrowth was restored by add-back of microglia to astrocyte-neuron cocultures. Because microglia do not express the classical Pgr, we examined the role of Pgrmc1, which is expressed in microglia in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown by siRNA-Pgrmc1 in microglia before add-back to astrocyte-neuron cocultures suppressed the P4-E2 antagonism of neurite outgrowth. Conditioned media from microglia restored the P4-E2 activity, but only if microglia were activated by lipopolysaccharide or by wounding. Moreover, the microglial activation was blocked by Pgmrc1-siRNA knockdown. These findings explain why nonwounded cultures without microglial activation lack P4 antagonism of E2-induced neurite outgrowth. We suggest that microglial activation may influence brain responses to exogenous P4, which is a prospective therapy in traumatic brain injury.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083823(United States)

Molecular cloning and characterization of chicken neuronal intermediate filament protein α-internexin.

  • Liu CH
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

α-Internexin is one of the neuronal intermediate filament (IF) proteins, which also include low-, middle-, and high-molecular-weight neurofilament (NF) triplet proteins, designated NFL, NFM, and NFH, respectively. The expression of α-internexin occurs in most neurons as they begin differentiation and precedes the expression of the NF triplet proteins in mammals. However, little is known about the gene sequence and physiological function of α-internexin in avians. In this study we describe the molecular cloning of the mRNA sequence encoding the chicken α-internexin (chkINA) protein from embryonic brains. The gene structure and predicted amino acid sequence of chkINA exhibited high similarity to those of its zebrafish, mouse, rat, bovine, and human homologs. Data from transient-transfection experiments show that the filamentous pattern of chkINA was found in transfected cells and colocalized with other endogenous IFs, as demonstrated via immunocytochemistry using a chicken-specific antibody. The expression of chkINA was detected at the early stage of development and increased during the developmental process of the chicken. chkINA was expressed widely in chicken brains and colocalized with NF triplet proteins in neuronal processes, as assessed using immunohistochemistry. We also found that chkINA was expressed abundantly in the developing cerebellum and was the major IF protein in the parallel processes of granule neurons. Thus, we suggest that chkINA is a neuron-specific IF protein that may be a useful marker for studies of chicken brain development.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - RR 13642(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY17130(United States)

Migration of neuronal precursors from the telencephalic ventricular zone into the olfactory bulb in adult zebrafish.

  • Kishimoto N
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the brain of adult mammals, neuronal precursors are generated in the subventricular zone in the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles and migrate into the olfactory bulbs (OBs) through a well-studied route called the rostral migratory stream (RMS). Recent studies have revealed that a comparable neural stem cell niche is widely conserved at the ventricular wall of adult vertebrates. However, little is known about the migration route of neuronal precursors in nonmammalian adult brains. Here, we show that, in the adult zebrafish, a cluster of neuronal precursors generated in the telencephalic ventricular zone migrates into the OB via a route equivalent to the mammalian RMS. Unlike the mammalian RMS, these neuronal precursors are not surrounded by glial tubes, although radial glial cells with a single cilium lined the telencephalic ventricular wall, much as in embryonic and neonatal mammals. To observe the migrating neuronal precursors in living brain tissue, we established a brain hemisphere culture using a zebrafish line carrying a GFP transgene driven by the neurogenin1 (ngn1) promoter. In these fish, GFP was observed in the neuronal precursors migrating in the RMS, some of which were aligned with blood vessels. Numerous ngn1:gfp-positive cells were observed migrating tangentially in the RMS-like route medial to the OB. Taken together, our results suggest that the RMS in the adult zebrafish telencephalon is a functional migratory pathway. This is the first evidence for the tangential migration of neuronal precursors in a nonmammalian adult telencephalon.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

Conditional knockout of protein O-mannosyltransferase 2 reveals tissue-specific roles of O-mannosyl glycosylation in brain development.

  • Hu H
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The meninges produce essential signaling molecules and major protein components of the pial basement membrane during normal brain development. Disruptions in the pial basement membrane underlie neural ectopia seen in those congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) caused by mutations in genes involved in O-mannosyl glycosylation. In mammals, biosynthesis of O-mannosyl glycans is initiated by a complex of mutually indispensable protein O-mannosyltransferases 1 and 2 (POMT1 and 2). To study the roles of O-mannosylation in brain development we generated a conditional allele of POMT2. POMT2 nulllizygosity resulted in embryonic lethality because of a defective Reichert's membrane. Brain-specific deletion of POMT2 resulted in hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan (DG) and abolished laminin binding activity. The effect of POMT2 deletion on brain development was dependent on timing, as earlier deletion resulted in more severe phenotypes. Multiple brain malformations including overmigration of neocortical neurons and migration failure of granule cells in the cerebellum were observed. Immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed that these migration defects were closely associated with disruptions in the pial basement membrane. Interestingly, POMT2 deletion in the meninges (and blood vessels) did not disrupt the development of the neocortex. Thus, normal brain development requires protein O-mannosylation activity in neural tissue but not the meninges. These results suggest that gene therapy should be directed to the neural tissue instead of the meninges.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R03 DK054823(United States)

Cellular composition and organization of the subventricular zone and rostral migratory stream in the adult and neonatal common marmoset brain.

  • Sawamoto K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The adult subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle contains neural stem cells. In rodents, these cells generate neuroblasts that migrate as chains toward the olfactory bulb along the rostral migratory stream (RMS). The neural-stem-cell niche at the ventricular wall is conserved in various animal species, including primates. However, it is unclear how the SVZ and RMS organization in nonhuman primates relates to that of rodents and humans. Here we studied the SVZ and RMS of the adult and neonatal common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a New World primate used widely in neuroscience, by electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical detection of cell-type-specific markers. The marmoset SVZ contained cells similar to type B, C, and A cells of the rodent SVZ in their marker expression and morphology. The adult marmoset SVZ had a three-layer organization, as in the human brain, with ependymal, hypocellular, and astrocyte-ribbon layers. However, the hypocellular layer was very thin or absent in the adult-anterior and neonatal SVZ. Anti-PSA-NCAM staining of the anterior SVZ in whole-mount ventricular wall preparations of adult marmosets revealed an extensive network of elongated cell aggregates similar to the neuroblast chains in rodents. Time-lapse recordings of marmoset SVZ explants cultured in Matrigel showed the neuroblasts migrating in chains, like rodent type A cells. These results suggest that some features of neurogenesis and neuronal migration in the SVZ are common to marmosets, humans, and rodents. This basic description of the adult and neonatal marmoset SVZ will be useful for future studies on adult neurogenesis in primates.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - 1R21AI085376(United States)

Doublecortin-positive cells in the adult primate cerebral cortex and possible role in brain plasticity and development.

  • Bloch J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have demonstrated that cortical cell autografts might be a useful therapy in two monkey models of neurological disease: motor cortex lesion and Parkinson's disease. However, the origin of the useful transplanted cells obtained from cortical biopsies is not clear. In this report we describe the expression of doublecortin (DCX) in these cells based on reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunodetection in the adult primate cortex and cell cultures. The results showed that DCX-positive cells were present in the whole primate cerebral cortex and also expressed glial and/or neuronal markers such as glial fibrillary protein (GFAP) or neuronal nuclei (NeuN). We also demonstrated that only DCX/GFAP positive cells were able to proliferate and originate progenitor cells in vitro. We hypothesize that these DCX-positive cells in vivo have a role in cortical plasticity and brain reaction to injury. Moreover, in vitro these DCX-positive cells have the potential to reacquire progenitor characteristics that confirm their potential for brain repair.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 075491/Z/04(United Kingdom)

Endocannabinoid system in the adult rat circumventricular areas: an immunohistochemical study.

  • Suárez J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Endocannabinoids (ECs) are important neuromodulators involved in a plethora of physiological processes such as modulation of synaptic transmission, neuroprotection, immune function, and neurodevelopment, among others. However, still lacking is a detailed study on the presence of this system in the circumventricular areas, brain structures controlling the interaction between cerebrospinal fluid and brain parenchyma. The aim of this work was to provide the anatomical basis supporting a functional role of ECs in the activity of circumventricular areas. To this end, an immunohistochemical study of the EC system in rat brain was performed. Receptors and synthesizing and degrading enzymes for ECs were widely distributed in rat ependyma and subependyma, marginal glia, and circumventricular organs (CVOs) such as the choroid plexus, subfornical organ, subcommissural organ, median eminence, and area postrema. These zones constitute barrier systems between the brain parenchyma and the ventricular or subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and between the extracellular hemal milieu of CVOs and the brain parenchyma or the CSF. By immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction we found DAGLalpha, DAGLbeta, NAPE-PLD, MAGL, and FAAH in the ependyma. These finding suggest that the ependyma can release and clear ECs from the ventricular CSF. Subependymal astrocytes and tanycytes displayed DAGLalpha immunoreactivity but parenchymal astrocytes did not express EC-synthesizing enzymes, thus establishing a sharp distinction between these two astrocyte populations. CB1 was located in fibers innervating discrete subventricular zones such as the neurogenic striatal subventricular zone and the fourth ventricle. CB1 fibers also innervated some CVOs.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK078749(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01 DK062444-06S1(United States)

Identification of the Tctex-1 regulatory element that directs expression to neural stem/progenitor cells in developing and adult brain.

  • Tseng YY
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Previous studies showed that Tctex-1 immunoreactivity is selectively enriched in the germinal zones of adult brain. In this report we identify a regulatory region of the Tctex-1 gene that is capable of directing transgenic expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter that recapitulates the spatial and temporal expression pattern of endogenous Tctex-1. This construct specifically targeted expression to the nestin(+)/Pax6(+)/GLAST(+) radial glial cells and Tbr2(+) intermediate progenitors when the reporter construct was delivered to developing mouse neocortex via in utero electroporation. Characterization of mice transgenically expressing GFP under the same regulatory element showed that the GFP expression is faithful to endogenous Tctex-1 at the subgranular zone (SGZ) of dentate gyrus, ventricular/subventricular zone of lateral ventricles, and ependymal layer of 3rd ventricle of adult brains. Immunolocalization and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation studies of adult SGZ in four independent mouse lines showed that Tctex-1:GFP reporter selectively marks nestin(+)/GFAP(+)/Sox2(+) neural stem-like cells in two mouse lines (4 and 13). In two other mouse lines (17 and 18), Tctex-1:GFP is selectively expressed in Type-2 and Type-3 transient amplifying progenitors and a small subset of young neuronal progeny. The P/E-Tctex-1 reporter mouse studies independently confirmed the specific enrichment of Tctex-1 at adult SGZ stem/progenitor cells. Furthermore, these studies supported the notion that an analogous transcriptional program may be used to regulate neurogenesis in embryonic cerebral cortex and adult hippocampus. Finally, the genomic sequences and the reporter mouse lines described here provide useful experimental tools to advance adult neural stem cell research.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - U54 HG003273(United States)

Comparative study of Pax2 expression in glial cells in the retina and optic nerve of birds and mammals.

  • Stanke J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Little is known about the expression of Pax2 in mature retina or optic nerve. Here we probed for the expression of Pax2 in late stages of embryonic development and in mature chick retina. We find two distinct Pax2 isoforms expressed by cells within the retina and optic nerve. Surprisingly, Müller glia in central regions of the retina express Pax2, and levels of expression are decreased with increasing distance from the nerve head. In Müller glia, the expression levels of Pax2 are increased by acute retinal damage or treatment with growth factors. At the optic nerve, Pax2 is expressed by peripapillary glia, at the junction of the neural retina and optic nerve head and by glia within the optic nerve. In addition, we assayed for Pax2 expression in glial cells in mammalian retinas. In mammalian retinas, unlike the case in chick retina, the Müller glia do not express Pax2. Pax2-expressing cells are found in the optic nerve and astrocytes within the mouse retina. By comparison, Pax2-positive cells are not found within the guinea pig retina; Pax2-expressing glia are confined to the optic nerve. In dog and monkey (Macaca fascicularis), Pax2 is expressed by astrocytes that are scattered across inner retinal layers and by numerous glia within the optic nerve. Interestingly, Pax2-positive glial cells are found at the peripheral edge of the dog retina, but only in older animals. We conclude that the expression of Pax2 in the vertebrate eye is restricted to retinal astrocytes, peripapillary glia, and glia within the optic nerve.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - N01 HD023343(United States)

Regional distribution and cellular localization of beta2-adrenoceptors in the adult zebrafish brain (Danio rerio).

  • Ampatzis K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (ARs) are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the physiological responses to adrenaline and noradrenaline. The present study aimed to determine the regional distribution of beta(2)-ARs in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain by means of in vitro autoradiographic and immunohistochemical methods. The immunohistochemical localization of beta(2)-ARs, in agreement with the quantitative beta-adrenoceptor autoradiography, showed a wide distribution of beta(2)-ARs in the adult zebrafish brain. The cerebellum and the dorsal zone of periventricular hypothalamus exhibited the highest density of [(3)H]CGP-12177 binding sites and beta(2)-AR immunoreactivity. Neuronal cells strongly stained for beta(2)-ARs were found in the periventricular ventral telencephalic area, magnocellular and parvocellular superficial pretectal nuclei (PSm, PSp), occulomotor nucleus (NIII), locus coeruleus (LC), medial octavolateral nucleus (MON), magnocellular octaval nucleus (MaON) reticular formation (SRF, IMRF, IRF), and ganglionic cell layer of cerebellum. Interestingly, in most cases (NIII, LC, MON, MaON, SRF, IMRF, ganglionic cerebellar layer) beta(2)-ARs were colocalized with alpha(2A)-ARs in the same neuron, suggesting their interaction for mediating the physiological functions of nor/adrenaline. Moderate to low labeling of beta(2)-ARs was found in neurons in dorsal telencephalic area, optic tectum (TeO), torus semicircularis (TS), and periventricular gray zone of optic tectum (PGZ). In addition to neuronal, glial expression of beta(2)-ARs was found in astrocytic fibers located in the central gray and dorsal rhombencephalic midline, in close relation to the ventricle. The autoradiographic and immunohistochemical distribution pattern of beta(2)-ARs in the adult zebrafish brain further support the conserved profile of adrenergic/noradrenergic system through vertebrate brain evolution.

Neural reconnection in the transected spinal cord of the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbignyi.

  • Rehermann MI
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

This paper provides the first evidence that freshwater turtles are able to reconnect their completely transected spinal cords, leading to some degree of recovery of the motor functions lost after injury. Videographic analysis showed that some turtles (5 of 11) surviving more than 20 days after injury were able to initiate stepping locomotion. However, the stepping movements were slower than those of normal animals, and swimming patterns were not restored. Even though just 45% of the injured turtles recovered their stepping patterns, all showed axonal sprouting beyond the lesion site. Immunocytochemical and electron microscope images revealed the occurrence of regrowing axons crossing the severed region. A major contingent of the axons reconnecting the cord originated from sensory neurons lying in dorsal ganglia adjacent to the lesion site. The axons bridging the damaged region traveled on a cellular scaffold consisting of brain lipid-binding protein (BLBP)- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells and processes. Serotonergic varicose nerve fibers and endings were found at early stages of the healing process at the epicenter of the lesion. Interestingly, the glial scar commonly found in the damaged central nervous system of mammals was absent. In contrast, GFAP- and BLBP-positive processes were found running parallel to the main axis of the cord accompanying the crossing axons.

Erythropoietin receptor expression is concordant with erythropoietin but not with common beta chain expression in the rat brain throughout the life span.

  • Sanchez PE
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Brain effects of erythropoietin (Epo) are proposed to involve a heteromeric receptor comprising the classical Epo receptor (Epo-R) and the common beta chain (betac). However, data documenting the pattern of betac gene expression in the healthy brain, in comparison with that of the Epo-R gene, are still lacking. The present study is the first to investigate at the same time betac, Epo-R, and Epo gene expression within different rat brain areas throughout the life span, from neonatal to elderly stages, using quantitative RT-PCR for transcripts. Corresponding proteins were localized by using immunohistochemistry. We demonstrate that the betac transcript level does not correlate with that of Epo-R or Epo, whereas the Epo-R transcript level strongly correlates with that of Epo throughout the life span in all brain structures analyzed. Both Epo and Epo-R were detected primarily in neurons. In the hippocampus, the greatest Epo-R mRNA levels were measured during the early postnatal period and in middle-aged rats, associated with an intense neuronal immunolabeling. Conversely, betac protein was barely detectable in the brain at all ages, even in neurons expressing high levels of Epo-R. Finally, betac transcript could not be detected in PC12 cells, even after nerve growth factor-induced neuritogenesis, which is a condition that dramatically enhances Epo-R transcript level. Altogether, our data suggest that most neurons are likely to express high levels of Epo-R but low, if not null, levels of betac. Given that Epo protects extended populations of neurons after injury, a yet-to-be-identified receptor heterocomplex including Epo-R may exist in the large population of brain neurons that does not express betac.

Conditional ablation and recovery of forebrain neurogenesis in the mouse.

  • Singer BH
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Forebrain neurogenesis persists throughout life in the rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Several strategies have been employed to eliminate adult neurogenesis and thereby determine whether depleting adult-born neurons disrupts specific brain functions, but some approaches do not specifically target neural progenitors. We have developed a transgenic mouse line to reversibly ablate adult neural stem cells and suppress neurogenesis. The nestin-tk mouse expresses herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) under the control of the nestin 2nd intronic enhancer, which drives expression in neural progenitors. Administration of ganciclovir (GCV) kills actively dividing cells expressing this transgene. We found that peripheral GCV administration suppressed SVZ-olfactory bulb and DG neurogenesis within 2 weeks but caused systemic toxicity. Intracerebroventricular GCV infusion for 28 days nearly completely depleted proliferating cells and immature neurons in both the SVZ and DG without systemic toxicity. Reversibility of the effects after prolonged GCV infusion was slow and partial. Neurogenesis did not recover 2 weeks after cessation of GCV administration, but showed limited recovery 6 weeks after GCV that differed between the SVZ and DG. Suppression of neurogenesis did not inhibit antidepressant responsiveness of mice in the tail suspension test. These findings indicate that SVZ and DG neural stem cells differ in their capacity for repopulation, and that adult-born neurons are not required for antidepressant responses in a common behavioral test of antidepressant efficacy. The nestin-tk mouse should be useful for studying how reversible depletion of adult neurogenesis influences neurophysiology, other behaviors, and neural progenitor dynamics.

NG2 cells are distinct from neurogenic cells in the postnatal mouse subventricular zone.

  • Komitova M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Feb 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

NG2 cells express the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 and are a fourth type of glia distinct from astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. NG2 cells generate oligodendrocytes but have also been reported to represent neuronal progenitor cells in the postnatal mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). We performed a detailed immunohistochemical analysis of NG2 cells in the mouse SVZ, rostral migratory stream (RMS), and olfactory bulb granule cell layer (OB GCL), which constitute a neurogenic niche in the postnatal forebrain. NG2 cells in the SVZ and RMS expressed the oligodendrocyte precursor cell antigen platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha but did not express antigens known to be expressed by neuronogenic cells in the SVZ, such as doublecortin, PSA-NCAM, beta-tubulin, Dlx2, or GFAP. More than 99.5% of the proliferating cells in the SVZ were NG2 negative. In the olfactory bulb, NG2 cells were found to generate primarily oligodendrocytes and a small number of astrocytes but not neurons. In the SVZ and RMS, NG2 cells were sparse and made up a much smaller fraction of the cells compared with the surrounding nonneurogenic parenchyma. Parenchymal NG2 cells were often located along the border of the SVZ and RMS. The abundance of NG2 cells increased in the distal parts of the RMS and especially in the OB GCL, where NG2 cell processes were seen in close proximity to many maturing interneurons. Our findings indicate that NG2 cells do not represent neuronal progenitor cells in the postnatal SVZ but are likely to be oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

Developmental and spatial expression pattern of alpha-taxilin in the rat central nervous system.

  • Sakakibara S
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alpha-taxilin has been identified as a binding partner of syntaxin family members and thus has been proposed to function in syntaxin-mediated intracellular vesicle trafficking. However, the lack of detailed information concerning the cellular and subcellular localization of alpha-taxilin impedes an understanding of the role of this protein. In the present study, we characterized alpha-taxilin-expressing cells in the rat CNS with a specific antibody. During embryonic development, alpha-taxilin was prominently expressed in nestin-positive neural stem cells in vivo and in vitro. As CNS development proceeded, the alpha-taxilin expression level was rapidly down-regulated. In the postnatal CNS, alpha-taxilin expression was almost confined to the neuronal lineage, with the highest levels of expression in motor neurons within the brainstem nuclei and spinal cord and in primary sensory neurons in mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. At the cellular level, alpha-taxilin was preferentially located in Nissl substance-like structures with a tigroid or globular morphology within the soma and proximal to dendrites, but it was excluded from terminals. Combined staining with propidium iodide demonstrated that alpha-taxilin distribution overlapped with the cytoplasmic compartment enriched in RNA species, suggesting a close association of alpha-taxilin with actively translating ribosomes or polysomes in neurons. In agreement with this, a recent study indicated the preferential binding of alpha-taxilin to the nascent polypeptide-associated complex (alphaNAC), a dynamic component of the ribosomal exit tunnel in eukaryotic cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that alpha-taxilin plays multiple roles in the generation and maintenance of neurons through modulation of the NAC-mediated translational machinary and/or the syntaxin-mediated vesicle traffic in the soma.

Serine racemase is predominantly localized in neurons in mouse brain.

  • Miya K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

D-Serine is the endogenous ligand for the glycine binding site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor (GluR) channel and is involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, neural network formation, and neurodegenerative disorders. D-Serine is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase (SR), which was first reported to be localized in astrocytes. However, recently, SR mRNA and its protein have been detected in neurons. In this study, we examined the SR distribution in the brain during postnatal development and in cultured cells by using novel SR knockout mice as negative controls. We found that SR is predominantly localized in pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal CA1 region. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed that SR signals colocalized with those of the neuron-specific nuclear protein, but not with the astrocytic markers glial fibrillary acid protein and 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. In the striatum, we observed SR expression in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic medium-spiny neurons. Furthermore, in the adult cerebellum, we detected weak but significant SR signals in GABAergic Purkinje cells. From these findings, we conclude that SR is expressed predominantly in many types of neuron in the brain and plays a key role in the regulation of brain functions under physiological and pathological conditions via the production of the neuromodulator D-serine.

Diversity in mammalian chiasmatic architecture: ipsilateral axons are deflected at glial arches in the prechiasmatic optic nerve of the eutherian Tupaia belangeri.

  • Knabe W
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 May 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Permanent ipsilaterally projecting axons approach the chiasmatic midline in rodents but are confined to lateral parts of the optic chiasm in marsupials. Hence, principally different mechanisms were thought to underlie axon pathway choice in eutherian (placental) and marsupial mammals. First evidence of diversity in eutherian chiasmatic architecture came from studies in the newborn and adult tree shrew Tupaia belangeri (Jeffery et al. [1998] J. Comp. Neurol. 390:183-193). Here, as in marsupials, ipsilaterally projecting axons do not approach the midline. The present study aims to clarify how the developing tree shrew chiasm is organized, how glial cells are arranged therein, and the extent to which the tree shrew chiasm is similar to that of marsupials or other eutherians. By using routinely stained serial sections as well as immunohistochemistry with antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, and medium-molecular-weight neurofilament protein, we investigated chiasm formation from embryonic day 18 (E18) to birth (E43). From E22 onward, ipsilaterally projecting axons diverged from contralaterally projecting axons in prechiasmatic parts of the optic nerve. They made sharp turns when arriving at glial arches found at the transition from the optic nerve to the chiasm. Thus, during the ingrowth period of axons, Tupaia belangeri and marsupials have specialized glial arrays in common, which probably help to deflect ipsilaterally projecting axons to lateral parts of the chiasm. Our observations provide new evidence of diversity in eutherian chiasmatic architecture and identify Tupaia belangeri as an appropriate animal model for studies on the mechanisms underlying axon guidance in the developing chiasm of higher primates.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P41GM103490(United States)

Neuronal and glial localization of alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain.

  • Ampatzis K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor (AR) subtype, a G protein-coupled receptor located both pre- and postsynaptically, mediates adrenaline/noradrenaline functions. The present study aimed to determine the alpha(2A)-AR distribution in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain by means of immunocytochemistry. Detailed mapping showed labeling of alpha(2A)-ARs, in neuropil, neuronal somata and fibers, glial processes, and blood vessels. A high density of alpha(2A)-AR immunoreactivity was found in the ventral telencephalic area, preoptic, pretectal, hypothalamic areas, torus semicircularis, oculomotor nucleus (NIII), locus coreruleus (LC), medial raphe, medial octavolateralis nucleus (MON), magnocellular octaval nucleus (MaON), reticular formation (SRF, IMRF, IRF), rhombencephalic nerves and roots (DV, V, VII, VIII, X), and cerebellar Purkinje cell layer. Moderate levels of alpha(2A)-ARs were observed in the medial and central zone nuclei of dorsal telencephalic area, in the periventricular gray zone of optic tectum, in the dorsomedial part of optic tectum layers, and in the molecular and granular layers of all cerebellum subdivisions. Glial processes were found to express alpha(2A)-ARs in rhombencephalon, intermingled with neuronal fibers. Medium-sized neurons were labeled in telencephalic, diencephalic, and mesencephlic areas, whereas densely labeled large neurons were found in rhombencephalon, locus coeruleus, reticular formation, oculomotor area, medial octavolateralis and magnocellular octaval nuclei, and Purkinje cell somata. The functional role of alpha(2A)-ARs on neurons and glial processes is not known at present; however, their strong relation to the ventricular system, somatosensory nuclei, and nerves supports a possible regulatory role of alpha(2A)-ARs in autonomic functions, nerve output, and sensory integration in adult zebrafish brain.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - UM1 HL098166(United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI 055502(United States)

Neuroblast proliferation on the surface of the adult rat striatal wall after focal ependymal loss by intracerebroventricular injection of neuraminidase.

  • Del Carmen Gómez-Roldán M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The subventricular zone of the striatal wall of adult rodents is an active neurogenic region for life. Cubic multiciliated ependyma separates the subventricular zone from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is involved in the control of adult neurogenesis. By injecting neuraminidase from Clostridium perfringens into the right lateral ventricle of the rat, we provoked a partial detachment of the ependyma in the striatal wall. The contralateral ventricle was never affected and was used as the experimental control. Neuraminidase caused widening of the intercellular spaces among some ependymal cells and their subsequent detachment and disintegration in the CSF. Partial ependymal denudation was followed by infiltration of the CSF with macrophages and neutrophils from the local choroid plexus, which ependymal cells never detached after neuraminidase administration. Inflammation extended toward the periventricular parenchyma. The ependymal cells that did not detach and remained in the ventricle wall never proliferated. The lost ependyma was never recovered, and ependymal cells never behaved as neural stem cells. Instead, a scar formed by overlapping astrocytic processes sealed those regions devoid of ependyma. Some ependymal cells at the border of the denudated areas lost contact with the ventricle and became located under the glial layer. Concomitantly with scar formation, some subependymal cells protruded toward the ventricle through the ependymal breaks, proliferated, and formed clusters of rounded ventricular cells that expressed the phenotype of neuroblasts. Ventricular clusters of neuroblasts remained in the ventricle up to 90 days after injection. In the subventricular zone, adult neurogenesis persisted.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY001867(United States)
  • PHS HHS - NIGMS T32GM007739(United States)

Calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) immunoreactivity in the rat trigeminovascular system: differences between peripheral and central CGRP receptor distribution.

  • Lennerz JK
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Mar 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key mediator in primary headaches including migraine. Animal models of meningeal nociception demonstrate both peripheral and central CGRP effects; however, the target structures remain unclear. To study the distribution of CGRP receptors in the rat trigeminovascular system we used antibodies recognizing two components of the CGRP receptor, the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) and the receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). In the cranial dura mater, CLR and RAMP1 immunoreactivity (-ir) was found within arterial blood vessels, mononuclear cells, and Schwann cells, but not sensory axons. In the trigeminal ganglion, besides Schwann and satellite cells, CLR- and RAMP1-ir was found in subpopulations of CGRP-ir neurons where colocalization of CGRP- and RAMP1-ir was very rare ( approximately 0.6%). CLR- and RAMP1-ir was present on central, but not peripheral, axons. In the spinal trigeminal nucleus, CLR- and RAMP1-ir was localized to "glomerular structures," partly colocalized with CGRP-ir. However, CLR- and RAMP1-ir was lacking in central glia and neuronal cell bodies. We conclude that CGRP receptors are associated with structural targets of known CGRP effects (vasodilation, mast cell degranulation) and targets of unknown function (Schwann cells). In the spinal trigeminal nucleus, CGRP receptors are probably located on neuronal processes, including primary afferent endings, suggesting involvement in presynaptic regulation of nociceptive transmission. Thus, in the trigeminovascular system CGRP receptor localization suggests multiple targets for CGRP in the pathogenesis of primary headaches.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P41 RR015301-05S10100(United States)

Developmental changes of serotonin 4(a) receptor expression in the rat pre-Bötzinger complex.

  • Manzke T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Feb 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Serotonin receptors (5-HTRs) are known to be involved in the regulation of breathing behavior and to mediate neurotrophic actions that exert a significant function in network formation during development. We studied neuronal 5-HT(4(a))R-immunoreactivity (-IR) at developmental ages from E14 to P10. Within the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), a part of the respiratory network important for rhythmogenesis, 5-HT(4(a))R-IR was most extensive in rats at an age of E18. The 5-HT(4(a))-IR was found predominantly in the neuropil, whereas somatic staining was sporadic at late embryonic (E18-E20) stages. At birth, we observed a dramatic change to a predominantly somatic staining, and neuropil staining was greatly reduced and disappeared at an age of P4. In all developmental stages, 5-HT(4(a)) and mu-opioid receptors were strongly coexpressed in neurons of the pre-BötC, whereas 5-HT(4(a))R expression was absent in neurons within the dorsal horn. Nestin, a marker for CNS progenitor cells, was used to obtain information about the degree of pre-BötC differentiation. Nestin-positive cells did not appear within the pre-BötC before age E20. At E16, nestin-expressing cells were absent in the nucleus ambiguus (NA) and its ventral periphery. The number of nestin-positive cells increased after birth within and outside the pre-BötC, the majority of cells being glial. Coexpression of nestin and 5-HT(4(a))R was localized predominantly within the NA and appeared only sporadically within the pre-BötC. We conclude that 5-HT(4(a))Rs are important not only for neuromodulation of cellular excitability but also for respiratory network formation.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY02052(United States)
  • Wellcome Trust - 093305/Z/10/Z(United Kingdom)

Clustering, migration, and neurite formation of neural precursor cells in the adult rat hippocampus.

  • Seki T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 May 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adult neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone and innermost part of the dentate granule cell layer. To examine how neural precursor cells proliferate, migrate, and extend their neurites, we performed BrdU- and improved retrovirus-green fluorescence protein (GFP)-labeling analyses. Soon after labeling the majority of BrdU+ cells and GFP+ cells expressed Ki67, a cell cycle marker, and formed clusters together with PSA+ neuroblasts. Most of the Ki67+ proliferating cells expressed Hu, an immature and mature neuronal marker, and the subpopulation expressed both Hu+ and GFAP+. In the clusters, Ki67+ and PSA+ cells strongly expressed beta-catenin and N-cadherin, but PSA+ cells outside the clusters did not. Therefore, it was mainly Hu+ neuronal precursor cells that proliferated within clusters in which the cluster cells are closely associated via cell adhesion molecules, such as N-cadherin/beta-cateninIn and PSA. The newly generated cells appeared to stay in the clusters for a few days and then disperse around the clusters. The findings of this in vivo analysis and in vitro time-lapse imaging of early postnatal hippocampal slices support the notion that most postmitotic neuroblasts migrate tangentially from clusters, extending tangentially oriented processes, one of which often retains close contact with the clusters, and finally extend radial processes, or prospective apical dendrites. These results suggest that the clustering cells and tangentially migrating cells have a systematic cellular arrangement and intercellular interaction.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS34439(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS046593(United States)

Chemokine receptor expression by neural progenitor cells in neurogenic regions of mouse brain.

  • Tran PB
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Feb 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

We previously demonstrated that chemokine receptors are expressed by neural progenitors grown as cultured neurospheres. To examine the significance of these findings for neural progenitor function in vivo, we investigated whether chemokine receptors were expressed by cells having the characteristics of neural progenitors in neurogenic regions of the postnatal brain. Using in situ hybridization we demonstrated the expression of CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, CXCR3, and CXCR4 chemokine receptors by cells in the dentate gyrus (DG), subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle, and olfactory bulb. The pattern of expression for all of these receptors was similar, including regions where neural progenitors normally reside. In addition, we attempted to colocalize chemokine receptors with markers for neural progenitors. In order to do this we used nestin-EGFP and TLX-LacZ transgenic mice, as well as labeling for Ki67, a marker for dividing cells. In all three areas of the brain we demonstrated colocalization of chemokine receptors with these three markers in populations of cells. Expression of chemokine receptors by neural progenitors was further confirmed using CXCR4-EGFP BAC transgenic mice. Expression of CXCR4 in the DG included cells that expressed nestin and GFAP as well as cells that appeared to be immature granule neurons expressing PSA-NCAM, calretinin, and Prox-1. CXCR4-expressing cells in the DG were found in close proximity to immature granule neurons that expressed the chemokine SDF-1/CXCL12. Cells expressing CXCR4 frequently coexpressed CCR2 receptors. These data support the hypothesis that chemokine receptors are important in regulating the migration of progenitor cells in postnatal brain.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/H024808/1(United Kingdom)

Epidermal growth factor receptor in adult retinal neurons of rat, mouse, and human.

  • Chen H
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

During development, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates proliferation and differentiation of many types of cells, including precursors of neurons and glia. In the adult, EGFR continues to drive the growth and differentiation of epithelial cells but is absent from glia in the CNS. However, the localization and functions of EGFR in adult neurons are not well defined. By using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, we have identified EGFR and its ligands in adult retinal ganglion cells in the normal rat, mouse, and human retina. EGFR and its ligands were also present in certain other adult retinal neurons, for example, horizontal cells and amacrine cells, and had different distribution patterns among these species. In addition, we found that EGFR was expressed in the rat retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5. One of the EGFR ligands, EGF, caused a cell shape change and increased neurofilament phosphorylation in RGC-5 cells. The expression of EGFR in postmitotic, terminally differentiated adult retinal neurons suggests that EGFR has pleiotropic functions. In addition to the conventional mitogenic role in adult epithelial cells, EGFR must serve a different, nonmitogenic function in adult neurons. Our work localizes EGFR and its ligands in the adult retinas of several species as a step toward investigating the nonmitogenic functions of EGFR in adult neurons.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U01-HG003162(United States)

Spatial exploration induces ARC, a plasticity-related immediate-early gene, only in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-positive principal excitatory and inhibitory neurons of the rat forebrain.

  • Vazdarjanova A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Sep 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Active behavior, such as exploring a novel environment, induces the expression of the immediate-early gene Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein, or Arg 3.1) in many brain regions, including the hippocampus, neocortex, and striatum. Arc messenger ribonucleic acid and protein are localized in activated dendrites, and Arc protein is required for the maintenance of long-term potentiation and memory consolidation. Although previous evidence suggests that Arc is expressed in neurons, there is no direct demonstration that only neurons can express Arc. Furthermore, there is no characterization of the main neuronal types that express Arc. The data reported here show that behavior- or seizure-induced Arc expression in the hippocampus, primary somatosensory cortex, and dorsal striatum of rats colocalizes only with neuronal (NeuN-positive) and not with glial (GFAP-positive) cells. Furthermore, Arc was found exclusively in non-GABAergic alpha-CaMKII-positive hippocampal and neocortical neurons of rats that had explored a novel environment. Some GAD65/67-positive neurons in these regions were observed to express Arc, but only after a very strong stimulus (electroconvulsive seizure). In the dorsal striatum, spatial exploration induced Arc only in GABAergic and alpha-CaMKII-positive neurons. Combined, these results show that although a very strong stimulus (seizure) can induce Arc in a variety of neurons, behavior induces Arc in the CaMKII-positive principal neurons of the hippocampus, neocortex, and dorsal striatum. These results, coupled with recent in vitro findings of interactions between Arc and CaMKII, are consistent with the hypothesis that Arc and CaMKII act as plasticity partners to promote functional and/or structural synaptic modifications that accompany learning.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P50 GM076547(United States)

Sox3 expression identifies neural progenitors in persistent neonatal and adult mouse forebrain germinative zones.

  • Wang TW
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neural precursors persist throughout life in the rodent forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampal dentate gyrus. The regulation of persistent neural stem cells is poorly understood, in part because of the lack of neural progenitor markers. The Sox B1 subfamily of HMG-box transcription factors (Sox1-3) is expressed by precursors in the embryonic nervous system, where these factors maintain neural progenitors in an undifferentiated state while suppressing neuronal differentiation. Sox2 expression persists in germinative zones of the adult rodent brain, but Sox3 expression in the postnatal brain remains largely unexplored. Here we examine Sox3 expression in the neonatal and adult mouse brain to gain insight into its potential involvement in regulating persistent neural stem cells and neurogenesis. We also investigate Sox3 expression during expansion and neural differentiation of postnatal mouse SVZ neural stem cell and human embryonic stem cell (hESC) cultures. We find that Sox3 is expressed transiently by proliferating and differentiating neural progenitors in the SVZ-olfactory bulb pathway and dentate gyrus. Sox3 immunoreactivity also persists in specific postmitotic neuronal populations. In vitro, high Sox3 protein expression levels in undifferentiated, SVZ-derived neurospheres decline markedly with differentiation. Sox3 immunoreactivity in hESCs appears upon differentiation to neural progenitors and then decreases as cells differentiate further into neurons. These findings suggest that Sox3 labels specific stages of hESC-derived and murine neonatal and adult neural progenitors and are consistent with a role for Sox3 in neural stem cell maintenance. Persistent Sox3 expression in some mature neuronal populations suggests additional undefined roles for Sox3 in neuronal function.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - U42 OD011175(United States)