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Mouse Anti-beta Actin - Xenopus, Drosophila and Yeast Loading Control Monoclonal Antibody, Unconjugated, Clone mAbcam 8224

RRID:AB_449644

Antibody ID

AB_449644

Target Antigen

beta Actin bovine, canine, chicken/avian, drosophila, hamster, human, mouse, porcine, rabbit, rat, xenopus, yeast, reacts with human, mouse, rat, cat, chicken, chinese hamster, cow, dog, fruit fly (drosophila melanogaster), pig, rabbit, saccharomyces cerevisiae (pmid 19328065), schizosaccharomyces pombe and xenopus laevis

Proper Citation

(Abcam Cat# ab8224, RRID:AB_449644)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

validation status unknown, seller recommendations provided in 2012: Western Blot; Western Blot

Clone ID

Clone mAbcam 8224

Host Organism

mouse

Validation of a yeast malate dehydrogenase 2 (Mdh2) antibody tested for use in western blots.

  • Gabay-Maskit S
  • F1000Res
  • 2018 Mar 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Malate dehydrogenases (Mdhs) reversibly convert malate to oxaloacetate and serve as important enzymes in several metabolic pathways. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae there are three Mdh isozymes, localized to different compartments in the cell. In order to identify specifically the Mdh2 isozyme, GenScript USA produced three different antibodies that we further tested by western blot. All three antibodies recognized the S. cerevisiae Mdh2 with different background and specificity properties. One of the antibodies had a relatively low background and high specificity and thus can be used for specific identification of Mdh2 in various experimental settings.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH013043(United States)

Conserved Lipid and Small-Molecule Modulation of COQ8 Reveals Regulation of the Ancient Kinase-like UbiB Family.

  • Reidenbach AG
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human COQ8A (ADCK3) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Coq8p (collectively COQ8) are UbiB family proteins essential for mitochondrial coenzyme Q (CoQ) biosynthesis. However, the biochemical activity of COQ8 and its direct role in CoQ production remain unclear, in part due to lack of known endogenous regulators of COQ8 function and of effective small molecules for probing its activity in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that COQ8 possesses evolutionarily conserved ATPase activity that is activated by binding to membranes containing cardiolipin and by phenolic compounds that resemble CoQ pathway intermediates. We further create an analog-sensitive version of Coq8p and reveal that acute chemical inhibition of its endogenous activity in yeast is sufficient to cause respiratory deficiency concomitant with CoQ depletion. Collectively, this work defines lipid and small-molecule modulators of an ancient family of atypical kinase-like proteins and establishes a chemical genetic system for further exploring the mechanistic role of COQ8 in CoQ biosynthesis.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL007899()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - 1R03AR062832(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM112057()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118110()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008505()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008692()

Multi-omics Reveal Specific Targets of the RNA-Binding Protein Puf3p and Its Orchestration of Mitochondrial Biogenesis.

  • Lapointe CP
  • Cell Syst
  • 2018 Jan 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a redox-active lipid required for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). How CoQ biosynthesis is coordinated with the biogenesis of OxPhos protein complexes is unclear. Here, we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA-binding protein (RBP) Puf3p regulates CoQ biosynthesis. To establish the mechanism for this regulation, we employed a multi-omic strategy to identify mRNAs that not only bind Puf3p but also are regulated by Puf3p in vivo. The CoQ biosynthesis enzyme Coq5p is a critical Puf3p target: Puf3p regulates the abundance of Coq5p and prevents its detrimental hyperaccumulation, thereby enabling efficient CoQ production. More broadly, Puf3p represses a specific set of proteins involved in mitochondrial protein import, translation, and OxPhos complex assembly (pathways essential to prime mitochondrial biogenesis). Our data reveal a mechanism for post-transcriptionally coordinating CoQ production with OxPhos biogenesis, and they demonstrate the power of multi-omics for defining genuine targets of RBPs.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL079392(United States)
  • NIA NIH HHS - F30 AG043282()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P41 GM108538()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM050942()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM112057()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM115591()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118110()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008349()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008692()

Regulation of Androgen Receptor Activity by Transient Interactions of Its Transactivation Domain with General Transcription Regulators.

  • De Mol E
  • Structure
  • 2018 Jan 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

The androgen receptor is a transcription factor that plays a key role in the development of prostate cancer, and its interactions with general transcription regulators are therefore of potential therapeutic interest. The mechanistic basis of these interactions is poorly understood due to the intrinsically disordered nature of the transactivation domain of the androgen receptor and the generally transient nature of the protein-protein interactions that trigger transcription. Here, we identify a motif of the transactivation domain that contributes to transcriptional activity by recruiting the C-terminal domain of subunit 1 of the general transcription regulator TFIIF. These findings provide molecular insights into the regulation of androgen receptor function and suggest strategies for treating castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA120432-04(United States)

E2F/DP Prevents Cell-Cycle Progression in Endocycling Fat Body Cells by Suppressing dATM Expression.

  • Guarner A
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

To understand the consequences of the complete elimination of E2F regulation, we profiled the proteome of Drosophila dDP mutants that lack functional E2F/DP complexes. The results uncovered changes in the larval fat body, a differentiated tissue that grows via endocycles. We report an unexpected mechanism of E2F/DP action that promotes quiescence in this tissue. In the fat body, dE2F/dDP limits cell-cycle progression by suppressing DNA damage responses. Loss of dDP upregulates dATM, allowing cells to sense and repair DNA damage and increasing replication of loci that are normally under-replicated in wild-type tissues. Genetic experiments show that ectopic dATM is sufficient to promote DNA synthesis in wild-type fat body cells. Strikingly, reducing dATM levels in dDP-deficient fat bodies restores cell-cycle control, improves tissue morphology, and extends animal development. These results show that, in some cellular contexts, dE2F/dDP-dependent suppression of DNA damage signaling is key for cell-cycle control and needed for normal development.

Funding information:
  • British Heart Foundation - WT091310(United Kingdom)

Loss of SynDIG1 Reduces Excitatory Synapse Maturation But Not Formation In Vivo.

  • Chenaux G
  • eNeuro
  • 2017 Oct 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Modification of the strength of excitatory synaptic connections is a fundamental mechanism by which neural circuits are refined during development and learning. Synapse Differentiation Induced Gene 1 (SynDIG1) has been shown to play a key role in regulating synaptic strength in vitro. Here, we investigated the role of SynDIG1 in vivo in mice with a disruption of the SynDIG1 gene rather than use an alternate loxP-flanked conditional mutant that we find retains a partial protein product. The gene-trap insertion with a reporter cassette mutant mice shows that the SynDIG1 promoter is active during embryogenesis in the retina with some activity in the brain, and postnatally in the mouse hippocampus, cortex, hindbrain, and spinal cord. Ultrastructural analysis of the hippocampal CA1 region shows a decrease in the average PSD length of synapses and a decrease in the number of synapses with a mature phenotype. Intriguingly, the total synapse number appears to be increased in SynDIG1 mutant mice. Electrophysiological analyses show a decrease in AMPA and NMDA receptor function in SynDIG1-deficient hippocampal neurons. Glutamate stimulation of individual dendritic spines in hippocampal slices from SynDIG1-deficient mice reveals increased short-term structural plasticity. Notably, the overall levels of PSD-95 or glutamate receptors enriched in postsynaptic biochemical fractions remain unaltered; however, activity-dependent synapse development is strongly compromised upon the loss of SynDIG1, supporting its importance for excitatory synapse maturation. Together, these data are consistent with a model in which SynDIG1 regulates the maturation of excitatory synapse structure and function in the mouse hippocampus in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH104638(United States)

Histone Mutants Separate R Loop Formation from Genome Instability Induction.

  • García-Pichardo D
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

R loops have positive physiological roles, but they can also be deleterious by causing genome instability, and the mechanisms for this are unknown. Here we identified yeast histone H3 and H4 mutations that facilitate R loops but do not cause instability. R loops containing single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), versus RNA-DNA hybrids alone, were demonstrated using ssDNA-specific human AID and bisulfite. Notably, they are similar size regardless of whether or not they induce genome instability. Contrary to mutants causing R loop-mediated instability, these histone mutants do not accumulate H3 serine-10 phosphate (H3S10-P). We propose a two-step mechanism in which, first, an altered chromatin facilitates R loops, and second, chromatin is modified, including H3S10-P, as a requisite for compromising genome integrity. Consistently, these histone mutations suppress the high H3S10 phosphorylation and genomic instability of hpr1 and sen1 mutants. Therefore, contrary to what was previously believed, R loops do not cause genome instability by themselves.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50MH103222(United States)

The Ubiquitin Ligase CHIP Integrates Proteostasis and Aging by Regulation of Insulin Receptor Turnover.

  • Tawo R
  • Cell
  • 2017 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aging is attended by a progressive decline in protein homeostasis (proteostasis), aggravating the risk for protein aggregation diseases. To understand the coordination between proteome imbalance and longevity, we addressed the mechanistic role of the quality-control ubiquitin ligase CHIP, which is a key regulator of proteostasis. We observed that CHIP deficiency leads to increased levels of the insulin receptor (INSR) and reduced lifespan of worms and flies. The membrane-bound INSR regulates the insulin and IGF1 signaling (IIS) pathway and thereby defines metabolism and aging. INSR is a direct target of CHIP, which triggers receptor monoubiquitylation and endocytic-lysosomal turnover to promote longevity. However, upon proteotoxic stress conditions and during aging, CHIP is recruited toward disposal of misfolded proteins, reducing its capacity to degrade the INSR. Our study indicates a competitive relationship between proteostasis and longevity regulation through CHIP-assisted proteolysis, providing a mechanistic concept for understanding the impact of proteome imbalance on aging.

Spt5 Plays Vital Roles in the Control of Sense and Antisense Transcription Elongation.

  • Shetty A
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spt5 is an essential and conserved factor that functions in transcription and co-transcriptional processes. However, many aspects of the requirement for Spt5 in transcription are poorly understood. We have analyzed the consequences of Spt5 depletion in Schizosaccharomyces pombe using four genome-wide approaches. Our results demonstrate that Spt5 is crucial for a normal rate of RNA synthesis and distribution of RNAPII over transcription units. In the absence of Spt5, RNAPII localization changes dramatically, with reduced levels and a relative accumulation over the first ∼500 bp, suggesting that Spt5 is required for transcription past a barrier. Spt5 depletion also results in widespread antisense transcription initiating within this barrier region. Deletions of this region alter the distribution of RNAPII on the sense strand, suggesting that the barrier observed after Spt5 depletion is normally a site at which Spt5 stimulates elongation. Our results reveal a global requirement for Spt5 in transcription elongation.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM032967()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R37 GM032967()
  • NLM NIH HHS - T15 LM007092()

MECR Mutations Cause Childhood-Onset Dystonia and Optic Atrophy, a Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthesis Disorder.

  • Heimer G
  • Am. J. Hum. Genet.
  • 2016 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) is an evolutionarily conserved pathway essential for the function of the respiratory chain and several mitochondrial enzyme complexes. We report here a unique neurometabolic human disorder caused by defective mtFAS. Seven individuals from five unrelated families presented with childhood-onset dystonia, optic atrophy, and basal ganglia signal abnormalities on MRI. All affected individuals were found to harbor recessive mutations in MECR encoding the mitochondrial trans-2-enoyl-coenzyme A-reductase involved in human mtFAS. All six mutations are extremely rare in the general population, segregate with the disease in the families, and are predicted to be deleterious. The nonsense c.855T>G (p.Tyr285∗), c.247_250del (p.Asn83Hisfs∗4), and splice site c.830+2_830+3insT mutations lead to C-terminal truncation variants of MECR. The missense c.695G>A (p.Gly232Glu), c.854A>G (p.Tyr285Cys), and c.772C>T (p.Arg258Trp) mutations involve conserved amino acid residues, are located within the cofactor binding domain, and are predicted by structural analysis to have a destabilizing effect. Yeast modeling and complementation studies validated the pathogenicity of the MECR mutations. Fibroblast cell lines from affected individuals displayed reduced levels of both MECR and lipoylated proteins as well as defective respiration. These results suggest that mutations in MECR cause a distinct human disorder of the mtFAS pathway. The observation of decreased lipoylation raises the possibility of a potential therapeutic strategy.

Transgenerational programming of longevity through E(z)-mediated histone H3K27 trimethylation in Drosophila.

  • Xia B
  • Aging (Albany NY)
  • 2016 Nov 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transgenerational effects on health and development of early-life nutrition have gained increased attention recently. However, the underlying mechanisms of transgenerational transmission are only starting to emerge, with epigenetics as perhaps the most important mechanism. We recently reported the first animal model to study transgenerational programming of longevity after early-life dietary manipulations, enabling investigations to identify underlying epigenetic mechanisms. We report here that post-eclosion dietary manipulation (PDM) with a low-protein (LP) diet upregulates the protein level of E(z), an H3K27 specific methyltransferase, leading to higher levels of H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). This PDM-mediated change in H3K27me3 corresponded with a shortened longevity of F0 flies as well as their F2 offspring. Specific RNAi-mediated post-eclosion knockdown of E(z) or pharmacological inhibition of its enzymatic function with EPZ-6438 in the F0 parents improved longevity while rendering H3K27me3 low across generations. Importantly, addition of EPZ-6438 to the LP diet fully alleviated the longevity-reducing effect of the LP PDM, supporting the increased level of E(z)-dependent H3K27me3 as the primary cause and immediate early-life period as the critical time to program longevity through epigenetic regulation. These observations establish E(z)-mediated H3K27me3 as one epigenetic mechanism underlying nutritional programming of longevity and support the use of EPZ-6438 to extend lifespan.

The fail-safe mechanism of post-transcriptional silencing of unspliced HAC1 mRNA.

  • Di Santo R
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

HAC1 encodes a transcription factor that is the central effector of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in budding yeast. When the UPR is inactive, HAC1 mRNA is stored as an unspliced isoform in the cytoplasm and no Hac1 protein is detectable. Intron removal is both necessary and sufficient to relieve the post-transcriptional silencing of HAC1 mRNA, yet the precise mechanism by which the intron prevents Hac1 protein accumulation has remained elusive. Here, we show that a combination of inhibited translation initiation and accelerated protein degradation-both dependent on the intron-prevents the accumulation of Hac1 protein when the UPR is inactive. Functionally, both components of this fail-safe silencing mechanism are required to prevent ectopic production of Hac1 protein and concomitant activation of the UPR. Our results provide a mechanistic understanding of HAC1 regulation and reveal a novel strategy for complete post-transcriptional silencing of a cytoplasmic mRNA.

Neuroendocrine Coordination of Mitochondrial Stress Signaling and Proteostasis.

  • Berendzen KM
  • Cell
  • 2016 Sep 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

During neurodegenerative disease, the toxic accumulation of aggregates and misfolded proteins is often accompanied with widespread changes in peripheral metabolism, even in cells in which the aggregating protein is not present. The mechanism by which the central nervous system elicits a distal reaction to proteotoxic stress remains unknown. We hypothesized that the endocrine communication of neuronal stress plays a causative role in the changes in mitochondrial homeostasis associated with proteotoxic disease states. We find that an aggregation-prone protein expressed in the neurons of C. elegans binds to mitochondria, eliciting a global induction of a mitochondrial-specific unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), affecting whole-animal physiology. Importantly, dense core vesicle release and secretion of the neurotransmitter serotonin is required for the signal's propagation. Collectively, these data suggest the commandeering of a nutrient sensing network to allow for cell-to-cell communication between mitochondria in response to protein folding stress in the nervous system.

Novel vasotocin-regulated aquaporins expressed in the ventral skin of semiaquatic anuran amphibians: evolution of cutaneous water-absorbing mechanisms.

  • Saitoh Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Until now, it was believed that only one form of arginine vasotocin (AVT)-regulated aquaporin (AQP) existed to control water absorption from the ventral skin of semiaquatic anuran amphibians, eg, AQP-rj3(a) in Rana japonica. In the present study, we have identified a novel form of ventral skin-type AQP, AQP-rj3b, in R. japonica by cDNA cloning. The oocyte swelling assay confirmed that AQP-rj3b can facilitate water permeability. Both AQP-rj3a and AQP-rj3b were expressed abundantly in the ventral hindlimb skin and weakly in the ventral pelvic skin. For the hindlimb skin, water permeability was increased in response to AVT, although the hydroosmotic response was not statistically significant in the pelvic skin. Isoproterenol augmented water permeability of the hindlimb skin, and the response was inhibited by propranolol. These events were well correlated with the intracellular trafficking of the AQPs. Immunohistochemistry showed that both AQP-rj3 proteins were translocated from the cytoplasmic pool to the apical membrane of principal cells in the first-reacting cell layer of the hindlimb skin after stimulation with AVT and/or isoproterenol. The type-b AQP was also found in R. (Lithobates) catesbeiana and R. (Pelophylax) nigromaculata. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that the type-a is closely related to ventral skin-type AQPs from aquatic Xenopus, whereas the type-b is closer to the AQPs from terrestrial Bufo and Hyla, suggesting that the AQPs from terrestrial species are not the orthologue of the AQPs from aquatic species. Based on these results, we propose a model for the evolution of cutaneous water-absorbing mechanisms in association with AQPs.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG010668(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK098468(United States)