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CD140a antibody

RRID:AB_397117

Antibody ID

AB_397117

Target Antigen

CD140a mouse

Proper Citation

(BD Biosciences Cat# 558774, RRID:AB_397117)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Flow cytometry

Host Organism

rat

Vendor

BD Biosciences Go To Vendor

The Dorsal Wave of Neocortical Oligodendrogenesis Begins Embryonically and Requires Multiple Sources of Sonic Hedgehog.

  • Winkler CC
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neural progenitor cells in the developing dorsal forebrain give rise to excitatory neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes for the neocortex. While we are starting to gain a better understanding about the mechanisms that direct the formation of neocortical neurons and astrocytes, far less is known about the molecular mechanisms that instruct dorsal forebrain progenitors to make oligodendrocytes. In this study, we show that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is required in dorsal progenitors for their late embryonic transition to oligodendrogenesis. Using genetic lineage-tracing in mice of both sexes, we demonstrate that most oligodendrocytes in the embryonic neocortex derive from Emx1+ dorsal forebrain progenitors. Deletion of the Shh signaling effector Smo specifically in Emx1+ progenitors led to significantly decreased oligodendrocyte numbers in the embryonic neocortex. Conversely, knock-out of the Shh antagonist Sufu was sufficient to increase neocortical oligodendrogenesis. Using conditional knock-out strategies, we found that Shh ligand is supplied to dorsal progenitors through multiple sources. Loss of Shh from Dlx5/6+ interneurons caused a significant reduction in oligodendrocytes in the embryonic neocortex. This phenotype was identical to that observed upon Shh deletion from the entire CNS using Nestin-Cre, indicating that interneurons migrating into the neocortex from the subpallium are the primary neural source of Shh for dorsal oligodendrogenesis. Additionally, deletion of Shh from migrating interneurons together with the choroid plexus epithelium led to a more severe loss of oligodendrocytes, suggesting that the choroid plexus is an important non-neural source of Shh ligand. Together, our studies demonstrate that the dorsal wave of neocortical oligodendrogenesis occurs earlier than previously appreciated and requires highly regulated Shh signaling from multiple embryonic sources.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Most neocortical oligodendrocytes are made by neural progenitors in the dorsal forebrain, but the mechanisms that specify this fate are poorly understood. This study identifies Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling as a critical pathway in the transition from neurogenesis to oligodendrogenesis in dorsal forebrain progenitors during late embryonic development. The timing of this neuron-to-glia "switch" coincides with the arrival of migrating interneurons into the dorsal germinal zone, which we identify as a critical source of Shh ligand, which drives oligodendrogenesis. Our data provide evidence for a new model in which Shh signaling increases in the dorsal forebrain late in embryonic development to provide a temporally regulated mechanism that initiates the third wave of neocortical oligodendrogenesis.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 ES050165-11(United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - K01 CA201068()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH077694()

Dual Requirement of CHD8 for Chromatin Landscape Establishment and Histone Methyltransferase Recruitment to Promote CNS Myelination and Repair.

  • Zhao C
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Disruptive mutations in chromatin remodeler CHD8 cause autism spectrum disorders, exhibiting widespread white matter abnormalities; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We show that cell-type specific Chd8 deletion in oligodendrocyte progenitors, but not in neurons, results in myelination defects, revealing a cell-intrinsic dependence on CHD8 for oligodendrocyte lineage development, myelination and post-injury remyelination. CHD8 activates expression of BRG1-associated SWI/SNF complexes that in turn activate CHD7, thus initiating a successive chromatin remodeling cascade that orchestrates oligodendrocyte lineage progression. Genomic occupancy analyses reveal that CHD8 establishes an accessible chromatin landscape, and recruits MLL/KMT2 histone methyltransferase complexes distinctively around proximal promoters to promote oligodendrocyte differentiation. Inhibition of histone demethylase activity partially rescues myelination defects of CHD8-deficient mutants. Our data indicate that CHD8 exhibits a dual function through inducing a cascade of chromatin reprogramming and recruiting H3K4 histone methyltransferases to establish oligodendrocyte identity, suggesting potential strategies of therapeutic intervention for CHD8-associated white matter defects.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH087592(United States)

A Glial Signature and Wnt7 Signaling Regulate Glioma-Vascular Interactions and Tumor Microenvironment.

  • Griveau A
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 May 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gliomas comprise heterogeneous malignant glial and stromal cells. While blood vessel co-option is a potential mechanism to escape anti-angiogenic therapy, the relevance of glial phenotype in this process is unclear. We show that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor-like glioma cells invade by single-cell vessel co-option and preserve the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Conversely, Olig2-negative glioma cells form dense perivascular collections and promote angiogenesis and BBB breakdown, leading to innate immune cell activation. Experimentally, Olig2 promotes Wnt7b expression, a finding that correlates in human glioma profiling. Targeted Wnt7a/7b deletion or pharmacologic Wnt inhibition blocks Olig2+ glioma single-cell vessel co-option and enhances responses to temozolomide. Finally, Olig2 and Wnt7 become upregulated after anti-VEGF treatment in preclinical models and patients. Thus, glial-encoded pathways regulate distinct glioma-vascular microenvironmental interactions.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ES016005(United States)

PTEN negatively regulates the cell lineage progression from NG2+ glial progenitor to oligodendrocyte via mTOR-independent signaling.

  • González-Fernández E
  • Elife
  • 2018 Feb 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin-forming CNS glia, are highly vulnerable to cellular stresses, and a severe myelin loss underlies numerous CNS disorders. Expedited OL regeneration may prevent further axonal damage and facilitate functional CNS repair. Although adult OL progenitors (OPCs) are the primary players for OL regeneration, targetable OPC-specific intracellular signaling mechanisms for facilitated OL regeneration remain elusive. Here, we report that OPC-targeted PTEN inactivation in the mouse, in contrast to OL-specific manipulations, markedly promotes OL differentiation and regeneration in the mature CNS. Unexpectedly, an additional deletion of mTOR did not reverse the enhanced OL development from PTEN-deficient OPCs. Instead, ablation of GSK3β, another downstream signaling molecule that is negatively regulated by PTEN-Akt, enhanced OL development. Our results suggest that PTEN persistently suppresses OL development in an mTOR-independent manner, and at least in part, via controlling GSK3β activity. OPC-targeted PTEN-GSK3β inactivation may benefit facilitated OL regeneration and myelin repair.

Funding information:
  • Ellison Medical Foundation - AG-NS-1101-13()
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - R01NS07693()
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - R01NS089586()
  • NIH HHS - DP2 OD006740(United States)
  • Shriners Hospitals for Children - 84298-PHI()
  • Shriners Hospitals for Children - 85500-PHI-14()
  • Shriners Hospitals for Children - 86600()

LRP1 regulates peroxisome biogenesis and cholesterol homeostasis in oligodendrocytes and is required for proper CNS myelin development and repair.

  • Lin JP
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) is a large endocytic and signaling molecule broadly expressed by neurons and glia. In adult mice, global inducible (Lrp1flox/flox;CAG-CreER) or oligodendrocyte (OL)-lineage specific ablation (Lrp1flox/flox;Pdgfra-CreER) of Lrp1 attenuates repair of damaged white matter. In oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), Lrp1 is required for cholesterol homeostasis and differentiation into mature OLs. Lrp1-deficient OPC/OLs show a strong increase in the sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-2 yet are unable to maintain normal cholesterol levels, suggesting more global metabolic deficits. Mechanistic studies revealed a decrease in peroxisomal biogenesis factor-2 and fewer peroxisomes in OL processes. Treatment of Lrp1-/- OPCs with cholesterol or activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ with pioglitazone alone is not sufficient to promote differentiation; however, when combined, cholesterol and pioglitazone enhance OPC differentiation into mature OLs. Collectively, our studies reveal a novel role for Lrp1 in peroxisome biogenesis, lipid homeostasis, and OPC differentiation during white matter development and repair.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01-CA148761(United States)

The Primate-Specific Gene TMEM14B Marks Outer Radial Glia Cells and Promotes Cortical Expansion and Folding.

  • Liu J
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Nov 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human brain evolution is associated with expansion and folding of the neocortex. Increased diversity in neural progenitor (NP) populations (such as basally located radial glia [RG], which reside in an enlarged outer subventricular zone [OSVZ]) likely contributes to this evolutionary expansion, although their characteristics and relative contributions are only partially understood. Through single-cell transcriptional profiling of sorted human NP subpopulations, we identified the primate-specific TMEM14B gene as a marker of basal RG. Expression of TMEM14B in embryonic NPs induces cortical thickening and gyrification in postnatal mice. This is accompanied by SVZ expansion, the appearance of outer RG-like cells, and the proliferation of multiple NP subsets, with proportional increases in all cortical layers and normal lamination. TMEM14B drives NP proliferation by increasing the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IQGAP1, which in turn promotes G1/S cell cycle transitions. These data show that a single primate-specific gene can drive neurodevelopmental changes that contribute to brain evolution.

YAP/TAZ and Hedgehog Coordinate Growth and Patterning in Gastrointestinal Mesenchyme.

  • Cotton JL
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

YAP/TAZ are the major mediators of mammalian Hippo signaling; however, their precise function in the gastrointestinal tract remains poorly understood. Here we dissect the distinct roles of YAP/TAZ in endodermal epithelium and mesenchyme and find that, although dispensable for gastrointestinal epithelial development and homeostasis, YAP/TAZ function as the critical molecular switch to coordinate growth and patterning in gut mesenchyme. Our genetic analyses reveal that Lats1/2 kinases suppress expansion of the primitive mesenchymal progenitors, where YAP activation also prevents induction of the smooth muscle lineage through transcriptional repression of Myocardin. During later development, zone-restricted downregulation of YAP/TAZ provides the positional cue and allows smooth muscle cell differentiation induced by Hedgehog signaling. Taken together, our studies identify the mesenchymal requirement of YAP/TAZ in the gastrointestinal tract and highlight the functional interplays between Hippo and Hedgehog signaling underlying temporal and spatial control of tissue growth and specification in developing gut.

miR-219 Cooperates with miR-338 in Myelination and Promotes Myelin Repair in the CNS.

  • Wang H
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

A lack of sufficient oligodendrocyte myelination contributes to remyelination failure in demyelinating disorders. miRNAs have been implicated in oligodendrogenesis; however, their functions in myelin regeneration remained elusive. Through developmentally regulated targeted mutagenesis, we demonstrate that miR-219 alleles are critical for CNS myelination and remyelination after injury. Further deletion of miR-338 exacerbates the miR-219 mutant hypomyelination phenotype. Conversely, miR-219 overexpression promotes precocious oligodendrocyte maturation and regeneration processes in transgenic mice. Integrated transcriptome profiling and biotin-affinity miRNA pull-down approaches reveal stage-specific miR-219 targets in oligodendrocytes and further uncover a novel network for miR-219 targeting of differentiation inhibitors including Lingo1 and Etv5. Inhibition of Lingo1 and Etv5 partially rescues differentiation defects of miR-219-deficient oligodendrocyte precursors. Furthermore, miR-219 mimics enhance myelin restoration following lysolecithin-induced demyelination as well as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, principal animal models of multiple sclerosis. Together, our findings identify context-specific miRNA-regulated checkpoints that control myelinogenesis and a therapeutic role for miR-219 in CNS myelin repair.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS065808()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072427()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS075243()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS087474()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS096359()

lncRNA Functional Networks in Oligodendrocytes Reveal Stage-Specific Myelination Control by an lncOL1/Suz12 Complex in the CNS.

  • He D
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jan 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of cellular functions, but their roles in oligodendrocyte myelination remain undefined. Through de novo transcriptome reconstruction, we establish dynamic expression profiles of lncRNAs at different stages of oligodendrocyte development and uncover a cohort of stage-specific oligodendrocyte-restricted lncRNAs, including a conserved chromatin-associated lncOL1. Co-expression network analyses further define the association of distinct oligodendrocyte-expressing lncRNA clusters with protein-coding genes and predict lncRNA functions in oligodendrocyte myelination. Overexpression of lncOL1 promotes precocious oligodendrocyte differentiation in the developing brain, whereas genetic inactivation of lncOL1 causes defects in CNS myelination and remyelination following injury. Functional analyses illustrate that lncOL1 interacts with Suz12, a component of polycomb repressive complex 2, to promote oligodendrocyte maturation, in part, through Suz12-mediated repression of a differentiation inhibitory network that maintains the precursor state. Together, our findings reveal a key lncRNA epigenetic circuitry through interaction with chromatin-modifying complexes in control of CNS myelination and myelin repair.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072427()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS075243()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R37 NS096359()