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Monoclonal Anti-Calbindin-D-28K antibody produced in mouse

RRID:AB_476894

Antibody ID

AB_476894

Target Antigen

Calbindin-D-28K antibody produced in mouse

Proper Citation

(Sigma-Aldrich Cat# C9848, RRID:AB_476894)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Vendor recommendations: IgG1 immunohistochemistry (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections): 1:3,000; ELISA; Immunohistochemistry; Western Blot

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Sigma-Aldrich

Cone synapses in mammalian retinal rod bipolar cells.

  • Pang JJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Some mammalian rod bipolar cells (RBCs) can receive excitatory chemical synaptic inputs from both rods and cones (DBCR2 ), but anatomical evidence for mammalian cone-RBC contacts has been sparse. We examined anatomical cone-RBC contacts using neurobiotin (NB) to visualize individual mouse cones and standard immuno-markers to identify RBCs, cone pedicles and synapses in mouse and baboon retinas. Peanut agglutinin (PNA) stained the basal membrane of all cone pedicles, and mouse cones were positive for red/green (R/G)-opsin, whereas baboon cones were positive for calbindin D-28k. All synapses in the outer plexiform layer were labeled for synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) and PSD (postsynaptic density)-95, and those that coincided with PNA resided closest to bipolar cell somas. Cone-RBC synaptic contacts were identified by: (a) RBC dendrites deeply invaginating into the center of cone pedicles (invaginating synapses), (b) RBC dendritic spines intruding into the surface of cone pedicles (superficial synapses), and (c) PKCα immunoreactivity coinciding with synaptic marker SV2, PSD-95, mGluR6, G protein beta 5 or PNA at cone pedicles. One RBC could form 0-1 invaginating and 1-3 superficial contacts with cones. 20.7% and 38.9% of mouse RBCs contacted cones in the peripheral and central retina (p < .05, n = 14 samples), respectively, while 34.4% (peripheral) and 48.5% (central) of cones contacted RBCs (p > .05). In baboon retinas (n = 4 samples), cone-RBC contacts involved 12.2% of RBCs (n = 416 cells) and 22.5% of cones (n = 225 cells). This suggests that rod and cone signals in the ON pathway are integrated in some RBCs before reaching AII amacrine cells.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY002520()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY004446()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY019908()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS056427(United States)

Quantitative ultrastructural analysis of fibers expressing parvalbumin, calretinin, calbindin D-28k, stage specific embryonic antigen-4, and phosphorylated neurofilament 200 in the peripheral sensory root of the rat trigeminal ganglion.

  • Bae JY
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parvalbumin (PV), calretinin (CR), calbindin D-28k (CB), stage specific embryonic antigen-4 (SSEA4), and phosphorylated neurofilament 200 (pNF200) have been commonly used as markers for primary afferent neurons with large myelinated (A) fibers but detailed information on the expression of these markers in specific primary afferent fiber types is still lacking. We here examined the fibers that express PV, CR, CB, SSEA4, and pNF200 in the trigeminal ganglion and its peripheral sensory root by light- and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry and quantitative analysis. We found that all CR-immunopositive (+), CB+, and SSEA4+ fibers and virtually all (98.8%) PV+ fibers were myelinated, most CR+ fibers were large myelinated, whereas most CB+ and SSEA4+ fibers were small myelinated. One half of the PV+ fibers were small myelinated and the other half were large myelinated. Of all pNF200+ fibers, about a third each were small myelinated, large myelinated, and unmyelinated. These findings suggest that PV, CR, CB, and SSEA4 can be used as specific markers for primary afferent neurons with myelinated fibers, but that pNF200 is not suitable as a specific marker for primary afferent neurons with myelinated fibers, and also raise the possibility that PV, CR, CB, and SSEA4 may be expressed in both mechanoreceptive and nociceptive neurons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U127574433(United Kingdom)

Cerebellar learning properties are modulated by the CRF receptor in granular cells.

  • Ezra-Nevo G
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and its type 1 receptor (CRFR1) play an important role in the responses to stressful challenges. Despite the well-established expression of CRFR1 in granular cells (GrCs), its role in procedural motor performance and memory formation remains elusive. To investigate the role of CRFR1 expression in cerebellar GrCs, we used a mouse model depleted of CRFR1 in these cells. We detected changes in the cellular learning mechanisms in GrCs depleted of CRFR1 in that they showed changes in intrinsic excitability and long-term synaptic plasticity. Moreover, male mice depleted of CRFR1 specifically in GrCs showed accelerated Pavlovian associative eye-blink conditioning, but no differences in baseline motor performance, locomotion or fear and anxiety-related behaviors. Last, we analyzed cerebella transcriptome of KO and control mice and detected prominent alterations in the expression of calcium signaling pathways components. Our findings shed light on the interplay between stress-related central mechanisms and cerebellar motor conditioning, highlighting the role of the CRF system in regulating particular forms of cerebellar learning.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTAlthough it is known that CRFR1 is highly expressed in the cerebellum, little attention has been given to its role in cerebellar functions in the behaving animal. Moreover, most of the attention was directed to the effect of CRF on Purkinje cells at the cellular level, and to this date, almost no data exist on the role of this stress-related receptor in other cerebellar structures. Here, we explored the behavioral and cellular effect of GrCs specific ablation of CRFR1 We found a profound effect on learning, both at the cellular and behavioral levels, without affecting baseline motor skills.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA105490(United States)

Temporal Expression Patterns of Genes Related to Sex Steroid Action in Sexually Dimorphic Nuclei During Puberty.

  • Kanaya M
  • Front Endocrinol (Lausanne)
  • 2018 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sex steroids play a major role in sexually dimorphic brain development during not only the perinatal period but also the pubertal period. We previously showed that, in male mice, the estrogen receptor-α (Esr1) and aromatase (Cyp19a1) genes are essential to the sexually dimorphic formation of the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTp), but the estrogen receptor-β (Esr2) gene is not necessary. We also showed that the androgen receptor (Ar) gene is essential to the sexually dimorphic formation of the BNSTp. These genes are expressed in the AVPV and BNSTp of perinatal mice. However, it remains unknown whether these genes are expressed in the AVPV and BNSTp during puberty, and whether the expression, if any, differs by sex, age, and brain region. Here, we dissected the AVPV and BNSTp from Nissl-stained brain sections of male and female mice on postnatal day (PD) 20 (prepuberty), PD30 (puberty onset in females), PD40 (puberty onset in males), and PD60 (young adult) using a laser microdissection system. We then examined the mRNA levels of Esr1, Esr2, Cyp19a1, and Ar in these brain regions. In the AVPV, Esr1 mRNA levels were greater in females than males during PD20-60. Esr2 and Ar mRNA expressions did not differ between sexes. Ar mRNA levels were higher at PD30 than PD20. Cyp19a1 mRNA was not detected in the AVPV at PD20-60. In the BNSTp, Esr1 and Esr2 mRNA levels were higher in females than in males during PD20-60, although the mRNA levels of Cyp19a1 and Ar did not differ between sexes. Additionally, we revealed that orchiectomy at PD20 induced a failure of normal formation of the male BNSTp and testosterone replacement in the prepubertal period rescued the effect of orchiectomy at PD20. Taken together, it is suggested that pubertal testosterone transported to the AVPV is not converted to estradiol there and does not act via ESR1 and ESR2. By contrast, the formation of the male BNSTp may be affected by testicular testosterone during puberty via AR and/or via ESR1 after conversion to estradiol by CYP19A1.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

Genetic Ablation of All Cerebellins Reveals Synapse Organizer Functions in Multiple Regions Throughout the Brain.

  • Seigneur E
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cerebellins are synaptic organizer molecules that bind to presynaptic neurexins and postsynaptic receptors. They are well studied in the cerebellum, but three of the four cerebellins (Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4) are also broadly expressed outside of the cerebellum, suggesting that they perform general functions throughout the brain. Here, we generated male and female constitutive single (KO), double KO (dKO), and triple KO (tKO) mice of Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4. We found that all constitutive cerebellin-deficient mice were viable and fertile, suggesting that cerebellins are not essential for survival. Cbln1/2 dKO mice exhibited salience-induced seizures that were aggravated in Cbln1/2/4 tKO mice, suggesting that all cerebellins contribute to brain function. As described previously, Cbln1 KO mice displayed major motor impairments that were aggravated by additional KO of Cbln2. Strikingly, the Cbln1/2 dKO did not cause alterations in synapse density in the hippocampus of young adult (1- and 2-month-old) mice, but produced a selective ∼50% decrease in hippocampal synapse density in the stratum lacunosum moleculare of the CA1 region and in the dentate gyrus of aging, 6-month-old mice. A similar decrease in excitatory synapse density was observed in the striatum and retrosplenial cortex. Behaviorally, the Cbln1 KO produced dramatic changes in motor behaviors that were partly aggravated by additional deletion of Cbln2 and/or Cbln4. Our results show that cerebellins are not essential for survival and do not contribute to initial synapse formation, but perform multiple functions throughout the brain; as a consequence, their ablation results in a delayed loss of synapses and in behavioral impairments.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cerebellins (Cbln1-4) are trans-synaptic cell adhesion molecules. In the cerebellum, Cbln1 functions as a bidirectional organizer of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses by binding to presynaptic neurexins and postsynaptic GluRδ2. Little is known about the function of cerebellins outside of the cerebellum; therefore, the present study used single, double, and triple constitutive KO mice of Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4 to analyze the overall function of cerebellins. We show that cerebellins act as important synaptic organizers in specific subsets of neurons and likely contribute to many different brain functions. We also show that cerebellins are not initially required for synapse formation, but rather for specification and long-term synapse maintenance and demonstrate that all cerebellins, not just Cbln1, contribute to brain function.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD07190(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R37 MH052804()

Functional Divergence of Delta and Mu Opioid Receptor Organization in CNS Pain Circuits.

  • Wang D
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cellular interactions between delta and mu opioid receptors (DORs and MORs), including heteromerization, are thought to regulate opioid analgesia. However, the identity of the nociceptive neurons in which such interactions could occur in vivo remains elusive. Here we show that DOR-MOR co-expression is limited to small populations of excitatory interneurons and projection neurons in the spinal cord dorsal horn and unexpectedly predominates in ventral horn motor circuits. Similarly, DOR-MOR co-expression is rare in parabrachial, amygdalar, and cortical brain regions processing nociceptive information. We further demonstrate that in the discrete DOR-MOR co-expressing nociceptive neurons, the two receptors internalize and function independently. Finally, conditional knockout experiments revealed that DORs selectively regulate mechanical pain by controlling the excitability of somatostatin-positive dorsal horn interneurons. Collectively, our results illuminate the functional organization of DORs and MORs in CNS pain circuits and reappraise the importance of DOR-MOR cellular interactions for developing novel opioid analgesics.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA042014(United States)

Immunohistochemical Procedures for Characterizing the Retinal Expression Patterns of Cre Driver Mouse Lines.

  • Lu Q
  • Methods Mol. Biol.
  • 2018 Apr 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The retina is a thin neural tissue sitting on the backside of the eye, composed of light-sensing cells, interneurons, and output ganglion neurons. The latter send electrical signals to higher visual centers in the brain. Transgenic mouse lines are becoming one of the most valuable mammalian animal models for the study of visual signal processing within the retina. Especially, the generation of Cre recombinase transgenic mouse lines provides a powerful tool for genetic manipulation. A key step for the utilization of transgenic lines is the characterization of their transgene expression patterns in the retina. Here we describe a standard protocol for characterizing the expression pattern of the Cre recombinase or fluorescent proteins in the retina with an immunohistochemical approach.

Ambra1 Shapes Hippocampal Inhibition/Excitation Balance: Role in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

  • Nobili A
  • Mol. Neurobiol.
  • 2018 Feb 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission cause brain network dysfunction and are central to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Parvalbumin interneurons are highly implicated in this imbalance. Here, we probed the social behavior and hippocampal function of mice carrying a haploinsufficiency for Ambra1, a pro-autophagic gene crucial for brain development. We show that heterozygous Ambra1 mice (Ambra+/-) are characterized by loss of hippocampal parvalbumin interneurons, decreases in the inhibition/excitation ratio, and altered social behaviors that are solely restricted to the female gender. Loss of parvalbumin interneurons in Ambra1+/- females is further linked to reductions of the inhibitory drive onto principal neurons and alterations in network oscillatory activity, CA1 synaptic plasticity, and pyramidal neuron spine density. Parvalbumin interneuron loss is underlined by increased apoptosis during the embryonic development of progenitor neurons in the medial ganglionic eminence. Together, these findings identify an Ambra1-dependent mechanism that drives inhibition/excitation imbalance in the hippocampus, contributing to abnormal brain activity reminiscent of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Funding information:
  • Ministero della Salute - GR-2011-02351457()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01NS052455(United States)

Neural activity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits of juvenile songbirds encodes performance during goal-directed learning.

  • Achiro JM
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cortico-basal ganglia circuits are thought to mediate goal-directed learning by a process of outcome evaluation to gradually select appropriate motor actions. We investigated spiking activity in core and shell subregions of the cortical nucleus LMAN during development as juvenile zebra finches are actively engaged in evaluating feedback of self-generated behavior in relation to their memorized tutor song (the goal). Spiking patterns of single neurons in both core and shell subregions during singing correlated with acoustic similarity to tutor syllables, suggesting a process of outcome evaluation. Both core and shell neurons encoded tutor similarity via either increases or decreases in firing rate, although only shell neurons showed a significant association at the population level. Tutor similarity predicted firing rates most strongly during early stages of learning, and shell but not core neurons showed decreases in response variability across development, suggesting that the activity of shell neurons reflects the progression of learning.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - T32 DC009975()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS073323()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS037547()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS087506()
  • Wellcome Trust - WT097394A1A(United Kingdom)

Clustered organization and region-specific identities of estrogen-producing neurons in the forebrain of Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

  • Ikeda MZ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

A fast, neuromodulatory role for estrogen signaling has been reported in many regions of the vertebrate brain. Regional differences in the cellular distribution of aromatase (estrogen synthase) in several species suggest that mechanisms for neuroestrogen signaling differ between and even within brain regions. A more comprehensive understanding of neuroestrogen signaling depends on characterizing the cellular identities of neurons that express aromatase. Calcium-binding proteins such as parvalbumin and calbindin are molecular markers for interneuron subtypes, and are co-expressed with aromatase in human temporal cortex. Songbirds like the zebra finch have become important models to understand the brain synthesis of steroids like estrogens and the implications for neurobiology and behavior. Here, we investigated the regional differences in cytoarchitecture and cellular identities of aromatase-expressing neurons in the auditory and sensorimotor forebrain of zebra finches. Aromatase was co-expressed with parvalbumin in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM) and HVC shelf (proper name) but not in the caudolateral nidopallium (NCL) or hippocampus. By contrast, calbindin was not co-expressed with aromatase in any region investigated. Notably, aromatase-expressing neurons were found in dense somato-somatic clusters, suggesting a coordinated release of local neuroestrogens from clustered neurons. Aromatase clusters were also more abundant and tightly packed in the NCM of males as compared to females. Overall, this study provides new insights into neuroestrogen regulation at the network level, and extends previous findings from human cortex by identifying a subset of aromatase neurons as putative inhibitory interneurons.

Age-Dependent Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration and Impairment of the Autophagy-Lysosomal Pathway in LRRK-Deficient Mice.

  • Giaime E
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

LRRK2 mutations are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease, but LRRK2's normal physiological role in the brain is unclear. Here, we show that inactivation of LRRK2 and its functional homolog LRRK1 results in earlier mortality and age-dependent, selective neurodegeneration. Loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus is accompanied with increases in apoptosis, whereas the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are unaffected. Furthermore, selective age-dependent neurodegeneration is only present in LRRK-/-, not LRRK1-/- or LRRK2-/- brains, and it is accompanied by increases in α-synuclein and impairment of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway. Quantitative electron microscopy (EM) analysis revealed age-dependent increases of autophagic vacuoles in the SNpc of LRRK-/- mice before the onset of DA neuron loss. These findings revealed an essential role of LRRK in the survival of DA neurons and in the regulation of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in the aging brain.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P50 NS094733()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS071251()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS071251()

Age-related alterations in histone deacetylase expression in Purkinje neurons of ethanol-fed rats.

  • Khurana A
  • Brain Res.
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ethanol and age-induced pathologies of the Purkinje neuron (PN) may result from histone deacetylases (HDACs), enzymes which repress transcription through coiling of the DNA. The purposes of this study were to investigate expression patterns of Class 1 and IIa HDACs in PN and the effects of aging and alcohol on the density of HDACs and histone acetylation in PN. Ninety, eight month old rats (30/diet) were fed a liquid ethanol, liquid control, or rat chow diet for 10, 20, or 40weeks (30/treatment duration). Double immunocytochemical labeling on tissue sections from these rats used antibodies against HDAC isoforms or acetylated histones, and calbindin, a marker for PN. Fluorescent intensities were also measured. Results showed a significant age but not an alcohol-related decrease in the densities of HDACs 2, 3, and 7. In contrast, there were age related-increases in the densities of phosphorylated form of HDAC (4, 5, 7) PN and in PN nuclei expressing HDAC 7. There were also a trend towards ethanol-induced inhibition of acetylation as the density of AH2b PN nuclei and AH3 and AH2b fluorescent intensity was significantly lower in the EF compared to the PF rats. This study presents unique data concerning which HDACs are commonly expressed in PN and indicates that aging rather than lengthy alcohol expression alters expression of the HDACs studied here. These results also suggest that lengthy ethanol consumption may inhibit histone deacetylation in PN.

Cerebellins are differentially expressed in selective subsets of neurons throughout the brain.

  • Seigneur E
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cerebellins are secreted hexameric proteins that form tripartite complexes with the presynaptic cell-adhesion molecules neurexins or 'deleted-in-colorectal-cancer', and the postsynaptic glutamate-receptor-related proteins GluD1 and GluD2. These tripartite complexes are thought to regulate synapses. However, cerebellins are expressed in multiple isoforms whose relative distributions and overall functions are not understood. Three of the four cerebellins, Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4, autonomously assemble into homohexamers, whereas the Cbln3 requires Cbln1 for assembly and secretion. Here, we show that Cbln1, Cbln2, and Cbln4 are abundantly expressed in nearly all brain regions, but exhibit strikingly different expression patterns and developmental dynamics. Using newly generated knockin reporter mice for Cbln2 and Cbln4, we find that Cbln2 and Cbln4 are not universally expressed in all neurons, but only in specific subsets of neurons. For example, Cbln2 and Cbln4 are broadly expressed in largely non-overlapping subpopulations of excitatory cortical neurons, but only sparse expression was observed in excitatory hippocampal neurons of the CA1- or CA3-region. Similarly, Cbln2 and Cbln4 are selectively expressed, respectively, in inhibitory interneurons and excitatory mitral projection neurons of the main olfactory bulb; here, these two classes of neurons form dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses with each other. A few brain regions, such as the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract, exhibit astoundingly high Cbln2 expression levels. Viewed together, our data show that cerebellins are abundantly expressed in relatively small subsets of neurons, suggesting specific roles restricted to subsets of synapses.

Gonadal Hormone-Dependent Sexual Differentiation of a Female-Biased Sexually Dimorphic Cell Group in the Principal Nucleus of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis in Mice.

  • Morishita M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We recently reported a female-biased sexually dimorphic area in the mouse brain in the boundary region between the preoptic area and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). We reexamined this area and found that it is a ventral part of the principal nucleus of the BNST (BNSTp). The BNSTp is a male-biased sexually dimorphic nucleus, but the ventral part of the BNSTp (BNSTpv) exhibits female-biased sex differences in volume and neuron number. The volume and neuron number of the BNSTpv were increased in males by neonatal orchiectomy and decreased in females by treatment with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol within 5 days after birth. Sex differences in the volume and neuron number of the BNSTpv emerged before puberty. These sex differences became prominent in adulthood with increasing volume in females and loss of neurons in males during the pubertal/adolescent period. Prepubertal orchiectomy did not affect the BNSTpv, although prepubertal ovariectomy reduced the volume increase and induced loss of neurons in the female BNSTpv. In contrast, the volume and neuron number of male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei that are composed of mainly calbindin neurons and are located in the preoptic area and BNST were decreased by prepubertal orchiectomy but not affected by prepubertal ovariectomy. Testicular testosterone during the postnatal period may defeminize the BNSTpv via binding directly to the androgen receptor and indirectly to the estrogen receptor after aromatization, although defeminization may proceed independently of testicular hormones in the pubertal/adolescent period. Ovarian hormones may act to feminize the BNSTpv during the pubertal/adolescent period.

Deletion of the GluRδ2 Receptor in the Hotfoot Mouse Mutant Causes Granule Cell Loss, Delayed Purkinje Cell Death, and Reductions in Purkinje Cell Dendritic Tree Area.

  • Zanjani HS
  • Cerebellum
  • 2017 Sep 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent studies have found that in the cerebellum, the δ2 glutamate receptor (GluRδ2) plays a key role in regulating the differentiation of parallel fiber-Purkinje synapses and mediating key physiological functions in the granule cell-Purkinje cell circuit. In the hotfoot mutant or GluRδ2 knockout mice, the absence of GluRδ2 expression results in impaired motor-related tasks, ataxia, and disruption of long-term depression at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. The goal of this study was to determine the long-term consequences of deletion of GluRδ2 expression in the hotfoot mutant (GluRδ2 ho/ho ) on Purkinje and granule cell survival and Purkinje cell dendritic differentiation. Quantitative estimates of Purkinje and granule cell numbers in 3-, 12-, and 20-month-old hotfoot mutants and wild-type controls showed that Purkinje cell numbers are within control values at 3 and 12 months in the hotfoot mutant but reduced by 20 % at 20 months compared with controls. In contrast, the number of granule cells is significantly reduced from 3 months onwards in GluRδ2 ho/ho mutant mice compared to wild-type controls. Although the overall structure of Purkinje cell dendrites does not appear to be altered, there is a significant 27 % reduction in the cross-sectional area of Purkinje cell dendritic trees in the 20-month-old GluRδ2 ho/ho mutants. The interpretation of the results is that the GluRδ2 receptor plays an important role in the long-term organization of the granule-Purkinje cell circuit through its involvement in the regulation of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synaptogenesis and in the normal functioning of this critical cerebellar circuit.

Inferior Olivary TMEM16B Mediates Cerebellar Motor Learning.

  • Zhang Y
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ca2+-activated ion channels shape membrane excitability and Ca2+ dynamics in response to cytoplasmic Ca2+ elevation. Compared to the Ca2+-activated K+ channels, known as BK and SK channels, the physiological importance of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) in neurons has been largely overlooked. Here we report that CaCCs coexist with BK and SK channels in inferior olivary (IO) neurons that send climbing fibers to innervate cerebellar Purkinje cells for the control of motor learning and timing. Ca2+ influx through the dendritic high-threshold voltage-gated Ca2+ channels activates CaCCs, which contribute to membrane repolarization of IO neurons. Loss of TMEM16B expression resulted in the absence of CaCCs in IO neurons, leading to markedly diminished action potential firing of IO neurons in TMEM16B knockout mice. Moreover, these mutant mice exhibited severe cerebellar motor learning deficits. Our findings thus advance the understanding of the neurophysiology of CaCCs and the ionic basis of IO neuron excitability.

Neonatal Inhibition of DNA Methylation Alters Cell Phenotype in Sexually Dimorphic Regions of the Mouse Brain.

  • Mosley M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many of the best-studied neural sex differences relate to differences in cell number and are due to the hormonal control of developmental cell death. However, several prominent neural sex differences persist even if cell death is eliminated. We hypothesized that these may reflect cell phenotype "decisions" that depend on epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation. To test this, we treated newborn mice with the DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor zebularine, or vehicle, and examined two sexually dimorphic markers at weaning. As expected, control males had more cells immunoreactive for calbindin-D28k (CALB) in the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and fewer cells immunoreactive for estrogen receptor α (ERα) in the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMHvl) and the mPOA than did females. Neonatal DNMT inhibition markedly increased CALB cell number in both sexes and ERα cell density in males; as a result, the sex differences in ERα in the VMHvl and mPOA were completely eliminated in zebularine-treated animals. Zebularine treatment did not affect developmental cell death or the total density of Nissl-stained cells at weaning. Thus, a neonatal disruption of DNA methylation apparently has long-term effects on the proportion of cells expressing CALB and ERα, and some of these effects are sex specific. We also found that sex differences in CALB in the mPOA and ERα in the VMHvl persist in mice with a neuron-specific depletion of either Dnmt1 or Dnmt3b, indicating that neither DNMT alone is likely to be required for the sexually dimorphic expression of these markers.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK107544()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH068482()

Moxd1 Is a Marker for Sexual Dimorphism in the Medial Preoptic Area, Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis and Medial Amygdala.

  • Tsuneoka Y
  • Front Neuroanat
  • 2017 Apr 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The brain shows various sex differences in its structures. Various mammalian species exhibit sex differences in the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and parts of the extended amygdala such as the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTpr) and posterodorsal part of the medial amygdala (MePD). The SDN-POA and BNSTpr are male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei, and characterized by the expression of calbindin D-28K (calbindin 1). However, calbindin-immunoreactive cells are not restricted to the SDN-POA, but widely distributed outside of the SDN-POA. To find genes that are more specific to sexually dimorphic nuclei, we selected candidate genes by searching the Allen brain atlas and examined the detailed expressions of the candidate genes using in situ hybridization. We found that the strong expression of monooxygenase DBH-like 1 (Moxd1) was restricted to the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD. The numbers of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, BNSTpr and MePD in male mice were larger than those in female mice. Most of the Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA and BNSTpr expressed calbindin. Neonatal castration of male mice reduced the number of Moxd1-positive cells in the SDN-POA, whereas gonadectomy in adulthood did not change the expression of the Moxd1 gene in the SDN-POA in both sexes. These results suggest that the Moxd1 gene is a suitable marker for sexual dimorphic nuclei in the POA, BNST and amygdala, which enables us to manipulate sexually dimorphic neurons to examine their roles in sex-biased physiology and behaviors.

Anatomical characterization of subcortical descending projections to the inferior colliculus in mouse.

  • Patel MB
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Descending projections from the thalamus and related structures to the midbrain are evolutionarily highly conserved. However, the basic organization of this auditory thalamotectal pathway has not yet been characterized. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the anatomical and neurochemical features of this pathway. Analysis of the distributions of retrogradely labeled cells after focal injections of retrograde tracer into the inferior colliculus (IC) of the mouse revealed that most of the subcortical descending projections originated in the brachium of the IC and the paralaminar portions of the auditory thalamus. In addition, the vast majority of thalamotectal cells were found to be negative for the calcium-binding proteins calbindin, parvalbumin, or calretinin. Using two different strains of GAD-GFP mice, as well as immunostaining for GABA, we found that a subset of neurons in the brachium of the IC is GABAergic, suggesting that part of this descending pathway is inhibitory. Finally, dual retrograde injections into the IC and amygdala plus corpus striatum as well into the IC and auditory cortex did not reveal any double labeling. These data suggest that the thalamocollicular pathway comprises a unique population of thalamic neurons that do not contain typical calcium-binding proteins and do not project to other paralaminar thalamic forebrain targets, and that a previously undescribed descending GABAergic pathway emanates from the brachium of the IC. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:885-900, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

A Brainstem-Spinal Cord Inhibitory Circuit for Mechanical Pain Modulation by GABA and Enkephalins.

  • François A
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pain thresholds are, in part, set as a function of emotional and internal states by descending modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. Neurons of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) are thought to critically contribute to this process; however, the neural circuits and synaptic mechanisms by which distinct populations of RVM neurons facilitate or diminish pain remain elusive. Here we used in vivo opto/chemogenetic manipulations and trans-synaptic tracing of genetically identified dorsal horn and RVM neurons to uncover an RVM-spinal cord-primary afferent circuit controlling pain thresholds. Unexpectedly, we found that RVM GABAergic neurons facilitate mechanical pain by inhibiting dorsal horn enkephalinergic/GABAergic interneurons. We further demonstrate that these interneurons gate sensory inputs and control pain through temporally coordinated enkephalin- and GABA-mediated presynaptic inhibition of somatosensory neurons. Our results uncover a descending disynaptic inhibitory circuit that facilitates mechanical pain, is engaged during stress, and could be targeted to establish higher pain thresholds. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

A Thalamo-Hypothalamic Pathway That Activates Oxytocin Neurons in Social Contexts in Female Rats.

  • Cservenák M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oxytocin is released from neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) in mothers upon suckling and during adult social interactions. However, neuronal pathways that activate oxytocin neurons in social contexts are not yet established. Neurons in the posterior intralaminar complex of the thalamus (PIL), which contain tuberoinfundibular peptide 39 (TIP39) and are activated by pup exposure in lactating mothers, provide a candidate projection. Innervation of oxytocin neurons by TIP39 neurons was examined by double labeling in combination with electron microscopy and retrograde tract-tracing. Potential classic neurotransmitters in TIP39 neurons were investigated by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Neurons activated after encounter with a familiar conspecific female in a familiar environment were mapped with the c-Fos technique. PVN and the supraoptic nucleus oxytocin neurons were closely apposed by an average of 2.0 and 0.4 TIP39 terminals, respectively. Asymmetric (presumed excitatory) synapses were found between TIP39 terminals and cell bodies of oxytocin neurons. In lactating rats, PIL TIP39 neurons were retrogradely labeled from the PVN. TIP39 neurons expressed vesicular glutamate transporter 2 but not glutamic acid decarboxylase 67. PIL contained a markedly increased number of c-Fos-positive neurons in response to social encounter with a familiar conspecific female. Furthermore, the PIL received ascending input from the spinal cord and the inferior colliculus. Thus, TIP39 neurons in the PIL may receive sensory input in response to social interactions and project to the PVN to innervate and excite oxytocin neurons, suggesting that the PIL-PVN projection contributes to the activation of oxytocin neurons in social contexts.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01-CA78266(United States)

Individual mediodorsal thalamic neurons project to multiple areas of the rat prefrontal cortex: A single neuron-tracing study using virus vectors.

  • Kuramoto E
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The prefrontal cortex has an important role in a variety of cognitive and executive processes, and is generally defined by its reciprocal connections with the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD). The rat MD is mainly subdivided into three segments, the medial (MDm), central (MDc), and lateral (MDl) divisions, on the basis of the cytoarchitecture and chemoarchitecture. The MD segments are known to topographically project to multiple prefrontal areas at the population level: the MDm mainly to the prelimbic, infralimbic, and agranular insular areas; the MDc to the orbital and agranular insular areas; and the MDl to the prelimbic and anterior cingulate areas. However, it is unknown whether individual MD neurons project to single or multiple prefrontal cortical areas. In the present study, we visualized individual MD neurons with Sindbis virus vectors, and reconstructed whole structures of MD neurons. While the main cortical projection targets of MDm, MDc, and MDl neurons were generally consistent with those of previous results, it was found that individual MD neurons sent their axon fibers to multiple prefrontal areas, and displayed various projection patterns in the target areas. Furthermore, the axons of single MD neurons were not homogeneously spread, but were rather distributed to form patchy axon arbors approximately 1 mm in diameter. The multiple-area projections and patchy axon arbors of single MD neurons might be able to coactivate cortical neuron groups in distant prefrontal areas simultaneously. Furthermore, considerable heterogeneity of the projection patterns is likely, to recruit the different sets of cortical neurons, and thus contributes to a variety of prefrontal functions. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:166-185, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS043330(United States)

A Sexually Dimorphic Area of the Dorsal Hypothalamus in Mice and Common Marmosets.

  • Moe Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Dec 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

We found a novel sexually dimorphic area (SDA) in the dorsal hypothalamus (DH) of mice. The SDA-DH was sandwiched between 2 known male-biased sexually dimorphic nuclei, the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the calbindin-sexually dimorphic nucleus, and exhibited a female-biased sex difference in neuronal cell density. The density of neurons in the SDA-DH was increased in male mice by orchidectomy on the day of birth and decreased in female mice by treatment with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol within 5 days after birth. These findings indicate that the SDA-DH is defeminized under the influence of testicular testosterone, which acts via both directly by binding to the androgen receptor, and indirectly by binding to the estrogen receptor after aromatization. We measured the activity of SDA-DH neurons with c-Fos, a neuronal activity marker, in female mice during maternal and sexual behaviors. The number of c-Fos-expressing neurons in the SDA-DH of female mice was negatively correlated with maternal behavior performance. However, the number of c-Fos-expressing neurons did not change during female sexual behavior. These findings suggest that the SDA-DH contains a neuronal cell population, the activity of which decreases in females exhibiting higher performance of maternal behavior, but it may contribute less to female sexual behavior. Additionally, we examined the brain of common marmosets and found an area that appears to be homologous with the mouse SDA-DH. The sexually dimorphic structure identified in this study is not specific to mice and may be found in other species.

Molecular Diversity of Midbrain Development in Mouse, Human, and Stem Cells.

  • La Manno G
  • Cell
  • 2016 Oct 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Understanding human embryonic ventral midbrain is of major interest for Parkinson's disease. However, the cell types, their gene expression dynamics, and their relationship to commonly used rodent models remain to be defined. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing to examine ventral midbrain development in human and mouse. We found 25 molecularly defined human cell types, including five subtypes of radial glia-like cells and four progenitors. In the mouse, two mature fetal dopaminergic neuron subtypes diversified into five adult classes during postnatal development. Cell types and gene expression were generally conserved across species, but with clear differences in cell proliferation, developmental timing, and dopaminergic neuron development. Additionally, we developed a method to quantitatively assess the fidelity of dopaminergic neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells, at a single-cell level. Thus, our study provides insight into the molecular programs controlling human midbrain development and provides a foundation for the development of cell replacement therapies.

Cerebellar Transcriptome Profiles of ATXN1 Transgenic Mice Reveal SCA1 Disease Progression and Protection Pathways.

  • Ingram M
  • Neuron
  • 2016 Mar 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

SCA1, a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, is caused by a CAG expansion encoding a polyglutamine stretch in the protein ATXN1. We used RNA sequencing to profile cerebellar gene expression in Pcp2-ATXN1[82Q] mice with ataxia and progressive pathology and Pcp2-ATXN1[30Q]D776 animals having ataxia in absence of Purkinje cell progressive pathology. Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis of the cerebellar expression data revealed two gene networks that significantly correlated with disease and have an expression profile correlating with disease progression in ATXN1[82Q] Purkinje cells. The Magenta Module provides a signature of suppressed transcriptional programs reflecting disease progression in Purkinje cells, while the Lt Yellow Module reflects transcriptional programs activated in response to disease in Purkinje cells as well as other cerebellar cell types. Furthermore, we found that upregulation of cholecystokinin (Cck) and subsequent interaction with the Cck1 receptor likely underlies the lack of progressive Purkinje cell pathology in Pcp2-ATXN1[30Q]D776 mice.

Sources of input to the rostromedial tegmental nucleus, ventral tegmental area, and lateral habenula compared: A study in rat.

  • Yetnikoff L
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Profound inhibitory control exerted on midbrain dopaminergic neurons by the lateral habenula (LHb), which has mainly excitatory outputs, is mediated by the GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), which strongly innervates dopaminergic neurons in the ventral midbrain. Early reports indicated that the afferent connections of the RMTg, excepting its very strong LHb inputs, do not differ appreciably from those of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Presumably, however, the RMTg contributes more to behavioral synthesis than to simply invert the valence of the excitatory signal coming from the LHb. Therefore, the present study was done to directly compare the inputs to the RMTg and VTA and, in deference to its substantial involvement with this circuitry, the LHb was also included in the comparison. Data indicated that, while the afferents of the RMTg, VTA, and LHb do originate within the same large pool of central nervous system (CNS) structures, each is also related to structures that project more strongly to it than to the others. The VTA gets robust input from ventral striatopallidum and extended amygdala, whereas RMTg biased inputs arise in structures with a more direct impact on motor function, such as deep layers of the contralateral superior colliculus, deep cerebellar and several brainstem nuclei, and, via a relay in the LHb, the entopeduncular nucleus. Input from the ventral pallidal-lateral preoptic-lateral hypothalamus continuum is strong in the RMTg and VTA and dominant in the LHb. Axon collateralization was also investigated, providing additional insights into the organization of the circuitry of this important triad of structures.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - 6027(Canada)

Regional and age-related differences in GAD67 expression of parvalbumin- and calbindin-expressing neurons in the rhesus macaque auditory midbrain and brainstem.

  • Gray DT
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2014 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurons expressing the calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin (CB) have shown age-related density changes throughout the ascending auditory system of both rodents and macaque monkeys. In the cerebral cortex, neurons expressing these CaBPs express markers of γ-aminobutyric acidergic neurotransmission, such as GAD67, and have well-understood physiological response properties. Recent evidence suggests that, in the rodent auditory brainstem, CaBP-containing cells do not express GAD67. It is unknown whether PV- and CB-containing cells in subcortical auditory structures of macaques similarly do not express GAD67, and a better understanding of the neurotransmission of neurons expressing these proteins is necessary for understanding the age-related changes in their density throughout the macaque auditory system. This was investigated with immunofluorescent double-labeling techniques to coregister PV- and CB-expressing neurons with GAD67 in the superior olivary complex and the inferior colliculus of young and aged rhesus macaques. The proportions of GAD67-expressing PV- and CB-positive neurons were computed with unbiased sampling techniques. Our results indicate that between 42% and 62% of PV- and CB-positive neurons in the auditory brainstem and midbrain express GAD67, which is significantly less than in the cerebrum. In general, fewer PV(+) neurons and more CB(+) neurons expressed GAD67 as a function of age. These results demonstrate that the inhibitory molecular profile of PV- and CB-expressing neurons can change with age in subcortical auditory structures and that these neurons are distinct from the well-described inhibitory interneurons that express these proteins in the cerebral cortex.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM08464(United States)

Immunofluorescent visualization of mouse interneuron subtypes.

  • Molgaard S
  • F1000Res
  • 2014 Dec 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

The activity of excitatory neurons is controlled by a highly diverse population of inhibitory interneurons. These cells show a high level of physiological, morphological and neurochemical heterogeneity, and play highly specific roles in neuronal circuits. In the mammalian hippocampus, these are divided into 21 different subtypes of GABAergic interneurons based on their expression of different markers, morphology and their electrophysiological properties. Ideally, all can be marked using an antibody directed against the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, but parvalbumin, calbindin, somatostatin, and calretinin are also commonly used as markers to narrow down the specific interneuron subtype. Here, we describe a journey to find the necessary immunological reagents for studying GABAergic interneurons of the mouse hippocampus. Based on web searches there are several hundreds of different antibodies on the market directed against these four markers. Searches in the literature databases allowed us to narrow it down to a subset of antibodies most commonly used in publications. However, in our hands the most cited ones did not work for immunofluorescence stainings of formaldehyde fixed tissue sections and cultured hippocampal neurons, and we had to immunostain our way through thirteen different commercial antibodies before finally finding a suitable antibody for each of the four markers. The antibodies were evaluated based on signal-to-noise ratios as well as if positive cells were found in layers of the hippocampus where they have previously been described. Additionally, the antibodies were also tested on sections from mouse spinal cord with similar criteria for specificity of the antibodies. Using the antibodies with a high rating on pAbmAbs, an antibody review database, stainings with high signal-to-noise ratios and location of the immunostained cells in accordance with the literature could be obtained, making these antibodies suitable choices for studying the GABAergic system.

Nerve growth factor is primarily produced by GABAergic neurons of the adult rat cortex.

  • Biane J
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2014 Aug 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Within the cortex, nerve growth factor (NGF) mediates the innervation of cholinergic neurons during development, maintains cholinergic corticopetal projections during adulthood and modulates cholinergic function through phenotypic control of the cholinergic gene locus. Recent studies suggest NGF may also play an important role in cortical plasticity in adulthood. Previously, NGF-producing cells have been shown to colocalize with GABAergic cell markers within the hippocampus, striatum, and basal forebrain. Classification of cells producing NGF in the cortex is lacking, however, and cholinergic corticopetal projections have been shown to innervate both pyramidal and GABAergic neurons in the cortex. In order to clarify potential trophic interactions between cortical neurons and cholinergic projections, we used double-fluorescent immunohistochemistry to classify NGF-expressing cells in several cortical regions, including the prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex, parietal cortex and temporal cortex. Our results show that NGF colocalizes extensively with GABAergic cell markers in all cortical regions examined, with >91% of NGF-labeled cells coexpressing GAD65/67. Conversely, NGF-labeled cells exhibit very little co-localization with the excitatory cell marker CaMKIIα (<5% of cells expressing NGF). NGF expression was present in 56% of GAD-labeled cells, suggesting that production is confined to a specific subset of GABAergic neurons. These findings demonstrate that GABAergic cells are the primary source of NGF production in the cortex, and likely support the maintenance and function of basal forebrain cholinergic projections in adulthood.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R37 AG013622(United States)

Lgr5 Marks Post-Mitotic, Lineage Restricted Cerebellar Granule Neurons during Postnatal Development.

  • Miller TE
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2014 May 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Wnt signaling regulates self-renewal and fate commitment of stem and progenitor cells in development and homeostasis. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) is a co-receptor for Wnt signaling that marks highly proliferative stem and progenitor cells in many epithelial tissue types. Wnt signaling instructs neural developmental and homeostatic processes; however, Lgr5 expression in the developing and adult brain has not been characterized. Here we report that Lgr5 is expressed in the postnatal cerebellum during the maturation and synaptogenesis of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), processes controlled by Wnt signaling. Using a transgenic reporter mouse for in vivo Lgr5 expression analysis and lineage tracing, we reveal that Lgr5 specifically identified CGNs and was restricted temporally to the CGN maturation phase within the internal granule layer, but absent in the adult brain. Cells marked by Lgr5 were lineage restricted, post-mitotic and long-lived. The ligand for Lgr5, R-spondin, was secreted in a paracrine fashion that evolved during the maturation of CGNs, which coincided with the Lgr5 expression pattern. Our findings provide potential new insight into the critical regulation of Wnt signaling in the developing cerebellum and support a novel role for Lgr5 in the regulation of post-mitotic cells.

Vulnerability of the neural circuitry underlying sexual behavior to chronic adult exposure to oral bisphenol a in male mice.

  • Picot M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

There are human reproduction concerns associated with extensive use of bisphenol A (BPA)-containing plastic and, in particular, the leaching of BPA into food and beverages. In this context, it remains unclear whether and how exposure to BPA interferes with the developmental organization and adult activation of male sexual behavior by testosterone. We evaluated the developmental and adult exposure to oral BPA at doses equivalent to the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (5 mg/kg body weight per day) and tolerable daily intake (TDI) (50 μg/kg body weight per day) on mouse sexual behavior and the potential mechanisms underlying BPA effects. Adult exposure to BPA reduced sexual motivation and performance at TDI dose only. Exposed males took longer to initiate mating and reach ejaculation despite normal olfactory chemoinvestigation. This deficiency was not restored by sexual experience and was associated with unchanged circulating levels of testosterone. By contrast, developmental exposure to BPA at TDI or no-observed-adverse-effect-level dose did not reduce sexual behavior or alter the neuroanatomical organization of the preoptic area. Disrupting the neural androgen receptor resulted in behavioral and neuroanatomical effects similar to those induced by adult exposure to TDI dose. Moreover, adult exposure of mutant males to BPA at TDI dose did not trigger additional alteration of sexual behavior, suggesting that BPA and neural androgen receptor mutation share a common mechanism of action. This shows, for the first time, that the neural circuitry underlying male sexual behavior is vulnerable to chronic adult exposure to low dose of BPA and suggests that BPA could act in vivo as an antiandrogenic compound.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - SC2 DA034996(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS045195(United States)

Amygdala projections to the lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the macaque: comparison with ventral striatal afferents.

  • deCampo DM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTL) is involved in mediating anxiety-related behaviors to sustained aversive stimuli. The BSTL forms part of the central extended amygdala, a continuum composed of the BSTL, the amygdala central nucleus, and cell columns running between the two. The central subdivision (BSTLcn) and the juxtacapsular subdivision (BSTLJ) are two BSTL regions that lie above the anterior commissure, near the ventral striatum. The amygdala, a heterogeneous structure that encodes emotional salience, projects to both the BSTL and ventral striatum. We placed small injections of retrograde tracers into the BSTL, focusing on the BSTLcn and BSTLJ, and analyzed the distribution of labeled cells in amygdala subregions. We compared this to the pattern of labeled cells following injections into the ventral striatum. All retrograde results were confirmed by anterograde studies. We found that the BSTLcn receives stronger amygdala inputs relative to the BSTLJ. Furthermore, the BSTLcn is defined by inputs from the corticoamygdaloid transition area and central nucleus, while the BSTLJ receives inputs mainly from the magnocellular accessory basal and basal nucleus. In the ventral striatum, the dorsomedial shell receives inputs that are similar, but not identical, to inputs to the BSTLcn. In contrast, amygdala projections to the ventral shell/core are similar to projections to the BSTLJ. These findings indicate that the BSTLcn and BSTLJ receive distinct amygdala afferent inputs and that the dorsomedial shell is a transition zone with the BSTLcn, while the ventral shell/core are transition zones with the BSTLJ.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA021765(United States)

Müller cells express the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in the vervet monkey retina.

  • Bouskila J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The presence of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) has been largely documented in the rodent and primate retinae in recent years. There is, however, some controversy concerning the presence of the CB2 receptor (CB2R) within the central nervous system. Only recently, CB2R has been found in the rodent retina, but its presence in the primate retina has not yet been demonstrated. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to characterize the distribution patterns of CB2R in the monkey retina and compare this distribution with that previously reported for CB1R and 2) to resolve the controversy on the presence of CB2R in the neural component of the retina. We therefore thoroughly examined the cellular localization of CB2R in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus) retina, using confocal microscopy. Our results demonstrate that CB2R, like CB1R, is present throughout the retinal layers, but with striking dissimilarities. Double labeling of CB2R and glutamine synthetase shows that CB2R is restricted to Müller cell processes, extending from the internal limiting membrane, with very low staining, to the external limiting membrane, with heavy labeling. We conclude that CB2R is indeed present in the retina but exclusively in the retinal glia, whereas CB1R is expressed only in the neuroretina. These results extend our knowledge on the expression and distribution of cannabinoid receptors in the monkey retina, although further experiments are still needed to clarify their role in retinal functions.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM081084(United States)

Cell death atlas of the postnatal mouse ventral forebrain and hypothalamus: effects of age and sex.

  • Ahern TH
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Naturally occurring cell death is essential to the development of the mammalian nervous system. Although the importance of developmental cell death has been appreciated for decades, there is no comprehensive account of cell death across brain areas in the mouse. Moreover, several regional sex differences in cell death have been described for the ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, but it is not known how widespread the phenomenon is. We used immunohistochemical detection of activated caspase-3 to identify dying cells in the brains of male and female mice from postnatal day (P) 1 to P11. Cell death density, total number of dying cells, and regional volume were determined in 16 regions of the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain (the anterior hypothalamus, arcuate nucleus, anteroventral periventricular nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus; the basolateral, central, and medial amygdala; the lateral and principal nuclei of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis; the caudate-putamen; the globus pallidus; the lateral septum; and the islands of Calleja). All regions showed a significant effect of age on cell death. The timing of peak cell death varied between P1 to P7, and the average rate of cell death varied tenfold among regions. Several significant sex differences in cell death and/or regional volume were detected. These data address large gaps in the developmental literature and suggest interesting region-specific differences in the prevalence and timing of cell death in the hypothalamus and ventral forebrain.

Striatal oligodendrogliogenesis and neuroblast recruitment are increased in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

  • McCollum MH
  • Brain Res.
  • 2013 Jun 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The subventricular zone (SVZ) is one of the two major neurogenic regions in the adult mammalian brain. Its close proximity to the striatum suggests that a cell-based therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Huntington's disease (HD) is possible. To achieve this, it is important to understand how adult cell production, migration and differentiation may be altered in the HD brain. In this study, we quantified the number of adult-born striatal cells and characterized their fate in the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of HD. We found that the number of new striatal cells was approximately two-fold greater in R6/2 vs. wild type mice, while SVZ cell proliferation was not affected. Using cell-type specific markers, we demonstrated that the majority of new striatal cells were mature oligodendrocytes or oligodendroglial precursors that were intrinsic to the striatum. We also detected a significant increase in the number of migrating neuroblasts that appeared to be recruited from the SVZ to the striatum. However, these neuroblasts did not mature into neurons and most were lost between 1 and 2 weeks of cell age. Crossing the R6/2 mice with mice the over-expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the striatum increased the numbers of neuroblasts that survived to 2 weeks, but did not promote their differentiation. Together, our data indicate that the potential treatment of HD based on manipulating endogenous progenitor cells should take into consideration the apparent enhancement in striatal oligodendrogliogenesis and the limited ability of recruited SVZ neuroblasts to survive long-term and differentiate in the diseased striatum.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

RANTES has a potential to play a neuroprotective role in an autocrine/paracrine manner after ischemic stroke.

  • Tokami H
  • Brain Res.
  • 2013 Jun 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Regulated upon Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed, and Secreted (RANTES) is a well-known pro-inflammatory chemokine and its role in ischemic stroke remains controversial. We examined the significance of RANTES in ischemic stroke and aimed to elucidate the direct effect of RANTES on neurons. Plasma concentrations of major C-C chemokines, including RANTES, and neurotrophic factors were examined in 171 ischemic stroke patients and age- and gender- matched healthy subjects. Plasma concentrations of RANTES at day 0 after onset were significantly elevated in stroke patients, compared with controls, and were highly correlated with those of BDNF, EGF, and VEGF. In a mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO), plasma RANTES was significantly elevated and the expression of RANTES was markedly upregulated in neurons particularly in peri-infarct areas. The expression of CCR3 and CCR5, receptors for RANTES, was also induced in neurons, while another receptor, CCR1, was observed in vascular cells, in peri-infarct areas after MCAO. We examined the effects of RANTES on differentiated PC12 cells, a model of neuronal cells. Treatment with RANTES induced the activation of Akt and Erk1/2, and attenuated the cleavage of caspase-3 in the cells. RANTES increased the expression of BDNF, EGF, and VEGF in the cells. Moreover, RANTES maintained the number of cells under serum free conditions. The RANTES-mediated upregulation of neurotrophic factors and cell survival were significantly attenuated by the inhibition of Akt or Erk1/2. Taken together, RANTES is an interesting chemokine that is produced from neurons after ischemic stroke and has the potential to protect neurons directly or indirectly through the production of neurotrophic factors in peri-infarct areas.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - 5R01DK069983-02(United States)

Males but not females show differences in calbindin immunoreactivity in the dorsal thalamus of the mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

  • Giráldez-Pérez RM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the loss of the Fmr1 gene product, fragile X mental retardation protein. Here we analyze the immunohistochemical expression of calcium-binding proteins in the dorsal thalamus of Fmr1 knockout mice of both sexes and compare it with that of wildtype littermates. The spatial distribution pattern of calbindin-immunoreactive cells in the dorsal thalamus was similar in wildtype and knockout mice but there was a notable reduction in calbindin-immunoreactive cells in midline/intralaminar/posterior dorsal thalamic nuclei of male Fmr1 knockout mice. We counted the number of calbindin-immunoreactive cells in 18 distinct nuclei of the dorsal thalamus. Knockout male mice showed a significant reduction in calbindin-immunoreactive cells (range: 36-67% lower), whereas female knockout mice did not show significant differences (in any dorsal thalamic nucleus) when compared with their wildtype littermates. No variation in the calretinin expression pattern was observed throughout the dorsal thalamus. The number of calretinin-immunoreactive cells was similar for all experimental groups as well. Parvalbumin immunoreactivity was restricted to fibers and neuropil in the analyzed dorsal thalamic nuclei, and presented no differences between genotypes. Midline/intralaminar/posterior dorsal thalamic nuclei are involved in forebrain circuits related to memory, nociception, social fear, and auditory sensory integration; therefore, we suggest that downregulation of calbindin protein expression in the dorsal thalamus of male knockout mice should be taken into account when analyzing behavioral studies in the mouse model of FXS.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30CA54174(United States)

Immunohistochemical identification and synaptic inputs to the diffuse bipolar cell type DB1 in macaque retina.

  • Puthussery T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Detailed analysis of the synaptic inputs to the primate DB1 bipolar cell has been precluded by the absence of a suitable immunohistochemical marker. Here we demonstrate that antibodies for the EF-hand calcium-binding protein, secretagogin, strongly label the DB1 bipolar cell as well as a mixed population of GABAergic amacrine cells in the macaque retina. Using secretagogin as a marker, we show that the DB1 bipolar makes synaptic contact with both L/M as well as S-cone photoreceptors and only minimal contact with rod photoreceptors. Electron microscopy showed that the DB1 bipolar makes flat contacts at both triad-associated and nontriad-associated positions on the cone pedicle. Double labeling with various glutamate receptor subunit antibodies failed to conclusively determine the subunit composition of the glutamate receptors on DB1 bipolar cells. In the IPL, DB1 bipolar cell axon terminals expressed the glycine receptor, GlyRα1, at sites of contact with AII amacrine cells, suggesting that these cells receive input from the rod pathway.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01-CA78266(United States)

Retinal remodeling in the Tg P347L rabbit, a large-eye model of retinal degeneration.

  • Jones BW
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited blinding disease characterized by progressive loss of retinal photoreceptors. There are numerous rodent models of retinal degeneration, but most are poor platforms for interventions that will translate into clinical practice. The rabbit possesses a number of desirable qualities for a model of retinal disease including a large eye and an existing and substantial knowledge base in retinal circuitry, anatomy, and ophthalmology. We have analyzed degeneration, remodeling, and reprogramming in a rabbit model of retinal degeneration, expressing a rhodopsin proline 347 to leucine transgene in a TgP347L rabbit as a powerful model to study the pathophysiology and treatment of retinal degeneration. We show that disease progression in the TgP347L rabbit closely tracks human cone-sparing RP, including the cone-associated preservation of bipolar cell signaling and triggering of reprogramming. The relatively fast disease progression makes the TgP347L rabbit an excellent model for gene therapy, cell biological intervention, progenitor cell transplantation, surgical interventions, and bionic prosthetic studies.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/F005210/1(United Kingdom)

Phenotypic changes in calbindin D28K immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of Fmr1 knockout mice.

  • Real MA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most prevalent form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the lack of FMRP (fragile mental retardation protein) as a result of the transcriptional silencing of the FMR1 gene. Here we analyze the immunohistochemical expression of the calbindin D28K protein in the hippocampus of Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice and compare it with that of their wildtype (WT) littermates. The spatial distribution pattern of calbindin-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus was similar in WT and KO mice but for each age studied (ranging from 3.5-8 months) the dentate gyrus of Fmr1-KO mice showed a significant reduction in calbindin-immunoreactive granule cells. Also, the number of calbindin-immunoreactive cells was reduced in the CA1 pyramidal layer in KO mice compared to their WT littermates. In addition, Frm1-KO mice showed a group of calbindin-immunoreactive cells located only in the left CA3b subregion that was only sometimes observed in WT mice. Overall, the absence of FMRP results in a dysregulation of the calbindin protein expression in the hippocampus. This dysregulation is cell type- and time-dependent and as a consequence key elements of the hippocampal trisynaptic circuitry may lack calbindin in critical periods for normal memory/learning abilities to be achieved and may explain some of the FXS symptoms observed in the Fmr1-KO mouse model.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL066681(United States)

Calcium-binding protein distributions and fiber connections of the nucleus accumbens in the pigeon (Columba livia).

  • Husband SA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Until recently, the exact location of the avian nucleus accumbens within the basal forebrain had not been well established (Reiner et al. [2004] J Comp Neurol 473:377-414). While a number of previous studies have shown afferents and efferents of the presumptive "nucleus accumbens," detailed and accurate connection patterns of this newly recognized area are still lacking. We set out to clarify these connections using small, localized injections of cholera toxin subunit B and biotinylated dextran amine directly into the nucleus. In order to increase the accuracy of tracer injections into target sites, we first conducted a systematic comparison of three calcium-binding proteins, namely, parvalbumin, calretinin, and calbindin, to characterize the nucleus accumbens and ascertain its boundaries. The results showed that the avian and mammalian nucleus accumbens had remarkable hodological similarities, including the connections with the hippocampus, amygdala, ventral pallidum, lateral hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area. However, the most significant aspect of the present study is that the avian nucleus accumbens had extensive reciprocal connections with medial pallial structures, the mammalian counterparts of which are unclear. Three implications of this finding are discussed. First, the avian medial pallium may correspond to part of the mammalian prefrontal cortex based on the connections with the nucleus accumbens. Second, the avian brain has a "limbic loop" involving the medial pallium, which also receives input from the avian equivalent of the mediodorsal thalamus. Third, the extensive connections between the accumbens and medial pallium just dorsal to it suggest a column-like organization of limbic-associated areas in the avian telencephalon.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - HG002659(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS35915(United States)

SNAP25 expression in mammalian retinal horizontal cells.

  • Hirano AA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Horizontal cells mediate inhibitory feedforward and feedback lateral interactions in the outer retina at photoreceptor terminals and bipolar cell dendrites; however, the mechanisms that underlie synaptic transmission from mammalian horizontal cells are poorly understood. The localization of a vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT) to horizontal cell processes in primate and rodent retinae suggested that mammalian horizontal cells release transmitter in a vesicular manner. Toward determining whether the molecular machinery for vesicular transmitter release is present in horizontal cells, we investigated the expression of SNAP25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa), a key SNARE protein, by immunocytochemistry with cell type-specific markers in the retinae of mouse, rat, rabbit, and monkey. Different commercial antibodies to SNAP25 were tested on vertical sections of retina. We report the robust expression of SNAP25 in both plexiform layers. Double labeling with SNAP25 and calbindin antibodies demonstrated that horizontal cell processes and their endings in photoreceptor triad synapses were strongly labeled for both proteins in mouse, rat, rabbit, and monkey retinae. Double labeling with parvalbumin antibodies in monkey retina verified SNAP25 immunoreactivity in all horizontal cells. Pre-embedding immunoelectron microscopy in rabbit retina confirmed expression of SNAP25 in lateral elements within photoreceptor triad synapses. The SNAP25 immunoreactivity in the plexiform layers and outer nuclear layer fell into at least three patterns depending on the antibody, suggesting a differential distribution of SNAP25 isoforms. The presence of SNAP25a and SNAP25b isoforms in mouse retina was established by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. SNAP25 expression in mammalian horizontal cells along with other SNARE proteins is consistent with vesicular exocytosis.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM00806-06(United States)

Axonal branching patterns of nucleus accumbens neurons in the rat.

  • Tripathi A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The patterns of axonal collateralization of nucleus accumbens (Acb) projection neurons were investigated in the rat by means of single-axon tracing techniques using the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine. Seventy-three axons were fully traced, originating from either the core (AcbC) or shell (AcbSh) compartment, as assessed by differential calbindin D28k-immunoreactivity. Axons from AcbC and AcbSh showed a substantial segregation in their targets; target areas were either exclusively or preferentially innervated from AcbC or AcbSh. Axon collaterals in the subthalamic nucleus were found at higher than expected frequencies; moreover, these originated exclusively in the dorsal AcbC. Intercompartmental collaterals were observed from ventral AcbC axons into AcbSh, and likewise, interconnections at pallidal and mesencephalic levels were also observed, although mostly from AcbC axons toward AcbSh targets, possibly supporting crosstalk between the two subcircuits at several levels. Cell somata giving rise to short-range accumbal axons, projecting to the ventral pallidum (VP), were spatially intermingled with others, giving rise to long-range axons that innervated VP and more caudal targets. This anatomical organization parallels that of the dorsal striatum and provides the basis for possible dual direct and indirect actions from a single axon on either individual or small sets of neurons.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - K25 HG002378(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30NS047463(United States)

Architecture of cannabinoid signaling in mouse retina.

  • Hu SS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Sep 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands constitute an endogenous signaling system that is found throughout the body, including the eye. This system can be activated by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a major drug of abuse. Cannabinoids offer considerable therapeutic potential in modulating ocular immune and inflammatory responses and in regulating intraocular pressure. The location of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1)) in the retina is known, but recently a constellation of proteins has been identified that produce and break down endocannabinoids (eCBs) and modulate CB(1) function. Localization of these proteins is critical to defining specific cannabinoid signaling circuitry in the retina. Here we show the localization of diacylglycerol lipase-alpha and -beta (DGLalpha/beta), implicated in the production of the eCB 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG); monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) and alpha/beta-hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6), both implicated in the breakdown of 2-AG; cannabinoid receptor-interacting protein 1a (CRIP1a), a protein that may modulate CB(1) function; and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA), which have been shown to break down the eCB anandamide and related acyl amides. Our most prominent finding was that DGLalpha is present in postsynaptic type 1 OFF cone bipolar cells juxtaposed to CB(1)-containing cone photoreceptor terminals. CRIP1a is reliably presynaptic to DGLalpha, consistent with a possible role in cannabinoid signaling, and NAAA is restricted to retinal pigment epithelium, whereas DGLbeta is limited to retinal blood vessels. These results taken together with previous anatomical and functional studies define specific cannabinoid circuitry likely to modulate eCB signaling at the first synapse of the retina as well as in the inner plexiform layer.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21 CA149548(United States)

Estrogen configures sexual dimorphism in the preoptic area of C57BL/6J and ddN strains of mice.

  • Orikasa C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Immunohistochemistry using a calbindin D28k antibody revealed a marked sex difference in neuronal distribution in the central portion of the medial preoptic area in C57BL/6J and ddN strains of mice when the animals were sacrificed on D65 (D1 = the day of birth). Male mice had a distinct ellipsoidal cell aggregate, whereas females lacked such a structure. This sex difference was not observed in Nissl-stained sections. Co-localization of calbindin D28k and the neuron-specific nuclear protein NeuN confrmed that the cells in the aggregate were neurons. The aggregates were larger in males than in females in both strains. When observed on D65, males orchidectomized on D1 had smaller aggregates. However, daily injections of 2 microg estradiol benzoate through D1-D5 as well as a single injection of 100 microg testosterone propionate on D1 enlarged the aggregates in females, but a single injection of 100 microg dihydrotestosterone on D1 had no effect on the female phenotype. Similar endocrine manipulations had no effects in adult animals of both sexes. Thus, the calbindin-immunoreactive cell aggregates in the preoptic area of C57BL/6J and ddN mice are homologous to the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the rat preoptic area in terms of the morphology and sex steroid-dependent organization.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - 5 P41 RR05969-04(United States)

Distribution of large terminal inputs from the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices to the dorsal thalamus in the rodent.

  • Liao CC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The present study was undertaken to determine the precise projection pattern from the primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices to the posterior nuclear proper (POm) and ventroposterior thalamic nuclei (VP). The POm was previously shown to receive large boutons arising exclusively from layer V of the S1 barrel region. This descending input was proposed to play a key role, namely, as a driver, in shaping the receptive property of POm neurons. To determine whether other body parts and the S2 also contribute such unique inputs to the dorsal thalamus, anterograde neuroanatomical tracers were focally deposited in the S1 and S2 forepaw and whisker regions of rats and C57BL6-Tg (GFPm)/Thy1 transgenic mice. Our major findings were that, 1) irrespective of body representations, both the S1 and the S2 provided corticothalamic large terminals to the POm with comparable morphological characteristics and 2) descending large terminals were also noted in particular subzones within the VP, including boundary and caudal areas. We concluded, based on these findings, that the rodent VP has three partitions: the rostral VP innervated by small corticothalamic terminals, the caudal VP with both corticothalamic small and large terminals, and a surrounding shell region, which also contained large terminals. Furthermore, assuming that the large terminal has a driver's role, we propose that particular subzones in the VP may play a role as a multiple-order thalamic relay so that they can simultaneously coordinate with first- and higher-order relays in the thalamocortical circuitry for processing somatosensory information.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - 5UL1RR025774(United States)

Roles for gamma-aminobutyric acid in the development of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

  • McClellan KM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Jul 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The development of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) involves several factors that work together to establish a cell group that regulates neuroendocrine functions and behaviors. Several molecular markers were noted within the developing PVN, including estrogen receptors (ER), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). By contrast, immunoreactive gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was found in cells and fibers surrounding the PVN. Two animal models were used to test the hypothesis that GABA works through GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors to influence the development of the PVN. Treatment with bicuculline to decrease GABA(A) receptor signaling from embryonic day (E) 10 to E17 resulted in fewer cells containing immunoreactive (ir) ERalpha in the region of the PVN vs. control. GABA(B)R1 receptor subunit knockout mice were used to examine the PVN at P0 without GABA(B) signaling. In female but not male GABA(B)R1 subunit knockout mice, the positions of cells containing ir ERalpha shifted from medial to lateral compared with wild-type controls, whereas the total number of ir ERalpha-containing cells was unchanged. In E17 knockout mice, ir nNOS cells and fibers were spread over a greater area. There was also a significant decrease in ir BDNF in the knockout mice in a region-dependent manner. Changes in cell position and protein expression subsequent to disruption of GABA signaling may be due, in part, to changes in nNOS and BDNF signaling. Based on the current study, the PVN can be added as another site where GABA exerts morphogenetic actions in development.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - C14303/A10825(United Kingdom)

Neuroglobin expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus: colocalization, innervation, and response to light.

  • Hundahl CA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a myoglobin-like (Mb) heme-globin, belonging the globin family located only in neuronal tissue of the central nervous system. Ngb has been shown to be upregulated in and to protect neurons from hypoxic and ischemic injury, but the function of Ngb-in particular how Ngb may protect neurons-remains largely elusive. We have previously described the localization of Ngb in the rat brain and found it to be expressed in areas primarily involved in sleep/wake, circadian, and food regulation. The present study was undertaken, using immunohistochemistry, to characterize the localization, colocalization, innervation, and response to light of Ngb-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Our results demonstrate that the majority of Ngb-expressing neurons in the SCN belong to a cell group not previously characterized by neurotransmitter content; only a small portion was found to co-store GRP in the ventral SCN. Furthermore, some Ngb-containing neurons were responsive to light stimulation at late night evaluated by the induction of cFOS and only a few cells were found to express the core clock gene PER1 during the 24-hour light/dark cycle. The Ngb-containing cells received input from neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing nerve fibers of the geniticulo-hypothalamic tract (GHT), whereas no direct input from the eye or the midbrain raphe system was demonstrated. The results indicate that the Ngb could be involved in both photic and nonphotic entrainment via input from the GHT.

Guinea pig horizontal cells express GABA, the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD 65, and the GABA vesicular transporter.

  • Guo C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is likely expressed in horizontal cells of all species, although conflicting physiological findings have led to considerable controversy regarding its role as a transmitter in the outer retina. This study has evaluated key components of the GABA system in the outer retina of guinea pig, an emerging retinal model system. The presence of GABA, its rate-limiting synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD(65) and GAD(67) isoforms), the plasma membrane GABA transporters (GAT-1 and GAT-3), and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) was evaluated by using immunohistochemistry with well-characterized antibodies. The presence of GAD(65) mRNA was also evaluated by using laser capture microdissection and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Specific GABA, GAD(65), and VGAT immunostaining was localized to horizontal cell bodies, as well as to their processes and tips in the outer plexiform layer. Furthermore, immunostaining of retinal whole mounts and acutely dissociated retinas showed GAD(65) and VGAT immunoreactivity in both A-type and B-type horizontal cells. However, these cells did not contain GAD(67), GAT-1, or GAT-3 immunoreactivity. GAD(65) mRNA was detected in horizontal cells, and sequencing of the amplified GAD(65) fragment showed approximately 85% identity with other mammalian GAD(65) mRNAs. These studies demonstrate the presence of GABA, GAD(65), and VGAT in horizontal cells of the guinea pig retina, and support the idea that GABA is synthesized from GAD(65), taken up into synaptic vesicles by VGAT, and likely released by a vesicular mechanism from horizontal cells.

Specializations of gastrin-releasing peptide cells of the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus.

  • Drouyer E
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulates daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. It is composed of a heterogeneous population of cells that together form the circuits underlying its master clock function. Numerous studies suggest the existence of two regions that have been termed core and shell. At a gross level, differences between these regions map to distinct functional differences, although the specific role(s) of various peptidergic cellular phenotypes remains unknown. In mouse, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) cells lie in the core, are directly retinorecipient, and lack detectable rhythmicity in clock gene expression, raising interest in their role in the SCN. Here, we provide evidence that calbindin-expressing cells of perinatal mouse SCN express GRP, identified by a green fluorescent protein (GFP+), but lack detectable calbindin later in development. To explore the intra-SCN network in which GRP neurons participate, individual GFP+ cells were filled with tracer and their morphological characteristics, processes, and connections, as well as those of their non-GFP-containing immediate neighbors, were compared. The results show that GFP+ neurons form a dense network of local circuits within the core, revealed by appositions on other GFP+ cells and by the presence of dye-coupled cells. Dendrites and axons of GFP+ cells make appositions on arginine vasopressin neurons, whereas non-GFP cells have a less extensive fiber network, largely confined to the region of GFP+ cells. The results point to specialized circuitry within the SCN, presumably supporting synchronization of neural activity and reciprocal communication between core and shell regions.

Ultrastructural relationships between cortical, thalamic, and amygdala glutamatergic inputs and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in the rat accumbens.

  • Mitrano DA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Changes in glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens play a key role in mediating reward-related behaviors and addiction to psychostimulants. Glutamatergic inputs to the accumbens originate from multiple sources, including the prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala, and midline thalamus. The group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are found throughout the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens, but their localization and function at specific glutamatergic synapses remain unknown. To further characterize the substrate that underlies group I mGluR functions in the accumbens, we combined anterograde tract tracing method with electron microscopy immunocytochemistry to study the ultrastructural relationships between specific glutamatergic afferents and mGluR1a- or mGluR5-containing neurons in the rat nucleus accumbens. Although cortical, thalamic, and amygdala glutamatergic terminals contact both mGluR1a- and mGluR5-immunoreactive dendrites and spines in the shell and core of the accumbens, they do so to varying degrees. Overall, glutamatergic terminals contact mGluR1a-positive spines about 30% of the time, whereas they form synapses twice as frequently with mGluR5-labeled spines. At the subsynaptic level, mGluR5 is more frequently expressed perisynaptically and closer to the edges of glutamatergic axospinous synapses than mGluR1a, suggesting a differential degree of activation of the two group I mGluRs by transmitter spillover from glutamatergic synapses in the rat accumbens. These results lay the foundation for a deeper understanding of group I mGluR-mediated effects in the ventral striatum, and their potential therapeutic benefits in drug addiction and other neuropsychiatric changes in reward-related behaviors.

Ikaros-1 couples cell cycle arrest of late striatal precursors with neurogenesis of enkephalinergic neurons.

  • Martín-Ibáñez R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

During central nervous system development, several transcription factors regulate the differentiation of progenitor cells to postmitotic neurons. Here we describe a novel role for Ikaros-1 in the generation of late-born striatal neurons. Our results show that Ikaros-1 is expressed in the boundary of the striatal germinal zone (GZ)/mantle zone (MZ), where it induces cell cycle arrest of neural progenitors by up-regulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKi) p21(Cip1/Waf1). This effect is coupled with the neuronal differentiation of late precursors, which in turn is critical for the second wave of striatal neurogenesis that gives rise to matrix neurons. Consistently, Ikaros(-/-) mice had fewer striatal projecting neurons and, in particular, enkephalin (ENK)-positive neurons. In addition, overexpression of Ikaros-1 in primary striatal cultures increases the number of calbindin- and ENK-positive neurons. Our results also show that Ikaros-1 acts downstream of the Dlx family of transcription factors, insofar as its expression is lost in Dlx1/2 double knockout mice. However, we demonstrate that Ikaros-1 and Ebf-1 independently regulate the final determination of the two populations of striatal projection neurons of the matrix compartment, ENK- and substance P-positive neurons. In conclusion, our findings identify Ikaros-1 as a modulator of cell cycle exit of neural progenitors that gives rise to the neurogenesis of ENK-positive striatal neurons.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0601585(United Kingdom)

Functional remodeling of glutamate receptors by inner retinal neurons occurs from an early stage of retinal degeneration.

  • Chua J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Jun 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Retinitis pigmentosa reflects a family of diseases that result in retinal photoreceptor death and functional blindness. The natural course of retinal changes secondary to photoreceptor degeneration involves anatomical remodeling (cell process alterations and soma displacement) and neurochemical remodeling. Anatomical remodeling predominantly occurs late in the disease process and cannot explain the significant visual deficits that occur very early in the disease process. Neurochemical remodeling includes modified glutamate receptor disposition and altered responses secondary to functional activation of glutamate receptors. We investigated the neurochemical remodeling of retinal neurons in the rd/rd (rd1) mouse retina by tracking the functional activation of glutamate receptors with a cation probe, agmatine. We provide evidence that bipolar cells and amacrine cells undergo selective remodeling of glutamate receptors during the early phases of retinal degeneration. These early neurochemical changes in the rd/rd mouse retina include the expression of aberrant functional ionotropic glutamate receptors on the cone ON bipolar cells from postnatal day 15 (P15), poor functional activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors on both rod and cone ON bipolar cells throughout development/degeneration, and poor functional activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors on amacrine cells from P15. Our results suggest that major neurochemical remodeling occurs prior to anatomical remodeling, and likely accounts for the early visual deficits in the rd/rd mouse retina.

Regulation of neonatal development of retinal ganglion cell dendrites by neurotrophin-3 overexpression.

  • Liu X
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Jun 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The morphology of dendrites constrains and reflects the nature of synaptic inputs to neurons. The visual system has served as a useful model to show how visual function is determined by the arborization patterns of neuronal processes. In retina, light ON and light OFF responding ganglion cells selectively elaborate their dendritic arbors in distinct sublamina, where they receive, respectively, inputs from ON and OFF bipolar cells. During neonatal maturation, the bilaminarly distributed dendritic arbors of ON-OFF retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are refined to more narrowly localized monolaminar structures characteristic of ON or OFF RGCs. Recently, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to regulate this laminar refinement, and to enhance the development of dendritic branches selectively of ON RGCs. Although other related neurotrophins are known to regulate neuronal process formation in the central nervous system, little is known about their action in maturing retina. Here, we report that overexpression of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in the eye accelerates RGC laminar refinement before eye opening. Furthermore, NT-3 overexpression increases dendritic branch number but reduces dendritic elongation preferentially in ON-OFF RGCs, a process that also occurs before eye opening. NT-3 overexpression does affect dendritic maturation in ON RGCs, but to a much less degree. Taken together, our results suggest that NT-3 and BDNF exhibit overlapping effects in laminar refinement but distinct RGC-cell-type specific effects in shaping dendritic arborization during postnatal development.

Close homologue of adhesion molecule L1 promotes survival of Purkinje and granule cells and granule cell migration during murine cerebellar development.

  • Jakovcevski I
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Several L1-related adhesion molecules, expressed in a well-coordinated temporospatial pattern during development, are important for fine tuning of specific cerebellar circuitries. We tested the hypothesis that CHL1, the close homologue of L1, abundantly expressed in the developing and adult cerebellum, is also required for normal cerebellar histogenesis. We found that constitutive ablation of CHL1 in mice caused significant loss (20-23%) of Purkinje and granule cells in the mature 2-month-old cerebellum. The ratio of stellate/basket interneurons to Purkinje cells was abnormally high (+38%) in CHL1-deficient (CHL1-/-) mice compared with wild-type (CHL1+/+) littermates, but the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synaptic inputs to Purkinje cell bodies and dendrites were normal, as were numbers of Golgi interneurons, microglia, astrocytes, and Bergmann glia. Purkinje cell loss occurred before the first postnatal week and was associated with enhanced apoptosis, presumably as a consequence of CHL1 deficiency in afferent axons. In contrast, generation of granule cells, as indicated by in vivo analyses of cell proliferation and death, was unaffected in 1-week-old CHL1-/- mice, but numbers of migrating granule cells in the molecular layer were increased. This increase was likely related to retarded cell migration because CHL1-/- granule cells migrated more slowly than CHL1+/+ cells in vitro, and Bergmann glial processes guiding migration in vivo expressed CHL1 in wild-type mice. Granule cell deficiency in adult CHL1-/- mice appeared to result from decreased precursor cell proliferation after the first postnatal week. Our results indicate that CHL1 promotes Purkinje and granule cell survival and granule cell migration during cerebellar development.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P30 HD15052(United States)

Calbindin and S100 protein expression in the developing inner ear in mice.

  • Buckiová D
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Calbindin (CB) and S100 are calcium-binding proteins expressed in the inner ear in vertebrates. Information about their developmental roles is incomplete. This study investigated the expression patterns of CB and S100 in C3H mice using immunohistochemistry, from embryonic day 11 (E11) to postnatal day 10 (P10). CB was expressed in the otocyst and vestibulocochlear ganglion (VCG) from E11. In the cochlea at E17, CB immunoreactivity clearly labeled the VCG, the outer and inner hair cells, and the stria vascularis. CB staining was also present in the vestibular sensory cells, including their nerve fibers. Two days later, to this expression pattern was added the labeling of Kölliker's organ. Early postnatal CB expression encompassed VCG neurons, auditory hair cells, their afferent nerve fibers, and cells of the cochlear lateral wall. The first signs of S100 immunostaining of cochlear and vestibular epithelial cells appeared at E14. At E17 S100 immunoreactivity was found in a restricted expression pattern in the cochlea. Immunostaining was also present in the sacculus and utriculus and their afferent fibers. The Deiters', pillar and inner hair cells, and the VCG were S100-positive from E19. Postnatally, S100 staining also appeared in the inner hair cells and Deiters' cells, in some VCG neurons, and, in addition, in the spiral limbus, the spiral prominence, and the intermediate cells of the stria vascularis. This study demonstrates that the sites of CB and S100 expression in the mouse inner ear during embryonic and early postnatal development do not overlap and signal independent developmental patterns.

Plasmalemmal and vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter expression in the developing mouse retina.

  • Guo C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Plasmalemmal and vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters influence neurotransmission by regulating high-affinity GABA uptake and GABA release into the synaptic cleft and extracellular space. Postnatal expression of the plasmalemmal GABA transporter-1 (GAT-1), GAT-3, and the vesicular GABA/glycine transporter (VGAT) were evaluated in the developing mouse retina by using immunohistochemistry with affinity-purified antibodies. Weak transporter immunoreactivity was observed in the inner retina at postnatal day 0 (P0). GAT-1 immunostaining at P0 and at older ages was in amacrine and displaced amacrine cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layer (GCL), respectively, and in their processes in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). At P10, weak GAT-1 immunostaining was in Müller cell processes. GAT-3 immunostaining at P0 and older ages was in amacrine cells and their processes, as well as in Müller cells and their processes that extended radially across the retina. At P10, Müller cell somata were observed in the middle of the INL. VGAT immunostaining was present at P0 and older ages in amacrine cells in the INL as well as processes in the IPL. At P5, weak VGAT immunostaining was also observed in horizontal cell somata and processes. By P15, the GAT and VGAT immunostaining patterns appear similar to the adult immunostaining patterns; they reached adult levels by about P20. These findings demonstrate that GABA uptake and release are initially established in the inner retina during the first postnatal week and that these systems subsequently mature in the outer retina during the second postnatal week.

Gradual morphogenesis of retinal neurons in the peripheral retinal margin of adult monkeys and humans.

  • Martínez-Navarrete GC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The adult mammalian retina has for long been considered to lack a neurogenerative capacity. However, retinal stem/progenitor cells, which can originate retinal neurons in vitro, have been recently reported in the ciliary body of adult mammals. Here we explored the possibility of retinal neurogenesis occurring in vivo in adult monkeys and humans. We found the presence of cells expressing molecular markers of neural and retinal progenitors in the nonlaminated retinal margin and ciliary body pars plana of mature primates. By means of immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy we also observed photoreceptors and other retinal cell types in different stages of morphological differentiation along the peripheral retinal margin. These findings allow us to extend to primates the idea of neurogenesis aimed at retinal cell turnover throughout life.

Neonatal hypoxic/ischemic brain injury induces production of calretinin-expressing interneurons in the striatum.

  • Yang Z
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ischemia-induced striatal neurogenesis from progenitors in the adjacent subventricular zone (SVZ) in young and adult rodents has been reported. However, it has not been established whether the precursors that reside in the SVZ retain the capacity to produce the full range of striatal neurons that has been destroyed. By using a neonatal rat model of hypoxic/ischemic brain damage, we show here that virtually all of the newly produced striatal neurons are calretinin (CR)-immunoreactive (+), but not DARPP-32(+), calbindin-D-28K(+), parvalbumin(+), somatostatin(+), or choline acetyltransferase(+). Retroviral fate-mapping studies confirm that these newly born CR(+) neurons are indeed descendants of the SVZ. Our studies indicate that, although the postnatal SVZ has the capacity to produce a range of neurons, only a subset of this repertoire is manifested in the brain after injury.

Sox9 is expressed in mouse multipotent retinal progenitor cells and functions in Müller glial cell development.

  • Poché RA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Sep 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is widely accepted that the process of retinal cell fate determination is under tight transcriptional control mediated by a combinatorial code of transcription factors. However, the exact repertoire of factors necessary for the genesis of each retinal cell type remains to be fully defined. Here we show that the HMG-box transcription factor, Sox9, is expressed in multipotent mouse retinal progenitor cells throughout retinogenesis. We also find that Sox9 is downregulated in differentiating neuronal populations, yet expression in Müller glial cells persists into adulthood. Furthermore, by employing a conditional knockout approach, we show that Sox9 is essential for the differentiation and/or survival of postnatal Müller glial cells.

Wolfram syndrome 1 (Wfs1) gene expression in the normal mouse visual system.

  • Kawano J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Wolfram syndrome (OMIM 222300) is a neurodegenerative disorder defined by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and progressive optic atrophy. This syndrome has been attributed to mutations in the WFS1 gene, which codes for a putative multi-spanning membrane glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum. The function of WFS1 (wolframin), the distribution of this protein in the mammalian visual system, and the pathogenesis of optic atrophy in Wolfram syndrome are unclear. In this study we made a detailed analysis of the distribution of Wfs1 mRNA and protein in the normal mouse visual system by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. The mRNA and protein were observed in the retina, optic nerve, and brain. In the retina, Wfs1 expression was strong in amacrine and Müller cells, and moderate in photoreceptors and horizontal cells. In addition, it was detectable in bipolar and retinal ganglion cells. Interestingly, moderate Wfs1 expression was seen in the optic nerve, particularly in astrocytes, while little Wfs1 was expressed in the optic chiasm or optic tract. In the brain, moderate Wfs1 expression was observed in the zonal, superficial gray, and intermediate gray layers of the superior colliculus, in the dorsomedial part of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and in layer II of the primary and secondary visual cortices. Thus, Wfs1 mRNA and protein were widely distributed in the normal mouse visual system. This evidence may provide clues as to the physiological role of Wfs1 protein in the biology of vision, and help to explain the selective vulnerability of the optic nerve to WFS1 loss-of-function.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH049428(United States)

Tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channels Na(v)1.8 and Na(v)1.9 are expressed in the retina.

  • O'Brien BJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are one of the fundamental building blocks of electrically excitable cells in the nervous system. These channels are responsible for the generation of action potentials that are required for the communication of neuronal signals over long distances within a cell. VGSCs are encoded by a family of nine genes whose products have widely varying biophysical properties. In this study, we have detected the expression of two atypical VGSCs (Na(v)1.8 and Na(v)1.9) in the retina. Compared with more common VGSCs, Na(v)1.8 and Na(v)1.9 have unusual biophysical and pharmacological properties, including persistent sodium currents and resistance to the canonical sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX). Our molecular biological and immunohistochemical data derived from mouse (Mus musculus) retina demonstrate expression of Na(v)1.8 by retinal amacrine and ganglion cells, whereas Na(v)1.9 is expressed by photoreceptors and Müller glia. The fact that these channels exist in the central nervous system (CNS) and exhibit robust TTX resistance requires a re-evaluation of prior physiological, pharmacological, and developmental data in the visual system, in which the diversity of VGSCs has been previously underestimated.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - U42 RR018877(United States)

Activation of phenotypically distinct neuronal subpopulations in the anterior subdivision of the rat basolateral amygdala following acute and repeated stress.

  • Reznikov LR
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 May 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The effects of acute and repeated stress on expression of the early immediate gene c-fos in the basolateral amygdala have previously been reported; however, characterization of which neuronal subpopulations are activated by these stimuli has not been investigated. This question is of considerable relevance, insofar as the basolateral amygdala houses a heterogeneous population of neurons, including those of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic and glutamatergic phenotypes that may be subcategorized based on their expression of various calcium-binding proteins, including parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, and the calcium-sensitive enzyme calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. Characterization of these subpopulations has revealed unique differences in their physiology, synaptology, and morphology, suggesting that each distinct phenotype may have profound effects on the local circuitry of the amygdala. Therefore, we examined the effects of acute and repeated restraint stress on expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in neurons containing parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, or calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in the basolateral amygdala. Double-label immunohistochemistry revealed that acute restraint stress activated a proportion of parvalbumin-, calbindin-, or calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II-positive neurons. Prior exposure to repeated restraint stress markedly attenuated acute-stress mediated activation of these neuronal populations, although not equally. Expression of c-Fos protein was not detected in calretinin-positive neurons in any experimental group. These results demonstrate that distinct neuronal phenotypes in the basolateral amygdala are activated by acute restraint stress and that prior repeated restraint stress differentially affects this response.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - 401616(United Kingdom)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01DA030304(United States)

Patterns of convergence in rat zona incerta from the trigeminal nuclear complex: light and electron microscopic study.

  • Simpson K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In contrast to the restricted receptive field (RF) properties of the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM), neurons of the ventral thalamus zona incerta (ZI) have been shown to exhibit multiwhisker responses that vary from the ventral (ZIv) to the dorsal (ZId) subdivision. Differences in activity may arise from the trigeminal nuclear complex (TNC) and result from subnucleus specific inputs via certain cells of origin, axon distribution patterns, fiber densities, bouton sizes, or postsynaptic contact sites. We tested this hypothesis by assessing circuit relationships among TNC, ZI, and VPM. Results from tracer studies show that, 1) relative to ZId, the trigeminal projection to ZIv is denser and arises predominantly from the principalis (PrV) and interpolaris (SpVi) subdivisions; 2) the incertal projection from TNC subnuclei overlaps and covers most of ZIv; 3) two sets of PrV axons terminate in ZI: a major subtype, possessing bouton-like swellings, and a few fine fibers, with minimal specialization; 4) both PrV and SpVi terminals exhibit asymmetric endings and preferentially target dendrites of ZI neurons; 5) small and large neurons in PrV are labeled after retrograde injections into ZI; 6) small PrV cells with incertal projections form a population that is distinct from those projecting to VPM; and 7) approximately 30-50% of large cells in PrV send collaterals to ZI and VPM. These findings suggest that, 1) although information to ZI and VPM is essentially routed along separate TNC circuits, streams of somatosensory code converge in ZI to establish large RFs, and 2) subregional differences in ZI response profiles are attributable in part to TNC innervation density.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - ESO 12961(United States)

Identification of molecular markers of bipolar cells in the murine retina.

  • Kim DS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Retinal bipolar neurons serve as relay interneurons that connect rod and cone photoreceptor cells to amacrine and ganglion cells. They exhibit diverse morphologies essential for correct routing of photoreceptor cell signals to specific postsynaptic amacrine and ganglion cells. The development and physiology of these interneurons have not been completely defined molecularly. Despite previous identification of genes expressed in several bipolar cell subtypes, molecules that mark each bipolar cell type still await discovery. In this report, novel genetic markers of murine bipolar cells were found. Candidates were initially generated by using microarray analysis of single bipolar cells and mining of retinal serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) data. These candidates were subsequently tested for expression in bipolar cells by RNA in situ hybridization. Ten new molecular markers were identified, five of which are highly enriched in their expression in bipolar cells within the adult retina. Double-labeling experiments using probes for previously characterized subsets of bipolar cells were performed to identify the subtypes of bipolar cells that express the novel markers. Additionally, the expression of bipolar cell genes was analyzed in Bhlhb4 knockout retinas, in which rod bipolar cells degenerate postnatally, to delineate further the identity of bipolar cells in which novel markers are found. From the analysis of Bhlhb4 mutant retinas, cone bipolar cell gene expression appears to be relatively unaffected by the degeneration of rod bipolar cells. Identification of molecular markers for the various subtypes of bipolar cells will lead to greater insights into the development and function of these diverse interneurons.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - R24RR024790(United States)

Evidence for nonreciprocal organization of the mouse auditory thalamocortical-corticothalamic projection systems.

  • Llano DA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Mar 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

We tested the hypothesis that information is routed from one area of the auditory cortex (AC) to another via the dorsal division of the medial geniculate body (MGBd) by analyzing the degree of reciprocal connectivity between the auditory thalamus and cortex. Biotinylated dextran amine injected into the primary AC (AI) or anterior auditory field (AAF) of mice produced large, "driver-type" terminals primarily in the MGBd, with essentially no such terminals in the ventral MGB (MGBv). In contrast, small, "modulator-type" terminals were found primarily in the MGBv, and this coincided with areas of retrogradely labeled thalamocortical cell bodies. After MGBv injections, anterograde label was observed in layers 4 and 6 of the AI and AAF, which coincided with retrogradely labeled layer 6 cell bodies. After MGBd injections, thalamocortical terminals were seen in layers 1, 4, and 6 of the secondary AC and dorsoposterior AC, which coincided with labeled layer 6 cell bodies. Notably, after MGBd injection, a substantial number of layer 5 cells were labeled in all AC areas, whereas very few were seen after MGBv injection. Further, the degree of anterograde label in layer 4 of cortical columns containing labeled layer 6 cell bodies was greater than in columns containing labeled layer 5 cell bodies. These data suggest that auditory layer 5 corticothalamic projections are targeted to the MGBd in a nonreciprocal fashion and that the MGBd may route this information to the nonprimary AC.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL-07718(United States)

Postnatal subventricular zone progenitors give rise not only to granular and periglomerular interneurons but also to interneurons in the external plexiform layer of the rat olfactory bulb.

  • Yang Z
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Interneurons in the granule cell layer (GCL) and glomerular layer (GL) of the olfactory bulb (OB) are generated from progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle. However, little is known about the origin of interneurons in the external plexiform layer (EPL) of the OB. On the basis of the concept of corticogenesis, I hypothesized that interneurons in the EPL of the rodent OB also originate in the SVZ. In the present study, replication-incompetent retroviruses encoding a marker gene, human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP), were injected into the lateral ventricles of postnatal day 4 Wistar rats to label dividing cells in the SVZ. Two days after injection, some of the AP-labeled cells had migrated into the OB. Five weeks after injection, AP/NeuN double-labeled cells were found not only in the GCL and GL but also in the EPL of the OB. In the EPL, most AP-labeled cells were calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive (+) interneurons. A subset of these cells was made up of calcium-binding protein calretinin (CR)(+) interneurons. According to their structural features, AP-labeled cells in the EPL were Van Gehuchten cells, multipolar cells, and superficial short-axon cells. Thus, postnatal SVZ progenitors give rise not only to granular and periglomerular interneurons but also to interneurons in the EPL of the OB. Furthermore, these results suggest that SVZ progenitors give rise to virtually all subpopulations of interneurons in the OB.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM049650(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS023945(United States)

Strong P2X4 purinergic receptor-like immunoreactivity is selectively associated with degenerating neurons in transgenic rodent models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  • Casanovas A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The distribution of the P2X family of ATP receptors was analyzed in a rat model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) expressing mutated human superoxide dismutase (mSOD1(G93A)). We showed that strong P2X(4) immunoreactivity was selectively associated with degenerating motoneurons (MNs) in spinal cord ventral horn. Degenerating P2X(4)-positive MNs did not display apoptotic features such as chromatin condensation, positive TUNEL reaction, or active caspase 3 immunostaining. In contrast, these neurons showed other signs of abnormality, such as loss of the neuronal marker NeuN and recruitment of microglial cells with neuronophagic activity. Similar changes were observed in MNs from the cerebral cortex and brainstem in mSOD1(G93A) in both rat and mice. In addition, P2X(4) immunostaining demonstrated the existence of neuronal degeneration in the locus coeruleus, reticular formation, and Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex. It is suggested that abnormal trafficking and proteolytic processing of the P2X(4) receptor protein may underlie these changes.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM110041(United States)

Phospholipase Cbeta4 expression reveals the continuity of cerebellar topography through development.

  • Marzban H
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Jun 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mediolateral boundaries divide the mouse cerebellar cortex into four transverse zones, and within each zone the cortex is further subdivided into a symmetrical array of parasagittal stripes. Various expression markers reveal this complexity, and detailed maps have been constructed based on the differential expression of zebrin II/aldolase C in a Purkinje cell subset. Recently, phospholipase (PL) Cbeta4 expression in adult mice was shown to be restricted to, and coextensive with, the zebrin II-immunonegative Purkinje cell subset. The Purkinje cell expression of PLCbeta4 during embryogenesis and postnatal development begins just before birth in a subset of Purkinje cells that are clustered to form a reproducible array of parasagittal stripes. Double label and serial section immunocytochemistry revealed that the early PLCbeta4-immunoreactive clusters in the neonate are complementary to those previously identified by neurogranin expression. The PLCbeta4 expression pattern can be traced continuously from embryo to adult, revealing the continuity of the topographical map from perinatal to adult cerebella. The only exception, as has been seen for other antigenic markers, is that transient PLCbeta4 expression (which subsequently disappears) is seen in some Purkinje cell stripes during the second postnatal week. Furthermore, the data confirm that some adult Purkinje cell stripes are composite in origin, being derived from two or more distinct embryonic clusters. Thus, the zone and stripe topography of the cerebellum is conserved from embryo to adult, confirming that the early- and late-antigenic markers share a common cerebellar topography.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI50580(United States)

Comparative analysis of the subcellular and subsynaptic localization of mGluR1a and mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens in rat and monkey.

  • Mitrano DA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) play critical roles in synaptic plasticity and drug addiction. To characterize potential sites whereby these receptors mediate their effects in the ventral striatum, we studied the subcellular and subsynaptic localization of mGluR1a and mGluR5 in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens in rat and monkey. In both species, group I mGluRs are mainly postsynaptic in dendrites and spines, with rare presynaptic labeling in unmyelinated axons. Minor, yet significant, differences in proportions of specific immunoreactive elements were found between the accumbens shell and the accumbens core in monkey. At the subsynaptic level, significant differences were found in the proportion of plasma membrane-bound mGluR5 labeling between species. In dendrites, spines, and unmyelinated axons, a significantly larger proportion of mGluR5 labeling was bound to the plasma membrane in rats (50-70%) than in monkeys (30-50%). Conversely, mGluR1a displayed the same pattern of immunogold labeling in the two species. Electron microscopic colocalization studies revealed 30% colocalization of mGluR1a and mGluR5 in dendrites and as much as 50-65% in spines in both compartments of the rat accumbens. Both group I mGluRs were significantly expressed in D1-immunoreactive dendritic processes (60-75% colocalization) and spines (30-50%) of striatal projection neurons as well as dendrites of cholinergic (30-70%) and parvalbumin-containing (70-85%) interneurons. These findings highlight the widespread expression of group I mGluRs in projection neurons and interneurons of the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens, providing a solid foundation for regulatory and therapeutic functions of group I mGluRs in reward-related behaviors and drug addiction.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P20 RR016476(United States)

Distribution of soluble guanylyl cyclase in rat retina.

  • Ding JD
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway is implicated in modulation of visual information processing in the retina. Despite numerous functional studies of this pathway, information about the retinal distribution of the major downstream effector of NO, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), is very limited. In the present work, we have used immunohistochemistry and multiple labeling to determine the distribution of sGC in rat retina. sGC was present at high levels in inner retina but barely detectable in outer retina. Photoreceptors and horizontal cells, as well as Müller cells, were immunonegative, whereas retinal ganglion cells exhibited moderate staining for sGC. Strong immunostaining was found in subpopulations of bipolar and amacrine cells, but staining was weak in rod bipolar cells, and AII amacrine cells were immunonegative. Double labeling of sGC with neuronal nitric oxide synthase showed that the two proteins are generally located in adjacent puncta in inner plexiform layer, implying paracrine interactions. Our results suggest that the NO-cGMP pathway modulates the neural circuitry in inner retina, preferentially within the cone pathway.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01-HG006677(United States)

Retinal organization in the retinal degeneration 10 (rd10) mutant mouse: a morphological and ERG study.

  • Gargini C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Retinal degeneration 10 (rd10) mice are a model of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP), identified by Chang et al. in 2002 (Vision Res. 42:517-525). These mice carry a spontaneous mutation of the rod-phosphodiesterase (PDE) gene, leading to a rod degeneration that starts around P18. Later, cones are also lost. Because photoreceptor degeneration does not overlap with retinal development, and light responses can be recorded for about a month after birth, rd10 mice mimic typical human RP more closely than the well-known rd1 mutants. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the morphology and function of the rd10 mouse retina during the period of maximum photoreceptor degeneration, thus contributing useful data for exploiting this novel model to study RP. We analyzed the morphology and survival of retinal cells in rd10 mice of various ages with quantitative immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy; we also studied retinal function with the electroretinogram (ERG), recorded between P18 and P30. We found that photoreceptor death (peaking around P25) is accompanied and followed by dendritic retraction in bipolar and horizontal cells, which eventually undergo secondary degeneration. ERG reveals alterations in the physiology of the inner retina as early as P18 (before any obvious morphological change of inner neurons) and yet consistently with a reduced band amplification by bipolar cells. Thus, changes in the rd10 retina are very similar to what was previously found in rd1 mutants. However, an overall slower decay of retinal structure and function predicts that rd10 mice might become excellent models for rescue approaches.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01CA24014(United States)

Expression of protein kinase C-substrate mRNAs in the basal ganglia of adult and infant macaque monkeys.

  • Higo N
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We performed in situ hybridization histochemistry on the monkey basal ganglia to investigate the mRNA localization of three protein kinase C substrates (GAP-43, MARCKS, and neurogranin), of which expression plays a role in structural changes in neurites and synapses. Weak hybridization signals for GAP-43 mRNA and intense signals for both MARCKS and neurogranin mRNAs were observed in the adult neostriatum. All three of the mRNAs were expressed in both substance P-positive direct pathway neurons and enkephalin-positive indirect pathway neurons. In the nucleus accumbens, the hybridization signals for the three mRNAs were weaker than those in the neostriatum. Double-label in situ hybridization histochemistry in the neostriatum revealed that GAP-43 and neurogranin mRNAs were expressed in a subset of MARCKS-positive neurons. While intense hybridization signals for MARCKS mRNA were observed in all of the other basal ganglia regions such as the globus pallidus, substantia innominata, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra, intense signals for GAP-43 mRNA were restricted to the substantia innominata and substantia nigra pars compacta. No signal for neurogranin mRNA was observed in the basal ganglia regions outside the neostriatum and the nucleus accumbens. These results indicate that the protein kinase C substrates are abundant in some specific connections in cortico-basal ganglia circuits. Developmental analysis showed that the expression level in the putamen and nucleus accumbens, but not in the caudate nucleus, was higher in the infant than in the adult, suggesting that synaptic maturation in the caudate nucleus occurs earlier than that in the putamen and nucleus accumbens.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - U54 EB005149(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH-60119-01A(United States)

Regulation of KCC2 and NKCC during development: membrane insertion and differences between cell types.

  • Zhang LL
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The developmental switch of GABA's action from excitation to inhibition is likely due to a change in intracellular chloride concentration from high to low. Here we determined if the GABA switch correlates with the developmental expression patterns of KCC2, the chloride extruder K+-Cl- cotransporter, and NKCC, the chloride accumulator Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter. Immunoblots of ferret retina showed that KCC2 upregulated in an exponential manner similar to synaptophysin (a synaptic marker). In contrast, NKCC, which was initially expressed at a constant level, upregulated quickly between P14 and P28, and finally downregulated to an adult level that was greater than the initial phase. At the cellular level, immunocytochemistry showed that in the inner plexiform layer KCC2's density increased gradually and its localization within ganglion cells shifted from being primarily in the cytosol (between P1-13) to being in the plasma membrane (after P21). In the outer plexiform layer, KCC2 was detected as soon as this layer started to form and increased gradually. Interestingly, however, KCC2 was initially restricted to photoreceptor terminals, while in the adult it was restricted to bipolar dendrites. Thus, the overall KCC2 expression level in ferret retina increases with age, but the time course differs between cell types. In ganglion cells the upregulation of KCC2 by itself cannot explain the relatively fast switch in GABA's action; additional events, possibly KCC2's integration into the plasma membrane and downregulation of NKCC, might also contribute. In photoreceptors the transient expression of KCC2 suggests a role for this transporter in development.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - G1000758(United Kingdom)

Differences in chemo- and cytoarchitectural features within pars principalis of the rat anterior olfactory nucleus suggest functional specialization.

  • Meyer EA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) lies between the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex and is the first bilaterally innervated structure in the olfactory system. It is typically divided into two subregions: pars externa and pars principalis. We examined the cytoarchitecture of pars principalis, the largest cellular area of the region, to determine whether it is homogeneously organized. Quantitative Nissl studies indicated that large cells (cell body area >2 standard deviations (SD) larger than the mean cell size) are densest in lateral and dorsolateral regions, while small cells (>1 SD smaller than the mean) are more numerous in medial and ventral areas. Further evidence for regional differences in the organization of the AON were obtained with immunohistochemistry for calbindin (CALB), parvalbumin (PARV), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and choline transporter (CHT). Cells immunopositive for CALB (CALB+) were denser in the deep portion of Layer II, although homogeneously dispersed throughout the circumference of the AON. PARV+ cells were located in the superficial half of Layer II and were sparse in ventral and medial regions. CHT+ and GAD+ fibers were denser in lateral versus medial regions. No regional differences were found in GAD+ somata, or in norepinephrine transporter or serotonin transporter immunoreactivity. The observed regional differences in cyto- and chemoarchitectural features may reflect functional heterogeneity within the AON.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM074255(United States)

Topography and connections of the telencephalon in a chondrostean, Acipenser baeri: an experimental study.

  • Huesa G
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sturgeons belong to an ancient group of the extant actinopterygian fishes. Accordingly, the study of their brain connections is important to understand brain evolution in the line leading to teleosts. We examined the topography and connections of the various telencephalic regions of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri). The telencephalic regions were characterized on the basis of acetylcholinesterase histochemistry and calbindin-D28k and calretinin immunohistochemistry. The telencephalic connections were investigated by using the fluorescent dye DiI (1,1'-dioctadecyl 3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate) in fixed brains. Application of DiI to different areas of the pallial (dorsal) regions of the telencephalic lobes showed that they have mostly intratelencephalic connections. A posterior pallial region is characterized by its similar hodology to that of the posterior zone of the teleosts dorsal telencephalon and those described in other ancient groups. Extratelencephalic connections of the pallium are scarce, although a few afferent and efferent connections with the diencephalon, mesencephalon, and rostral rhombencephalon were observed. DiI application to subpallial regions showed both intratelencephalic connections and connections with different brain regions. Afferents to the subpallium originate from the olfactory bulbs, preoptic area, thalamus, posterior tuberculum, hypothalamus, secondary gustatory nucleus, and raphe nuclei. Some of these connections are quite similar to those described for other vertebrates.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - MH080526(United States)