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CD16/CD32 antibody


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

CD16/CD32 mouse

Proper Citation

(BD Biosciences Cat# 553142, RRID:AB_394657)


monoclonal antibody


Block, Flow cytometry, Immunohistochemistry-frozen

Host Organism



BD Biosciences Go To Vendor

Is Receptor-Interacting Protein Kinase 3 a Viable Therapeutic Target for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection?

  • Stutz MD
  • Front Immunol
  • 2018 Jun 13

Literature context:


The dwindling list of antimicrobial agents exhibiting broad efficacy against clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has forced the medical community to redefine current approaches to the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Host receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) has been flagged recently as a potential target, given that it is believed to regulate necroptosis-independent signaling pathways, which have been implicated in exacerbating several inflammatory conditions and which reportedly play a role in the necrosis of Mtb-infected macrophages. To examine the therapeutic potential of inhibiting RIPK3, we infected RIPK3-deficient mice with aerosolized Mtb. We found that the loss of RIPK3 did not alter overall disease outcomes, with deficient animals harboring similar bacterial numbers in the lungs and spleens compared to their wild-type counterparts. Mtb-infected macrophages were not rescued from dying by Ripk3 deletion, nor did this affect production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, both in vitro and in vivo. Infiltration of immune cells into the lungs, as well as the activation of adaptive immunity, similarly was not overtly affected by the loss of RIPK3 signaling. Collectively, our data argue against a role of RIPK3 in mediating pathological inflammation or macrophage necrosis during Mtb disease pathogenesis and thus suggest that this host protein is unlikely to be an attractive therapeutic target for TB.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - P50HG002790(United States)

Autoimmune Th17 Cells Induced Synovial Stromal and Innate Lymphoid Cell Secretion of the Cytokine GM-CSF to Initiate and Augment Autoimmune Arthritis.

  • Hirota K
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Jun 19

Literature context:


Despite the importance of Th17 cells in autoimmune diseases, it remains unclear how they control other inflammatory cells in autoimmune tissue damage. Using a model of spontaneous autoimmune arthritis, we showed that arthritogenic Th17 cells stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes via interleukin-17 (IL-17) to secrete the cytokine GM-CSF and also expanded synovial-resident innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in inflamed joints. Activated synovial ILCs, which expressed CD25, IL-33Ra, and TLR9, produced abundant GM-CSF upon stimulation by IL-2, IL-33, or CpG DNA. Loss of GM-CSF production by either ILCs or radio-resistant stromal cells prevented Th17 cell-mediated arthritis. GM-CSF production by Th17 cells augmented chronic inflammation but was dispensable for the initiation of arthritis. We showed that GM-CSF-producing ILCs were present in inflamed joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Thus, a cellular cascade of autoimmune Th17 cells, ILCs, and stromal cells, via IL-17 and GM-CSF, mediates chronic joint inflammation and can be a target for therapeutic intervention.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA060553(United States)

A Combination of Ontogeny and CNS Environment Establishes Microglial Identity.

  • Bennett FC
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 27

Literature context:


Microglia, the brain's resident macrophages, are dynamic CNS custodians with surprising origins in the extra-embryonic yolk sac. The consequences of their distinct ontogeny are unknown but critical to understanding and treating brain diseases. We created a brain macrophage transplantation system to disentangle how environment and ontogeny specify microglial identity. We find that donor cells extensively engraft in the CNS of microglia-deficient mice, and even after exposure to a cell culture environment, microglia fully regain their identity when returned to the CNS. Though transplanted macrophages from multiple tissues can express microglial genes in the brain, only those of yolk-sac origin fully attain microglial identity. Transplanted macrophages of inappropriate origin, including primary human cells in a humanized host, express disease-associated genes and specific ontogeny markers. Through brain macrophage transplantation, we discover new principles of microglial identity that have broad applications to the study of disease and development of myeloid cell therapies.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672(United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA216054()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR025518()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG047366()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R37 DA015043()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - K08 MH112120()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - L30 MH108106()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH019938()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS078813()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - K08 NS075144()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - K08 NS085324()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - K08 NS091527()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS069375()

Endothelial insulin receptor restoration rescues vascular function in male insulin receptor haploinsufficient mice.

  • Sengupta A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 May 15

Literature context:


Reduced systemic insulin signaling promotes endothelial dysfunction and diminished endogenous vascular repair. We asked whether restoration of endothelial insulin receptor expression could rescue this phenotype. Insulin receptor haploinsufficient mice (IRKO) were crossed with mice expressing a human insulin receptor transgene in the endothelium (hIRECO), to produce IRKO-hIRECO progeny. No metabolic differences were noted between IRKO and IRKO-hIRECO in glucose- and insulin-tolerance tests. In contrast with control IRKO littermates, IRKO-hIRECO exhibited normal blood pressure and aortic vasodilatation in response to acetylcholine, comparable to parameters noted in wild-type littermates. These phenotypic changes were associated with enhanced basal- and insulin-stimulated nitric oxide production. IRKO-hIRECO also demonstrated normalized endothelial repair after denuding arterial injury, which was associated with rescued endothelial cell migration in vitro, but not with changes in circulating progenitor populations or culture-derived myeloid angiogenic cells. These data show that restoration of endothelial insulin receptor expression alone is sufficient to prevent the vascular dysfunction caused by systemically reduced insulin signaling.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - SC1-AI-078559(United States)

Extrinsic Phagocyte-Dependent STING Signaling Dictates the Immunogenicity of Dying Cells.

  • Ahn J
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 May 14

Literature context:


The ability of dying cells to activate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) is carefully controlled to avoid unwarranted inflammatory responses. Here, we show that engulfed cells containing cytosolic double-stranded DNA species (viral or synthetic) or cyclic di-nucleotides (CDNs) are able to stimulate APCs via extrinsic STING (stimulator of interferon genes) signaling, to promote antigen cross-presentation. In the absence of STING agonists, dying cells were ineffectual in the stimulation of APCs in trans. Cytosolic STING activators, including CDNs, constitute cellular danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) only generated by viral infection or following DNA damage events that rendered tumor cells highly immunogenic. Our data shed insight into the molecular mechanisms that drive appropriate anti-tumor adaptive immune responses, while averting harmful autoinflammatory disease, and provide a therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - RC1 HL101102-01(United States)

Self-Renewal and Toll-like Receptor Signaling Sustain Exhausted Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells during Chronic Viral Infection.

  • Macal M
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Apr 17

Literature context:


Although characterization of T cell exhaustion has unlocked powerful immunotherapies, the mechanisms sustaining adaptations of short-lived innate cells to chronic inflammatory settings remain unknown. During murine chronic viral infection, we found that concerted events in bone marrow and spleen mediated by type I interferon (IFN-I) and Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) maintained a pool of functionally exhausted plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). In the bone marrow, IFN-I compromised the number and the developmental capacity of pDC progenitors, which generated dysfunctional pDCs. Concurrently, exhausted pDCs in the periphery were maintained by self-renewal via IFN-I- and TLR7-induced proliferation of CD4- subsets. On the other hand, pDC functional loss was mediated by TLR7, leading to compromised IFN-I production and resistance to secondary infection. These findings unveil the mechanisms sustaining a self-perpetuating pool of functionally exhausted pDCs and provide a framework for deciphering long-term exhaustion of other short-lived innate cells during chronic inflammation.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY017478(United States)

Deficient Surveillance and Phagocytic Activity of Myeloid Cells Within Demyelinated Lesions in Aging Mice Visualized by Ex Vivo Live Multiphoton Imaging.

  • Rawji KS
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 21

Literature context:


Aging impairs regenerative processes including remyelination, the synthesis of a new myelin sheath. Microglia and other infiltrating myeloid cells such as macrophages are essential for remyelination through mechanisms that include the clearance of inhibitory molecules within the lesion. Prior studies have shown that the quantity of myeloid cells and the clearance of inhibitory myelin debris are deficient in aging, contributing to the decline in remyelination efficiency with senescence. It is unknown, however, whether the impaired clearance of debris is simply the result of the reduced number of phagocytes or if the dynamic activity of myeloid cells within the demyelinating plaque also declines with aging and this question is relevant to the proper design of therapeutics to mobilize myeloid cells for repair. Herein, we describe a high-resolution multiphoton ex vivo live imaging protocol that visualizes individual myelinated/demyelinated axons and lipid-containing myeloid cells to investigate the demyelinated lesion of aging female mice. We found that aging lesions have fewer myeloid cells and that these have reduced phagocytosis of myelin. Although the myeloid cells are actively migratory within the lesion of young mice and have protrusions that seem to survey the environment, this motility and surveillance is significantly reduced in aging mice. Our results emphasize the necessity of not only increasing the number of phagocytes, but also enhancing their activity once they are within demyelinated lesions. The high-resolution live imaging of demyelinated lesions can serve as a platform with which to discover pharmacological agents that rejuvenate intralesional remodeling that promotes the repair of plaques.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The repair of myelin after injury depends on myeloid cells that clear debris and release growth factors. As organisms age, remyelination becomes less efficient correspondent with fewer myeloid cells that populate the lesions. It is unknown whether the dynamic activity of cells within lesions is also altered with age. Herein, using high-resolution multiphoton ex vivo live imaging with several novel features, we report that myeloid cells within demyelinated lesions of aging mice have reduced motility, surveillance, and phagocytic activity, suggesting an intralesional impairment that may contribute to the age-related decline in remyelination efficiency. Medications to stimulate deficient aging myeloid cells should not only increase their representation, but also enter into lesions to stimulate their activity.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR057759(United States)

A Metabolic Basis for Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.

  • Xiong J
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is a cellular process often initiated by the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of ligands. Although required for normal heart valve development, deregulated EndoMT is linked to a wide range of pathological conditions. Here, we demonstrate that endothelial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is a critical in vitro and in vivo regulator of EndoMT. We further show that this FAO-dependent metabolic regulation of EndoMT occurs through alterations in intracellular acetyl-CoA levels. Disruption of FAO via conditional deletion of endothelial carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (Cpt2E-KO) augments the magnitude of embryonic EndoMT, resulting in thickening of cardiac valves. Consistent with the known pathological effects of EndoMT, adult Cpt2E-KO mice demonstrate increased permeability in multiple vascular beds. Taken together, these results demonstrate that endothelial FAO is required to maintain endothelial cell fate and that therapeutic manipulation of endothelial metabolism could provide the basis for treating a growing number of EndoMT-linked pathological conditions.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 HL005012-11()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - K08 HL121174()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P30 AG024827()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK007052()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM084445(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072241()

TIM-3 Regulates CD103+ Dendritic Cell Function and Response to Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer.

  • de Mingo Pulido Á
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Intratumoral CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs) are necessary for anti-tumor immunity. Here we evaluated the expression of immune regulators by CD103+ DCs in a murine model of breast cancer and identified expression of TIM-3 as a target for therapy. Anti-TIM-3 antibody improved response to paclitaxel chemotherapy in models of triple-negative and luminal B disease, with no evidence of toxicity. Combined efficacy was CD8+ T cell dependent and associated with increased granzyme B expression; however, TIM-3 expression was predominantly localized to myeloid cells in both human and murine tumors. Gene expression analysis identified upregulation of Cxcl9 within intratumoral DCs during combination therapy, and therapeutic efficacy was ablated by CXCR3 blockade, Batf3 deficiency, or Irf8 deficiency.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - DK015602-05(United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - K99 CA185325()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA076292()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R00 CA185325()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA155331()
  • NCI NIH HHS - U54 CA163123()

Dietary Manganese Promotes Staphylococcal Infection of the Heart.

  • Juttukonda LJ
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Oct 11

Literature context:


Diet, and specifically dietary metals, can modify the risk of infection. However, the mechanisms by which manganese (Mn), a common dietary supplement, alters infection remain unexplored. We report that dietary Mn levels dictate the outcome of systemic infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of bacterial endocarditis. Mice fed a high Mn diet display alterations in Mn levels and localization within infected tissues, and S. aureus virulence and infection of the heart are enhanced. Although the canonical mammalian Mn-sequestering protein calprotectin surrounds staphylococcal heart abscesses, calprotectin is not released into the abscess nidus and does not limit Mn in this organ. Consequently, excess Mn is bioavailable to S. aureus in the heart. Bioavailable Mn is utilized by S. aureus to detoxify reactive oxygen species and protect against neutrophil killing, enhancing fitness within the heart. Therefore, a single dietary modification overwhelms vital host antimicrobial strategies, leading to fatal staphylococcal infection.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - F32 AI120553()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - HHSN272201400019C()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI069233()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI073843()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI099394()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI101171()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI103268()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI105129()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI107233()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK058404()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK007673()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P41 GM103391()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007347()

Mitochondrial Fission Promotes the Continued Clearance of Apoptotic Cells by Macrophages.

  • Wang Y
  • Cell
  • 2017 Oct 5

Literature context:


Clearance of apoptotic cells (ACs) by phagocytes (efferocytosis) prevents post-apoptotic necrosis and dampens inflammation. Defective efferocytosis drives important diseases, including atherosclerosis. For efficient efferocytosis, phagocytes must be able to internalize multiple ACs. We show here that uptake of multiple ACs by macrophages requires dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-mediated mitochondrial fission, which is triggered by AC uptake. When mitochondrial fission is disabled, AC-induced increase in cytosolic calcium is blunted owing to mitochondrial calcium sequestration, and calcium-dependent phagosome formation around secondarily encountered ACs is impaired. These defects can be corrected by silencing the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Mice lacking myeloid Drp1 showed defective efferocytosis and its pathologic consequences in the thymus after dexamethasone treatment and in advanced atherosclerotic lesions in fat-fed Ldlr-/- mice. Thus, mitochondrial fission in response to AC uptake is a critical process that enables macrophages to clear multiple ACs and to avoid the pathologic consequences of defective efferocytosis in vivo.

The Kinase mTORC1 Promotes the Generation and Suppressive Function of Follicular Regulatory T Cells.

  • Xu L
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Sep 19

Literature context:


Follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells differentiate from conventional regulatory T (Treg) cells and suppress excessive germinal center (GC) responses by acting on both GC B cells and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. Here, we examined the impact of mTOR, a serine/threonine protein kinase that senses and integrates diverse environmental cues, on the differentiation and functional competency of Tfr cells in response to protein immunization or viral infection. By genetically deleting Rptor or Rictor, essential components for mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), respectively, we found that mTORC1 but not mTORC2 is essential for Tfr differentiation. Mechanistically, mTORC1-mediated phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT3 induced the expression of the transcription factor TCF-1 by promoting STAT3 binding to the Tcf7 5'-regulatory region. Subsequently, TCF-1 bound to the Bcl6 promoter to induce Bcl6 expression, which launched the Tfr cell differentiation program. Thus, mTORC1 initiates Tfr cell differentiation by activating the TCF-1-Bcl-6 axis during immunization or infection.

Directing visceral white adipocyte precursors to a thermogenic adipocyte fate improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice.

  • Hepler C
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jul 19

Literature context:


Visceral adiposity confers significant risk for developing metabolic disease in obesity whereas preferential expansion of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) appears protective. Unlike subcutaneous WAT, visceral WAT is resistant to adopting a protective thermogenic phenotype characterized by the accumulation of Ucp1+ beige/BRITE adipocytes (termed 'browning'). In this study, we investigated the physiological consequences of browning murine visceral WAT by selective genetic ablation of Zfp423, a transcriptional suppressor of the adipocyte thermogenic program. Zfp423 deletion in fetal visceral adipose precursors (Zfp423loxP/loxP; Wt1-Cre), or adult visceral white adipose precursors (PdgfrbrtTA; TRE-Cre; Zfp423loxP/loxP), results in the accumulation of beige-like thermogenic adipocytes within multiple visceral adipose depots. Thermogenic visceral WAT improves cold tolerance and prevents and reverses insulin resistance in obesity. These data indicate that beneficial visceral WAT browning can be engineered by directing visceral white adipocyte precursors to a thermogenic adipocyte fate, and suggest a novel strategy to combat insulin resistance in obesity.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F30 DK100095()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F31 DK113696()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R00 DK094973()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK104789()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008203()

Recruited Monocytes and Type 2 Immunity Promote Lung Regeneration following Pneumonectomy.

  • Lechner AJ
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Jul 6

Literature context:


To investigate the role of immune cells in lung regeneration, we used a unilateral pneumonectomy model that promotes the formation of new alveoli in the remaining lobes. Immunofluorescence and single-cell RNA sequencing found CD115+ and CCR2+ monocytes and M2-like macrophages accumulating in the lung during the peak of type 2 alveolar epithelial stem cell (AEC2) proliferation. Genetic loss of function in mice and adoptive transfer studies revealed that bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) traffic to the lung through a CCL2-CCR2 chemokine axis and are required for optimal lung regeneration, along with Il4ra-expressing leukocytes. Our data suggest that these cells modulate AEC2 proliferation and differentiation. Finally, we provide evidence that group 2 innate lymphoid cells are a source of IL-13, which promotes lung regeneration. Together, our data highlight the potential for immunomodulatory therapies to stimulate alveologenesis in adults.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - F30 HL131198()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL127002()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - U01 HL134766()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007618()

The Hippo Pathway Kinases LATS1/2 Suppress Cancer Immunity.

  • Moroishi T
  • Cell
  • 2016 Dec 1

Literature context:


Poorly immunogenic tumor cells evade host immunity and grow even in the presence of an intact immune system, but the complex mechanisms regulating tumor immunogenicity have not been elucidated. Here, we discovered an unexpected role of the Hippo pathway in suppressing anti-tumor immunity. We demonstrate that, in three different murine syngeneic tumor models (B16, SCC7, and 4T1), loss of the Hippo pathway kinases LATS1/2 (large tumor suppressor 1 and 2) in tumor cells inhibits tumor growth. Tumor regression by LATS1/2 deletion requires adaptive immune responses, and LATS1/2 deficiency enhances tumor vaccine efficacy. Mechanistically, LATS1/2-null tumor cells secrete nucleic-acid-rich extracellular vesicles, which induce a type I interferon response via the Toll-like receptors-MYD88/TRIF pathway. LATS1/2 deletion in tumors thus improves tumor immunogenicity, leading to tumor destruction by enhancing anti-tumor immune responses. Our observations uncover a key role of the Hippo pathway in modulating tumor immunogenicity and demonstrate a proof of concept for targeting LATS1/2 in cancer immunotherapy.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01NS082672(United States)

A postnatal peak in microglial development in the mouse hippocampus is correlated with heightened sensitivity to seizure triggers.

  • Kim I
  • Brain Behav
  • 2015 Dec 25

Literature context:


BACKGROUND: Explosive synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning occur in the hippocampus during the first two weeks of postnatal life, coincident with a heightened susceptibility to seizures in rodents. To determine the temporal correlation between microglial development and age-dependent susceptibility and response to seizures, we quantified developmental changes in basal microglia levels and seizure-induced microglial activation in the hippocampus of Cx3Cr1(GFP /+) transgenic mice. METHODS: Basal levels of microglia were quantified in the hippocampi of Cx3Cr1(GFP /+) mice at P0, P5, P10, P15, P20, P25, P30, P40, and P60. Seizure susceptibility and seizure-induced microglial activation were assessed in response to febrile seizures (lipopolysaccharide followed by hyperthermia) and kainic acid-induced status epilepticus. RESULTS: The density of microglia within the hippocampus increased rapidly after birth, reaching a peak during the second week of life - the age at which the animals became most vulnerable to seizure triggers. In addition, this peak of microglial development and seizure vulnerability during the second postnatal week represented the time of maximal seizure-induced microglia activation. CONCLUSIONS: Overreactive innate immunity mediated by activated microglia may exacerbate acute injury to neuronal synapses and contribute to the long-term epileptogenic effects of early-life seizures. Anti-inflammatory therapy targeting excessive production of inflammatory mediators by activated microglia, therefore, may be an effective age-specific therapeutic strategy to minimize neuronal dysfunction and prevent increases in susceptibility to subsequent seizures in developing animals.

Conditional ablation of astroglial CCL2 suppresses CNS accumulation of M1 macrophages and preserves axons in mice with MOG peptide EAE.

  • Moreno M
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Jun 11

Literature context:


Current multiple sclerosis (MS) therapies only partially prevent chronically worsening neurological deficits, which are largely attributable to progressive loss of CNS axons. Prior studies of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35-55 (MOG peptide), a model of MS, documented continued axon loss for months after acute CNS inflammatory infiltrates had subsided, and massive astroglial induction of CCL2 (MCP-1), a chemokine for CCR2(+) monocytes. We now report that conditional deletion of astroglial CCL2 significantly decreases CNS accumulation of classically activated (M1) monocyte-derived macrophages and microglial expression of M1 markers during the initial CNS inflammatory phase of MOG peptide EAE, reduces the acute and long-term severity of clinical deficits and slows the progression of spinal cord axon loss. In addition, lack of astroglial-derived CCL2 results in increased accumulation of Th17 cells within the CNS in these mice, but also in greater confinement of CD4(+) lymphocytes to CNS perivascular spaces. These findings suggest that therapies designed to inhibit astroglial CCL2-driven trafficking of monocyte-derived macrophages to the CNS during acute MS exacerbations have the potential to significantly reduce CNS axon loss and slow progression of neurological deficits.