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CD16/CD32 Monoclonal Antibody (93), eBioscience(TM)


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

CD16/CD32 See NCBI gene mouse

Proper Citation

(Thermo Fisher Scientific Cat# 14-0161-82, RRID:AB_467133)


monoclonal antibody


Applications: Flow (0.5 µg/test), FN (Assay-Dependent), Neu (Assay-Dependent)

Clone ID

Clone 93

Host Organism



Thermo Fisher Scientific Go To Vendor

Cat Num


Corticosterone Production during Repeated Social Defeat Causes Monocyte Mobilization from the Bone Marrow, Glucocorticoid Resistance, and Neurovascular Adhesion Molecule Expression.

  • Niraula A
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 28

Literature context:


Repeated social defeat (RSD) stress promotes the release of bone marrow-derived monocytes into circulation that are recruited to the brain, where they augment neuroinflammation and cause prolonged anxiety-like behavior. Physiological stress activates the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis, and both of these systems play a role in the physiological, immunological, and behavioral responses to stress. The purpose of this study was to delineate the role of HPA activation and corticosterone production in the immunological responses to stress in male C57BL/6 mice. Here, surgical (adrenalectomy) and pharmacological (metyrapone) interventions were used to abrogate corticosterone signaling during stress. We report that both adrenalectomy and metyrapone attenuated the stress-induced release of monocytes into circulation. Neither intervention altered the production of monocytes during stress, but both interventions enhanced retention of these cells in the bone marrow. Consistent with this observation, adrenalectomy and metyrapone also prevented the stress-induced reduction of a key retention factor, CXCL12, in the bone marrow. Corticosterone depletion with metyrapone also abrogated the stress-induced glucocorticoid resistance of myeloid cells. In the brain, these corticosterone-associated interventions attenuated stress-induced microglial remodeling, neurovascular expression of the adhesion molecule intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, prevented monocyte accumulation and neuroinflammatory signaling. Overall, these results indicate that HPA activation and corticosterone production during repeated social defeat stress are critical for monocyte release into circulation, glucocorticoid resistance of myeloid cells, and enhanced neurovascular cell adhesion molecule expression.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent studies of stress have identified the presence of monocytes that show an exaggerated inflammatory response to immune challenge and are resistant to the suppressive effects of glucocorticoids. Increased presence of these proinflammatory monocytes has been implicated in neuropsychiatric symptoms and the development of chronic cardiovascular, autoimmune, and metabolic disorders. In the current study, we show novel evidence that corticosterone produced during stress enhances the release of proinflammatory monocytes from the bone marrow into circulation, augments their recruitment to the brain and the induction of a neuroinflammatory profile. Overproduction of corticosterone during stress is also the direct cause of glucocorticoid resistance, a key phenotype in individuals exposed to chronic stress. Inhibiting excess corticosterone production attenuates these inflammatory responses to stress.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21 CA175560(United States)

Dysregulation of Kupffer Cells/ Macrophages and Natural Killer T Cells in Steatohepatitis in LXRα Knockout Male Mice.

  • Endo-Umeda K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Liver X receptor (LXR) α expression is mainly localized to metabolic tissues, such as the liver, while LXRβ is ubiquitously expressed. LXRα is activated by oxysterols and plays an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism in metabolic tissues. In macrophages, LXRs stimulate reverse cholesterol transport and regulate immune responses. Although a high cholesterol diet induces severe steatohepatitis in LXRα-knockout (LXRα-KO) mice, the underlying mechanisms linking lipid metabolism and immune responses remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of LXRα in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis by assessing the effects of a high fat and high cholesterol diet (HFCD) on hepatic immune cell proportion and function as well as lipid metabolism in wild-type and LXRα-KO mice. HFCD feeding induced severe steatohepatitis in LXRα-KO mice compared to wild-type mice. These mice had higher cholesterol levels in the plasma and the liver and increased expression of LXR target and proinflammatory genes in both whole liver samples and isolated hepatic mononuclear cells. Flow cytometry showed an increase in CD68+CD11b+ Kupffer cells/macrophages and a decrease in invariant natural killer T cells in the liver of HFCD-fed LXRα-KO mice. These mice were more susceptible to lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury and resistant to inflammatory responses against α-galactosylceramide or Concanavalin-A treatment. The findings provide evidence for activation of bone marrow-derived Kupffer cells/macrophages and dysfunction of invariant natural killer T cells in LXRα-KO mouse liver. These findings indicate that LXRα regulates hepatic immune function along with lipid metabolism and protects against the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA09338-27(United States)

Dichotomous Expression of TNF Superfamily Ligands on Antigen-Presenting Cells Controls Post-priming Anti-viral CD4+ T Cell Immunity.

  • Chang YH
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Nov 21

Literature context:


T cell antigen-presenting cell (APC) interactions early during chronic viral infection are crucial for determining viral set point and disease outcome, but how and when different APC subtypes contribute to these outcomes is unclear. The TNF receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) member GITR is important for CD4+ T cell accumulation and control of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We found that type I interferon (IFN-I) induced TNFSF ligands GITRL, 4-1BBL, OX40L, and CD70 predominantly on monocyte-derived APCs and CD80 and CD86 predominantly on classical dendritic cells (cDCs). Mice with hypofunctional GITRL in Lyz2+ cells had decreased LCMV-specific CD4+ T cell accumulation and increased viral load. GITR signals in CD4+ T cells occurred after priming to upregulate OX40, CD25, and chemokine receptor CX3CR1. Thus IFN-I (signal 3) induced a post-priming checkpoint (signal 4) for CD4+ T cell accumulation, revealing a division of labor between cDCs and monocyte-derived APCs in regulating T cell expansion.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG017617(United States)

Neutrophils Are Critical for Myelin Removal in a Peripheral Nerve Injury Model of Wallerian Degeneration.

  • Lindborg JA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Oct 25

Literature context:


Wallerian degeneration (WD) is considered an essential preparatory stage to the process of axonal regeneration. In the peripheral nervous system, infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages, which use the chemokine receptor CCR2 to gain entry to injured tissues from the bloodstream, are purportedly necessary for efficient WD. However, our laboratory has previously reported that myelin clearance in the injured sciatic nerve proceeds unhindered in the Ccr2-/- mouse model. Here, we extensively characterize WD in male Ccr2-/- mice and identify a compensatory mechanism of WD that is facilitated primarily by neutrophils. In response to the loss of CCR2, injured Ccr2-/- sciatic nerves demonstrate prolonged expression of neutrophil chemokines, a concomitant extended increase in the accumulation of neutrophils in the nerve, and elevated phagocytosis by neutrophils. Neutrophil depletion substantially inhibits myelin clearance after nerve injury in both male WT and Ccr2-/- mice, highlighting a novel role for these cells in peripheral nerve degeneration that spans genotypes.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The accepted view in the basic and clinical neurosciences is that the clearance of axonal and myelin debris after a nerve injury is directed primarily by inflammatory CCR2+ macrophages. However, we demonstrate that this clearance is nearly identical in WT and Ccr2-/- mice, and that neutrophils replace CCR2+ macrophages as the primary phagocytic cell. We find that neutrophils play a major role in myelin clearance not only in Ccr2-/- mice but also in WT mice, highlighting their necessity during nerve degeneration in the peripheral nervous system. These degeneration studies may propel improvements in nerve regeneration and draw critical parallels to mechanisms of nerve degeneration and regeneration in the CNS and in the context of peripheral neuropathies.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY011373()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK097223()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R56 DK097223()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD016164()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS093694()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS095017()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - T32 NS067431()