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Anti-GFP antibody

RRID:AB_390913

Antibody ID

AB_390913

Target Antigen

GFP

Proper Citation

(Sigma-Aldrich Cat# 11814460001, RRID:AB_390913)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: Immunoprecipitation, Western blots, Immunostaining. Info: this is a Roche product sold by Sigma.

Clone ID

Clones 7.1 and 13.1

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Sigma-Aldrich

Cat Num

11814460001

Publications that use this research resource

Histone Methylation by SETD1A Protects Nascent DNA through the Nucleosome Chaperone Activity of FANCD2.

  • Higgs MR
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Components of the Fanconi anemia and homologous recombination pathways play a vital role in protecting newly replicated DNA from uncontrolled nucleolytic degradation, safeguarding genome stability. Here we report that histone methylation by the lysine methyltransferase SETD1A is crucial for protecting stalled replication forks from deleterious resection. Depletion of SETD1A sensitizes cells to replication stress and leads to uncontrolled DNA2-dependent resection of damaged replication forks. The ability of SETD1A to prevent degradation of these structures is mediated by its ability to catalyze methylation on Lys4 of histone H3 (H3K4) at replication forks, which enhances FANCD2-dependent histone chaperone activity. Suppressing H3K4 methylation or expression of a chaperone-defective FANCD2 mutant leads to loss of RAD51 nucleofilament stability and severe nucleolytic degradation of replication forks. Our work identifies epigenetic modification and histone mobility as critical regulatory mechanisms in maintaining genome stability by restraining nucleases from irreparably damaging stalled replication forks.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - RR024574(United States)

Interdependent Nutrient Availability and Steroid Hormone Signals Facilitate Root Growth Plasticity.

  • Singh AP
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jul 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Plants acquire essential elements from inherently heterogeneous soils, in which phosphate and iron availabilities vary. Consequently, plants have developed adaptive strategies to cope with low iron or phosphate levels, including alternation between root growth enhancement and attenuation. How this adaptive response is achieved remains unclear. Here, we found that low iron accelerates root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana by activating brassinosteroid signaling, whereas low-phosphate-induced high iron accumulation inhibits it. Altered hormone signaling intensity also modulated iron accumulation in the root elongation and differentiation zones, constituting a feedback response between brassinosteroid and iron. Surprisingly, the early effect of low iron levels on root growth depended on the brassinosteroid receptor but was apparently hormone ligand-independent. The brassinosteroid receptor inhibitor BKI1, the transcription factors BES1/BZR1, and the ferroxidase LPR1 operate at the base of this feedback loop. Hence, shared brassinosteroid and iron regulatory components link nutrient status to root morphology, thereby driving the adaptive response.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672(United States)

A Genetically Encoded Biosensor Reveals Location Bias of Opioid Drug Action.

  • Stoeber M
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Opioid receptors (ORs) precisely modulate behavior when activated by native peptide ligands but distort behaviors to produce pathology when activated by non-peptide drugs. A fundamental question is how drugs differ from peptides in their actions on target neurons. Here, we show that drugs differ in the subcellular location at which they activate ORs. We develop a genetically encoded biosensor that directly detects ligand-induced activation of ORs and uncover a real-time map of the spatiotemporal organization of OR activation in living neurons. Peptide agonists produce a characteristic activation pattern initiated in the plasma membrane and propagating to endosomes after receptor internalization. Drugs produce a different activation pattern by additionally driving OR activation in the somatic Golgi apparatus and Golgi elements extending throughout the dendritic arbor. These results establish an approach to probe the cellular basis of neuromodulation and reveal that drugs distort the spatiotemporal landscape of neuronal OR activation.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA004443()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK 59578(United States)

SHRED Is a Regulatory Cascade that Reprograms Ubr1 Substrate Specificity for Enhanced Protein Quality Control during Stress.

  • Szoradi T
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

When faced with proteotoxic stress, cells mount adaptive responses to eliminate aberrant proteins. Adaptive responses increase the expression of protein folding and degradation factors to enhance the cellular quality control machinery. However, it is unclear whether and how this augmented machinery acquires new activities during stress. Here, we uncover a regulatory cascade in budding yeast that consists of the hydrophilin protein Roq1/Yjl144w, the HtrA-type protease Ynm3/Nma111, and the ubiquitin ligase Ubr1. Various stresses stimulate ROQ1 transcription. The Roq1 protein is cleaved by Ynm3. Cleaved Roq1 interacts with Ubr1, transforming its substrate specificity. Altered substrate recognition by Ubr1 accelerates proteasomal degradation of misfolded as well as native proteins at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and in the cytosol. We term this pathway stress-induced homeostatically regulated protein degradation (SHRED) and propose that it promotes physiological adaptation by reprogramming a key component of the quality control machinery.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

Vps39 Interacts with Tom40 to Establish One of Two Functionally Distinct Vacuole-Mitochondria Contact Sites.

  • González Montoro A
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

The extensive subcellular network of membrane contact sites plays central roles in organelle biogenesis and communication, yet the precise contributions of the involved machineries remain largely enigmatic. The yeast vacuole forms a membrane contact site with mitochondria, called vacuolar and mitochondrial patch (vCLAMP). Formation of vCLAMPs involves the vacuolar Rab GTPase Ypt7 and the Ypt7-interacting Vps39 subunit of the HOPS tethering complex. Here, we uncover the general preprotein translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) subunit Tom40 as the direct binding partner of Vps39 on mitochondria. We identify Vps39 mutants defective in TOM binding, but functional for HOPS. Cells that cannot form vCLAMPs show reduced growth under stress conditions and impaired survival upon starvation. Unexpectedly, our mutant analysis revealed the existence of two functionally independent vacuole-mitochondria MCSs: one formed by the Ypt7-Vps39-Tom40 tether and a second one by Vps13-Mcp1, which is redundant with ER-mitochondrial contacts formed by ERMES.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM069454(United States)

RNA-directed activation of cytoplasmic dynein-1 in reconstituted transport RNPs.

  • McClintock MA
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jun 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Polarised mRNA transport is a prevalent mechanism for spatial control of protein synthesis. However, the composition of transported ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) and the regulation of their movement are poorly understood. We have reconstituted microtubule minus end-directed transport of mRNAs using purified components. A Bicaudal-D (BicD) adaptor protein and the RNA-binding protein Egalitarian (Egl) are sufficient for long-distance mRNA transport by the dynein motor and its accessory complex dynactin, thus defining a minimal transport-competent RNP. Unexpectedly, the RNA is required for robust activation of dynein motility. We show that a cis-acting RNA localisation signal promotes the interaction of Egl with BicD, which licenses the latter protein to recruit dynein and dynactin. Our data support a model for BicD activation based on RNA-induced occupancy of two Egl-binding sites on the BicD dimer. Scaffolding of adaptor protein assemblies by cargoes is an attractive mechanism for regulating intracellular transport.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U105178790()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA057341-18(United States)

Dynamic Architecture of DNA Repair Complexes and the Synaptonemal Complex at Sites of Meiotic Recombination.

  • Woglar A
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jun 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generated and repaired in a highly regulated manner to ensure formation of crossovers (COs) while also enabling efficient non-CO repair to restore genome integrity. We use structured-illumination microscopy to investigate the dynamic architecture of DSB repair complexes at meiotic recombination sites in relationship to the synaptonemal complex (SC). DSBs resected at both ends are converted into inter-homolog repair intermediates harboring two populations of BLM helicase and RPA, flanking a single population of MutSγ. These intermediates accumulate until late pachytene, when repair proteins disappear from non-CO sites and CO-designated sites become enveloped by SC-central region proteins, acquire a second MutSγ population, and lose RPA. These and other data suggest that the SC may protect CO intermediates from being dismantled inappropriately and promote CO maturation by generating a transient CO-specific repair compartment, thereby enabling differential timing and outcome of repair at CO and non-CO sites.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM053804()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM067268()

γ-TuRC Heterogeneity Revealed by Analysis of Mozart1.

  • Tovey CA
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Microtubules are essential for various cell processes [1] and are nucleated by multi-protein γ-tubulin ring complexes (γ-TuRCs) at various microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs), including centrosomes [2-6]. Recruitment of γ-TuRCs to different MTOCs at different times influences microtubule array formation, but how this is regulated remains an open question. It also remains unclear whether all γ-TuRCs within the same organism have the same composition and how any potential heterogeneity might influence γ-TuRC recruitment. MOZART1 (Mzt1) was recently identified as a γ-TuRC component [7, 8] and is conserved in nearly all eukaryotes [6, 9]. Mzt1 has so far been studied in cultured human cells, yeast, and plants; its absence leads to failures in γ-TuRC recruitment and cell division, resulting in cell death [7, 9-15]. Mzt1 is small (∼8.5 kDa), binds directly to core γ-TuRC components [9, 10, 14, 15], and appears to mediate the interaction between γ-TuRCs and proteins that tether γ-TuRCs to MTOCs [9, 15]. Here, we use Drosophila to investigate the function of Mzt1 in a multicellular animal for the first time. Surprisingly, we find that Drosophila Mzt1 is expressed only in the testes and is present in γ-TuRCs recruited to basal bodies, but not to mitochondria, in developing sperm cells. mzt1 mutants are viable but have defects in basal body positioning and γ-TuRC recruitment to centriole adjuncts; sperm formation is affected and mutants display a rapid age-dependent decline in sperm motility and male fertility. Our results reveal that tissue-specific and MTOC-specific γ-TuRC heterogeneity exist in Drosophila and highlight the complexity of γ-TuRC recruitment in a multicellular animal.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R37 MH060233(United States)

The plant-specific transcription factors CBP60g and SARD1 are targeted by a Verticillium secretory protein VdSCP41 to modulate immunity.

  • Qin J
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

The vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae infects the roots of plants to cause Verticillium wilt. The molecular mechanisms underlying V. dahliae virulence and host resistance remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that a secretory protein, VdSCP41, functions as an intracellular effector that promotes V. dahliae virulence. The Arabidopsis master immune regulators CBP60g and SARD1 and cotton GhCBP60b are targeted by VdSCP41. VdSCP41 binds the C-terminal portion of CBP60g to inhibit its transcription factor activity. Further analyses reveal a transcription activation domain within CBP60g that is required for VdSCP41 targeting. Mutations in both CBP60g and SARD1 compromise Arabidopsis resistance against V. dahliae and partially impair VdSCP41-mediated virulence. Moreover, virus-induced silencing of GhCBP60b compromises cotton resistance to V. dahliae. This work uncovers a virulence strategy in which the V. dahliae secretory protein VdSCP41 directly targets plant transcription factors to inhibit immunity, and reveals CBP60g, SARD1 and GhCBP60b as crucial components governing V. dahliae resistance.

Funding information:
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 31501593()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 31571968()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 31730078()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K01 DK076788(United States)
  • The Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences - XDB11020600()
  • The Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences - XDB11040500()

Ejaculation Induced by the Activation of Crz Neurons Is Rewarding to Drosophila Males.

  • Zer-Krispil S
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 May 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

The reward system is a collection of circuits that reinforce behaviors necessary for survival [1, 2]. Given the importance of reproduction for survival, actions that promote successful mating induce pleasurable feeling and are positively reinforced [3, 4]. This principle is conserved in Drosophila, where successful copulation is naturally rewarding to male flies, induces long-term appetitive memories [5], increases brain levels of neuropeptide F (NPF, the fly homolog of neuropeptide Y), and prevents ethanol, known otherwise as rewarding to flies [6, 7], from being rewarding [5]. It is not clear which of the multiple sensory and motor responses performed during mating induces perception of reward. Sexual interactions with female flies that do not reach copulation are not sufficient to reduce ethanol consumption [5], suggesting that only successful mating encounters are rewarding. Here, we uncoupled the initial steps of mating from its final steps and tested the ability of ejaculation to mimic the rewarding value of full copulation. We induced ejaculation by activating neurons that express the neuropeptide corazonin (CRZ) [8] and subsequently measured different aspects of reward. We show that activating Crz-expressing neurons is rewarding to male flies, as they choose to reside in a zone that triggers optogenetic stimulation of Crz neurons and display conditioned preference for an odor paired with the activation. Reminiscent of successful mating, repeated activation of Crz neurons increases npf levels and reduces ethanol consumption. Our results demonstrate that ejaculation stimulated by Crz/Crz-receptor signaling serves as an essential part of the mating reward mechanism in Drosophila. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - DP2 OD007417(United States)

FYCO1 mediates clearance of α-synuclein aggregates through a Rab7-dependent mechanism.

  • Saridaki T
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 May 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Parkinson disease can be caused by mutations in the α-synuclein gene and is characterized by aggregates of α-synuclein protein. We have previously shown that overexpression of the small GTPase Rab7 can induce clearance of α-synuclein aggregates. In this study, we investigate which Rab7 effectors mediate this effect. To model Parkinson disease we expressed the pathogenic A53T mutant of α-synuclein in HEK293T cells and Drosophila melanogaster. We tested the Rab7 effectors FYVE and coiled-coil domain-containing protein 1 (FYCO1) and Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP). FYCO1-EGFP decorated vesicles containing α-synuclein. RILP-EGFP also decorated vesicular structures, but they did not contain α-synuclein. FYCO1 overexpression reduced the number of cells with α-synuclein aggregates, defined as visible particles of EGFP-tagged α-synuclein, whereas RILP did not. FYCO1 but not RILP reduced the amount of α-synuclein protein as assayed by western blot, increased the disappearance of α-synuclein aggregates in time-lapse microscopy, and decreased α-synuclein-induced toxicity assayed by the Trypan blue assay. siRNA-mediated knockdown of FYCO1 but not RILP reduced Rab7 induced aggregate clearance. Collectively, these findings indicate that FYCO1 and not RILP mediates Rab7 induced aggregate clearance. The effect of FYCO1 on aggregate clearance was blocked by the dominant negative Rab7 indicating that FYCO1 requires active Rab7 to function. Electron microscopic analysis and insertion of lysosomal membranes into the plasma membrane indicate that FYCO1 could lead to secretion of α-synuclein aggregates. Extracellular α-synuclein as assayed by ELISA was, however, not increased with FYCO1. Coexpression of FYCO1 in the fly model decreased α-synuclein aggregates as shown by the filter trap assay and rescued the locomotor deficit resulting from neuronal A53T-α-synuclein expression. This latter finding confirms that a pathway involving Rab7 and FYCO1 stimulates degradation of α-synuclein and could be beneficial in patients with Parkinson disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - P20 AA017837(United States)

Proteasome storage granules protect proteasomes from autophagic degradation upon carbon starvation.

  • Marshall RS
  • Elife
  • 2018 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

26S proteasome abundance is tightly regulated at multiple levels, including the elimination of excess or inactive particles by autophagy. In yeast, this proteaphagy occurs upon nitrogen starvation but not carbon starvation, which instead stimulates the rapid sequestration of proteasomes into cytoplasmic puncta termed proteasome storage granules (PSGs). Here, we show that PSGs help protect proteasomes from autophagic degradation. Both the core protease and regulatory particle sub-complexes are sequestered separately into PSGs via pathways dependent on the accessory proteins Blm10 and Spg5, respectively. Modulating PSG formation, either by perturbing cellular energy status or pH, or by genetically eliminating factors required for granule assembly, not only influences the rate of proteasome degradation, but also impacts cell viability upon recovery from carbon starvation. PSG formation and concomitant protection against proteaphagy also occurs in Arabidopsis, suggesting that PSGs represent an evolutionarily conserved cache of proteasomes that can be rapidly re-mobilized based on energy availability.

Funding information:
  • National Institutes of Health - R01-GM124452-01A1()
  • National Science Foundation - IOS-1329956()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - DE020817(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM124452()
  • U.S. Department of Energy - DE-FG02-88ER13968()

The ER Contact Proteins VAPA/B Interact with Multiple Autophagy Proteins to Modulate Autophagosome Biogenesis.

  • Zhao YG
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Apr 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of biogenesis of the isolation membrane (IM, autophagosome precursor) and forms extensive contacts with IMs during their expansion into double-membrane autophagosomes. Little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the formation and/or maintenance of the ER/IM contact. The integral ER proteins VAPA and VAPB (VAPs) participate in establishing ER contacts with multiple membranes by interacting with different tethers. Here, we demonstrate that VAPs also modulate ER/IM contact formation. Depletion of VAPs impairs progression of IMs into autophagosomes. Upon autophagy induction, VAPs are recruited to autophagosome formation sites on the ER, a process mediated by their interactions with FIP200 and PI(3)P. VAPs directly interact with FIP200 and ULK1 through their conserved FFAT motifs and stabilize the ULK1/FIP200 complex at the autophagosome formation sites on the ER. The formation of ULK1 puncta is significantly reduced by VAPA/B depletion. VAPs also interact with WIPI2 and enhance the formation of the WIPI2/FIP200 ER/IM tethering complex. Depletion of VMP1, which increases the ER/IM contact, greatly elevates the interaction of VAPs with these autophagy proteins. The VAPB P56S mutation, which is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, reduces the ULK1/FIP200 interaction and impairs autophagy at an early step, similar to the effect seen in VAPA/B-depleted cells. Our study reveals that VAPs directly interact with multiple ATG proteins, thereby contributing to ER/IM contact formation for autophagosome biogenesis.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - 9208(Canada)

The Monocot-Specific Receptor-like Kinase SDS2 Controls Cell Death and Immunity in Rice.

  • Fan J
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Apr 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Programmed cell death (PCD) plays critical roles in plant immunity but must be regulated to prevent excessive damage. The E3 ubiquitin ligase SPL11 negatively regulates PCD and immunity in plants. We show that SPL11 cell-death suppressor 2 (SDS2), an S-domain receptor-like kinase, positively regulates PCD and immunity in rice by engaging and regulating SPL11 and related kinases controlling defense responses. An sds2 mutant shows reduced immune responses and enhanced susceptibility to the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Conversely, SDS2 over-expression induces constitutive PCD accompanied by elevated immune responses and enhanced resistance to M. oryzae. SDS2 interacts with and phosphorylates SPL11, which in turn ubiquitinates SDS2, leading to its degradation. In addition, SDS2 interacts with related receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases, OsRLCK118/176, that positively regulate immunity by phosphorylating the NADPH oxidase OsRbohB to stimulate ROS production. Thus, a plasma membrane-resident protein complex consisting of SDS2, SPL11, and OsRLCK118/176 controls PCD and immunity in rice.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672(United States)

Protein Dynamics in Complex DNA Lesions.

  • Aleksandrov R
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

A single mutagen can generate multiple different types of DNA lesions. How different repair pathways cooperate in complex DNA lesions, however, remains largely unclear. Here we measured, clustered, and modeled the kinetics of recruitment and dissociation of 70 DNA repair proteins to laser-induced DNA damage sites in HeLa cells. The precise timescale of protein recruitment reveals that error-prone translesion polymerases are considerably delayed compared to error-free polymerases. We show that this is ensured by the delayed recruitment of RAD18 to double-strand break sites. The time benefit of error-free polymerases disappears when PARP inhibition significantly delays PCNA recruitment. Moreover, removal of PCNA from complex DNA damage sites correlates with RPA loading during 5'-DNA end resection. Our systematic study of the dynamics of DNA repair proteins in complex DNA lesions reveals the multifaceted coordination between the repair pathways and provides a kinetics-based resource to study genomic instability and anticancer drug impact.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM083300(United States)

The yeast H+-ATPase Pma1 promotes Rag/Gtr-dependent TORC1 activation in response to H+-coupled nutrient uptake.

  • Saliba E
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The yeast Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) plays a central role in controlling growth. How amino acids and other nutrients stimulate its activity via the Rag/Gtr GTPases remains poorly understood. We here report that the signal triggering Rag/Gtr-dependent TORC1 activation upon amino-acid uptake is the coupled H+ influx catalyzed by amino-acid/H+ symporters. H+-dependent uptake of other nutrients, ionophore-mediated H+ diffusion, and inhibition of the vacuolar V-ATPase also activate TORC1. As the increase in cytosolic H+ elicited by these processes stimulates the compensating H+-export activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase (Pma1), we have examined whether this major ATP-consuming enzyme might be involved in TORC1 control. We find that when the endogenous Pma1 is replaced with a plant H+-ATPase, H+ influx or increase fails to activate TORC1. Our results show that H+ influx coupled to nutrient uptake stimulates TORC1 activity and that Pma1 is a key actor in this mechanism.

Funding information:
  • Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS - 22396499()
  • Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS - 3.4.592.08.F()
  • Fonds De La Recherche Scientifique - FNRS - 30274494()
  • Fonds National de La Recherche Scientifique - 22396499()
  • Fonds National de La Recherche Scientifique - 3.4.592.08.F()
  • Fonds National de La Recherche Scientifique - 30274494()
  • Fonds pour la Formation à la Recherche dans l'Industrie et dans l'Agriculture - 21074048()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

Mps1 Phosphorylates Its N-Terminal Extension to Relieve Autoinhibition and Activate the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

  • Combes G
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Mar 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) is a conserved apical kinase in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) that ensures accurate segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. Mps1 undergoes extensive auto- and transphosphorylation, but the regulatory and functional consequences of these modifications remain unclear. Recent findings highlight the importance of intermolecular interactions between the N-terminal extension (NTE) of Mps1 and the Hec1 subunit of the NDC80 complex, which control Mps1 localization at kinetochores and activation of the SAC. Whether the NTE regulates other mitotic functions of Mps1 remains unknown. Here, we report that phosphorylation within the NTE contributes to Mps1 activation through relief of catalytic autoinhibition that is mediated by the NTE itself. Moreover, we find that this regulatory NTE function is independent of its role in Mps1 kinetochore recruitment. We demonstrate that the NTE autoinhibitory mechanism impinges most strongly on Mps1-dependent SAC functions and propose that Mps1 activation likely occurs sequentially through dimerization of a "prone-to-autophosphorylate" Mps1 conformer followed by autophosphorylation of the NTE prior to maximal kinase activation segment trans-autophosphorylation. Our observations underline the importance of autoregulated Mps1 activity in generation and maintenance of a robust SAC in human cells.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA008748()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 GM094972()
  • Wellcome Trust - K99 CA212290()

Human LINE-1 retrotransposition requires a metastable coiled coil and a positively charged N-terminus in L1ORF1p.

  • Khazina E
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

LINE-1 (L1) is an autonomous retrotransposon, which acted throughout mammalian evolution and keeps contributing to human genotypic diversity, genetic disease and cancer. L1 encodes two essential proteins: L1ORF1p, a unique RNA-binding protein, and L1ORF2p, an endonuclease and reverse transcriptase. L1ORF1p contains an essential, but rapidly evolving N-terminal portion, homo-trimerizes via a coiled coil and packages L1RNA into large assemblies. Here, we determined crystal structures of the entire coiled coil domain of human L1ORF1p. We show that retrotransposition requires a non-ideal and metastable coiled coil structure, and a strongly basic L1ORF1p amino terminus. Human L1ORF1p therefore emerges as a highly calibrated molecular machine, sensitive to mutation but functional in different hosts. Our analysis rationalizes the locally rapid L1ORF1p sequence evolution and reveals striking mechanistic parallels to coiled coil-containing membrane fusion proteins. It also suggests how trimeric L1ORF1p could form larger meshworks and indicates critical novel steps in L1 retrotransposition.

Funding information:
  • Max-Planck-Gesellschaft - Open-access funding()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R01DE016593(United States)

The CLAVATA receptor FASCIATED EAR2 responds to distinct CLE peptides by signaling through two downstream effectors.

  • Je BI
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Meristems contain groups of indeterminate stem cells, which are maintained by a feedback loop between CLAVATA (CLV) and WUSCHEL (WUS) signaling. CLV signaling involves the secretion of the CLV3 peptide and its perception by a number of Leucine-Rich-Repeat (LRR) receptors, including the receptor-like kinase CLV1 and the receptor-like protein CLV2 coupled with the CORYNE (CRN) pseudokinase. CLV2, and its maize ortholog FASCIATED EAR2 (FEA2) appear to function in signaling by CLV3 and several related CLV3/EMBRYO-SURROUNDING REGION (CLE) peptide ligands. Nevertheless, how signaling specificity is achieved remains unknown. Here we show that FEA2 transmits signaling from two distinct CLE peptides, the maize CLV3 ortholog ZmCLE7 and ZmFON2-LIKE CLE PROTEIN1 (ZmFCP1) through two different candidate downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the maize heterotrimeric G protein COMPACT PLANT2 (CT2), and ZmCRN. Our data provide a novel framework to understand how diverse signaling peptides can activate different downstream pathways through common receptor proteins.

Funding information:
  • Human Frontier Science Program - Postdoctoral Fellowships,LT000227/2016-L()
  • National Institute of Food and Agriculture - 2013-02198()
  • National Institute of Food and Agriculture - 2015-06319()
  • National Science Foundation - IOS-1238202()
  • National Science Foundation - IOS-1546837()
  • National Science Foundation - MCB-1027445()
  • Next-Generation BioGreen 21 Program - PJ01184302()
  • Next-Generation BioGreen 21 Program - PJ01322602()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI095097(United States)

A compartmentalized signaling network mediates crossover control in meiosis.

  • Zhang L
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

During meiosis, each pair of homologous chromosomes typically undergoes at least one crossover (crossover assurance), but these exchanges are strictly limited in number and widely spaced along chromosomes (crossover interference). The molecular basis for this chromosome-wide regulation remains mysterious. A family of meiotic RING finger proteins has been implicated in crossover regulation across eukaryotes. Caenorhabditis elegans expresses four such proteins, of which one (ZHP-3) is known to be required for crossovers. Here we investigate the functions of ZHP-1, ZHP-2, and ZHP-4. We find that all four ZHP proteins, like their homologs in other species, localize to the synaptonemal complex, an unusual, liquid crystalline compartment that assembles between paired homologs. Together they promote accumulation of pro-crossover factors, including ZHP-3 and ZHP-4, at a single recombination intermediate, thereby patterning exchanges along paired chromosomes. These proteins also act at the top of a hierarchical, symmetry-breaking process that enables crossovers to direct accurate chromosome segregation.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - R56MH082068(United States)
  • National Institute of General Medical Sciences - GM065591()
  • National Institutes of Health - P40 OD010440()

Architecture of Lipid Droplets in Endoplasmic Reticulum Is Determined by Phospholipid Intrinsic Curvature.

  • Choudhary V
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Mar 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lipid droplets (LDs) store fats and play critical roles in lipid and energy homeostasis. They form between the leaflets of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and consist of a neutral lipid core wrapped in a phospholipid monolayer with proteins. Two types of ER-LD architecture are thought to exist and be essential for LD functioning. Maturing LDs either emerge from the ER into the cytoplasm, remaining attached to the ER by a narrow membrane neck, or stay embedded in the ER and are surrounded by ER membrane. Here, we identify a lipid-based mechanism that controls which of these two architectures is favored. Theoretical modeling indicated that the intrinsic molecular curvatures of ER phospholipids can determine whether LDs remain embedded in or emerge from the ER; lipids with negative intrinsic curvature such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidylethanolamine favor LD embedding, while those with positive intrinsic curvature, like lysolipids, support LD emergence. This prediction was verified by altering the lipid composition of the ER in S. cerevisiae using mutants and the addition of exogenous lipids. We found that fat-storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FIT2) homologs become enriched at sites of LD generation when biogenesis is induced. DAG accumulates at sites of LD biogenesis, and FIT2 proteins may promote LD emergence from the ER by reducing DAG levels at these sites. Altogether, our findings suggest that cells regulate LD integration in the ER by modulating ER lipid composition, particularly at sites of LD biogenesis and that FIT2 proteins may play a central role in this process.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 GM102498(United States)
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 DK060004-06()

FUS Regulates Activity of MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing.

  • Zhang T
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

MicroRNA-mediated gene silencing is a fundamental mechanism in the regulation of gene expression. It remains unclear how the efficiency of RNA silencing could be influenced by RNA-binding proteins associated with the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC). Here we report that fused in sarcoma (FUS), an RNA-binding protein linked to neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), interacts with the core miRISC component AGO2 and is required for optimal microRNA-mediated gene silencing. FUS promotes gene silencing by binding to microRNA and mRNA targets, as illustrated by its action on miR-200c and its target ZEB1. A truncated mutant form of FUS that leads its carriers to an aggressive form of ALS, R495X, impairs microRNA-mediated gene silencing. The C. elegans homolog fust-1 also shares a conserved role in regulating the microRNA pathway. Collectively, our results suggest a role for FUS in regulating the activity of microRNA-mediated silencing.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA045508()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - HD24061(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS074324()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS089616()

Basal Mitophagy Occurs Independently of PINK1 in Mouse Tissues of High Metabolic Demand.

  • McWilliams TG
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Feb 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dysregulated mitophagy has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD) due to the role of PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) in mediating depolarization-induced mitophagy in vitro. Elegant mouse reporters have revealed the pervasive nature of basal mitophagy in vivo, yet the role of PINK1 and tissue metabolic context remains unknown. Using mito-QC, we investigated the contribution of PINK1 to mitophagy in metabolically active tissues. We observed a high degree of mitophagy in neural cells, including PD-relevant mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and microglia. In all tissues apart from pancreatic islets, loss of Pink1 did not influence basal mitophagy, despite disrupting depolarization-induced Parkin activation. Our findings provide the first in vivo evidence that PINK1 is detectable at basal levels and that basal mammalian mitophagy occurs independently of PINK1. This suggests multiple, yet-to-be-discovered pathways orchestrating mammalian mitochondrial integrity in a context-dependent fashion, and this has profound implications for our molecular understanding of vertebrate mitophagy.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL074894(United States)

Concerted Action of Evolutionarily Ancient and Novel SNARE Complexes in Flowering-Plant Cytokinesis.

  • Park M
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Membrane vesicles delivered to the cell-division plane fuse with one another to form the partitioning membrane during plant cytokinesis, starting in the cell center. In Arabidopsis, this requires SNARE complexes involving the cytokinesis-specific Qa-SNARE KNOLLE. However, cytokinesis still occurs in knolle mutant embryos, suggesting contributions from KNOLLE-independent SNARE complexes. Here we show that Qa-SNARE SYP132, having counterparts in lower plants, functionally overlaps with the flowering plant-specific KNOLLE. SYP132 mutation causes cytokinesis defects, knolle syp132 double mutants consist of only one or a few multi-nucleate cells, and SYP132 has the same SNARE partners as KNOLLE. SYP132 and KNOLLE also have non-overlapping functions in secretion and in cellularization of the embryo-nourishing endosperm resulting from double fertilization unique to flowering plants. Evolutionarily ancient non-specialized SNARE complexes originating in algae were thus amended by the appearance of cytokinesis-specific SNARE complexes, meeting the high demand for membrane-fusion capacity during endosperm cellularization in angiosperms.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA080320(United States)

Identification of piRNA Binding Sites Reveals the Argonaute Regulatory Landscape of the C. elegans Germline.

  • Shen EZ
  • Cell
  • 2018 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

piRNAs (Piwi-interacting small RNAs) engage Piwi Argonautes to silence transposons and promote fertility in animal germlines. Genetic and computational studies have suggested that C. elegans piRNAs tolerate mismatched pairing and in principle could target every transcript. Here we employ in vivo cross-linking to identify transcriptome-wide interactions between piRNAs and target RNAs. We show that piRNAs engage all germline mRNAs and that piRNA binding follows microRNA-like pairing rules. Targeting correlates better with binding energy than with piRNA abundance, suggesting that piRNA concentration does not limit targeting. In mRNAs silenced by piRNAs, secondary small RNAs accumulate at the center and ends of piRNA binding sites. In germline-expressed mRNAs, however, targeting by the CSR-1 Argonaute correlates with reduced piRNA binding density and suppression of piRNA-associated secondary small RNAs. Our findings reveal physiologically important and nuanced regulation of individual piRNA targets and provide evidence for a comprehensive post-transcriptional regulatory step in germline gene expression.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 GM058800()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P01 HD078253()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - T32 DA07274(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - K99 GM124460()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R37 GM058800()

Arabidopsis ARGONAUTE 1 Binds Chromatin to Promote Gene Transcription in Response to Hormones and Stresses.

  • Liu C
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Conventional RNA interference (RNAi) pathways suppress eukaryotic gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. At the core of RNAi are small RNAs (sRNAs) and effector Argonaute (AGO) proteins. Arabidopsis AGO1 is known to bind microRNAs (miRNAs) and post-transcriptionally repress target genes in the cytoplasm. Here, we report that AGO1 also binds to the chromatin of active genes and promotes their transcription. We show that sRNAs and SWI/SNF complexes associate with nuclear AGO1 and are required for AGO1 binding to chromatin. Moreover, we show that various stimuli, including plant hormones and stresses, specifically trigger AGO1 binding to stimulus-responsive genes. Finally, we show that AGO1 facilitates the induction of genes in jasmonate (JA) signaling pathways and the activation of JA responses. Our findings suggest that, by binding and facilitating the expression of stimuli-specific genes, AGO1 may regulate diverse signaling pathways and associated biological processes.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

Context-dependent deposition and regulation of mRNAs in P-bodies.

  • Wang C
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jan 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cells respond to stress by remodeling their transcriptome through transcription and degradation. Xrn1p-dependent degradation in P-bodies is the most prevalent decay pathway, yet, P-bodies may facilitate not only decay, but also act as a storage compartment. However, which and how mRNAs are selected into different degradation pathways and what determines the fate of any given mRNA in P-bodies remain largely unknown. We devised a new method to identify both common and stress-specific mRNA subsets associated with P-bodies. mRNAs targeted for degradation to P-bodies, decayed with different kinetics. Moreover, the localization of a specific set of mRNAs to P-bodies under glucose deprivation was obligatory to prevent decay. Depending on its client mRNA, the RNA-binding protein Puf5p either promoted or inhibited decay. Furthermore, the Puf5p-dependent storage of a subset of mRNAs in P-bodies under glucose starvation may be beneficial with respect to chronological lifespan.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK089016(United States)

Tension-Dependent Stretching Activates ZO-1 to Control the Junctional Localization of Its Interactors.

  • Spadaro D
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Dec 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tensile forces regulate epithelial homeostasis, but the molecular mechanisms behind this regulation are poorly understood. Using structured illumination microscopy and proximity ligation assays, we show that the tight junction protein ZO-1 exists in stretched and folded conformations within epithelial cells, depending on actomyosin-generated force. We also show that ZO-1 and ZO-2 regulate the localization of the transcription factor DbpA and the tight junction membrane protein occludin in a manner that depends on the organization of the actin cytoskeleton, myosin-II activity, and substrate stiffness, resulting in modulation of gene expression, cell proliferation, barrier function, and cyst morphogenesis. Pull-down experiments show that interactions between N-terminal (ZPSG) and C-terminal domains of ZO-1 prevent binding of DbpA to the ZPSG, suggesting that force-dependent intra-molecular interactions regulate ZPSG binding to ligands within cells. In vivo and in vitro experiments also suggest that ZO-1 heterodimerization with ZO-2 promotes the stretched conformation and ZPSG interaction with ligands. Magnetic tweezers single-molecule experiments suggest that pN-scale tensions (∼2-4 pN) are sufficient to maintain the stretched conformation of ZO-1, while keeping its structured domains intact, and that 5-20 pN force is required to disrupt the interaction between the extreme C-terminal and the ZPSG domains of ZO-1. We propose that tensile forces regulate epithelial homeostasis by activating ZO proteins through stretching, to control the junctional recruitment and downstream signaling of their interactors.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI090166(United States)

MAP Kinase Cascades Regulate the Cold Response by Modulating ICE1 Protein Stability.

  • Zhao C
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Dec 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades are important signaling modules that convert environmental stimuli into cellular responses. We show that MPK3, MPK4, and MPK6 are rapidly activated after cold treatment. The mpk3 and mpk6 mutants display increased expression of CBF genes and enhanced freezing tolerance, whereas constitutive activation of the MKK4/5-MPK3/6 cascade in plants causes reduced expression of CBF genes and hypersensitivity to freezing, suggesting that the MKK4/5-MPK3/6 cascade negatively regulates the cold response. MPK3 and MPK6 can phosphorylate ICE1, a basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor that regulates the expression of CBF genes, and the phosphorylation promotes the degradation of ICE1. Interestingly, the MEKK1-MKK2-MPK4 pathway constitutively suppresses MPK3 and MPK6 activities and has a positive role in the cold response. Furthermore, the MAPKKK YDA and two calcium/calmodulin-regulated receptor-like kinases, CRLK1 and CRLK2, negatively modulate the cold activation of MPK3/6. Our results uncover important roles of MAPK cascades in the regulation of plant cold response.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G0601546(United Kingdom)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM059138()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM109080()

Spatial Auxin Signaling Controls Leaf Flattening in Arabidopsis.

  • Guan C
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Oct 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

The flattening of leaves to form broad blades is an important adaptation that maximizes photosynthesis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. The WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX (WOX) genes WOX1 and PRS are expressed in the leaf marginal domain to enable leaf flattening, but the nature of WOX expression establishment remains elusive. Here, we report that adaxial-expressed MONOPTEROS (MP) and abaxial-enriched auxin together act as positional cues for patterning the WOX domain. MP directly binds to the WOX1 and PRS promoters and activates their expression. Furthermore, redundant abaxial-enriched ARF repressors suppress WOX1 and PRS expression, also through direct binding. In particular, we show that ARF2 is redundantly required with ARF3 and ARF4 to maintain the abaxial identity. Taken together, these findings explain how adaxial-abaxial polarity patterns the mediolateral axis and subsequent lateral expansion of leaves.

Recruitment dynamics of ESCRT-III and Vps4 to endosomes and implications for reverse membrane budding.

  • Adell MAY
  • Elife
  • 2017 Oct 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ESCRT machinery mediates reverse membrane scission. By quantitative fluorescence lattice light-sheet microscopy, we have shown that ESCRT-III subunits polymerize rapidly on yeast endosomes, together with the recruitment of at least two Vps4 hexamers. During their 3-45 s lifetimes, the ESCRT-III assemblies accumulated 75-200 Snf7 and 15-50 Vps24 molecules. Productive budding events required at least two additional Vps4 hexamers. Membrane budding was associated with continuous, stochastic exchange of Vps4 and ESCRT-III components, rather than steady growth of fixed assemblies, and depended on Vps4 ATPase activity. An all-or-none step led to final release of ESCRT-III and Vps4. Tomographic electron microscopy demonstrated that acute disruption of Vps4 recruitment stalled membrane budding. We propose a model in which multiple Vps4 hexamers (four or more) draw together several ESCRT-III filaments. This process induces cargo crowding and inward membrane buckling, followed by constriction of the nascent bud neck and ultimately ILV generation by vesicle fission.

Structural Basis of Mec1-Ddc2-RPA Assembly and Activation on Single-Stranded DNA at Sites of Damage.

  • Deshpande I
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mec1-Ddc2 (ATR-ATRIP) is a key DNA-damage-sensing kinase that is recruited through the single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding replication protein A (RPA) to initiate the DNA damage checkpoint response. Activation of ATR-ATRIP in the absence of DNA damage is lethal. Therefore, it is important that damage-specific recruitment precedes kinase activation, which is achieved at least in part by Mec1-Ddc2 homodimerization. Here, we report a structural, biochemical, and functional characterization of the yeast Mec1-Ddc2-RPA assembly. High-resolution co-crystal structures of Ddc2-Rfa1 and Ddc2-Rfa1-t11 (K45E mutant) N termini and of the Ddc2 coiled-coil domain (CCD) provide insight into Mec1-Ddc2 homodimerization and damage-site targeting. Based on our structural and functional findings, we present a Mec1-Ddc2-RPA-ssDNA composite structural model. By way of validation, we show that RPA-dependent recruitment of Mec1-Ddc2 is crucial for maintaining its homodimeric state at ssDNA and that Ddc2's recruitment domain and CCD are important for Mec1-dependent survival of UV-light-induced DNA damage.

Proteomic analysis of cell cycle progression in asynchronous cultures, including mitotic subphases, using PRIMMUS.

  • Ly T
  • Elife
  • 2017 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The temporal regulation of protein abundance and post-translational modifications is a key feature of cell division. Recently, we analysed gene expression and protein abundance changes during interphase under minimally perturbed conditions (Ly et al., 2014, 2015). Here, we show that by using specific intracellular immunolabelling protocols, FACS separation of interphase and mitotic cells, including mitotic subphases, can be combined with proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry. Using this PRIMMUS (PRoteomic analysis of Intracellular iMMUnolabelled cell Subsets) approach, we now compare protein abundance and phosphorylation changes in interphase and mitotic fractions from asynchronously growing human cells. We identify a set of 115 phosphorylation sites increased during G2, termed 'early risers'. This set includes phosphorylation of S738 on TPX2, which we show is important for TPX2 function and mitotic progression. Further, we use PRIMMUS to provide the first a proteome-wide analysis of protein abundance remodeling between prophase, prometaphase and anaphase.

Prolyl dihydroxylation of unassembled uS12/Rps23 regulates fungal hypoxic adaptation.

  • Clasen SJ
  • Elife
  • 2017 Oct 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

The prolyl-3,4-dihydroxylase Ofd1 and nuclear import adaptor Nro1 regulate the hypoxic response in fission yeast by controlling activity of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein transcription factor Sre1. Here, we identify an extra-ribosomal function for uS12/Rps23 central to this regulatory system. Nro1 binds Rps23, and Ofd1 dihydroxylates Rps23 P62 in complex with Nro1. Concurrently, Nro1 imports Rps23 into the nucleus for assembly into 40S ribosomes. Low oxygen inhibits Ofd1 hydroxylase activity and stabilizes the Ofd1-Rps23-Nro1 complex, thereby sequestering Ofd1 from binding Sre1, which is then free to activate hypoxic gene expression. In vitro studies demonstrate that Ofd1 directly binds Rps23, Nro1, and Sre1 through a consensus binding sequence. Interestingly, Rps23 expression modulates Sre1 activity by changing the Rps23 substrate pool available to Ofd1. To date, oxygen is the only known signal to Sre1, but additional nutrient signals may tune the hypoxic response through control of unassembled Rps23 or Ofd1 activity.

Slp1-Emp65: A Guardian Factor that Protects Folding Polypeptides from Promiscuous Degradation.

  • Zhang S
  • Cell
  • 2017 Oct 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Newly synthesized proteins engage molecular chaperones that assist folding. Their progress is monitored by quality control systems that target folding errors for degradation. Paradoxically, chaperones that promote folding also direct unfolded polypeptides for degradation. Hence, a mechanism was previously hypothesized that prevents the degradation of actively folding polypeptides. In this study, we show that a conserved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein complex, consisting of Slp1 and Emp65 proteins, performs this function in the ER lumen. The complex binds unfolded proteins and protects them from degradation during folding. In its absence, approximately 20%-30% of newly synthesized proteins that could otherwise fold are degraded. Although the Slp1-Emp65 complex hosts a broad range of clients, it is specific for soluble proteins. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the vulnerability of newly translated, actively folding polypeptides and the discovery of a new proteostasis functional class we term "guardian" that protects them from degradation.

Heterogeneity of Stop Codon Readthrough in Single Bacterial Cells and Implications for Population Fitness.

  • Fan Y
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gene expression noise (heterogeneity) leads to phenotypic diversity among isogenic individual cells. Our current understanding of gene expression noise is mostly limited to transcription, as separating translational noise from transcriptional noise has been challenging. It also remains unclear how translational heterogeneity originates. Using a transcription-normalized reporter system, we discovered that stop codon readthrough is heterogeneous among single cells, and individual cells with higher UGA readthrough grow faster from stationary phase. Our work also revealed that individual cells with lower protein synthesis levels exhibited higher UGA readthrough, which was confirmed with ribosome-targeting antibiotics (e.g., chloramphenicol). Further experiments and mathematical modeling suggest that varied competition between ternary complexes and release factors perturbs the UGA readthrough level. Our results indicate that fluctuations in the concentrations of translational components lead to UGA readthrough heterogeneity among single cells, which enhances phenotypic diversity of the genetically identical population and facilitates its adaptation to changing environments.

The Kinetochore Receptor for the Cohesin Loading Complex.

  • Hinshaw SM
  • Cell
  • 2017 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ring-shaped cohesin complex brings together distant DNA domains to maintain, express, and segregate the genome. Establishing specific chromosomal linkages depends on cohesin recruitment to defined loci. One such locus is the budding yeast centromere, which is a paradigm for targeted cohesin loading. The kinetochore, a multiprotein complex that connects centromeres to microtubules, drives the recruitment of high levels of cohesin to link sister chromatids together. We have exploited this system to determine the mechanism of specific cohesin recruitment. We show that phosphorylation of the Ctf19 kinetochore protein by a conserved kinase, DDK, provides a binding site for the Scc2/4 cohesin loading complex, thereby directing cohesin loading to centromeres. A similar mechanism targets cohesin to chromosomes in vertebrates. These findings represent a complete molecular description of targeted cohesin loading, a phenomenon with wide-ranging importance in chromosome segregation and, in multicellular organisms, transcription regulation.

The ER-Localized Transmembrane Protein EPG-3/VMP1 Regulates SERCA Activity to Control ER-Isolation Membrane Contacts for Autophagosome Formation.

  • Zhao YG
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

During autophagosome formation in mammalian cells, isolation membranes (IMs; autophagosome precursors) dynamically contact the ER. Here, we demonstrated that the ER-localized metazoan-specific autophagy protein EPG-3/VMP1 controls ER-IM contacts. Loss of VMP1 causes stable association of IMs with the ER, thus blocking autophagosome formation. Interaction of WIPI2 with the ULK1/FIP200 complex and PI(3)P contributes to the formation of ER-IM contacts, and these interactions are enhanced by VMP1 depletion. VMP1 controls contact formation by promoting SERCA (sarco[endo]plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase) activity. VMP1 interacts with SERCA and prevents formation of the SERCA/PLN/SLN inhibitory complex. VMP1 also modulates ER contacts with lipid droplets, mitochondria, and endosomes. These ER contacts are greatly elevated by the SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin. Calmodulin acts as a sensor/effector to modulate the ER contacts mediated by VMP1/SERCA. Our study provides mechanistic insights into the establishment and disassociation of ER-IM contacts and reveals that VMP1 modulates SERCA activity to control ER contacts.

Golgi-Resident Gαo Promotes Protrusive Membrane Dynamics.

  • Solis GP
  • Cell
  • 2017 Aug 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

To form protrusions like neurites, cells must coordinate their induction and growth. The first requires cytoskeletal rearrangements at the plasma membrane (PM), the second requires directed material delivery from cell's insides. We find that the Gαo-subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins localizes dually to PM and Golgi across phyla and cell types. The PM pool of Gαo induces, and the Golgi pool feeds, the growing protrusions by stimulated trafficking. Golgi-residing KDELR binds and activates monomeric Gαo, atypically for G protein-coupled receptors that normally act on heterotrimeric G proteins. Through multidimensional screenings identifying > 250 Gαo interactors, we pinpoint several basic cellular activities, including vesicular trafficking, as being regulated by Gαo. We further find small Golgi-residing GTPases Rab1 and Rab3 as direct effectors of Gαo. This KDELR → Gαo → Rab1/3 signaling axis is conserved from insects to mammals and controls material delivery from Golgi to PM in various cells and tissues.

Molecular Memory of Morphologies by Septins during Neuron Generation Allows Early Polarity Inheritance.

  • Boubakar L
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transmission of polarity established early during cell lineage history is emerging as a key process guiding cell differentiation. Highly polarized neurons provide a fascinating model to study inheritance of polarity over cell generations and across morphological transitions. Neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate to the dorsal root ganglia to generate neurons directly or after cell divisions in situ. Using live imaging of vertebrate embryo slices, we found that bipolar NCC progenitors lose their polarity, retracting their processes to round for division, but generate neurons with bipolar morphology by emitting processes from the same locations as the progenitor. Monitoring the dynamics of Septins, which play key roles in yeast polarity, indicates that Septin 7 tags process sites for re-initiation of process growth following mitosis. Interfering with Septins blocks this mechanism. Thus, Septins store polarity features during mitotic rounding so that daughters can reconstitute the initial progenitor polarity.

Ubiquitination-dependent control of sexual differentiation in fission yeast.

  • Simonetti F
  • Elife
  • 2017 Aug 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

In fission yeast, meiosis-specific transcripts are selectively eliminated during vegetative growth by the combined action of the YTH-family RNA-binding protein Mmi1 and the nuclear exosome. Upon nutritional starvation, the master regulator of meiosis Mei2 inactivates Mmi1, thereby allowing expression of the meiotic program. Here, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase subunit Not4/Mot2 of the evolutionarily conserved Ccr4-Not complex, which associates with Mmi1, promotes suppression of meiotic transcripts expression in mitotic cells. Our analyses suggest that Mot2 directs ubiquitination of Mei2 to preserve the activity of Mmi1 during vegetative growth. Importantly, Mot2 is not involved in the constitutive pathway of Mei2 turnover, but rather plays a regulatory role to limit its accumulation or inhibit its function. We propose that Mmi1 recruits the Ccr4-Not complex to counteract its own inhibitor Mei2, thereby locking the system in a stable state that ensures the repression of the meiotic program by Mmi1.

Retrograde Synaptic Inhibition Is Mediated by α-Neurexin Binding to the α2δ Subunits of N-Type Calcium Channels.

  • Tong XJ
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jul 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The synaptic adhesion molecules Neurexin and Neuroligin alter the development and function of synapses and are linked to autism in humans. In C. elegans, post-synaptic Neurexin (NRX-1) and pre-synaptic Neuroligin (NLG-1) mediate a retrograde synaptic signal that inhibits acetylcholine (ACh) release at neuromuscular junctions. Here, we show that the retrograde signal decreases ACh release by inhibiting the function of pre-synaptic UNC-2/CaV2 calcium channels. Post-synaptic NRX-1 binds to an auxiliary subunit of pre-synaptic UNC-2/CaV2 channels (UNC-36/α2δ), decreasing UNC-36 abundance at pre-synaptic elements. Retrograde inhibition is mediated by a soluble form of NRX-1's ectodomain, which is released from the post-synaptic membrane by the SUP-17/ADAM10 protease. Mammalian Neurexin-1α binds α2δ-3 and decreases CaV2.2 current in transfected cells, whereas Neurexin-1α has no effect on CaV2.2 reconstituted with α2δ-1 and α2δ-2. Collectively, these results suggest that α-Neurexin binding to α2δ is a conserved mechanism for regulating synaptic transmission.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM054728()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS032196()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS055251()

SUMO-Targeted DNA Translocase Rrp2 Protects the Genome from Top2-Induced DNA Damage.

  • Wei Y
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The action of DNA topoisomerase II (Top2) creates transient DNA breaks that are normally concealed inside Top2-DNA covalent complexes. Top2 poisons, including ubiquitously present natural compounds and clinically used anti-cancer drugs, trap Top2-DNA complexes. Here, we show that cells actively prevent Top2 degradation to avoid the exposure of concealed DNA breaks. A genome-wide screen revealed that fission yeast cells lacking Rrp2, an Snf2-family DNA translocase, are strongly sensitive to Top2 poisons. Loss of Rrp2 enhances SUMOylation-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of Top2, which in turn increases DNA damage at sites where Top2-DNA complexes are trapped. Rrp2 possesses SUMO-binding ability and prevents excessive Top2 degradation by competing against the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) for SUMO chain binding and by displacing SUMOylated Top2 from DNA. The budding yeast homolog of Rrp2, Uls1, plays a similar role, indicating that this genome protection mechanism is widely employed, a finding with implications for cancer treatment.

Structural Basis for Mitotic Centrosome Assembly in Flies.

  • Feng Z
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In flies, Centrosomin (Cnn) forms a phosphorylation-dependent scaffold that recruits proteins to the mitotic centrosome, but how Cnn assembles into a scaffold is unclear. We show that scaffold assembly requires conserved leucine zipper (LZ) and Cnn-motif 2 (CM2) domains that co-assemble into a 2:2 complex in vitro. We solve the crystal structure of the LZ:CM2 complex, revealing that both proteins form helical dimers that assemble into an unusual tetramer. A slightly longer version of the LZ can form micron-scale structures with CM2, whose assembly is stimulated by Plk1 phosphorylation in vitro. Mutating individual residues that perturb LZ:CM2 tetramer assembly perturbs the formation of these micron-scale assemblies in vitro and Cnn-scaffold assembly in vivo. Thus, Cnn molecules have an intrinsic ability to form large, LZ:CM2-interaction-dependent assemblies that are critical for mitotic centrosome assembly. These studies provide the first atomic insight into a molecular interaction required for mitotic centrosome assembly.

Post-meiotic DNA double-strand breaks occur in Tetrahymena, and require Topoisomerase II and Spo11.

  • Akematsu T
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Based on observations of markers for DNA lesions, such as phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX) and open DNA ends, it has been suggested that post-meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (PM-DSBs) enable chromatin remodeling during animal spermiogenesis. However, the existence of PM-DSBs is unconfirmed, and the mechanism responsible for their formation is unclear. Here, we report the first direct observation of programmed PM-DSBs via the electrophoretic separation of DSB-generated DNA fragments in the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. These PM-DSBs are accompanied by switching from a heterochromatic to euchromatic chromatin structure in the haploid pronucleus. Both a topoisomerase II paralog with exclusive pronuclear expression and Spo11 are prerequisites for PM-DSB induction. Reduced PM-DSB induction blocks euchromatin formation, characterized by histone H3K56 acetylation, leading to a failure in gametic nuclei production. We propose that PM-DSBs are responsible for histone replacement during the reprogramming of generative to undifferentiated progeny nuclei.

Red Blood Cell Invasion by the Malaria Parasite Is Coordinated by the PfAP2-I Transcription Factor.

  • Santos JM
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Jun 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Obligate intracellular parasites must efficiently invade host cells in order to mature and be transmitted. For the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, invasion of host red blood cells (RBCs) is essential. Here we describe a parasite-specific transcription factor PfAP2-I, belonging to the Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) family, that is responsible for regulating the expression of genes involved in RBC invasion. Our genome-wide analysis by ChIP-seq shows that PfAP2-I interacts with a specific DNA motif in the promoters of target genes. Although PfAP2-I contains three AP2 DNA-binding domains, only one is required for binding of the target genes during blood stage development. Furthermore, we find that PfAP2-I associates with several chromatin-associated proteins, including the Plasmodium bromodomain protein PfBDP1 and that complex formation is associated with transcriptional regulation. As a key regulator of red blood cell invasion, PfAP2-I represents a potential new antimalarial therapeutic target.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI076276()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI125565()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P50 GM071508()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM114141()

Dynein-Driven Retrograde Intraflagellar Transport Is Triphasic in C. elegans Sensory Cilia.

  • Yi P
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cytoplasmic dynein-2 powers retrograde intraflagellar transport that is essential for cilium formation and maintenance. Inactivation of dynein-2 by mutations in DYNC2H1 causes skeletal dysplasias, and it remains unclear how the dynein-2 heavy chain moves in cilia. Here, using the genome-editing technique to produce fluorescent dynein-2 heavy chain in Caenorhabditis elegans, we show by high-resolution live microscopy that dynein-2 moves in a surprising way along distinct ciliary domains. Dynein-2 shows triphasic movement in the retrograde direction: dynein-2 accelerates in the ciliary distal region and then moves at maximum velocity and finally decelerates adjacent to the base, which may represent a physical obstacle due to transition zone barriers. By knocking the conserved ciliopathy-related mutations into the C. elegans dynein-2 heavy chain, we find that these mutations reduce its transport speed and frequency. Disruption of the dynein-2 tail domain, light intermediate chain, or intraflagellar transport (IFT)-B complex abolishes dynein-2's ciliary localization, revealing their important roles in ciliary entry of dynein-2. Furthermore, our affinity purification and genetic analyses show that IFT-A subunits IFT-139 and IFT-43 function redundantly to promote dynein-2 motility. These results reveal the molecular regulation of dynein-2 movement in sensory cilia.

ER assembly of SNARE complexes mediating formation of partitioning membrane in Arabidopsis cytokinesis.

  • Karnahl M
  • Elife
  • 2017 May 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intracellular membrane fusion mediates diverse processes including cell growth, division and communication. Fusion involves complex formation between SNARE proteins anchored to adjacent membranes. How and in what form interacting SNARE proteins reach their sites of action is virtually unknown. We have addressed this problem in the context of plant cell division in which a large number of TGN-derived membrane vesicles fuse with one another to form the partitioning membrane. Blocking vesicle formation at the TGN revealed cis-SNARE complexes. These inactive cytokinetic SNARE complexes were already assembled at the endoplasmic reticulum and, after passage through Golgi/TGN to the cell division plane, transformed into fusogenic SNARE complexes. This mode of trafficking might ensure delivery of large stoichiometric quantities of SNARE proteins required for forming the partitioning membrane in the narrow time frame of plant cytokinesis. Such long-distance trafficking of inactive SNARE complexes would also facilitate directional growth processes during cell differentiation.

Dynamic Palmitoylation Targets MAP6 to the Axon to Promote Microtubule Stabilization during Neuronal Polarization.

  • Tortosa E
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are main candidates to stabilize neuronal microtubules, playing an important role in establishing axon-dendrite polarity. However, how MAPs are selectively targeted to specific neuronal compartments remains poorly understood. Here, we show specific localization of microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6)/stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP) throughout neuronal maturation and its role in axonal development. In unpolarized neurons, MAP6 is present at the Golgi complex and in secretory vesicles. As neurons mature, MAP6 is translocated to the proximal axon, where it binds and stabilizes microtubules. Further, we demonstrate that dynamic palmitoylation, mediated by the family of α/β Hydrolase domain-containing protein 17 (ABHD17A-C) depalmitoylating enzymes, controls shuttling of MAP6 between membranes and microtubules and is required for MAP6 retention in axons. We propose a model in which MAP6's palmitoylation mediates microtubule stabilization, allows efficient organelle trafficking, and controls axon maturation in vitro and in situ.

Structural Analysis Reveals Features of Ribosome Assembly Factor Nsa1/WDR74 Important for Localization and Interaction with Rix7/NVL2.

  • Lo YH
  • Structure
  • 2017 May 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ribosome assembly is a complex process that requires hundreds of essential assembly factors, including Rix7 (NVL2 in mammals) and Nsa1 (WDR74 in mammals). Rix7 is a type II double ring, AAA-ATPase, which is closely related to the well-known Cdc48/p97. Previous studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest that Rix7 mediates the release of Nsa1 from nucleolar pre-60S particles; however, the underlying mechanisms of this release are unknown. Through multiple structural analyses we show that S. cerevisiae Nsa1 is composed of an N-terminal seven-bladed WD40 domain followed by a lysine-rich C terminus that extends away from the WD40 domain and is required for nucleolar localization. Co-immunoprecipitation assays with the mammalian homologs identified a well-conserved interface within WDR74 that is important for its association with NVL2. We further show that WDR74 associates with the D1 AAA domain of NVL2, which represents a novel mode of binding of a substrate with a type II AAA-ATPase.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA ES103247-01()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - ZIA ES103247()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM105404()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD018483()

Neurexin Restricts Axonal Branching in Columns by Promoting Ephrin Clustering.

  • Liu L
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Columnar restriction of neurites is critical for forming nonoverlapping receptive fields and preserving spatial sensory information from the periphery in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila homolog of α-neurexin (DNrx) plays an essential role in columnar restriction during L4 axon branching. Depletion of DNrx from L4 neurons resulted in misprojection of L4 axonal branches into neighboring columns due to impaired ephrin clustering. The proper ephrin clustering requires its interaction with the intracellular region of DNrx. Furthermore, we find that Drosophila neuroligin 4 (DNlg4) in Tm2 neurons binds to DNrx and initiates DNrx clustering in L4 neurons, which subsequently induces ephrin clustering. Our study demonstrates that DNrx promotes ephrin clustering and reveals that ephrin/Eph signaling from adjacent L4 neurons restricts axonal branches of L4 neurons in columns.

An Approach to Spatiotemporally Resolve Protein Interaction Networks in Living Cells.

  • Lobingier BT
  • Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cells operate through protein interaction networks organized in space and time. Here, we describe an approach to resolve both dimensions simultaneously by using proximity labeling mediated by engineered ascorbic acid peroxidase (APEX). APEX has been used to capture entire organelle proteomes with high temporal resolution, but its breadth of labeling is generally thought to preclude the higher spatial resolution necessary to interrogate specific protein networks. We provide a solution to this problem by combining quantitative proteomics with a system of spatial references. As proof of principle, we apply this approach to interrogate proteins engaged by G-protein-coupled receptors as they dynamically signal and traffic in response to ligand-induced activation. The method resolves known binding partners, as well as previously unidentified network components. Validating its utility as a discovery pipeline, we establish that two of these proteins promote ubiquitin-linked receptor downregulation after prolonged activation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA186568()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P50 GM082250()

Spectraplakin Induces Positive Feedback between Fusogens and the Actin Cytoskeleton to Promote Cell-Cell Fusion.

  • Yang Y
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cell-cell fusion generally requires cellular fusogenic proteins and actin-propelled membrane protrusions. However, the molecular connections between fusogens and the actin cytoskeleton remain unclear. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans fusogen EFF-1 and F-actin are enriched at the cortex of the post-embryonic fusing cells, and conditional mutations of WASP and Arp2/3 delay cell-cell fusion by impairing EFF-1 localization. Our affinity purification and mass spectrometry analyses determined that an actin-binding protein, spectraplakin/VAB-10A, binds to EFF-1. VAB-10A promotes cell-cell fusion by linking EFF-1 to the actin cytoskeleton. Conversely, EFF-1 enhanced the F-actin bundling activity of VAB-10A in vitro, and actin dynamics in the cortex were reduced in eff-1 or vab-10a mutants. Thus, cell-cell fusion is promoted by a positive feedback loop in which actin filaments that are crosslinked by spectraplakin to recruit fusogens to fusion sites are reinforced via fusogens, thereby increasing the probability of further fusogen accumulation to form fusion synapses.

Transient oxytocin signaling primes the development and function of excitatory hippocampal neurons.

  • Ripamonti S
  • Elife
  • 2017 Feb 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Beyond its role in parturition and lactation, oxytocin influences higher brain processes that control social behavior of mammals, and perturbed oxytocin signaling has been linked to the pathogenesis of several psychiatric disorders. However, it is still largely unknown how oxytocin exactly regulates neuronal function. We show that early, transient oxytocin exposure in vitro inhibits the development of hippocampal glutamatergic neurons, leading to reduced dendrite complexity, synapse density, and excitatory transmission, while sparing GABAergic neurons. Conversely, genetic elimination of oxytocin receptors increases the expression of protein components of excitatory synapses and excitatory synaptic transmission in vitro. In vivo, oxytocin-receptor-deficient hippocampal pyramidal neurons develop more complex dendrites, which leads to increased spine number and reduced γ-oscillations. These results indicate that oxytocin controls the development of hippocampal excitatory neurons and contributes to the maintenance of a physiological excitation/inhibition balance, whose disruption can cause neurobehavioral disturbances.

ZNF598 and RACK1 Regulate Mammalian Ribosome-Associated Quality Control Function by Mediating Regulatory 40S Ribosomal Ubiquitylation.

  • Sundaramoorthy E
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ribosomes that experience terminal stalls during translation are resolved by ribosome-associated quality control (QC) pathways that oversee mRNA and nascent chain destruction and recycle ribosomal subunits. The proximal factors that sense stalled ribosomes and initiate mammalian ribosome-associated QC events remain undefined. We demonstrate that the ZNF598 ubiquitin ligase and the 40S ribosomal protein RACK1 help to resolve poly(A)-induced stalled ribosomes. They accomplish this by regulating distinct and overlapping regulatory 40S ribosomal ubiquitylation events. ZNF598 primarily mediates regulatory ubiquitylation of RPS10 and RPS20, whereas RACK1 regulates RPS2, RPS3, and RPS20 ubiquitylation. Gain or loss of ZNF598 function or mutations that block RPS10 or RPS20 ubiquitylation result in defective resolution of stalled ribosomes and subsequent readthrough of poly(A)-containing stall sequences. Together, our results indicate that ZNF598, RACK1, and 40S regulatory ubiquitylation plays a pivotal role in mammalian ribosome-associated QC pathways.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - DP2 GM119132()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P50 GM085764()

Bassoon Controls Presynaptic Autophagy through Atg5.

  • Okerlund ND
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mechanisms regulating the surveillance and clearance of synaptic proteins are not well understood. Intriguingly, the loss of the presynaptic active zone proteins Piccolo and Bassoon triggers the loss of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and compromises synaptic integrity. Here we report that the destruction of SVs in boutons lacking Piccolo and Bassoon was associated with the induction of presynaptic autophagy, a process that depended on poly-ubiquitination, but not the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah1. Surprisingly, gain or loss of function (LOF) of Bassoon alone suppressed or enhanced presynaptic autophagy, respectively, implying a fundamental role for Bassoon in the local regulation of presynaptic autophagy. Mechanistically, Bassoon was found to interact with Atg5, an E3-like ligase essential for autophagy, and to inhibit the induction of autophagy in heterologous cells. Importantly, Atg5 LOF as well as targeting an Atg5-binding peptide derived from Bassoon inhibited presynaptic autophagy in boutons lacking Piccolo and Bassoon, providing insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating presynaptic autophagy.

Funding information:
  • BLRD VA - I21 BX003357()

Cdk5 Regulation of the GRAB-Mediated Rab8-Rab11 Cascade in Axon Outgrowth.

  • Furusawa K
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jan 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurons communicate with each other through their axons and dendrites. However, a full characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in axon and dendrite formation is still incomplete. Neurite outgrowth requires the supply of membrane components for surface expansion. Two membrane sources for axon outgrowth are suggested: Golgi secretary vesicles and endocytic recycling endosomes. In non-neuronal cells, trafficking of secretary vesicles from Golgi is regulated by Rab8, a member of Rab small GTPases, and that of recycling endosomes is by Rab11, another member of Rabs. However, whether these vesicles are coordinately or independently transported in growing axons is unknown. Herein, we find that GRAB, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab8, is a novel regulator of axon outgrowth. Knockdown of GRAB suppressed axon outgrowth of cultured mouse brain cortical neurons. GRAB mediates the interaction between Rab11A and Rab8A, and this activity is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser169 and Ser180 by Cdk5-p35. The nonphosphorylatable GRAB mutant S169/180A promoted axonal outgrowth to a greater extent than did the phosphomimetic GRAB mutant S169/180D. Phosphorylation of GRAB suppressed its guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity and its ability to recruit Rab8A- to Rab11A-positive endosomes. In vivo function of GRAB and its Cdk5-phophorylation were shown in migration and process formation of developing neurons in embryonic mouse brains. These results indicate that GRAB regulates axonal outgrowth via activation and recruitment of Rab8A- to Rab11A-positive endosomes in a Cdk5-dependent manner. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: While axon outgrowth requires membrane supply for surface expansion, the molecular mechanisms regulating the membrane transport in growing axons remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that GRAB, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab8, is a novel regulator of axon outgrowth. GRAB promotes the axonal membrane transport by mediating the interaction between Rab11 and Rab8 in neurons. The activity of GRAB is regulated by phosphorylation with Cdk5. We describe an in vivo role for GRAB and its Cdk5 phosphorylation during neuronal migration and process formation in embryonic brains. Thus, the membrane supply for axonal outgrowth is regulated by Cdk5 through the Rab11-GRAB-Rab8 cascade.

The fail-safe mechanism of post-transcriptional silencing of unspliced HAC1 mRNA.

  • Di Santo R
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

HAC1 encodes a transcription factor that is the central effector of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in budding yeast. When the UPR is inactive, HAC1 mRNA is stored as an unspliced isoform in the cytoplasm and no Hac1 protein is detectable. Intron removal is both necessary and sufficient to relieve the post-transcriptional silencing of HAC1 mRNA, yet the precise mechanism by which the intron prevents Hac1 protein accumulation has remained elusive. Here, we show that a combination of inhibited translation initiation and accelerated protein degradation-both dependent on the intron-prevents the accumulation of Hac1 protein when the UPR is inactive. Functionally, both components of this fail-safe silencing mechanism are required to prevent ectopic production of Hac1 protein and concomitant activation of the UPR. Our results provide a mechanistic understanding of HAC1 regulation and reveal a novel strategy for complete post-transcriptional silencing of a cytoplasmic mRNA.

TIS7 induces transcriptional cascade of methylosome components required for muscle differentiation.

  • Lammirato A
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2016 Oct 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: TPA Induced Sequence 7 acts as a transcriptional co-regulator controlling the expression of genes involved in differentiation of various cell types, including skeletal myoblasts. We and others have shown that TIS7 regulates adult myogenesis through MyoD, one of the essential myogenic regulatory factors. RESULTS: Here, we present data identifying ICln as the specific, novel protein downstream of TIS7 controlling myogenesis. We show that TIS7/ICln epigenetically regulate myoD expression controlling protein methyl transferase activity. In particular, ICln regulates MyoD expression via its interaction with PRMT5 by an epigenetic modification that utilizes symmetrical di-methylation of histone H3 on arginine 8. We provide multiple evidences that TIS7 directly binds DNA, which is a functional feature necessary for its role in transcriptional regulation. CONCLUSION: We present here a molecular insight into TIS7-specific control of MyoD gene expression and thereby skeletal muscle differentiation.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC011184(United States)

Intrinsically Disordered Proteins Drive Emergence and Inheritance of Biological Traits.

  • Chakrabortee S
  • Cell
  • 2016 Oct 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prions are a paradigm-shifting mechanism of inheritance in which phenotypes are encoded by self-templating protein conformations rather than nucleic acids. Here, we examine the breadth of protein-based inheritance across the yeast proteome by assessing the ability of nearly every open reading frame (ORF; ∼5,300 ORFs) to induce heritable traits. Transient overexpression of nearly 50 proteins created traits that remained heritable long after their expression returned to normal. These traits were beneficial, had prion-like patterns of inheritance, were common in wild yeasts, and could be transmitted to naive cells with protein alone. Most inducing proteins were not known prions and did not form amyloid. Instead, they are highly enriched in nucleic acid binding proteins with large intrinsically disordered domains that have been widely conserved across evolution. Thus, our data establish a common type of protein-based inheritance through which intrinsically disordered proteins can drive the emergence of new traits and adaptive opportunities.

ATPase activity of the DEAD-box protein Dhh1 controls processing body formation.

  • Mugler CF
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Translational repression and mRNA degradation are critical mechanisms of posttranscriptional gene regulation that help cells respond to internal and external cues. In response to certain stress conditions, many mRNA decay factors are enriched in processing bodies (PBs), cellular structures involved in degradation and/or storage of mRNAs. Yet, how cells regulate assembly and disassembly of PBs remains poorly understood. Here, we show that in budding yeast, mutations in the DEAD-box ATPase Dhh1 that prevent ATP hydrolysis, or that affect the interaction between Dhh1 and Not1, the central scaffold of the CCR4-NOT complex and an activator of the Dhh1 ATPase, prevent PB disassembly in vivo. Intriguingly, this process can be recapitulated in vitro, since recombinant Dhh1 and RNA, in the presence of ATP, phase-separate into liquid droplets that rapidly dissolve upon addition of Not1. Our results identify the ATPase activity of Dhh1 as a critical regulator of PB formation.

Ubiquitin-dependent folding of the Wnt signaling coreceptor LRP6.

  • Perrody E
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many membrane proteins fold inefficiently and require the help of enzymes and chaperones. Here we reveal a novel folding assistance system that operates on membrane proteins from the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that folding of the Wnt signaling coreceptor LRP6 is promoted by ubiquitination of a specific lysine, retaining it in the ER while avoiding degradation. Subsequent ER exit requires removal of ubiquitin from this lysine by the deubiquitinating enzyme USP19. This ubiquitination-deubiquitination is conceptually reminiscent of the glucosylation-deglucosylation occurring in the ER lumen during the calnexin/calreticulin folding cycle. To avoid infinite futile cycles, folded LRP6 molecules undergo palmitoylation and ER export, while unsuccessfully folded proteins are, with time, polyubiquitinated on other lysines and targeted to degradation. This ubiquitin-dependent folding system also controls the proteostasis of other membrane proteins as CFTR and anthrax toxin receptor 2, two poor folders involved in severe human diseases.

Lipid Biosynthesis Coordinates a Mitochondrial-to-Cytosolic Stress Response.

  • Kim HE
  • Cell
  • 2016 Sep 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Defects in mitochondrial metabolism have been increasingly linked with age-onset protein-misfolding diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's. In response to protein-folding stress, compartment-specific unfolded protein responses (UPRs) within the ER, mitochondria, and cytosol work in parallel to ensure cellular protein homeostasis. While perturbation of individual compartments can make other compartments more susceptible to protein stress, the cellular conditions that trigger cross-communication between the individual UPRs remain poorly understood. We have uncovered a conserved, robust mechanism linking mitochondrial protein homeostasis and the cytosolic folding environment through changes in lipid homeostasis. Metabolic restructuring caused by mitochondrial stress or small-molecule activators trigger changes in gene expression coordinated uniquely by both the mitochondrial and cytosolic UPRs, protecting the cell from disease-associated proteins. Our data suggest an intricate and unique system of communication between UPRs in response to metabolic changes that could unveil new targets for diseases of protein misfolding.

Nuclear pore assembly proceeds by an inside-out extrusion of the nuclear envelope.

  • Otsuka S
  • Elife
  • 2016 Sep 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates nucleocytoplasmic transport through the nuclear envelope. How the NPC assembles into this double membrane boundary has remained enigmatic. Here, we captured temporally staged assembly intermediates by correlating live cell imaging with high-resolution electron tomography and super-resolution microscopy. Intermediates were dome-shaped evaginations of the inner nuclear membrane (INM), that grew in diameter and depth until they fused with the flat outer nuclear membrane. Live and super-resolved fluorescence microscopy revealed the molecular maturation of the intermediates, which initially contained the nuclear and cytoplasmic ring component Nup107, and only later the cytoplasmic filament component Nup358. EM particle averaging showed that the evagination base was surrounded by an 8-fold rotationally symmetric ring structure from the beginning and that a growing mushroom-shaped density was continuously associated with the deforming membrane. Quantitative structural analysis revealed that interphase NPC assembly proceeds by an asymmetric inside-out extrusion of the INM.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS051255(United States)

Vimentin Intermediate Filaments Template Microtubule Networks to Enhance Persistence in Cell Polarity and Directed Migration.

  • Gan Z
  • Cell Syst
  • 2016 Sep 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

Increased expression of vimentin intermediate filaments (VIFs) enhances directed cell migration, but the mechanism behind VIFs' effect on motility is not understood. VIFs interact with microtubules, whose organization contributes to polarity maintenance in migrating cells. Here, we characterize the dynamic coordination of VIF and microtubule networks in wounded monolayers of retinal pigment epithelial cells. By genome editing, we fluorescently labeled endogenous vimentin and α-tubulin, and we developed computational image analysis to delineate architecture and interactions of the two networks. Our results show that VIFs assemble an ultrastructural copy of the previously polarized microtubule network. Because the VIF network is long-lived compared to the microtubule network, VIFs template future microtubule growth along previous microtubule tracks, thus providing a feedback mechanism that maintains cell polarity. VIF knockdown prevents cells from polarizing and migrating properly during wound healing. We suggest that VIFs' templating function establishes a memory in microtubule organization that enhances persistence in cell polarization in general and migration in particular.

Neuroendocrine Coordination of Mitochondrial Stress Signaling and Proteostasis.

  • Berendzen KM
  • Cell
  • 2016 Sep 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

During neurodegenerative disease, the toxic accumulation of aggregates and misfolded proteins is often accompanied with widespread changes in peripheral metabolism, even in cells in which the aggregating protein is not present. The mechanism by which the central nervous system elicits a distal reaction to proteotoxic stress remains unknown. We hypothesized that the endocrine communication of neuronal stress plays a causative role in the changes in mitochondrial homeostasis associated with proteotoxic disease states. We find that an aggregation-prone protein expressed in the neurons of C. elegans binds to mitochondria, eliciting a global induction of a mitochondrial-specific unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), affecting whole-animal physiology. Importantly, dense core vesicle release and secretion of the neurotransmitter serotonin is required for the signal's propagation. Collectively, these data suggest the commandeering of a nutrient sensing network to allow for cell-to-cell communication between mitochondria in response to protein folding stress in the nervous system.

Two Distinct Types of E3 Ligases Work in Unison to Regulate Substrate Ubiquitylation.

  • Scott DC
  • Cell
  • 2016 Aug 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hundreds of human cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) modify thousands of proteins with ubiquitin (UB) to achieve vast regulation. Current dogma posits that CRLs first catalyze UB transfer from an E2 to their client substrates and subsequent polyubiquitylation from various linkage-specific E2s. We report an alternative E3-E3 tagging cascade: many cellular NEDD8-modified CRLs associate with a mechanistically distinct thioester-forming RBR-type E3, ARIH1, and rely on ARIH1 to directly add the first UB and, in some cases, multiple additional individual monoubiquitin modifications onto CRL client substrates. Our data define ARIH1 as a component of the human CRL system, demonstrate that ARIH1 can efficiently and specifically mediate monoubiquitylation of several CRL substrates, and establish principles for how two distinctive E3s can reciprocally control each other for simultaneous and joint regulation of substrate ubiquitylation. These studies have broad implications for CRL-dependent proteostasis and mechanisms of E3-mediated UB ligation.

The Golgi apparatus acts as a platform for TBK1 activation after viral RNA sensing.

  • Pourcelot M
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2016 Aug 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: After viral infection and the stimulation of some pattern-recognition receptors, TANK-binding kinase I (TBK1) is activated by K63-linked polyubiquitination followed by trans-autophosphorylation. While the activated TBK1 induces type I interferon production by phosphorylating the transcription factor IRF3, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying TBK1 activation remain unclear. RESULTS: We report here the localization of the ubiquitinated and phosphorylated active form of TBK1 to the Golgi apparatus after the stimulation of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) or Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3), due to TBK1 K63-linked ubiquitination on lysine residues 30 and 401. The ubiquitin-binding protein optineurin (OPTN) recruits ubiquitinated TBK1 to the Golgi apparatus, leading to the formation of complexes in which TBK1 is activated by trans-autophosphorylation. Indeed, OPTN deficiency in various cell lines and primary cells impairs TBK1 targeting to the Golgi apparatus and its activation following RLR or TLR3 stimulation. Interestingly, the Bluetongue virus NS3 protein binds OPTN at the Golgi apparatus, neutralizing its activity and thereby decreasing TBK1 activation and downstream signaling. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight an unexpected role of the Golgi apparatus in innate immunity as a key subcellular gateway for TBK1 activation after RNA virus infection.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - NIH P30 HD003352(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007184(United States)

Spatial control of translation repression and polarized growth by conserved NDR kinase Orb6 and RNA-binding protein Sts5.

  • Nuñez I
  • Elife
  • 2016 Jul 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

RNA-binding proteins contribute to the formation of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granules by phase transition, but regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. Conserved fission yeast NDR (Nuclear Dbf2-Related) kinase Orb6 governs cell morphogenesis in part by spatially controlling Cdc42 GTPase. Here we describe a novel, independent function for Orb6 kinase in negatively regulating the recruitment of RNA-binding protein Sts5 into RNPs to promote polarized cell growth. We find that Orb6 kinase inhibits Sts5 recruitment into granules, its association with processing (P) bodies, and degradation of Sts5-bound mRNAs by promoting Sts5 interaction with 14-3-3 protein Rad24. Many Sts5-bound mRNAs encode essential factors for polarized cell growth, and Orb6 kinase spatially and temporally controls the extent of Sts5 granule formation. Disruption of this control system affects cell morphology and alters the pattern of polarized cell growth, revealing a role for Orb6 kinase in the spatial control of translational repression that enables normal cell morphogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - T32 MH067631(United States)

Commensal bacteria direct selective cargo sorting to promote symbiosis.

  • Zhang Q
  • Nat. Immunol.
  • 2015 Sep 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mucosal immunity protects a host from intestinal inflammation and infection and is profoundly influenced by symbiotic bacteria. Here we report that in mice symbiotic bacteria directed selective cargo sorting in Paneth cells to promote symbiosis through Nod2, a cytosolic bacterial sensor, and the multifunctional protein kinase LRRK2, both encoded by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated genes. Commensals recruited Nod2 onto lysozyme-containing dense core vesicles (DCVs), which was required for DCV localization of LRRK2 and a small GTPase, Rab2a. Deficiency of Nod2, LRRK2 or Rab2a or depletion of commensals resulted in lysosomal degradation of lysozyme. Thus, commensal bacteria and host factors orchestrate the lysozyme-sorting process to protect the host from enteric infection, implicating Paneth cell dysfunction in IBD pathogenesis.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

Functional characterization of obesity-associated variants involving the α and β isoforms of human SH2B1.

  • Pearce LR
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Nov 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have previously reported rare variants in sarcoma (Src) homology 2 (SH2) B adaptor protein 1 (SH2B1) in individuals with obesity, insulin resistance, and maladaptive behavior. Here, we identify 4 additional SH2B1 variants by sequencing 500 individuals with severe early-onset obesity. SH2B1 has 4 alternatively spliced isoforms. One variant (T546A) lies within the N-terminal region common to all isoforms. As shown for past variants in this region, T546A impairs SH2B1β enhancement of nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth, and the individual with the T546A variant exhibits mild developmental delay. The other 3 variants (A663V, V695M, and A723V) lie in the C-terminal tail of SH2B1α. SH2B1α variant carriers were hyperinsulinemic but did not exhibit the behavioral phenotype observed in individuals with SH2B1 variants that disrupt all isoforms. In in vitro assays, SH2B1α, like SH2B1β, enhances insulin- and leptin-induced insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) phosphorylation and GH-induced cell motility. None of the variants affect SH2B1α enhancement of insulin- and leptin-induced IRS2 phosphorylation. However, T546A, A663V, and A723V all impair the ability of SH2B1α to enhance GH-induced cell motility. In contrast to SH2B1β, SH2B1α does not enhance nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth. These studies suggest that genetic variants that disrupt isoforms other than SH2B1β may be functionally significant. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanism by which the individual isoforms regulate energy homeostasis and behavior.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA163793(United States)

Essential roles of epithelial bone morphogenetic protein signaling during prostatic development.

  • Omori A
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Jul 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prostate is a male sex-accessory organ. The prostatic epithelia consist primarily of basal and luminal cells that differentiate from embryonic urogenital sinus epithelia. Prostate tumors are believed to originate in the basal and luminal cells. However, factors that promote normal epithelial differentiation have not been well elucidated, particularly for bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling. This study shows that Bmp signaling prominently increases during prostatic differentiation in the luminal epithelia, which is monitored by the expression of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8. To elucidate the mechanism of epithelial differentiation and the function of Bmp signaling during prostatic development, conditional male mutant mouse analysis for the epithelial-specific Bmp receptor 1a (Bmpr1a) was performed. We demonstrate that Bmp signaling is indispensable for luminal cell maturation, which regulates basal cell proliferation. Expression of the prostatic epithelial regulatory gene Nkx3.1 was significantly reduced in the Bmpr1a mutants. These results indicate that Bmp signaling is a key factor for prostatic epithelial differentiation, possibly by controlling the prostatic regulatory gene Nkx3.1.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR066703(United States)

Neural architecture of the primary gustatory center of Drosophila melanogaster visualized with GAL4 and LexA enhancer-trap systems.

  • Miyazaki T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gustatory information is essential for animals to select edible foods and avoid poisons. Whereas mammals detect tastants with their taste receptor cells, which convey gustatory signals to the brain indirectly via the taste sensory neurons, insect gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) send their axons directly to the primary gustatory center in the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG). In spite of this relatively simple architecture, the precise structure of the insect primary gustatory center has not been revealed in enough detail. To obtain comprehensive anatomical knowledge about this brain area, we screened the Drosophila melanogaster GAL4 enhancer-trap strains that visualize specific subsets of the gustatory neurons as well as putative mechanosensory neurons associated with the taste pegs. Terminals of these neurons form three branches in the SOG. To map the positions of their arborization areas precisely, we screened newly established LexA::VP16 enhancer-trap strains and obtained a driver line that labels a large subset of peripheral sensory neurons. By double-labeling specific and landmark neurons with GAL4 and LexA strains, we were able to distinguish 11 zones in the primary gustatory center, among which 5 zones were identified newly in this study. Arborization areas of various known GRNs on the labellum, oesophagus, and legs were also mapped in this framework. The putative mechanosensory neurons terminate exclusively in three zones of these areas, supporting the notion of segregated primary centers that are specialized for chemosensory and mechanosensory signals associated with gustatory sensation.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - U24RR021382(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY015509-03(United States)

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated neural connections in the Drosophila antennal lobe.

  • Okada R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inhibitory synaptic connections mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play important roles in the neural computation of the brain. To obtain a detailed overview of the neural connections mediated by GABA signals, we analyzed the distribution of the cells that produce and receive GABA in the Drosophila adult brain. Relatively small numbers of the cells, which form clusters in several areas of the brain, express the GABA synthesis enzyme Gad1. On the other hand, many cells scattered across the brain express ionotropic GABA(A) receptor subunits (Lcch3 and Rdl) and metabotropic GABA(B) receptor subtypes (GABA-B-R1, -2, and -3). To analyze the expression of these genes in distinct identified cell types, we focused on the antennal lobe, where GABAergic neurons play important roles in odor coding. By combining fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunolabeling against GFP expressed with cell-type-specific GAL4 driver strains, we quantified the percentage of the cells that produce or receive GABA for each cell type. GABA was synthesized in the middle antennocerebral tract (mACT) projection neurons and two types of local neurons. Among them, mACT neurons had few presynaptic sites in the antennal lobe, making the local neurons essentially the sole provider of GABA signals there. On the other hand, not only these local neurons but also all types of projection neurons expressed both ionotropic and metabotropic GABA receptors. Thus, even though inhibitory signals are released from only a few, specific types of local neurons, the signals are read by most of the neurons in the antennal lobe neural circuitry.