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EEA1 antibody

RRID:AB_397830

Antibody ID

AB_397830

Target Antigen

EEA1 canine, rat, human, chicken/bird, chicken, dog, human, rat

Proper Citation

(BD Biosciences Cat# 610457, RRID:AB_397830)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Immunofluorescence, Western blot

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

BD Biosciences Go To Vendor

APOE4 Causes Widespread Molecular and Cellular Alterations Associated with Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes in Human iPSC-Derived Brain Cell Types.

  • Lin YT
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) variant is the single greatest genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). However, the cell-type-specific functions of APOE4 in relation to AD pathology remain understudied. Here, we utilize CRISPR/Cas9 and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to examine APOE4 effects on human brain cell types. Transcriptional profiling identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes in each cell type, with the most affected involving synaptic function (neurons), lipid metabolism (astrocytes), and immune response (microglia-like cells). APOE4 neurons exhibited increased synapse number and elevated Aβ42 secretion relative to isogenic APOE3 cells while APOE4 astrocytes displayed impaired Aβ uptake and cholesterol accumulation. Notably, APOE4 microglia-like cells exhibited altered morphologies, which correlated with reduced Aβ phagocytosis. Consistently, converting APOE4 to APOE3 in brain cell types from sAD iPSCs was sufficient to attenuate multiple AD-related pathologies. Our study establishes a reference for human cell-type-specific changes associated with the APOE4 variant. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - RC1 AG036106()
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG048029()
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG048056()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK070136(United States)

Small molecule induced oligomerization, clustering and clathrin-independent endocytosis of the dopamine transporter.

  • Sorkina T
  • Elife
  • 2018 Apr 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) mediates internalization of many transmembrane proteins but the mechanisms of cargo recruitment during CIE are poorly understood. We found that the cell-permeable furopyrimidine AIM-100 promotes dramatic oligomerization, clustering and CIE of human and mouse dopamine transporters (DAT), but not of their close homologues, norepinephrine and serotonin transporters. All effects of AIM-100 on DAT and the occupancy of substrate binding sites in the transporter were mutually exclusive, suggesting that AIM-100 may act by binding to DAT. Surprisingly, AIM-100-induced DAT endocytosis was independent of dynamin, cholesterol-rich microdomains and actin cytoskeleton, implying that a novel endocytic mechanism is involved. AIM-100 stimulated trafficking of internalized DAT was also unusual: DAT accumulated in early endosomes without significant recycling or degradation. We propose that AIM-100 augments DAT oligomerization through an allosteric mechanism associated with the DAT conformational state, and that oligomerization-triggered clustering leads to a coat-independent endocytosis and subsequent endosomal retention of DAT.

Funding information:
  • National Institutes of Health - DA014204()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U01 AI101981(United States)

Endosomal Rab cycles regulate Parkin-mediated mitophagy.

  • Yamano K
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jan 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Damaged mitochondria are selectively eliminated by mitophagy. Parkin and PINK1, gene products mutated in familial Parkinson's disease, play essential roles in mitophagy through ubiquitination of mitochondria. Cargo ubiquitination by E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin is important to trigger selective autophagy. Although autophagy receptors recruit LC3-labeled autophagic membranes onto damaged mitochondria, how other essential autophagy units such as ATG9A-integrated vesicles are recruited remains unclear. Here, using mammalian cultured cells, we demonstrate that RABGEF1, the upstream factor of the endosomal Rab GTPase cascade, is recruited to damaged mitochondria via ubiquitin binding downstream of Parkin. RABGEF1 directs the downstream Rab proteins, RAB5 and RAB7A, to damaged mitochondria, whose associations are further regulated by mitochondrial Rab-GAPs. Furthermore, depletion of RAB7A inhibited ATG9A vesicle assembly and subsequent encapsulation of the mitochondria by autophagic membranes. These results strongly suggest that endosomal Rab cycles on damaged mitochondria are a crucial regulator of mitophagy through assembling ATG9A vesicles.

Funding information:
  • Japan Science and Technology Agency - JPMJCR13M7(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - 16K15095(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP15H01196(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP16K18545(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP26000014(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP26111729(International)
  • Japan Society for the Promotion of Science - JP26840033(International)
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R03 DE018415-02(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - Intramural program(United States)

A General Strategy for Discovery of Inhibitors and Activators of RING and U-box E3 Ligases with Ubiquitin Variants.

  • Gabrielsen M
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

RING and U-box E3 ubiquitin ligases regulate diverse eukaryotic processes and have been implicated in numerous diseases, but targeting these enzymes remains a major challenge. We report the development of three ubiquitin variants (UbVs), each binding selectively to the RING or U-box domain of a distinct E3 ligase: monomeric UBE4B, phosphorylated active CBL, or dimeric XIAP. Structural and biochemical analyses revealed that UbVs specifically inhibited the activity of UBE4B or phosphorylated CBL by blocking the E2∼Ub binding site. Surprisingly, the UbV selective for dimeric XIAP formed a dimer to stimulate E3 activity by stabilizing the closed E2∼Ub conformation. We further verified the inhibitory and stimulatory functions of UbVs in cells. Our work provides a general strategy to inhibit or activate RING/U-box E3 ligases and provides a resource for the research community to modulate these enzymes.

Structural Basis for Specific Interaction of TGFβ Signaling Regulators SARA/Endofin with HD-PTP.

  • Gahloth D
  • Structure
  • 2017 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

SARA and endofin are endosomal adaptor proteins that drive Smad phosphorylation by ligand-activated transforming growth factor β/bone morphogenetic protein (TGFβ/BMP) receptors. We show in this study that SARA and endofin also recruit the tumor supressor HD-PTP, a master regulator of endosomal sorting and ESCRT-dependent receptor downregulation. High-affinity interactions occur between the SARA/endofin N termini, and the conserved hydrophobic region in the HD-PTP Bro1 domain that binds CHMP4/ESCRT-III. CHMP4 engagement is a universal feature of Bro1 proteins, but SARA/endofin binding is specific to HD-PTP. Crystallographic structures of HD-PTPBro1 in complex with SARA, endofin, and three CHMP4 isoforms revealed that all ligands bind similarly to the conserved site but, critically, only SARA/endofin interact at a neighboring pocket unique to HD-PTP. The structures, together with mutagenesis and binding analysis, explain the high affinity and specific binding of SARA/endofin, and why they compete so effectively with CHMP4. Our data invoke models for how endocytic regulation of TGFβ/BMP signaling is controlled.

A Rab20-Dependent Membrane Trafficking Pathway Controls M. tuberculosis Replication by Regulating Phagosome Spaciousness and Integrity.

  • Schnettger L
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 May 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) lives within phagosomes and also disrupts these organelles to access the cytosol. The host pathways and mechanisms that contribute to maintaining Mtb phagosome integrity have not been investigated. Here, we examined the spatiotemporal dynamics of Mtb-containing phagosomes and identified an interferon-gamma-stimulated and Rab20-dependent membrane trafficking pathway in macrophages that maintains Mtb in spacious proteolytic phagolysosomes. This pathway functions to promote endosomal membrane influx in infected macrophages, and is required to preserve Mtb phagosome integrity and control Mtb replication. Rab20 is specifically and significantly upregulated in the sputum of human patients with active tuberculosis. Altogether, we uncover an immune-regulated cellular pathway of defense that promotes maintenance of Mtb within intact membrane-bound compartments for efficient elimination.

Parkinson Sac Domain Mutation in Synaptojanin 1 Impairs Clathrin Uncoating at Synapses and Triggers Dystrophic Changes in Dopaminergic Axons.

  • Cao M
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synaptojanin 1 (SJ1) is a major presynaptic phosphatase that couples synaptic vesicle endocytosis to the dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a reaction needed for the shedding of endocytic factors from their membranes. While the role of SJ1's 5-phosphatase module in this process is well recognized, the contribution of its Sac phosphatase domain, whose preferred substrate is PI4P, remains unclear. Recently a homozygous mutation in its Sac domain was identified in early-onset parkinsonism patients. We show that mice carrying this mutation developed neurological manifestations similar to those of human patients. Synapses of these mice displayed endocytic defects and a striking accumulation of clathrin-coated intermediates, strongly implicating Sac domain's activity in endocytic protein dynamics. Mutant brains had elevated auxilin (PARK19) and parkin (PARK2) levels. Moreover, dystrophic axonal terminal changes were selectively observed in dopaminergic axons in the dorsal striatum. These results strengthen evidence for a link between synaptic endocytic dysfunction and Parkinson's disease.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR001863()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P30 DA018343()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P41 GM103412()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS036251()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS036942()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS036251()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS036942()