X
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

Glutamine Synthetase antibody

RRID:AB_397879

Antibody ID

AB_397879

Target Antigen

Glutamine Synthetase rat, rat

Proper Citation

(BD Biosciences Cat# 610517, RRID:AB_397879)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry, Immunoprecipitation, Western blot

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

BD Biosciences Go To Vendor

Metabolic enzymes in glial cells of the honeybee brain and their associations with aging, starvation and food response.

  • Shah AK
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2018 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The honey bee has been extensively studied as a model for neuronal circuit and memory function and more recently has emerged as an unconventional model in biogerontology. Yet, the detailed knowledge of neuronal processing in the honey bee brain contrasts with the very sparse information available on glial cells. In other systems glial cells are involved in nutritional homeostasis, detoxification, and aging. These glial functions have been linked to metabolic enzymes, such as glutamine synthetase and glycogen phosphorylase. As a step in identifying functional roles and potential differences among honey bee glial types, we examined the spatial distribution of these enzymes and asked if enzyme abundance is associated with aging and other processes essential for survival. Using immunohistochemistry and confocal laser microscopy we demonstrate that glutamine synthetase and glycogen phosphorylase are abundant in glia but appear to co-localize with different glial sub-types. The overall spatial distribution of both enzymes was not homogenous and differed markedly between different neuropiles and also within each neuropil. Using semi-quantitative Western blotting we found that rapid aging, typically observed in shortest-lived worker bees (foragers), was associated with declining enzyme levels. Further, we found enzyme abundance changes after severe starvation stress, and that glutamine synthetase is associated with food response. Together, our data indicate that aging and nutritional physiology in bees are linked to glial specific metabolic enzymes. Enzyme specific localization patterns suggest a functional differentiation among identified glial types.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0802189(United Kingdom)

Heteromeric KV2/KV8.2 Channels Mediate Delayed Rectifier Potassium Currents in Primate Photoreceptors.

  • Gayet-Primo J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Silent voltage-gated potassium channel subunits (KVS) interact selectively with members of the KV2 channel family to modify their functional properties. The localization and functional roles of these silent subunits remain poorly understood. Mutations in the KVS subunit, KV8.2 (KCNV2), lead to severe visual impairment in humans, but the basis of these deficits remains unclear. Here, we examined the localization, native interactions, and functional properties of KV8.2-containing channels in mouse, macaque, and human photoreceptors of either sex. In human retina, KV8.2 colocalized with KV2.1 and KV2.2 in cone inner segments and with KV2.1 in rod inner segments. KV2.1 and KV2.2 could be coimmunoprecipitated with KV8.2 in retinal lysates indicating that these subunits likely interact directly. Retinal KV2.1 was less phosphorylated than cortical KV2.1, a difference expected to alter the biophysical properties of these channels. Using voltage-clamp recordings and pharmacology, we provide functional evidence for Kv2-containing channels in primate rods and cones. We propose that the presence of KV8.2, and low levels of KV2.1 phosphorylation shift the activation range of KV2 channels to align with the operating range of rod and cone photoreceptors. Our data indicate a role for KV2/KV8.2 channels in human photoreceptor function and suggest that the visual deficits in patients with KCNV2 mutations arise from inadequate resting activation of KV channels in rod and cone inner segments.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Mutations in a voltage-gated potassium channel subunit, KV8.2, underlie a blinding inherited photoreceptor dystrophy, indicating an important role for these channels in human vision. Here, we have defined the localization and subunit interactions of KV8.2 channels in primate photoreceptors. We show that the KV8.2 subunit interacts with different Kv2 channels in rods and cones, giving rise to potassium currents with distinct functional properties. Our results provide a molecular basis for retinal dysfunction in patients with mutations in the KCNV2 gene encoding KV8.2.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY003176(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY010572(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY024265(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - T32 EY023211(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - U01GM070708(United States)
  • NIH HHS - P51 OD011092(United States)

Subretinal Human Umbilical Tissue-Derived Cell Transplantation Preserves Retinal Synaptic Connectivity and Attenuates Müller Glial Reactivity.

  • Koh S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Mar 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC or palucorcel) are currently under clinical investigation for the treatment of geographic atrophy, a late stage of macular degeneration, but how hUTC transplantation mediates vision recovery is not fully elucidated. Subretinal administration of hUTC preserves visual function in the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat, a genetic model of retinal degeneration caused by Mertk loss of function. hUTC secrete synaptogenic and neurotrophic factors that improve the health and connectivity of the neural retina. Therefore, we investigated the progression of synapse and photoreceptor loss and whether hUTC treatment preserves photoreceptors and synaptic connectivity in the RCS rats of both sexes. We found that RCS retinas display significant deficits in synaptic development already by postnatal day 21 (P21), before the onset of photoreceptor degeneration. Subretinal transplantation of hUTC at P21 is necessary to rescue visual function in RCS rats, and the therapeutic effect is enhanced with repeated injections. Synaptic development defects occurred concurrently with morphological changes in Müller glia, the major perisynaptic glia in the retina. hUTC transplantation strongly diminished Müller glia reactivity and specifically protected the α2δ-1-containing retinal synapses, which are responsive to thrombospondin family synaptogenic proteins secreted by Müller glia. Müller glial reactivity and reduced synaptogenesis observed in RCS retinas could be recapitulated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-Mertk in Müller glia in wild-type rats. Together, our results show that hUTC transplantation supports the health of retina at least in part by preserving the functions of Müller glial cells, revealing a previously unknown aspect of hUTC transplantation-based therapy.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite the promising effects observed in clinical trials and preclinical studies, how subretinal human umbilical tissue-derived cell (hUTC) transplantation mediates vision improvements is not fully known. Using a rat model of retinal degeneration, the RCS rat (lacking Mertk), here we provide evidence that hUTC transplantation protects visual function and health by protecting photoreceptors and preserving retinal synaptic connectivity. Furthermore, we find that loss of Mertk function only in Müller glia is sufficient to impair synaptic development and cause activation of Müller glia. hUTC transplantation strongly attenuates the reactivity of Müller glia in RCS rats. These findings highlight novel cellular and molecular mechanisms within the neural retina, which underlie disease mechanisms and pinpoint Müller glia as a novel cellular target for hUTC transplantation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016058(United States)

DNER and NFIA are expressed by developing and mature AII amacrine cells in the mouse retina.

  • Keeley PW
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The present study has taken advantage of publicly available cell type specific mRNA expression databases in order to identify potential genes participating in the development of retinal AII amacrine cells. We profile two such genes, Delta/Notch-like EGF repeat containing (Dner) and nuclear factor I/A (Nfia), that are each heavily expressed in AII amacrine cells in the mature mouse retina, and which conjointly identify this retinal cell population in its entirety when using antibodies to DNER and NFIA. DNER is present on the plasma membrane, while NFIA is confined to the nucleus, consistent with known functions of each of these two proteins. DNER also identifies some other subsets of retinal ganglion and amacrine cell types, along with horizontal cells, while NFIA identifies a subset of bipolar cells as well as Muller glia and astrocytes. During early postnatal development, NFIA labels astrocytes on the day of birth, AII amacrine cells at postnatal (P) day 5, and Muller glia by P10, when horizontal cells also transiently exhibit NFIA immunofluorescence. DNER, by contrast, is present in ganglion and amacrine cells on P1, also labeling the horizontal cells by P10. Developing AII amacrine cells exhibit accumulating DNER labeling at the dendritic stalk, labeling that becomes progressively conspicuous by P10, as it is in maturity. This developmental time course is consistent with a prospective role for each gene in the differentiation of AII amacrine cells.

Dystroglycan Maintains Inner Limiting Membrane Integrity to Coordinate Retinal Development.

  • Clements R
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Aug 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

Proper neural circuit formation requires the precise regulation of neuronal migration, axon guidance, and dendritic arborization. Mutations affecting the function of the transmembrane glycoprotein dystroglycan cause a form of congenital muscular dystrophy that is frequently associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Despite its importance in brain development, the role of dystroglycan in regulating retinal development remains poorly understood. Using a mouse model of dystroglycanopathy (ISPDL79* ) and conditional dystroglycan mutants of both sexes, we show that dystroglycan is critical for the proper migration, axon guidance, and dendritic stratification of neurons in the inner retina. Using genetic approaches, we show that dystroglycan functions in neuroepithelial cells as an extracellular scaffold to maintain the integrity of the retinal inner limiting membrane. Surprisingly, despite the profound disruptions in inner retinal circuit formation, spontaneous retinal activity is preserved. These results highlight the importance of dystroglycan in coordinating multiple aspects of retinal development.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The extracellular environment plays a critical role in coordinating neuronal migration and neurite outgrowth during neural circuit development. The transmembrane glycoprotein dystroglycan functions as a receptor for multiple extracellular matrix proteins and its dysfunction leads to a form of muscular dystrophy frequently associated with neurodevelopmental defects. Our results demonstrate that dystroglycan is required for maintaining the structural integrity of the inner limiting membrane (ILM) in the developing retina. In the absence of functional dystroglycan, ILM degeneration leads to defective migration, axon guidance, and mosaic spacing of neurons and a loss of multiple neuron types during retinal development. These results demonstrate that disorganization of retinal circuit development is a likely contributor to visual dysfunction in patients with dystroglycanopathy.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZO1-HL001285(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS061800()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS091027()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U54 NS053672()

Neonatal disease environment limits the efficacy of retinal transplantation in the LCA8 mouse model.

  • Cho SH
  • BMC Ophthalmol
  • 2016 Nov 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Mutations of Crb1 gene cause irreversible and incurable visual impairment in humans. This study aims to use an LCA8-like mouse model to identify host-mediated responses that might interfere with survival, retinal integration and differentiation of grafted cells during neonatal cell therapy. METHODS: Mixed retinal donor cells (1 ~ 2 × 104) isolated from neural retinas of neonatal eGFP transgenic mice were injected into the subretinal space of LCA8-like model neonatal mice. Markers of specific cell types were used to analyze microglial attraction, CSPG induction and retinal cell differentiation. The positions of host retinal cells were traced according to their laminar location during disease progression to look for host cell rearrangements that might inhibit retinal integration of the transplanted cells. RESULTS: Transplanted retinal cells showed poor survival and attracted microglial cells, but CSPG was not greatly induced. Retinas of the LCA8 model hosts underwent significant cellular rearrangement, including rosette formation and apical displacement of inner retinal cells. CONCLUSIONS: Local disease environment, particularly host immune responses to injected cells and formation of a physical barrier caused by apical migration of host retinal cells upon disruption of outer limiting membrane, may impose two major barriers in LCAs cell transplantation therapy.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083726(United States)

Erratum to: Rectocutaneous fistula with transmigration of the suture: a rare delayed complication of vault fixation with the sacrospinous ligament.

  • Kadam PD
  • Int Urogynecol J
  • 2016 Mar 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

There was an oversight in the Authorship of a recent Images in Urogynecology article titled: Rectocutaneous fistula with transmigration of the suture: a rare delayed complication of vault fixation with the sacrospinous ligament (DOI 10.1007/ s00192-015-2823-5). We would like to include Adj A/P Han How Chuan’s name in the list of authors. Adj A/P Han is a Senior Consultant and Department Head of Urogynaecology at the KK Hospital for Women and Children, Singapore.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01HG005855(United States)

Effects of the jimpy mutation on mouse retinal structure and function.

  • Hovhannisyan A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Jimpy mutant mouse has a point mutation in the proteolipid protein gene (plp1). The resulting misfolding of the protein leads to oligodendrocyte death, myelin destruction, and failure to produce adequately myelinated axons in the central nervous system (CNS). It is not known how the absence of normal myelination during development influences neural function. We characterized the Jimpy mouse retina to find out whether lack of myelination in the optic nerve during development has an effect on normal functioning and morphology of the retina. Optokinetic reflex measurements showed that Jimpy mice had, in general, a functional visual system. Both PLP1 antibody staining and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for plp1 mRNA showed that plp1 is not expressed in the wild-type retina. However, in the optic nerve, plp1 is normally expressed, and consequently, in Jimpy mutant mice, myelination of axons in the optic nerve was mostly absent. Nevertheless, neither axon count nor axon ultrastructure in the optic nerve was affected. Physiological recordings of ganglion cell activity using microelectrode arrays revealed a decrease of stimulus-evoked activity at mesopic light levels. Morphological analysis of the retina did not show any significant differences in the gross morphology, such as thickness of retinal layers or cell number in the inner and outer nuclear layer. The cell bodies in the inner nuclear layer, however, were larger in the peripheral retina of Jimpy mutant mice. Antibody labeling against cell type-specific markers showed that the number of rod bipolar and horizontal cells was increased in Jimpy mice. In conclusion, whereas the Jimpy mutation has dramatic effects on the myelination of retinal ganglion cell axons, it has moderate effects on retinal morphology and function.

Early remodeling of Müller cells in the rd/rd mouse model of retinal dystrophy.

  • Chua J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

We studied the anatomical remodeling and gliosis of retinal Müller cells in the rd/rd mouse model of photoreceptor degeneration. A computational calculation of glutamine synthetase immunoreactivity was developed so we could specifically quantify changes in Müller cell anatomy between control mice (C57Bl/6) and the dystrophic strain. We found no change in the number of Müller cell somata between mice strains, indicating no cell proliferation as a function of development and degeneration. The retinal area occupied by the total Müller cell body (soma and processes) was significantly less in the rd/rd mouse retina compared with control mice. When only the outer retina was considered, we found rd/rd Müller cell processes were dramatically reduced during the cone phase of photoreceptor degeneration. However, at older ages an increase in Müller cell processes was seen. Conversely, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression showed a significant increase during cone degeneration followed by a reduction in older ages. Müller cell electrophysiology, particularly K(+) currents and membrane potential, was similar between rd/rd and control Müller cells during cone degeneration. Together, these results show that glial remodeling in the rd/rd retina follows separate phases-an initial conservative glial response involving the loss of Müller cells processes, hyperexpression of GFAP, and preservation of normal electrophysiology followed by an active growth of Müller cell processes, glial seal formation, and attenuation of GFAP expression after complete photoreceptor loss.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - RC2 GM092519(United States)

Cell-type-specific localization of protocadherin β16 at AMPA and AMPA/Kainate receptor-containing synapses in the primate retina.

  • Puller C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Protocadherins (Pcdhs) are thought to be key features of cell-type-specific synapse formation. Here we analyzed the expression pattern of Pcdh subunit β16 (β16) in the primate retina by applying antibodies against β16, different subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors (GluRs), and cell-type-specific markers as well as by coimmunoprecipitation and Western blots. Immunocytochemical localization was analyzed by confocal microscopy and preembedding electron microscopy. In the outer plexiform layer (OPL) H1, but not H2, horizontal cells expressed β16 as revealed by the strong reduction of β16 at short-wavelength-sensitive cones. β16 colocalized with the GluR subunits GluR2-4 at horizontal cell dendritic tips and with GluR2-4 and GluR6/7 at the desmosome-like junctions. At the latter, these AMPA and kainate receptor subunits were found to be clustered within single synaptic hot spots. Additionally, β16-labeled dendritic tips of OFF cone bipolar cells appeared in triad-associated positions at the cone pedicle base, pointing to β16 expression by OFF midget or DB3 bipolar cells. In the inner plexiform layer, β16 was localized also postsynaptically at most of the glutamatergic synapses. Overall, we provide evidence for a cell-type-specific localization of β16 together with GluRs at defined postsynaptic sites and a coexistence of AMPA and kainate receptors within single synaptic hot spots. This study supports the hypothesis that β16 plays an important role in the formation and/or stabilization of specific glutamatergic synapses, whereas our in vivo protein biochemical results argue against the existence of protein complexes formed by β16 and GluRs.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U24 CA126546(United States)

Retinal anatomy and visual performance in a diurnal cone-rich laboratory rodent, the Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus).

  • Gaillard F
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Oct 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Unlike laboratory rats and mice, muridae of the Arvicanthis family (A. ansorgei and A. niloticus) are adapted to functioning best in daylight. To date, they have been used as experimental models mainly in studies of circadian rhythms. However, recent work aimed at optimizing photoreceptor-directed gene delivery vectors (Khani et al. [2007] Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:3954-3961) suggests their potential usefulness for studying retinal pathologies and therapies. In the present study we analyzed the retinal anatomy and visual performance of the Nile grass rat (A. niloticus) using immunohistofluorescence and the optokinetic response (OKR). We found that approximately 35-40% of photoreceptors are cones; that many neural features of the inner retina are similar to those in other diurnal mammals; and that spatial acuity, measured by the OKR, is more than two times that of the usual laboratory rodents. These observations are consistent with the known diurnal habits of this animal, and further support its pertinence as a complementary model for studies of structure, function, and pathology in cone-rich mammalian retinae.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM071832-03(United States)

Wolfram syndrome 1 (Wfs1) gene expression in the normal mouse visual system.

  • Kawano J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Wolfram syndrome (OMIM 222300) is a neurodegenerative disorder defined by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and progressive optic atrophy. This syndrome has been attributed to mutations in the WFS1 gene, which codes for a putative multi-spanning membrane glycoprotein of the endoplasmic reticulum. The function of WFS1 (wolframin), the distribution of this protein in the mammalian visual system, and the pathogenesis of optic atrophy in Wolfram syndrome are unclear. In this study we made a detailed analysis of the distribution of Wfs1 mRNA and protein in the normal mouse visual system by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. The mRNA and protein were observed in the retina, optic nerve, and brain. In the retina, Wfs1 expression was strong in amacrine and Müller cells, and moderate in photoreceptors and horizontal cells. In addition, it was detectable in bipolar and retinal ganglion cells. Interestingly, moderate Wfs1 expression was seen in the optic nerve, particularly in astrocytes, while little Wfs1 was expressed in the optic chiasm or optic tract. In the brain, moderate Wfs1 expression was observed in the zonal, superficial gray, and intermediate gray layers of the superior colliculus, in the dorsomedial part of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and in layer II of the primary and secondary visual cortices. Thus, Wfs1 mRNA and protein were widely distributed in the normal mouse visual system. This evidence may provide clues as to the physiological role of Wfs1 protein in the biology of vision, and help to explain the selective vulnerability of the optic nerve to WFS1 loss-of-function.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH049428(United States)

Sox9 is expressed in mouse multipotent retinal progenitor cells and functions in Müller glial cell development.

  • Poché RA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Sep 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is widely accepted that the process of retinal cell fate determination is under tight transcriptional control mediated by a combinatorial code of transcription factors. However, the exact repertoire of factors necessary for the genesis of each retinal cell type remains to be fully defined. Here we show that the HMG-box transcription factor, Sox9, is expressed in multipotent mouse retinal progenitor cells throughout retinogenesis. We also find that Sox9 is downregulated in differentiating neuronal populations, yet expression in Müller glial cells persists into adulthood. Furthermore, by employing a conditional knockout approach, we show that Sox9 is essential for the differentiation and/or survival of postnatal Müller glial cells.

Distribution of soluble guanylyl cyclase in rat retina.

  • Ding JD
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway is implicated in modulation of visual information processing in the retina. Despite numerous functional studies of this pathway, information about the retinal distribution of the major downstream effector of NO, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), is very limited. In the present work, we have used immunohistochemistry and multiple labeling to determine the distribution of sGC in rat retina. sGC was present at high levels in inner retina but barely detectable in outer retina. Photoreceptors and horizontal cells, as well as Müller cells, were immunonegative, whereas retinal ganglion cells exhibited moderate staining for sGC. Strong immunostaining was found in subpopulations of bipolar and amacrine cells, but staining was weak in rod bipolar cells, and AII amacrine cells were immunonegative. Double labeling of sGC with neuronal nitric oxide synthase showed that the two proteins are generally located in adjacent puncta in inner plexiform layer, implying paracrine interactions. Our results suggest that the NO-cGMP pathway modulates the neural circuitry in inner retina, preferentially within the cone pathway.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01-HG006677(United States)

Adult neurogenesis: a common strategy across diverse species.

  • Sullivan JM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Jan 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Adult neurogenesis, the generation of new neurons from adult precursor cells, occurs in the brains of a phylogenetically diverse array of animals. In the higher (amniotic) vertebrates, these precursor cells are glial cells that reside within specialized regions, known as neurogenic niches, the elements of which both support and regulate neurogenesis. The in vivo identity and location of the precursor cells responsible for adult neurogenesis in nonvertebrate taxa, however, remain largely unknown. Among the invertebrates, adult neurogenesis has been particularly well characterized in freshwater crayfish (Arthropoda, Crustacea), although the identity of the precursor cells sustaining continuous neuronal proliferation in these animals has yet to be established. Here we provide evidence suggesting that, as in the higher vertebrates, the precursor cells maintaining adult neurogenesis in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii are glial cells. These precursor cells reside within a specialized region, or niche, on the ventral surface of the brain, and their progeny migrate from this niche along glial fibers and then proliferate to form new neurons in the central olfactory pathway. The niche in which these precursor cells reside has many features in common with the neurogenic niches of higher vertebrates. These commonalities include: glial cells functioning as both precursor and support cells, directed migration, close association with the brain vasculature, and specialized basal laminae. The cellular machinery maintaining adult neurogenesis appears, therefore, to be shared by widely disparate taxa. These extensive structural and functional parallels suggest a common strategy for the generation of new neurons in adult brains.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - EF-0850100(United States)