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ANTI-FLAG(R) antibody produced in rabbit

RRID:AB_439687

Antibody ID

AB_439687

Target Antigen

ANTI-FLAG(R) antibody produced in rabbit flag(r)

Proper Citation

(Sigma-Aldrich Cat# F7425, RRID:AB_439687)

Clonality

unknown

Comments

Vendor recommendations: Other; Western Blot; Immunofluorescence; Immunocytochemistry; Immunoprecipitation; immunoblotting (chemiluminescent): 2.5 mug/mL

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Sigma-Aldrich

Cat Num

F7425

Publications that use this research resource

ZFAND1 Recruits p97 and the 26S Proteasome to Promote the Clearance of Arsenite-Induced Stress Granules.

  • Turakhiya A
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic assemblies of mRNPs stalled in translation initiation. They are induced by various stress conditions, including exposure to the environmental toxin and carcinogen arsenic. While perturbed SG turnover is linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, the molecular mechanisms underlying SG formation and turnover are still poorly understood. Here, we show that ZFAND1 is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of SG clearance. ZFAND1 interacts with two key factors of protein degradation, the 26S proteasome and the ubiquitin-selective segregase p97, and recruits them to arsenite-induced SGs. In the absence of ZFAND1, SGs lack the 26S proteasome and p97, accumulate defective ribosomal products, and persist after arsenite removal, indicating their transformation into aberrant, disease-linked SGs. Accordingly, ZFAND1 depletion is epistatic to the expression of pathogenic mutant p97 with respect to SG clearance, suggesting that ZFAND1 function is relevant to the multisystem degenerative disorder IBMPFD/ALS.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA021551(United States)

5-HT2A receptor-dependent phosphorylation of mGlu2 receptor at Serine 843 promotes mGlu2 receptor-operated Gi/o signaling.

  • Murat S
  • Mol. Psychiatry
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The serotonin 5-HT2A and glutamate mGlu2 receptors continue to attract particular attention, given their implication in psychosis associated with schizophrenia and the mechanism of action of atypical antipsychotics and a new class of antipsychotics, respectively. A large body of evidence indicates a functional crosstalk between both receptors in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are not entirely elucidated. Here, we have explored the influence of 5-HT2A receptor upon the phosphorylation pattern of mGlu2 receptor in light of the importance of specific phosphorylation events in regulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling and physiological outcomes. Among the five mGlu2 receptor-phosphorylated residues identified in HEK-293 cells, the phosphorylation of Ser843 was enhanced upon mGlu2 receptor stimulation by the orthosteric agonist LY379268 only in cells co-expressing the 5-HT2A receptor. Likewise, administration of LY379268 increased mGlu2 receptor phosphorylation at Ser843 in prefrontal cortex of wild-type mice but not 5-HT2A-/- mice. Exposure of HEK-293 cells co-expressing mGlu2 and 5-HT2A receptors to 5-HT also increased Ser843 phosphorylation state to a magnitude similar to that measured in LY379268-treated cells. In both HEK-293 cells and prefrontal cortex, Ser843 phosphorylation elicited by 5-HT2A receptor stimulation was prevented by the mGlu2 receptor antagonist LY341495, while the LY379268-induced effect was abolished by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907. Mutation of Ser843 into alanine strongly reduced Gi/o signaling elicited by mGlu2 or 5-HT2A receptor stimulation in cells co-expressing both receptors. Collectively, these findings identify mGlu2 receptor phosphorylation at Ser843 as a key molecular event that underlies the functional crosstalk between both receptors.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0600705(United Kingdom)

Whole exome sequencing reveals a functional mutation in the GAIN domain of the Bai2 receptor underlying a forward mutagenesis hyperactivity QTL.

  • Speca DJ
  • Mamm. Genome
  • 2018 Jun 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The identification of novel genes underlying complex mouse behavioral traits remains an important step in understanding normal brain function and its dysfunction in mental health disorders. To identify dominant mutations that influence locomotor activity, we performed a mouse N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) forward mutagenesis screen and mapped several loci as quantitative traits. Here we describe the fine-mapping and positional cloning of a hyperactivity locus mapped to the medial portion of mouse chromosome four. We employed a modified recombinant progeny testing approach to fine-map the confidence interval from ≈20 Mb down to ≈5 Mb. Whole exome resequencing of all exons in this region revealed a single missense mutation in the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (Bai2). This mutation, R619W, is located in a critical extracellular domain that is a hotspot for mutations in this receptor class. We find that in two different mammalian cell lines, surface expression of Bai2 R619W is markedly reduced relative to wild-type Bai2, suggesting that R619W is a loss-of-function mutation. Our results highlight the powerful combination of ENU mutagenesis and next-generation sequencing to identify specific mutations that manifest as subtle behavioral phenotypes.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R03 MH108950()

Filopodia Conduct Target Selection in Cortical Neurons Using Differences in Signal Kinetics of a Single Kinase.

  • Mao YT
  • Neuron
  • 2018 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dendritic filopodia select synaptic partner axons by interviewing the cell surface of potential targets, but how filopodia decipher the complex pattern of adhesive and repulsive molecular cues to find appropriate contacts is unknown. Here, we demonstrate in cortical neurons that a single cue is sufficient for dendritic filopodia to reject or select specific axonal contacts for elaboration as synaptic sites. Super-resolution and live-cell imaging reveals that EphB2 is located in the tips of filopodia and at nascent synaptic sites. Surprisingly, a genetically encoded indicator of EphB kinase activity, unbiased classification, and a photoactivatable EphB2 reveal that simple differences in the kinetics of EphB kinase signaling at the tips of filopodia mediate the choice between retraction and synaptogenesis. This may enable individual filopodia to choose targets based on differences in the activation rate of a single tyrosine kinase, greatly simplifying the process of partner selection and suggesting a general principle.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 250244(International)

Dimerization of the Pragmin Pseudo-Kinase Regulates Protein Tyrosine Phosphorylation.

  • Lecointre C
  • Structure
  • 2018 Apr 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The pseudo-kinase and signaling protein Pragmin has been linked to cancer by regulating protein tyrosine phosphorylation via unknown mechanisms. Here we present the crystal structure of the Pragmin 906-1,368 amino acid C terminus, which encompasses its kinase domain. We show that Pragmin contains a classical protein-kinase fold devoid of catalytic activity, despite a conserved catalytic lysine (K997). By proteomics, we discovered that this pseudo-kinase uses the tyrosine kinase CSK to induce protein tyrosine phosphorylation in human cells. Interestingly, the protein-kinase domain is flanked by N- and C-terminal extensions forming an original dimerization domain that regulates Pragmin self-association and stimulates CSK activity. A1329E mutation in the C-terminal extension destabilizes Pragmin dimerization and reduces CSK activation. These results reveal a dimerization mechanism by which a pseudo-kinase can induce protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Further sequence-structure analysis identified an additional member (C19orf35) of the superfamily of dimeric Pragmin/SgK269/PEAK1 pseudo-kinases.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM089763(United States)

Arginine Methylation by PRMT2 Controls the Functions of the Actin Nucleator Cobl.

  • Hou W
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The complex architecture of neuronal networks in the brain requires tight control of the actin cytoskeleton. The actin nucleator Cobl is critical for neuronal morphogenesis. Here we reveal that Cobl is controlled by arginine methylation. Coprecipitations, coimmunoprecipitations, cellular reconstitutions, and in vitro reconstitutions demonstrated that Cobl associates with the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT2 in a Src Homology 3 (SH3) domain-dependent manner and that this promotes methylation of Cobl's actin nucleating C-terminal domain. Consistently, PRMT2 phenocopied Cobl functions in both gain- and loss-of-function studies. Both PRMT2- and Cobl-promoted dendritogenesis relied on methylation. PRMT2 effects require both its catalytic domain and SH3 domain. Cobl-mediated dendritic arborization required PRMT2, complex formation with PRMT2, and PRMT2's catalytic activity. Mechanistic studies reveal that Cobl methylation is key for Cobl actin binding. Therefore, arginine methylation is a regulatory mechanism reaching beyond controlling nuclear processes. It also controls a major, cytosolic, cytoskeletal component shaping neuronal cells.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL24415(United States)

Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Dendrite Self-Avoidance by the Wnt Secretory Factor MIG-14/Wntless.

  • Liao CP
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Apr 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Self-avoidance allows sister dendrites from the same neuron to form non-redundant coverage of the sensory territory and is important for neural circuitry functions. Here, we report an unexpected, cell-autonomous role of the Wnt-secretory factor MIG-14/Wntless in mediating dendrite self-avoidance in the C. elegans multidendritic PVD neurons. Similar findings in Drosophila suggest that this novel function of Wntless is conserved. The mig-14 mutant shows defects in dendrite self-avoidance, and ectopic MIG-14 expression triggers dendrite repulsion. Functions of dendrite self-avoidance and Wnt secretion could be mapped to distinct MIG-14 domains, indicating that these two functions of MIG-14 are genetically separable, consistent with lack of self-avoidance defects in the Wnt mutants. We further demonstrate that MIG-14 engages Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-dependent actin assembly to regulate dendrite self-avoidance. Our work expands the repertoire of self-avoidance molecules and uncovers a previously unknown, Wnt-independent function of MIG-14/Wntless.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/D020190/1(United Kingdom)

Inflammation-Modulated Metabolic Reprogramming Is Required for DUOX-Dependent Gut Immunity in Drosophila.

  • Lee KA
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Mar 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

DUOX, a member of the NADPH oxidase family, acts as the first line of defense against enteric pathogens by producing microbicidal reactive oxygen species. DUOX is activated upon enteric infection, but the mechanisms regulating DUOX activity remain incompletely understood. Using Drosophila genetic tools, we show that enteric infection results in "pro-catabolic" signaling that initiates metabolic reprogramming of enterocytes toward lipid catabolism, which ultimately governs DUOX homeostasis. Infection induces signaling cascades involving TRAF3 and kinases AMPK and WTS, which regulate TOR kinase to control the balance of lipogenesis versus lipolysis. Enhancing lipogenesis blocks DUOX activity, whereas stimulating lipolysis via ATG1-dependent lipophagy is required for DUOX activation. Drosophila with altered activity in TRAF3-AMPK/WTS-ATG1 pathway components exhibit abolished infection-induced lipolysis, reduced DUOX activation, and enhanced susceptibility to enteric infection. Thus, this work uncovers signaling cascades governing inflammation-induced metabolic reprogramming and provides insight into the pathophysiology of immune-metabolic interactions in the microbe-laden gut epithelia.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - F31-DC010519(United States)

PINK1 Phosphorylates MIC60/Mitofilin to Control Structural Plasticity of Mitochondrial Crista Junctions.

  • Tsai PI
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mitochondrial crista structure partitions vital cellular reactions and is precisely regulated by diverse cellular signals. Here, we show that, in Drosophila, mitochondrial cristae undergo dynamic remodeling among distinct subcellular regions and the Parkinson's disease (PD)-linked Ser/Thr kinase PINK1 participates in their regulation. Mitochondria increase crista junctions and numbers in selective subcellular areas, and this remodeling requires PINK1 to phosphorylate the inner mitochondrial membrane protein MIC60/mitofilin, which stabilizes MIC60 oligomerization. Expression of MIC60 restores crista structure and ATP levels of PINK1-null flies and remarkably rescues their behavioral defects and dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In an extension to human relevance, we discover that the PINK1-MIC60 pathway is conserved in human neurons, and expression of several MIC60 coding variants in the mitochondrial targeting sequence found in PD patients in Drosophila impairs crista junction formation and causes locomotion deficits. These findings highlight the importance of maintenance and plasticity of crista junctions to cellular homeostasis in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007337(United States)

Juxtanodin in retinal pigment epithelial cells: Expression and biological activities in regulating cell morphology and actin cytoskeleton organization.

  • Liang F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Juxtanodin (JN, also known as ermin) was initially identified as an actin cytoskeleton-related oligodendroglial protein in the rat central nervous system. It was subsequently also found in the rat olfactory neuroepithelium, especially at the apical junctional belt of the sustentacular cells. We further examined JN expression and functional roles in the retina using fluorescence histochemistry, confocal microscopy, immuno-electron microscopy, molecular biology, and cell culture. Prominent JN expression was found in the photoreceptor-supporting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), especially in a zone corresponding to the apices of RPE cells, at the roots of the RPE microvilli, and at the base of RPE cells next to the Bruch's membrane. Partial co-localization of JN immunoreactivity with F-actin (labeled with phalloidin) was observed at the apices and bases of RPE cells. No JN was detected in other cell types of the retina. In cultured human RPE cell line ARPE-19, expression of extrinsic JN up-regulated formation of actin cytoskeleton stress fibers, caused redistribution of more F-actin fibers to the cell periphery, and promoted spreading/enlargement of transfected cells. These findings suggest possible roles of JN in RPE molecular transport, phagocytosis and formation of outer blood-retinal barrier, or possible involvement of JN expression perturbations in pathogenesis of such retinal disorders as proliferative vitreoretinopathy and age-related macular degeneration.

Overlapping Role of SCYL1 and SCYL3 in Maintaining Motor Neuron Viability.

  • Kuliyev E
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Members of the SCY1-like (SCYL) family of protein kinases are evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed proteins characterized by an N-terminal pseudokinase domain, centrally located HEAT repeats, and an overall disorganized C-terminal segment. In mammals, 3 family members encoded by genes Scyl1, Scyl2, and Scyl3 have been described. Studies have pointed to a role for SCYL1 and SCYL2 in regulating neuronal function and viability in mice and humans, but little is known about the biological function of SCYL3. Here, we show that the biochemical and cell biological properties of SCYL3 are similar to those of SCYL1 and both proteins work in conjunction to maintain motor neuron viability. Specifically, although lack of Scyl3 in mice has no apparent effect on embryogenesis and postnatal life, it accelerates the onset of the motor neuron disorder caused by Scyl1 deficiency. Growth abnormalities, motor dysfunction, hindlimb paralysis, muscle wasting, neurogenic atrophy, motor neuron degeneration, and loss of large-caliber axons in peripheral nerves occurred at an earlier age in Scyl1/Scyl3 double-deficient mice than in Scyl1-deficient mice. Disease onset also correlated with the mislocalization of TDP-43 in spinal motor neurons, suggesting that SCYL1 and SCYL3 regulate TDP-43 proteostasis. Together, our results demonstrate an overlapping role for SCYL1 and SCYL3 in vivo and highlight the importance the SCYL family of proteins in regulating neuronal function and survival. Only male mice were used in this study.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTSCYL1 and SCYL2, members of the SCY1-like family of pseudokinases, have well-established roles in neuronal function. Herein, we uncover the role of SCYL3 in maintaining motor neuron viability. Although targeted disruption of Scyl3 in mice had little or no effect on embryonic development and postnatal life, it accelerated disease onset associated with the loss of Scyl1, a novel motor neuron disease gene in humans. Scyl1 and Scyl3 double-deficient mice had neuronal defects characteristic of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, including TDP-43 pathology, at an earlier age than did Scyl1-deficient mice. Thus, we show that SCYL1 and SCYL3 play overlapping roles in maintaining motor neuronal viability in vivo and confirm that SCYL family members are critical regulators of neuronal function and survival.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA093459(United States)

Subcellular Localization and Activity of TRPM4 in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Layer 2/3.

  • Riquelme D
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

TRPM4 is a Ca2+-activated non-selective cationic channel that conducts monovalent cations. TRPM4 has been proposed to contribute to burst firing and sustained activity in several brain regions, however, the cellular and subcellular pattern of TRPM4 expression in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during postnatal development has not been elucidated. Here, we use multiplex immunofluorescence labeling of brain sections to characterize the postnatal developmental expression of TRPM4 in the mouse mPFC. We also performed electrophysiological recordings to correlate the expression of TRPM4 immunoreactivity with the presence of TRPM4-like currents. We found that TRPM4 is expressed from the first postnatal day, with expression increasing up to postnatal day 35. Additionally, in perforated patch clamp experiments, we found that TRPM4-like currents were active at resting membrane potentials at all postnatal ages studied. Moreover, TRPM4 is expressed in both pyramidal neurons and interneurons. TRPM4 expression is localized in the soma and proximal dendrites, but not in the axon initial segment of pyramidal neurons. This subcellular localization is consistent with a reduction in the basal current only when we locally perfused 9-Phenanthrol in the soma, but not upon perfusion in the medial or distal dendrites. Our results show a specific localization of TRPM4 expression in neurons in the mPFC and that a 9-Phenanthrol sensitive current is active at resting membrane potential, suggesting specific functional roles in mPFC neurons during postnatal development and in adulthood.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 281967(International)

The Yeast INO80 Complex Operates as a Tunable DNA Length-Sensitive Switch to Regulate Nucleosome Sliding.

  • Zhou CY
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The yeast INO80 chromatin remodeling complex plays essential roles in regulating DNA damage repair, replication, and promoter architecture. INO80's role in these processes is likely related to its ability to slide nucleosomes, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we use ensemble and single-molecule enzymology to study INO80-catalyzed nucleosome sliding. We find that the rate of nucleosome sliding by INO80 increases ∼100-fold when the flanking DNA length is increased from 40 to 60 bp. Furthermore, once sliding is initiated, INO80 moves the nucleosome rapidly at least 20 bp without pausing to re-assess flanking DNA length, and it can change the direction of nucleosome sliding without dissociation. Finally, we show that the Nhp10 module of INO80 plays an auto-inhibitory role, tuning INO80's switch-like response to flanking DNA. Our results indicate that INO80 is a highly processive remodeling motor that is tightly regulated by both substrate cues and non-catalytic subunits.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - (United Kingdom)
  • NCI NIH HHS - F31 CA180651()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM073767()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM119580()

Regulation of Androgen Receptor Activity by Transient Interactions of Its Transactivation Domain with General Transcription Regulators.

  • De Mol E
  • Structure
  • 2018 Jan 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

The androgen receptor is a transcription factor that plays a key role in the development of prostate cancer, and its interactions with general transcription regulators are therefore of potential therapeutic interest. The mechanistic basis of these interactions is poorly understood due to the intrinsically disordered nature of the transactivation domain of the androgen receptor and the generally transient nature of the protein-protein interactions that trigger transcription. Here, we identify a motif of the transactivation domain that contributes to transcriptional activity by recruiting the C-terminal domain of subunit 1 of the general transcription regulator TFIIF. These findings provide molecular insights into the regulation of androgen receptor function and suggest strategies for treating castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA120432-04(United States)

MST4 Phosphorylation of ATG4B Regulates Autophagic Activity, Tumorigenicity, and Radioresistance in Glioblastoma.

  • Huang T
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Dec 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

ATG4B stimulates autophagy by promoting autophagosome formation through reversible modification of ATG8. We identify ATG4B as a substrate of mammalian sterile20-like kinase (STK) 26/MST4. MST4 phosphorylates ATG4B at serine residue 383, which stimulates ATG4B activity and increases autophagic flux. Inhibition of MST4 or ATG4B activities using genetic approaches or an inhibitor of ATG4B suppresses autophagy and the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma (GBM) cells. Furthermore, radiation induces MST4 expression, ATG4B phosphorylation, and autophagy. Inhibiting ATG4B in combination with radiotherapy in treating mice with intracranial GBM xenograft markedly slows tumor growth and provides a significant survival benefit. Our work describes an MST4-ATG4B signaling axis that influences GBM autophagy and malignancy, and whose therapeutic targeting enhances the anti-tumor effects of radiotherapy.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA163205()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA159467()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21 CA175875()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA070085()
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA021751()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM038660(United States)
  • NIMHD NIH HHS - L32 MD010147()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS081774()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS080619()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083767()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS093843()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS095634()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS102669()
  • NLM NIH HHS - K99 LM011673()
  • NLM NIH HHS - R00 LM011673()
  • NLM NIH HHS - R01 LM012011()

Natural Parasite Exposure Induces Protective Human Anti-Malarial Antibodies.

  • Triller G
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Dec 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Antibodies against the NANP repeat of circumsporozoite protein (CSP), the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites, can protect from malaria in animal models but protective humoral immunity is difficult to induce in humans. Here we cloned and characterized rare affinity-matured human NANP-reactive memory B cell antibodies elicited by natural Pf exposure that potently inhibited parasite transmission and development in vivo. We unveiled the molecular details of antibody binding to two distinct protective epitopes within the NANP repeat. NANP repeat recognition was largely mediated by germline encoded and immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) residues, whereas affinity maturation contributed predominantly to stabilizing the antigen-binding site conformation. Combined, our findings illustrate the power of exploring human anti-CSP antibody responses to develop tools for malaria control in the mammalian and the mosquito vector and provide a molecular basis for the structure-based design of next-generation CSP malaria vaccines.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - F32 AI114113()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - 5R01 ES010807(United States)

Membrane Microdomain Disassembly Inhibits MRSA Antibiotic Resistance.

  • García-Fernández E
  • Cell
  • 2017 Nov 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

A number of bacterial cell processes are confined functional membrane microdomains (FMMs), structurally and functionally similar to lipid rafts of eukaryotic cells. How bacteria organize these intricate platforms and what their biological significance is remain important questions. Using the pathogen methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), we show here that membrane-carotenoid interaction with the scaffold protein flotillin leads to FMM formation, which can be visualized using super-resolution array tomography. These membrane platforms accumulate multimeric protein complexes, for which flotillin facilitates efficient oligomerization. One of these proteins is PBP2a, responsible for penicillin resistance in MRSA. Flotillin mutants are defective in PBP2a oligomerization. Perturbation of FMM assembly using available drugs interferes with PBP2a oligomerization and disables MRSA penicillin resistance in vitro and in vivo, resulting in MRSA infections that are susceptible to penicillin treatment. Our study demonstrates that bacteria possess sophisticated cell organization programs and defines alternative therapies to fight multidrug-resistant pathogens using conventional antibiotics.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R21 MH105846(United States)

Vg1-Nodal heterodimers are the endogenous inducers of mesendoderm.

  • Montague TG
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nodal is considered the key inducer of mesendoderm in vertebrate embryos and embryonic stem cells. Other TGF-beta-related signals, such as Vg1/Dvr1/Gdf3, have also been implicated in this process but their roles have been unclear or controversial. Here we report that zebrafish embryos without maternally provided vg1 fail to form endoderm and head and trunk mesoderm, and closely resemble nodal loss-of-function mutants. Although Nodal is processed and secreted without Vg1, it requires Vg1 for its endogenous activity. Conversely, Vg1 is unprocessed and resides in the endoplasmic reticulum without Nodal, and is only secreted, processed and active in the presence of Nodal. Co-expression of Nodal and Vg1 results in heterodimer formation and mesendoderm induction. Thus, mesendoderm induction relies on the combination of two TGF-beta-related signals: maternal and ubiquitous Vg1, and zygotic and localized Nodal. Modeling reveals that the pool of maternal Vg1 enables rapid signaling at low concentrations of zygotic Nodal.

Force Triggers YAP Nuclear Entry by Regulating Transport across Nuclear Pores.

  • Elosegui-Artola A
  • Cell
  • 2017 Nov 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

YAP is a mechanosensitive transcriptional activator with a critical role in cancer, regeneration, and organ size control. Here, we show that force applied to the nucleus directly drives YAP nuclear translocation by decreasing the mechanical restriction of nuclear pores to molecular transport. Exposure to a stiff environment leads cells to establish a mechanical connection between the nucleus and the cytoskeleton, allowing forces exerted through focal adhesions to reach the nucleus. Force transmission then leads to nuclear flattening, which stretches nuclear pores, reduces their mechanical resistance to molecular transport, and increases YAP nuclear import. The restriction to transport is further regulated by the mechanical stability of the transported protein, which determines both active nuclear transport of YAP and passive transport of small proteins. Our results unveil a mechanosensing mechanism mediated directly by nuclear pores, demonstrated for YAP but with potential general applicability in transcriptional regulation.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI 064481(United States)

An Eya1-Notch axis specifies bipotential epibranchial differentiation in mammalian craniofacial morphogenesis.

  • Zhang H
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Craniofacial morphogenesis requires proper development of pharyngeal arches and epibranchial placodes. We show that the epibranchial placodes, in addition to giving rise to cranial sensory neurons, generate a novel lineage-related non-neuronal cell population for mouse pharyngeal arch development. Eya1 is essential for the development of epibranchial placodes and proximal pharyngeal arches. We identify an Eya1-Notch regulatory axis that specifies both the neuronal and non-neuronal commitment of the epibranchial placode, where Notch acts downstream of Eya1 and promotes the non-neuronal cell fate. Notch is regulated by the threonine phosphatase activity of Eya1. Eya1 dephosphorylates p-threonine-2122 of the Notch1 intracellular domain (Notch1 ICD), which increases the stability of Notch1 ICD and maintains Notch signaling activity in the non-neuronal epibranchial placodal cells. Our data unveil a more complex differentiation program in epibranchial placodes and an important role for the Eya1-Notch axis in craniofacial morphogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL007088(United States)

Molecular Dissection of Neuroligin 2 and Slitrk3 Reveals an Essential Framework for GABAergic Synapse Development.

  • Li J
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

In the brain, many types of interneurons make functionally diverse inhibitory synapses onto principal neurons. Although numerous molecules have been identified to function in inhibitory synapse development, it remains unknown whether there is a unifying mechanism for development of diverse inhibitory synapses. Here we report a general molecular mechanism underlying hippocampal inhibitory synapse development. In developing neurons, the establishment of GABAergic transmission depends on Neuroligin 2 (NL2), a synaptic cell adhesion molecule (CAM). During maturation, inhibitory synapse development requires both NL2 and Slitrk3 (ST3), another CAM. Importantly, NL2 and ST3 interact with nanomolar affinity through their extracellular domains to synergistically promote synapse development. Selective perturbation of the NL2-ST3 interaction impairs inhibitory synapse development with consequent disruptions in hippocampal network activity and increased seizure susceptibility. Our findings reveal how unique postsynaptic CAMs work in concert to control synaptogenesis and establish a general framework for GABAergic synapse development.

Tumor-Suppressor Inactivation of GDF11 Occurs by Precursor Sequestration in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

  • Bajikar SS
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and heterogeneous carcinoma in which various tumor-suppressor genes are lost by mutation, deletion, or silencing. Here we report a tumor-suppressive mode of action for growth-differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and an unusual mechanism of its inactivation in TNBC. GDF11 promotes an epithelial, anti-invasive phenotype in 3D triple-negative cultures and intraductal xenografts by sustaining expression of E-cadherin and inhibitor of differentiation 2 (ID2). Surprisingly, clinical TNBCs retain the GDF11 locus and expression of the protein itself. GDF11 bioactivity is instead lost because of deficiencies in its convertase, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5), causing inactive GDF11 precursor to accumulate intracellularly. PCSK5 reconstitution mobilizes the latent TNBC reservoir of GDF11 in vitro and suppresses triple-negative mammary cancer metastasis to the lung of syngeneic hosts. Intracellular GDF11 retention adds to the concept of tumor-suppressor inactivation and reveals a cell-biological vulnerability for TNBCs lacking therapeutically actionable mutations.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC011184(United States)

Chemical Proteomics Identifies Druggable Vulnerabilities in a Genetically Defined Cancer.

  • Bar-Peled L
  • Cell
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The transcription factor NRF2 is a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant response, and it is often genetically activated in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) by, for instance, mutations in the negative regulator KEAP1. While direct pharmacological inhibition of NRF2 has proven challenging, its aberrant activation rewires biochemical networks in cancer cells that may create special vulnerabilities. Here, we use chemical proteomics to map druggable proteins that are selectively expressed in KEAP1-mutant NSCLC cells. Principal among these is NR0B1, an atypical orphan nuclear receptor that we show engages in a multimeric protein complex to regulate the transcriptional output of KEAP1-mutant NSCLC cells. We further identify small molecules that covalently target a conserved cysteine within the NR0B1 protein interaction domain, and we demonstrate that these compounds disrupt NR0B1 complexes and impair the anchorage-independent growth of KEAP1-mutant cancer cells. Our findings designate NR0B1 as a druggable transcriptional regulator that supports NRF2-dependent lung cancers.

The Intellectual Disability and Schizophrenia Associated Transcription Factor TCF4 Is Regulated by Neuronal Activity and Protein Kinase A.

  • Sepp M
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Oct 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transcription factor 4 (TCF4 also known as ITF2 or E2-2) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein associated with Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia (SCZ). Here, we show that TCF4-dependent transcription in cortical neurons cultured from embryonic rats of both sexes is induced by neuronal activity via soluble adenylyl cyclase and protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. PKA phosphorylates TCF4 directly and a PKA phosphorylation site in TCF4 is necessary for its transcriptional activity in cultured neurons and in the developing brain in vivo We also demonstrate that Gadd45g (growth arrest and DNA damage inducible gamma) is a direct target of neuronal-activity-induced, TCF4-dependent transcriptional regulation and that TCF4 missense variations identified in SCZ patients alter the transcriptional activity of TCF4 in neurons. This study identifies a new role for TCF4 as a neuronal-activity-regulated transcription factor, offering a novel perspective on the association of TCF4 with cognitive disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The importance of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor transcription factor 4 (TCF4) in the nervous system is underlined by its association with common and rare cognitive disorders. In the current study, we show that TCF4-controlled transcription in primary cortical neurons is induced by neuronal activity and protein kinase A. Our results support the hypotheses that dysregulation of neuronal-activity-dependent signaling plays a significant part in the etiology of neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH110487()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R56 MH104593()

Astrocyte-Secreted Glypican 4 Regulates Release of Neuronal Pentraxin 1 from Axons to Induce Functional Synapse Formation.

  • Farhy-Tselnicker I
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Oct 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The generation of precise synaptic connections between developing neurons is critical to the formation of functional neural circuits. Astrocyte-secreted glypican 4 induces formation of active excitatory synapses by recruiting AMPA glutamate receptors to the postsynaptic cell surface. We now identify the molecular mechanism of how glypican 4 exerts its effect. Glypican 4 induces release of the AMPA receptor clustering factor neuronal pentraxin 1 from presynaptic terminals by signaling through presynaptic protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor δ. Pentraxin then accumulates AMPA receptors on the postsynaptic terminal forming functional synapses. Our findings reveal a signaling pathway that regulates synaptic activity during central nervous system development and demonstrates a role for astrocytes as organizers of active synaptic connections by coordinating both pre and post synaptic neurons. As mutations in glypicans are associated with neurological disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia, this signaling cascade offers new avenues to modulate synaptic function in disease.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS089791()
  • Wellcome Trust - P30 NS072031()

CLOCK Acetylates ASS1 to Drive Circadian Rhythm of Ureagenesis.

  • Lin R
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

In addition to responding to environmental entrainment with diurnal variation, metabolism is also tightly controlled by cell-autonomous circadian clock. Extensive studies have revealed key roles of transcription in circadian control. Post-transcriptional regulation for the rhythmic gating of metabolic enzymes remains elusive. Here, we show that arginine biosynthesis and subsequent ureagenesis are collectively regulated by CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) in circadian rhythms. Facilitated by BMAL1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein), CLOCK directly acetylates K165 and K176 of argininosuccinate synthase (ASS1) to inactivate ASS1, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of arginine biosynthesis. ASS1 acetylation by CLOCK exhibits circadian oscillation in human cells and mouse liver, possibly caused by rhythmic interaction between CLOCK and ASS1, leading to the circadian regulation of ASS1 and ureagenesis. Furthermore, we also identified NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 9 (NDUFA9) and inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 (IMPDH2) as acetylation substrates of CLOCK. Taken together, CLOCK modulates metabolic rhythmicity by acting as a rhythmic acetyl-transferase for metabolic enzymes.

A General Strategy for Discovery of Inhibitors and Activators of RING and U-box E3 Ligases with Ubiquitin Variants.

  • Gabrielsen M
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

RING and U-box E3 ubiquitin ligases regulate diverse eukaryotic processes and have been implicated in numerous diseases, but targeting these enzymes remains a major challenge. We report the development of three ubiquitin variants (UbVs), each binding selectively to the RING or U-box domain of a distinct E3 ligase: monomeric UBE4B, phosphorylated active CBL, or dimeric XIAP. Structural and biochemical analyses revealed that UbVs specifically inhibited the activity of UBE4B or phosphorylated CBL by blocking the E2∼Ub binding site. Surprisingly, the UbV selective for dimeric XIAP formed a dimer to stimulate E3 activity by stabilizing the closed E2∼Ub conformation. We further verified the inhibitory and stimulatory functions of UbVs in cells. Our work provides a general strategy to inhibit or activate RING/U-box E3 ligases and provides a resource for the research community to modulate these enzymes.

Site-specific monoubiquitination downregulates Rab5 by disrupting effector binding and guanine nucleotide conversion.

  • Shin D
  • Elife
  • 2017 Oct 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rab GTPases, which are involved in intracellular trafficking pathways, have recently been reported to be ubiquitinated. However, the functions of ubiquitinated Rab proteins remain unexplored. Here we show that Rab5 is monoubiquitinated on K116, K140, and K165. Upon co-transfection with ubiquitin, Rab5 exhibited abnormalities in endosomal localization and EGF-induced EGF receptor degradation. Rab5 K140R and K165R mutants restored these abnormalities, whereas K116R did not. We derived structural models of individual monoubiquitinated Rab5 proteins (mUbRab5s) by solution scattering and observed different conformational flexibilities in a site-specific manner. Structural analysis combined with biochemical data revealed that interactions with downstream effectors were impeded in mUbRab5K140, whereas GDP release and GTP loading activities were altered in mUbRab5K165. By contrast, mUbRab5K116 apparently had no effect. We propose a regulatory mechanism of Rab5 where monoubiquitination downregulates effector recruitment and GDP/GTP conversion in a site-specific manner.

Quaking RNA-Binding Proteins Control Early Myofibril Formation by Modulating Tropomyosin.

  • Bonnet A
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Skeletal muscle contraction is mediated by myofibrils, complex multi-molecular scaffolds structured into repeated units, the sarcomeres. Myofibril structure and function have been extensively studied, but the molecular processes regulating its formation within the differentiating muscle cell remain largely unknown. Here we show in zebrafish that genetic interference with the Quaking RNA-binding proteins disrupts the initial steps of myofibril assembly without affecting early muscle differentiation. Using RNA sequencing, we demonstrate that Quaking is required for accumulation of the muscle-specific tropomyosin-3 transcript, tpm3.12. Further functional analyses reveal that Tpm3.12 mediates Quaking control of myofibril formation. Moreover, we identified a Quaking-binding site in the 3' UTR of tpm3.12 transcript, which is required in vivo for tpm3.12 accumulation and myofibril formation. Our work uncovers a Quaking/Tpm3 pathway controlling de novo myofibril assembly. This unexpected developmental role for Tpm3 could be at the origin of muscle defects observed in human congenital myopathies associated with tpm3 mutation.

The Short Isoform of BRD4 Promotes HIV-1 Latency by Engaging Repressive SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Complexes.

  • Conrad RJ
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

BET proteins commonly activate cellular gene expression, yet inhibiting their recruitment paradoxically reactivates latent HIV-1 transcription. Here we identify the short isoform of BET family member BRD4 (BRD4S) as a corepressor of HIV-1 transcription. We found that BRD4S was enriched in chromatin fractions of latently infected T cells, and it was more rapidly displaced from chromatin upon BET inhibition than the long isoform. BET inhibition induced marked nucleosome remodeling at the latent HIV-1 promoter, which was dependent on the activity of BRG1-associated factors (BAF), an SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex with known repressive functions in HIV-1 transcription. BRD4S directly bound BRG1, a catalytic subunit of BAF, via its bromodomain and extraterminal (ET) domain, and this isoform was necessary for BRG1 recruitment to latent HIV-1 chromatin. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) combined with assay for transposase-accessible chromatin coupled to high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) data, we found that the latent HIV-1 promoter phenotypically resembles endogenous long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences, pointing to a select role of BRD4S-BRG1 complexes in genomic silencing of invasive retroelements.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083898(United States)

Phospho-Regulation of Soma-to-Axon Transcytosis of Neurotrophin Receptors.

  • Yamashita N
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Axonal targeting of signaling receptors is essential for neuronal responses to extracellular cues. Here, we report that retrograde signaling by target-derived nerve growth factor (NGF) is necessary for soma-to-axon transcytosis of TrkA receptors in sympathetic neurons, and we define the molecular underpinnings of this positive feedback regulation that enhances neuronal sensitivity to trophic factors. Activated TrkA receptors are retrogradely transported in signaling endosomes from distal axons to cell bodies, where they are inserted on soma surfaces and promote phosphorylation of resident naive receptors, resulting in their internalization. Endocytosed TrkA receptors are then dephosphorylated by PTP1B, an ER-resident protein tyrosine phosphatase, prior to axonal transport. PTP1B inactivation prevents TrkA exit from soma and causes receptor degradation, suggesting a "gatekeeper" mechanism that ensures targeting of inactive receptors to axons to engage with ligand. In mice, PTP1B deletion reduces axonal TrkA levels and attenuates neuron survival and target innervation under limiting NGF (NGF+/-) conditions.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA069202()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK108267()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS073751()

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor neddylation is regulated by a desmosomal-COP9 (Constitutive Photomorphogenesis 9) signalosome complex.

  • Najor NA
  • Elife
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cell junctions are scaffolds that integrate mechanical and chemical signaling. We previously showed that a desmosomal cadherin promotes keratinocyte differentiation in an adhesion-independent manner by dampening Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) activity. Here we identify a potential mechanism by which desmosomes assist the de-neddylating COP9 signalosome (CSN) in attenuating EGFR through an association between the Cops3 subunit of the CSN and desmosomal components, Desmoglein1 (Dsg1) and Desmoplakin (Dp), to promote epidermal differentiation. Silencing CSN or desmosome components shifts the balance of EGFR modifications from ubiquitination to neddylation, inhibiting EGFR dynamics in response to an acute ligand stimulus. A reciprocal relationship between loss of Dsg1 and neddylated EGFR was observed in a carcinoma model, consistent with a role in sustaining EGFR activity during tumor progression. Identification of this previously unrecognized function of the CSN in regulating EGFR neddylation has broad-reaching implications for understanding how homeostasis is achieved in regenerating epithelia.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA060553()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA122151()
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY020826(United States)
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - F32 AR066465()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - P30 AR057216()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR041836()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R37 AR043380()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008061()

Xenopus laevis M18BP1 Directly Binds Existing CENP-A Nucleosomes to Promote Centromeric Chromatin Assembly.

  • French BT
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Vertebrate centromeres are epigenetically defined by nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant, CENP-A. CENP-A nucleosome assembly requires the three-protein Mis18 complex (Mis18α, Mis18β, and M18BP1) that recruits the CENP-A chaperone HJURP to centromeres, but how the Mis18 complex recognizes centromeric chromatin is unknown. Using Xenopus egg extract, we show that direct, cell-cycle-regulated binding of M18BP1 to CENP-A nucleosomes recruits the Mis18 complex to interphase centromeres to promote new CENP-A nucleosome assembly. We demonstrate that Xenopus M18BP1 binds CENP-A nucleosomes using a motif that is widely conserved except in mammals. The M18BP1 motif resembles a CENP-A nucleosome binding motif in CENP-C, and we show that CENP-C competes with M18BP1 for CENP-A nucleosome binding at centromeres. We show that both CENP-C and M18BP1 recruit HJURP to centromeres for new CENP-A assembly. This study defines cellular mechanisms for recruiting CENP-A assembly factors to existing CENP-A nucleosomes for the epigenetic inheritance of centromeres.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM074728()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007276()

Msp1 Is a Membrane Protein Dislocase for Tail-Anchored Proteins.

  • Wohlever ML
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mislocalized tail-anchored (TA) proteins of the outer mitochondrial membrane are cleared by a newly identified quality control pathway involving the conserved eukaryotic protein Msp1 (ATAD1 in humans). Msp1 is a transmembrane AAA-ATPase, but its role in TA protein clearance is not known. Here, using purified components reconstituted into proteoliposomes, we show that Msp1 is both necessary and sufficient to drive the ATP-dependent extraction of TA proteins from the membrane. A crystal structure of the Msp1 cytosolic region modeled into a ring hexamer suggests that active Msp1 contains a conserved membrane-facing surface adjacent to a central pore. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the pore residues shows that they are critical for TA protein extraction in vitro and for functional complementation of an msp1 deletion in yeast. Together, these data provide a molecular framework for Msp1-dependent extraction of mislocalized TA proteins from the outer mitochondrial membrane.

Exophilin-8 assembles secretory granules for exocytosis in the actin cortex via interaction with RIM-BP2 and myosin-VIIa.

  • Fan F
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jul 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Exophilin-8 has been reported to play a role in anchoring secretory granules within the actin cortex, due to its direct binding activities to Rab27 on the granule membrane and to F-actin and its motor protein, myosin-Va. Here, we show that exophilin-8 accumulates granules in the cortical F-actin network not by direct interaction with myosin-Va, but by indirect interaction with a specific form of myosin-VIIa through its previously unknown binding partner, RIM-BP2. RIM-BP2 also associates with exocytic machinery, Cav1.3, RIM, and Munc13-1. Disruption of the exophilin-8-RIM-BP2-myosin-VIIa complex by ablation or knockdown of each component markedly decreases both the peripheral accumulation and exocytosis of granules. Furthermore, exophilin-8-null mouse pancreatic islets lose polarized granule localization at the β-cell periphery and exhibit impaired insulin secretion. This newly identified complex acts as a physical and functional scaffold and provides a mechanism supporting a releasable pool of granules within the F-actin network beneath the plasma membrane.

Viral Replication Complexes Are Targeted by LC3-Guided Interferon-Inducible GTPases.

  • Biering SB
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

All viruses with positive-sense RNA genomes replicate on membranous structures in the cytoplasm called replication complexes (RCs). RCs provide an advantageous microenvironment for viral replication, but it is unknown how the host immune system counteracts these structures. Here we show that interferon-gamma (IFNG) disrupts the RC of murine norovirus (MNV) via evolutionarily conserved autophagy proteins and the induction of IFN-inducible GTPases, which are known to destroy the membrane of vacuoles containing bacteria, protists, or fungi. The MNV RC was marked by the microtubule-associated-protein-1-light-chain-3 (LC3) conjugation system of autophagy and then targeted by immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) and guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) upon their induction by IFNG. Further, the LC3 conjugation system and the IFN-inducible GTPases were necessary to inhibit MNV replication in mice and human cells. These data suggest that viral RCs can be marked and antagonized by a universal immune defense mechanism targeting diverse pathogens replicating in cytosolic membrane structures.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI103197()

Wnt-Dependent Inactivation of the Groucho/TLE Co-repressor by the HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Hyd/UBR5.

  • Flack JE
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Extracellular signals are transduced to the cell nucleus by effectors that bind to enhancer complexes to operate transcriptional switches. For example, the Wnt enhanceosome is a multiprotein complex associated with Wnt-responsive enhancers through T cell factors (TCF) and kept silent by Groucho/TLE co-repressors. Wnt-activated β-catenin binds to TCF to overcome this repression, but how it achieves this is unknown. Here, we discover that this process depends on the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase Hyd/UBR5, which is required for Wnt signal responses in Drosophila and human cell lines downstream of activated Armadillo/β-catenin. We identify Groucho/TLE as a functionally relevant substrate, whose ubiquitylation by UBR5 is induced by Wnt signaling and conferred by β-catenin. Inactivation of TLE by UBR5-dependent ubiquitylation also involves VCP/p97, an AAA ATPase regulating the folding of various cellular substrates including ubiquitylated chromatin proteins. Thus, Groucho/TLE ubiquitylation by Hyd/UBR5 is a key prerequisite that enables Armadillo/β-catenin to activate transcription.

CRY1/2 Selectively Repress PPARδ and Limit Exercise Capacity.

  • Jordan SD
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cellular metabolite balance and mitochondrial function are under circadian control, but the pathways connecting the molecular clock to these functions are unclear. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) enables preferential utilization of lipids as fuel during exercise and is a major driver of exercise endurance. We show here that the circadian repressors CRY1 and CRY2 function as co-repressors for PPARδ. Cry1-/-;Cry2-/- myotubes and muscles exhibit elevated expression of PPARδ target genes, particularly in the context of exercise. Notably, CRY1/2 seem to repress a distinct subset of PPARδ target genes in muscle compared to the co-repressor NCOR1. In vivo, genetic disruption of Cry1 and Cry2 enhances sprint exercise performance in mice. Collectively, our data demonstrate that CRY1 and CRY2 modulate exercise physiology by altering the activity of several transcription factors, including CLOCK/BMAL1 and PPARδ, and thereby alter energy storage and substrate selection for energy production.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA014195()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL105278()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - P30 AR061303()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R24 HD050837()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K01 DK090188()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK097164()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK105126()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R37 DK057978()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD016357()

Distinct Ventral Pallidal Neural Populations Mediate Separate Symptoms of Depression.

  • Knowland D
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jul 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients display a common but often variable set of symptoms making successful, sustained treatment difficult to achieve. Separate depressive symptoms may be encoded by differential changes in distinct circuits in the brain, yet how discrete circuits underlie behavioral subsets of depression and how they adapt in response to stress has not been addressed. We identify two discrete circuits of parvalbumin-positive (PV) neurons in the ventral pallidum (VP) projecting to either the lateral habenula or ventral tegmental area contributing to depression. We find that these populations undergo different electrophysiological adaptations in response to social defeat stress, which are normalized by antidepressant treatment. Furthermore, manipulation of each population mediates either social withdrawal or behavioral despair, but not both. We propose that distinct components of the VP PV circuit can subserve related, yet separate depressive-like phenotypes in mice, which could ultimately provide a platform for symptom-specific treatments of depression.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH107742()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH108594()

GCL and CUL3 Control the Switch between Cell Lineages by Mediating Localized Degradation of an RTK.

  • Pae J
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

The separation of germline from somatic lineages is fundamental to reproduction and species preservation. Here, we show that Drosophila Germ cell-less (GCL) is a critical component in this process by acting as a switch that turns off a somatic lineage pathway. GCL, a conserved BTB (Broad-complex, Tramtrack, and Bric-a-brac) protein, is a substrate-specific adaptor for Cullin3-RING ubiquitin ligase complex (CRL3GCL). We show that CRL3GCL promotes PGC fate by mediating degradation of Torso, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and major determinant of somatic cell fate. This mode of RTK degradation does not depend upon receptor activation but is prompted by release of GCL from the nuclear envelope during mitosis. The cell-cycle-dependent change in GCL localization provides spatiotemporal specificity for RTK degradation and sequesters CRL3GCL to prevent it from participating in excessive activities. This precisely orchestrated mechanism of CRL3GCL function and regulation defines cell fate at the single-cell level.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA076584()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R37 CA076584()
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA160002()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD041900()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R37 HD041900()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM057587()
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD018537()

Attenuating Staphylococcus aureus Virulence by Targeting Flotillin Protein Scaffold Activity.

  • Koch G
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Scaffold proteins are ubiquitous chaperones that bind proteins and facilitate physical interaction of multi-enzyme complexes. Here we used a biochemical approach to dissect the scaffold activity of the flotillin-homolog protein FloA of the multi-drug-resistant human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. We show that FloA promotes oligomerization of membrane protein complexes, such as the membrane-associated RNase Rny, which forms part of the RNA-degradation machinery called the degradosome. Cells lacking FloA had reduced Rny function and a consequent increase in the targeted sRNA transcripts that negatively regulate S. aureus toxin expression. Small molecules that altered FloA oligomerization also reduced Rny function and decreased the virulence potential of S. aureus in vitro, as well as in vivo, using invertebrate and murine infection models. Our results suggest that flotillin assists in the assembly of protein complexes involved in S. aureus virulence, and could thus be an attractive target for the development of new antimicrobial therapies.

The Ligand Binding Landscape of Diacylglycerol Kinases.

  • Franks CE
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are integral components of signal transduction cascades that regulate cell biology through ATP-dependent phosphorylation of the lipid messenger diacylglycerol. Methods for direct evaluation of DGK activity in native biological systems are lacking and needed to study isoform-specific functions of these multidomain lipid kinases. Here, we utilize ATP acyl phosphate activity-based probes and quantitative mass spectrometry to define, for the first time, ATP and small-molecule binding motifs of representative members from all five DGK subtypes. We use chemical proteomics to discover an unusual binding mode for the DGKα inhibitor, ritanserin, including interactions at the atypical C1 domain distinct from the ATP binding region. Unexpectedly, deconstruction of ritanserin yielded a fragment compound that blocks DGKα activity through a conserved binding mode and enhanced selectivity against the kinome. Collectively, our studies illustrate the power of chemical proteomics to profile protein-small molecule interactions of lipid kinases for fragment-based lead discovery.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R00 DA035864()

The CEP19-RABL2 GTPase Complex Binds IFT-B to Initiate Intraflagellar Transport at the Ciliary Base.

  • Kanie T
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Highly conserved intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein complexes direct both the assembly of primary cilia and the trafficking of signaling molecules. IFT complexes initially accumulate at the base of the cilium and periodically enter the cilium, suggesting an as-yet-unidentified mechanism that triggers ciliary entry of IFT complexes. Using affinity-purification and mass spectrometry of interactors of the centrosomal and ciliopathy protein, CEP19, we identify CEP350, FOP, and the RABL2B GTPase as proteins organizing the first known mechanism directing ciliary entry of IFT complexes. We discover that CEP19 is recruited to the ciliary base by the centriolar CEP350/FOP complex and then specifically captures GTP-bound RABL2B, which is activated via its intrinsic nucleotide exchange. Activated RABL2B then captures and releases its single effector, the intraflagellar transport B holocomplex, from the large pool of pre-docked IFT-B complexes, and thus initiates ciliary entry of IFT.

MLL/WDR5 Complex Regulates Kif2A Localization to Ensure Chromosome Congression and Proper Spindle Assembly during Mitosis.

  • Ali A
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL), along with multisubunit (WDR5, RbBP5, ASH2L, and DPY30) complex catalyzes the trimethylation of H3K4, leading to gene activation. Here, we characterize a chromatin-independent role for MLL during mitosis. MLL and WDR5 localize to the mitotic spindle apparatus, and loss of function of MLL complex by RNAi results in defects in chromosome congression and compromised spindle formation. We report interaction of MLL complex with several kinesin and dynein motors. We further show that the MLL complex associates with Kif2A, a member of the Kinesin-13 family of microtubule depolymerase, and regulates the spindle localization of Kif2A during mitosis. We have identified a conserved WDR5 interaction (Win) motif, so far unique to the MLL family, in Kif2A. The Win motif of Kif2A engages in direct interactions with WDR5 for its spindle localization. Our findings highlight a non-canonical mitotic function of MLL complex, which may have a direct impact on chromosomal stability, frequently compromised in cancer.

SAF-A Regulates Interphase Chromosome Structure through Oligomerization with Chromatin-Associated RNAs.

  • Nozawa RS
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Higher eukaryotic chromosomes are organized into topologically constrained functional domains; however, the molecular mechanisms required to sustain these complex interphase chromatin structures are unknown. A stable matrix underpinning nuclear organization was hypothesized, but the idea was abandoned as more dynamic models of chromatin behavior became prevalent. Here, we report that scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A), originally identified as a structural nuclear protein, interacts with chromatin-associated RNAs (caRNAs) via its RGG domain to regulate human interphase chromatin structures in a transcription-dependent manner. Mechanistically, this is dependent on SAF-A's AAA+ ATPase domain, which mediates cycles of protein oligomerization with caRNAs, in response to ATP binding and hydrolysis. SAF-A oligomerization decompacts large-scale chromatin structure while SAF-A loss or monomerization promotes aberrant chromosome folding and accumulation of genome damage. Our results show that SAF-A and caRNAs form a dynamic, transcriptionally responsive chromatin mesh that organizes large-scale chromosome structures and protects the genome from instability.

Structural Analysis Reveals Features of Ribosome Assembly Factor Nsa1/WDR74 Important for Localization and Interaction with Rix7/NVL2.

  • Lo YH
  • Structure
  • 2017 May 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ribosome assembly is a complex process that requires hundreds of essential assembly factors, including Rix7 (NVL2 in mammals) and Nsa1 (WDR74 in mammals). Rix7 is a type II double ring, AAA-ATPase, which is closely related to the well-known Cdc48/p97. Previous studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest that Rix7 mediates the release of Nsa1 from nucleolar pre-60S particles; however, the underlying mechanisms of this release are unknown. Through multiple structural analyses we show that S. cerevisiae Nsa1 is composed of an N-terminal seven-bladed WD40 domain followed by a lysine-rich C terminus that extends away from the WD40 domain and is required for nucleolar localization. Co-immunoprecipitation assays with the mammalian homologs identified a well-conserved interface within WDR74 that is important for its association with NVL2. We further show that WDR74 associates with the D1 AAA domain of NVL2, which represents a novel mode of binding of a substrate with a type II AAA-ATPase.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA ES103247-01()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - ZIA ES103247()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM105404()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD018483()

SNF2 Family Protein Fft3 Suppresses Nucleosome Turnover to Promote Epigenetic Inheritance and Proper Replication.

  • Taneja N
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Heterochromatin can be epigenetically inherited in cis, leading to stable gene silencing. However, the mechanisms underlying heterochromatin inheritance remain unclear. Here, we identify Fft3, a fission yeast homolog of the mammalian SMARCAD1 SNF2 chromatin remodeler, as a factor uniquely required for heterochromatin inheritance, rather than for de novo assembly. Importantly, we find that Fft3 suppresses turnover of histones at heterochromatic loci to facilitate epigenetic transmission of heterochromatin in cycling cells. Moreover, Fft3 also precludes nucleosome turnover at several euchromatic loci to prevent R-loop formation, ensuring proper replication progression. Our analyses show that overexpression of Clr4/Suv39h, which is also required for efficient replication through these loci, suppresses phenotypes associated with the loss of Fft3. This work uncovers a conserved factor critical for epigenetic inheritance of heterochromatin and describes a mechanism in which suppression of nucleosome turnover prevents formation of structural barriers that impede replication at fragile regions in the genome.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 BC010523-04()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 BC010523-05()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z99 CA999999()

Ubiquitin Ligase RNF138 Promotes Episodic Ataxia Type 2-Associated Aberrant Degradation of Human Cav2.1 (P/Q-Type) Calcium Channels.

  • Fu SJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Voltage-gated CaV2.1 channels comprise a pore-forming α1A subunit with auxiliary α2δ and β subunits. CaV2.1 channels play an essential role in regulating synaptic signaling. Mutations in the human gene encoding the CaV2.1 subunit are associated with the cerebellar disease episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2). Several EA2-causing mutants exhibit impaired protein stability and exert dominant-negative suppression of CaV2.1 wild-type (WT) protein expression via aberrant proteasomal degradation. Here, we set out to delineate the protein degradation mechanism of human CaV2.1 subunit by identifying RNF138, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, as a novel CaV2.1-binding partner. In neurons, RNF138 and CaV2.1 coexist in the same protein complex and display notable subcellular colocalization at presynaptic and postsynaptic regions. Overexpression of RNF138 promotes polyubiquitination and accelerates protein turnover of CaV2.1. Disrupting endogenous RNF138 function with a mutant (RNF138-H36E) or shRNA infection significantly upregulates the CaV2.1 protein level and enhances CaV2.1 protein stability. Disrupting endogenous RNF138 function also effectively rescues the defective protein expression of EA2 mutants, as well as fully reversing EA2 mutant-induced excessive proteasomal degradation of CaV2.1 WT subunits. RNF138-H36E coexpression only partially restores the dominant-negative effect of EA2 mutants on CaV2.1 WT functional expression, which can be attributed to defective membrane trafficking of CaV2.1 WT in the presence of EA2 mutants. We propose that RNF138 plays a critical role in the homeostatic regulation of CaV2.1 protein level and functional expression and that RNF138 serves as the primary E3 ubiquitin ligase promoting EA2-associated aberrant degradation of human CaV2.1 subunits.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Loss-of-function mutations in the human CaV2.1 subunit are linked to episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2), a dominantly inherited disease characterized by paroxysmal attacks of ataxia and nystagmus. EA2-causing mutants may exert dominant-negative effects on the CaV2.1 wild-type subunit via aberrant proteasomal degradation. The molecular nature of the CaV2.1 ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway is currently unknown. The present study reports the first identification of an E3 ubiquitin ligase for CaV2.1, RNF138. CaV2.1 protein stability is dynamically regulated by RNF138 and auxiliary α2δ and β subunits. We provide a proof of concept that protecting the human CaV2.1 subunit from excessive proteasomal degradation with specific interruption of endogenous RNF138 function may partially contribute to the future development of a novel therapeutic strategy for EA2 patients.

Functions of Replication Protein A as a Sensor of R Loops and a Regulator of RNaseH1.

  • Nguyen HD
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

R loop, a transcription intermediate containing RNA:DNA hybrids and displaced single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), has emerged as a major source of genomic instability. RNaseH1, which cleaves the RNA in RNA:DNA hybrids, plays an important role in R loop suppression. Here we show that replication protein A (RPA), an ssDNA-binding protein, interacts with RNaseH1 and colocalizes with both RNaseH1 and R loops in cells. In vitro, purified RPA directly enhances the association of RNaseH1 with RNA:DNA hybrids and stimulates the activity of RNaseH1 on R loops. An RPA binding-defective RNaseH1 mutant is not efficiently stimulated by RPA in vitro, fails to accumulate at R loops in cells, and loses the ability to suppress R loops and associated genomic instability. Thus, in addition to sensing DNA damage and replication stress, RPA is a sensor of R loops and a regulator of RNaseH1, extending the versatile role of RPA in suppression of genomic instability.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA197779()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P41 RR001081()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM076388()

Soluble cpg15 from Astrocytes Ameliorates Neurite Outgrowth Recovery of Hippocampal Neurons after Mouse Cerebral Ischemia.

  • Zhao JJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The present study focuses on the function of cpg15, a neurotrophic factor, in ischemic neuronal recovery using transient global cerebral ischemic (TGI) mouse model and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated primary cultured cells. The results showed that expression of cpg15 proteins in astrocytes, predominantly the soluble form, was significantly increased in mouse hippocampus after TGI and in the cultured astrocytes after OGD. Addition of the medium from the cpg15-overexpressed astrocytic culture into the OGD-treated hippocampal neuronal cultures reduces the neuronal injury, whereas the recovery of neurite outgrowths of OGD-injured neurons was prevented when cpg15 in the OGD-treated astrocytes was knocked down, or the OGD-treated-astrocytic medium was immunoadsorbed by cpg15 antibody. Furthermore, lentivirus-delivered knockdown of cpg15 expression in mouse hippocampal astrocytes diminishes the dendritic branches and exacerbates injury of neurons in CA1 region after TGI. In addition, treatment with inhibitors of MEK1/2, PI3K, and TrkA decreases, whereas overexpression of p-CREB, but not dp-CREB, increases the expression of cpg15 in U118 or primary cultured astrocytes. Also, it is observed that the Flag-tagged soluble cpg15 from the astrocytes transfected with Flag-tagged cpg15-expressing plasmids adheres to the surface of neuronal bodies and the neurites. In conclusion, our results suggest that the soluble cpg15 from astrocytes induced by ischemia could ameliorate the recovery of the ischemic-injured hippocampal neurons via adhering to the surface of neurons. The upregulated expression of cpg15 in astrocytes may be activated via MAPK and PI3K signal pathways, and regulation of CREB phosphorylation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neuronal plasticity plays a crucial role in the amelioration of neurological recovery of ischemic injured brain, which remains a challenge for clinic treatment of cerebral ischemia. cpg15 as a synaptic plasticity-related factor may participate in promoting the recovery process; however, the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. The objective of this study is to reveal the function and mechanism of neuronal-specific cpg15 expressed in astrocytes after ischemia induction, in promoting the recovery of injured neurons. Our findings provided new mechanistic insight into the neurological recovery, which might help develop novel therapeutic options for cerebral ischemia via astrocytic-targeting interference of gene expression.

NF-κB regulates neuronal ankyrin-G via a negative feedback loop.

  • König HG
  • Sci Rep
  • 2017 Feb 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

The axon initial segment (AIS) is a neuronal compartment defined by ankyrin-G expression. We here demonstrate that the IKK-complex co-localizes and interacts with the cytoskeletal anchor protein ankyrin-G in immunoprecipitation and proximity-ligation experiments in cortical neurons. Overexpression of the 270 kDa variant of ankyrin-G suppressed, while gene-silencing of ankyrin-G expression increased nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity in primary neurons, suggesting that ankyrin-G sequesters the transcription factor in the AIS. We also found that p65 bound to the ank3 (ankyrin-G) promoter sequence in chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses thereby increasing ank3 expression and ankyrin-G levels at the AIS. Gene-silencing of p65 or ankyrin-G overexpression suppressed ank3 reporter activity. Collectively these data demonstrate that p65/NF-κB controls ankyrin-G levels via a negative feedback loop, thereby linking NF-κB signaling with neuronal polarity and axonal plasticity.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R37 MH063105(United States)

A Rapid Induction Mechanism for Lin28a in Trophic Responses.

  • Amen AM
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Environmental cues provoke rapid transitions in gene expression to support growth and cellular plasticity through incompletely understood mechanisms. Lin28 RNA-binding proteins have evolutionarily conserved roles in post-transcriptional coordination of pro-growth gene expression, but signaling pathways allowing trophic stimuli to induce Lin28 have remained uncharacterized. We find that Lin28a protein exhibits rapid basal turnover in neurons and that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent phosphorylation of the RNA-silencing factor HIV TAR-RNA-binding protein (TRBP) promotes binding and stabilization of Lin28a, but not Lin28b, with an accompanying reduction in Lin28-regulated miRNAs, downstream of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Binding of Lin28a to TRBP in vitro is also enhanced by phospho-mimic TRBP. Further, phospho-TRBP recapitulates BDNF-induced neuronal dendritic spine growth in a Lin28a-dependent manner. Finally, we demonstrate MAPK-dependent TRBP and Lin28a induction, with physiological function in growth and survival, downstream of diverse growth factors in multiple primary cell types, supporting a broad role for this pathway in trophic responses.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - F31 MH103902()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH098016()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH109341()

Phosphorylation of β-arrestin2 at Thr383 by MEK underlies β-arrestin-dependent activation of Erk1/2 by GPCRs.

  • Cassier E
  • Elife
  • 2017 Feb 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

In addition to their role in desensitization and internalization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), β-arrestins are essential scaffolds linking GPCRs to Erk1/2 signaling. However, their role in GPCR-operated Erk1/2 activation differs between GPCRs and the underlying mechanism remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that activation of serotonin 5-HT2C receptors, which engage Erk1/2 pathway via a β-arrestin-dependent mechanism, promotes MEK-dependent β-arrestin2 phosphorylation at Thr383, a necessary step for Erk recruitment to the receptor/β-arrestin complex and Erk activation. Likewise, Thr383 phosphorylation is involved in β-arrestin-dependent Erk1/2 stimulation elicited by other GPCRs such as β2-adrenergic, FSH and CXCR4 receptors, but does not affect the β-arrestin-independent Erk1/2 activation by 5-HT4 receptor. Collectively, these data show that β-arrestin2 phosphorylation at Thr383 underlies β-arrestin-dependent Erk1/2 activation by GPCRs.

KCTD Hetero-oligomers Confer Unique Kinetic Properties on Hippocampal GABAB Receptor-Induced K+ Currents.

  • Fritzius T
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

GABAB receptors are the G-protein coupled receptors for the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, GABA. GABAB receptors were shown to associate with homo-oligomers of auxiliary KCTD8, KCTD12, KCTD12b, and KCTD16 subunits (named after their T1 K+-channel tetramerization domain) that regulate G-protein signaling of the receptor. Here we provide evidence that GABAB receptors also associate with hetero-oligomers of KCTD subunits. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that two-thirds of the KCTD16 proteins in the hippocampus of adult mice associate with KCTD12. We show that the KCTD proteins hetero-oligomerize through self-interacting T1 and H1 homology domains. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer measurements in live cells reveal that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers associate with both the receptor and the G-protein. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrate that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers impart unique kinetic properties on G-protein-activated Kir3 currents. During prolonged receptor activation (one min) KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers produce moderately desensitizing fast deactivating K+ currents, whereas KCTD12 and KCTD16 homo-oligomers produce strongly desensitizing fast deactivating currents and nondesensitizing slowly deactivating currents, respectively. During short activation (2 s) KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers produce nondesensitizing slowly deactivating currents. Electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal neurons of KCTD knock-out mice are consistent with these findings and indicate that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers increase the duration of slow IPSCs. In summary, our data demonstrate that simultaneous assembly of distinct KCTDs at the receptor increases the molecular and functional repertoire of native GABAB receptors and modulates physiologically induced K+ current responses in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The KCTD proteins 8, 12, and 16 are auxiliary subunits of GABAB receptors that differentially regulate G-protein signaling of the receptor. The KCTD proteins are generally assumed to function as homo-oligomers. Here we show that the KCTD proteins also assemble hetero-oligomers in all possible dual combinations. Experiments in live cells demonstrate that KCTD hetero-oligomers form at least tetramers and that these tetramers directly interact with the receptor and the G-protein. KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers impart unique kinetic properties to GABAB receptor-induced Kir3 currents in heterologous cells. KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers are abundant in the hippocampus, where they prolong the duration of slow IPSCs in pyramidal cells. Our data therefore support that KCTD hetero-oligomers modulate physiologically induced K+ current responses in the brain.

Different Doublecortin (DCX) Patient Alleles Show Distinct Phenotypes in Cultured Neurons: EVIDENCE FOR DIVERGENT LOSS-OF-FUNCTION AND "OFF-PATHWAY" CELLULAR MECHANISMS.

  • Yap CC
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2016 Dec 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Doublecortin on the X-chromosome (DCX) is a neuronal microtubule-binding protein with a multitude of roles in neurodevelopment. In humans, DCX is a major genetic locus for X-linked lissencephaly. The best studied defects are in neuronal migration during corticogenesis and in the hippocampus, as well as axon and dendrite growth defects. Much effort has been directed at understanding the molecular and cellular bases of DCX-linked lissencephaly. The focus has been in particular on defects in microtubule assembly and bundling, using knock-out mice and expression of WT and mutant Dcx in non-neuronal cells. Dcx also binds other proteins besides microtubules, such as spinophilin (abbreviated spn; gene name Ppp1r9b protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 9b) and the clathrin adaptors AP-1 and AP-2. Even though many non-sense and missense mutations of Dcx are known, their molecular and cellular defects are still only incompletely understood. It is also largely unknown how neurons are affected by expression of DCX patient alleles. We have now characterized several patient DCX alleles (DCX-R89G, DCX-R59H, DCX-246X, DCX-272X, and DCX-303X) using a gain-of-function dendrite growth assay in cultured rat neurons in combination with the determination of molecular binding activities and subcellular localization in non-neuronal and neuronal cells. First, we find that several mutants (Dcx-R89G and Dcx-272X) were loss-of-function alleles (as had been postulated) but surprisingly acted via different cellular mechanisms. Second, one allele (Dcx-R59H) formed cytoplasmic aggregates, which contained Hspa1B (heat shock protein 1B hsp70) and ubiquitinated proteins, trapped other cytoskeletal proteins, including spinophilin, and led to increased autophagy. This allele could thus be categorized as "off-pathway"/possibly neomorph. Our findings thus suggested that distinct DCX alleles caused dysfunction by different mechanisms.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM043154(United States)

EMC1-dependent stabilization drives membrane penetration of a partially destabilized non-enveloped virus.

  • Bagchi P
  • Elife
  • 2016 Dec 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Destabilization of a non-enveloped virus generates a membrane transport-competent viral particle. Here we probe polyomavirus SV40 endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-cytosol membrane transport, a decisive infection step where destabilization initiates this non-enveloped virus for membrane penetration. We find that a member of the ER membrane protein complex (EMC) called EMC1 promotes SV40 ER membrane transport and infection. Surprisingly, EMC1 does so by using its predicted transmembrane residue D961 to bind to and stabilize the membrane-embedded partially destabilized SV40, thereby preventing premature viral disassembly. EMC1-dependent stabilization enables SV40 to engage a cytosolic extraction complex that ejects the virus into the cytosol. Thus EMC1 acts as a molecular chaperone, bracing the destabilized SV40 in a transport-competent state. Our findings reveal the novel principle that coordinated destabilization-stabilization drives membrane transport of a non-enveloped virus.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - R24RR03232601(United States)

Computationally designed high specificity inhibitors delineate the roles of BCL2 family proteins in cancer.

  • Berger S
  • Elife
  • 2016 Nov 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many cancers overexpress one or more of the six human pro-survival BCL2 family proteins to evade apoptosis. To determine which BCL2 protein or proteins block apoptosis in different cancers, we computationally designed three-helix bundle protein inhibitors specific for each BCL2 pro-survival protein. Following in vitro optimization, each inhibitor binds its target with high picomolar to low nanomolar affinity and at least 300-fold specificity. Expression of the designed inhibitors in human cancer cell lines revealed unique dependencies on BCL2 proteins for survival which could not be inferred from other BCL2 profiling methods. Our results show that designed inhibitors can be generated for each member of a closely-knit protein family to probe the importance of specific protein-protein interactions in complex biological processes.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R21 DK106584(United States)

Structure of protein O-mannose kinase reveals a unique active site architecture.

  • Zhu Q
  • Elife
  • 2016 Nov 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The 'pseudokinase' SgK196 is a protein O-mannose kinase (POMK) that catalyzes an essential phosphorylation step during biosynthesis of the laminin-binding glycan on α-dystroglycan. However, the catalytic mechanism underlying this activity remains elusive. Here we present the crystal structure of Danio rerio POMK in complex with Mg2+ ions, ADP, aluminum fluoride, and the GalNAc-β3-GlcNAc-β4-Man trisaccharide substrate, thereby providing a snapshot of the catalytic transition state of this unusual kinase. The active site of POMK is established by residues located in non-canonical positions and is stabilized by a disulfide bridge. GalNAc-β3-GlcNAc-β4-Man is recognized by a surface groove, and the GalNAc-β3-GlcNAc moiety mediates the majority of interactions with POMK. Expression of various POMK mutants in POMK knockout cells further validated the functional requirements of critical residues. Our results provide important insights into the ability of POMK to function specifically as a glycan kinase, and highlight the structural diversity of the human kinome.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - R24 OD010435(United States)

The novel SH3 domain protein Dlish/CG10933 mediates fat signaling in Drosophila by binding and regulating Dachs.

  • Zhang Y
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Much of the Hippo and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling mediated by the Drosophila protocadherin Fat depends on its ability to change the subcellular localization, levels and activity of the unconventional myosin Dachs. To better understand this process, we have performed a structure-function analysis of Dachs, and used this to identify a novel and important mediator of Fat and Dachs activities, a Dachs-binding SH3 protein we have named Dlish. We found that Dlish is regulated by Fat and Dachs, that Dlish also binds Fat and the Dachs regulator Approximated, and that Dlish is required for Dachs localization, levels and activity in both wild type and fat mutant tissue. Our evidence supports dual roles for Dlish. Dlish tethers Dachs to the subapical cell cortex, an effect partly mediated by the palmitoyltransferase Approximated under the control of Fat. Conversely, Dlish promotes the Fat-mediated degradation of Dachs.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD007516(United States)

Rickettsia Sca4 Reduces Vinculin-Mediated Intercellular Tension to Promote Spread.

  • Lamason RL
  • Cell
  • 2016 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are human pathogens that infect cells in the vasculature. They disseminate through host tissues by a process of cell-to-cell spread that involves protrusion formation, engulfment, and vacuolar escape. Other bacterial pathogens rely on actin-based motility to provide a physical force for spread. Here, we show that SFG species Rickettsia parkeri typically lack actin tails during spread and instead manipulate host intercellular tension and mechanotransduction to promote spread. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified surface cell antigen 4 (Sca4) as a secreted effector of spread that specifically promotes protrusion engulfment. Sca4 interacts with the cell-adhesion protein vinculin and blocks association with vinculin's binding partner, α-catenin. Using traction and monolayer stress microscopy, we show that Sca4 reduces vinculin-dependent mechanotransduction at cell-cell junctions. Our results suggest that Sca4 relieves intercellular tension to promote protrusion engulfment, which represents a distinctive strategy for manipulating cytoskeletal force generation to enable spread.

Corticothalamic Projection Neuron Development beyond Subtype Specification: Fog2 and Intersectional Controls Regulate Intraclass Neuronal Diversity.

  • Galazo MJ
  • Neuron
  • 2016 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Corticothalamic projection neurons (CThPN) are a diverse set of neurons, critical for function of the neocortex. CThPN development and diversity need to be precisely regulated, but little is known about molecular controls over their differentiation and functional specialization, critically limiting understanding of cortical development and complexity. We report the identification of a set of genes that both define CThPN and likely control their differentiation, diversity, and function. We selected the CThPN-specific transcriptional coregulator Fog2 for functional analysis. We identify that Fog2 controls CThPN molecular differentiation, axonal targeting, and diversity, in part by regulating the expression level of Ctip2 by CThPN, via combinatorial interactions with other molecular controls. Loss of Fog2 specifically disrupts differentiation of subsets of CThPN specialized in motor function, indicating that Fog2 coordinates subtype and functional-area differentiation. These results confirm that we identified key controls over CThPN development and identify Fog2 as a critical control over CThPN diversity.

S-Nitrosylation of NF-κB p65 Inhibits TSH-Induced Na(+)/I(-) Symporter Expression.

  • Nicola JP
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Dec 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule involved in a wide variety of cellular physiological processes. In thyroid cells, NO-synthase III-endogenously produced NO reduces TSH-stimulated thyroid-specific gene expression, suggesting a potential autocrine role of NO in modulating thyroid function. Further studies indicate that NO induces thyroid dedifferentiation, because NO donors repress TSH-stimulated iodide (I(-)) uptake. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the NO-inhibited Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS)-mediated I(-) uptake in thyroid cells. We showed that NO donors reduce I(-) uptake in a concentration-dependent manner, which correlates with decreased NIS protein expression. NO-reduced I(-) uptake results from transcriptional repression of NIS gene rather than posttranslational modifications reducing functional NIS expression at the plasma membrane. We observed that NO donors repress TSH-induced NIS gene expression by reducing the transcriptional activity of the nuclear factor-κB subunit p65. NO-promoted p65 S-nitrosylation reduces p65-mediated transactivation of the NIS promoter in response to TSH stimulation. Overall, our data are consistent with the notion that NO plays a role as an inhibitory signal to counterbalance TSH-stimulated nuclear factor-κB activation, thus modulating thyroid hormone biosynthesis.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS067017(United States)

A Cdh1-APC/FMRP Ubiquitin Signaling Link Drives mGluR-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in the Mammalian Brain.

  • Huang J
  • Neuron
  • 2015 May 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Deregulation of synaptic plasticity may contribute to the pathogenesis of developmental cognitive disorders. In particular, exaggerated mGluR-dependent LTD is featured in fragile X syndrome, but the mechanisms that regulate mGluR-LTD remain incompletely understood. We report that conditional knockout of Cdh1, the key regulatory subunit of the ubiquitin ligase Cdh1-anaphase-promoting complex (Cdh1-APC), profoundly impairs mGluR-LTD in the hippocampus. Mechanistically, we find that Cdh1-APC operates in the cytoplasm to drive mGluR-LTD. We also identify the fragile X syndrome protein FMRP as a substrate of Cdh1-APC. Endogenous Cdh1-APC forms a complex with endogenous FMRP, and knockout of Cdh1 impairs mGluR-induced ubiquitination and degradation of FMRP in the hippocampus. Knockout of FMRP suppresses, and expression of an FMRP mutant protein that fails to interact with Cdh1 phenocopies, the Cdh1 knockout phenotype of impaired mGluR-LTD. These findings define Cdh1-APC and FMRP as components of a novel ubiquitin signaling pathway that regulates mGluR-LTD in the brain.

Bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulates noncanonical SMAD2/3 signaling via the BMP type 1A receptor in gonadotrope-like cells: implications for FSH synthesis.

  • Wang Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

FSH is an essential regulator of mammalian reproduction. Its synthesis by pituitary gonadotrope cells is regulated by multiple endocrine and paracrine factors, including TGFβ superfamily ligands, such as the activins and inhibins. Activins stimulate FSH synthesis via transcriptional regulation of its β-subunit gene (Fshb). More recently, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were shown to stimulate murine Fshb transcription alone and in synergy with activins. BMP2 signals via its canonical type I receptor, BMPR1A (or activin receptor-like kinase 3 [ALK3]), and SMAD1 and SMAD5 to stimulate transcription of inhibitor of DNA binding proteins. Inhibitor of DNA binding proteins then potentiate the actions of activin-stimulated SMAD3 to regulate the Fshb gene in the gonadotrope-like LβT2 cell line. Here, we report the unexpected observation that BMP2 also stimulates the SMAD2/3 pathway in these cells and that it does so directly via ALK3. Indeed, this novel, noncanonical ALK3 activity is completely independent of ALK4, ALK5, and ALK7, the type I receptors most often associated with SMAD2/3 pathway activation. Induction of the SMAD2/3 pathway by ALK3 is dependent upon its own previous activation by associated type II receptors, which phosphorylate conserved serine and threonine residues in the ALK3 juxtamembrane glycine-serine-rich domain. ALK3 signaling via SMAD3 is necessary for the receptor to stimulate Fshb transcription, whereas its activation of the SMAD1/5/8 pathway alone is insufficient. These data challenge current dogma that ALK3 and other BMP type I receptors signal via SMAD1, SMAD5, and SMAD8 and not SMAD2 or SMAD3. Moreover, they suggest that BMPs and activins may use similar intracellular signaling mechanisms to activate the murine Fshb promoter in immortalized gonadotrope-like cells.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R21-HL122443(United States)

KISS1R induces invasiveness of estrogen receptor-negative human mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.

  • Cvetkovic D
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Kisspeptins (KPs), peptide products of the KISS1 metastasis-suppressor gene, are endogenous ligands for a G protein-coupled receptor (KISS1R). KISS1 acts as a metastasis suppressor in numerous human cancers. However, recent studies have demonstrated that an increase in KISS1 and KISS1R expression in patient breast tumors correlates with higher tumor grade and metastatic potential. We have shown that KP-10 stimulates invasion of estrogen receptor α (ERα)-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Here, we report that either KP-10 treatment of ERα-negative nonmalignant mammary epithelial MCF10A cells or expression of KISS1R in MCF10A cells induced a mesenchymal phenotype and stimulated invasiveness. Similarly, exogenous expression of KISS1R in ERα-negative SKBR3 breast cancer cells was sufficient to trigger invasion and induced extravasation in vivo. In contrast, KP-10 failed to transactivate EGFR or stimulate invasiveness in the ERα-positive MCF7 and T47D breast cancer cells. This suggested that ERα negatively regulates KISS1R-dependent breast cancer cell migration, invasion, and EGFR transactivation. In support of this, we found that these KP-10-induced effects were ablated upon exogenous expression of ERα in the MDA-MB-231 cells, by down-regulating KISS1R expression. Lastly, we have identified IQGAP1, an actin cytoskeletal binding protein as a novel binding partner of KISS1R, and have shown that KISS1R regulates EGFR transactivation in breast cancer cells in an IQGAP1-dependent manner. Overall, our data strongly suggest that the ERα status of mammary cells dictates whether KISS1R may be a novel clinical target for treating breast cancer metastasis.

Funding information:
  • BLRD VA - IK2 BX002505(United States)