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Acetylated-Lysine Antibody

RRID:AB_331805

Antibody ID

AB_331805

Target Antigen

Acetylated-Lysine all species

Proper Citation

(Cell Signaling Technology Cat# 9441, RRID:AB_331805)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: W, IP, IHC-P, IF-IC, ChIP, E-P. Consolidation: AB_331806.

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Cell Signaling Technology

A Potent and Specific CD38 Inhibitor Ameliorates Age-Related Metabolic Dysfunction by Reversing Tissue NAD+ Decline.

  • Tarragó MG
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aging is characterized by the development of metabolic dysfunction and frailty. Recent studies show that a reduction in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a key factor for the development of age-associated metabolic decline. We recently demonstrated that the NADase CD38 has a central role in age-related NAD+ decline. Here we show that a highly potent and specific thiazoloquin(az)olin(on)e CD38 inhibitor, 78c, reverses age-related NAD+ decline and improves several physiological and metabolic parameters of aging, including glucose tolerance, muscle function, exercise capacity, and cardiac function in mouse models of natural and accelerated aging. The physiological effects of 78c depend on tissue NAD+ levels and were reversed by inhibition of NAD+ synthesis. 78c increased NAD+ levels, resulting in activation of pro-longevity and health span-related factors, including sirtuins, AMPK, and PARPs. Furthermore, in animals treated with 78c we observed inhibition of pathways that negatively affect health span, such as mTOR-S6K and ERK, and attenuation of telomere-associated DNA damage, a marker of cellular aging. Together, our results detail a novel pharmacological strategy for prevention and/or reversal of age-related NAD+ decline and subsequent metabolic dysfunction.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - N01-HV-28186(United States)

Vitamin D Switches BAF Complexes to Protect β Cells.

  • Wei Z
  • Cell
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

A primary cause of disease progression in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is β cell dysfunction due to inflammatory stress and insulin resistance. However, preventing β cell exhaustion under diabetic conditions is a major therapeutic challenge. Here, we identify the vitamin D receptor (VDR) as a key modulator of inflammation and β cell survival. Alternative recognition of an acetylated lysine in VDR by bromodomain proteins BRD7 and BRD9 directs association to PBAF and BAF chromatin remodeling complexes, respectively. Mechanistically, ligand promotes VDR association with PBAF to effect genome-wide changes in chromatin accessibility and enhancer landscape, resulting in an anti-inflammatory response. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of BRD9 promotes PBAF-VDR association to restore β cell function and ameliorate hyperglycemia in murine T2D models. These studies reveal an unrecognized VDR-dependent transcriptional program underpinning β cell survival and identifies the VDR:PBAF/BAF association as a potential therapeutic target for T2D.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS39546(United States)

EGFR-Phosphorylated Platelet Isoform of Phosphofructokinase 1 Promotes PI3K Activation.

  • Lee JH
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

EGFR activates phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), but the mechanism underlying this activation is not completely understood. We demonstrated here that EGFR activation resulted in lysine acetyltransferase 5 (KAT5)-mediated K395 acetylation of the platelet isoform of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFKP) and subsequent translocation of PFKP to the plasma membrane, where the PFKP was phosphorylated at Y64 by EGFR. Phosphorylated PFKP binds to the N-terminal SH2 domain of p85α, which is distinct from binding of Gab1 to the C-terminal SH2 domain of p85α, and recruited p85α to the plasma membrane resulting in PI3K activation. PI3K-dependent AKT activation results in enhanced phosphofructokinase 2 (PFK2) phosphorylation and production of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, which in turn promotes PFK1 activation. PFKP Y64 phosphorylation-enhanced PI3K/AKT-dependent PFK1 activation and GLUT1 expression promoted the Warburg effect, tumor cell proliferation, and brain tumorigenesis. These findings underscore the instrumental role of PFKP in PI3K activation and enhanced glycolysis through PI3K/AKT-dependent positive-feedback regulation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA121938(United States)

A Metabolic Basis for Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.

  • Xiong J
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is a cellular process often initiated by the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of ligands. Although required for normal heart valve development, deregulated EndoMT is linked to a wide range of pathological conditions. Here, we demonstrate that endothelial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is a critical in vitro and in vivo regulator of EndoMT. We further show that this FAO-dependent metabolic regulation of EndoMT occurs through alterations in intracellular acetyl-CoA levels. Disruption of FAO via conditional deletion of endothelial carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (Cpt2E-KO) augments the magnitude of embryonic EndoMT, resulting in thickening of cardiac valves. Consistent with the known pathological effects of EndoMT, adult Cpt2E-KO mice demonstrate increased permeability in multiple vascular beds. Taken together, these results demonstrate that endothelial FAO is required to maintain endothelial cell fate and that therapeutic manipulation of endothelial metabolism could provide the basis for treating a growing number of EndoMT-linked pathological conditions.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 HL005012-11()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - K08 HL121174()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P30 AG024827()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK007052()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM084445(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072241()

Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase 1-Dependent Protein Acetylation Controls Breast Cancer Metastasis and Recurrence.

  • Rios Garcia M
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Dec 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Breast tumor recurrence and metastasis represent the main causes of cancer-related death in women, and treatments are still lacking. Here, we define the lipogenic enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 1 as a key player in breast cancer metastasis. ACC1 phosphorylation was increased in invading cells both in murine and human breast cancer, serving as a point of convergence for leptin and transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling. ACC1 phosphorylation was mediated by TGFβ-activated kinase (TAK) 1, and ACC1 inhibition was indispensable for the elevation of cellular acetyl-CoA, the subsequent increase in Smad2 transcription factor acetylation and activation, and ultimately epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis induction. ACC1 deficiency worsened tumor recurrence upon primary tumor resection in mice, and ACC1 phosphorylation levels correlated with metastatic potential in breast and lung cancer patients. Given the demonstrated effectiveness of anti-leptin receptor antibody treatment in halting ACC1-dependent tumor invasiveness, our work defines a "metabolocentric" approach in metastatic breast cancer therapy.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK065988(United States)

Muscle hypertrophy in hypoxia with inflammation is controlled by bromodomain and extra-terminal domain proteins.

  • Chabert C
  • Sci Rep
  • 2017 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Some of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients engaged in exercise-based muscle rehabilitation programs are unresponsive. To unravel the respective role of chronic hypoxia and pulmonary inflammation on soleus muscle hypertrophic capacities, we challenged male Wistar rats to repeated lipopolysaccharide instillations, associated or not with a chronic hypoxia exposure. Muscle hypertrophy was initiated by bilateral ablation of soleus agonists 1 week before sacrifice. To understand the role played by the histone acetylation, we also treated our animals with an inhibitor of bromodomains and extra terminal proteins (I-BET) during the week after surgery. Pulmonary inflammation totally inhibited this hypertrophy response under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions (26% lower than control surgery, p < 0.05), consistent with the S6K1 and myogenin measurements. Changes in histone acetylation and class IIa histone deacetylases expression, following pulmonary inflammation, suggested a putative role for histone acetylation signaling in the altered hypertrophy response. The I-BET drug restored the hypertrophy response suggesting that the non-response of muscle to a hypertrophic stimulus could be modulated by epigenetic mechanisms, including histone-acetylation dependant pathways. Drugs targeting such epigenetic mechanisms may open therapeutic perspectives for COPD patients with systemic inflammation who are unresponsive to rehabilitation.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01NS023022-23(United States)

Ketogenic Diet Reduces Midlife Mortality and Improves Memory in Aging Mice.

  • Newman JC
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Sep 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ketogenic diets recapitulate certain metabolic aspects of dietary restriction such as reliance on fatty acid metabolism and production of ketone bodies. We investigated whether an isoprotein ketogenic diet (KD) might, like dietary restriction, affect longevity and healthspan in C57BL/6 male mice. We find that Cyclic KD, KD alternated weekly with the Control diet to prevent obesity, reduces midlife mortality but does not affect maximum lifespan. A non-ketogenic high-fat diet (HF) fed similarly may have an intermediate effect on mortality. Cyclic KD improves memory performance in old age, while modestly improving composite healthspan measures. Gene expression analysis identifies downregulation of insulin, protein synthesis, and fatty acid synthesis pathways as mechanisms common to KD and HF. However, upregulation of PPARα target genes is unique to KD, consistent across tissues, and preserved in old age. In all, we show that a non-obesogenic ketogenic diet improves survival, memory, and healthspan in aging mice.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - K08 AG048354()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R24 DK085610()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - P30 NS065780()

A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice.

  • Roberts MN
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Sep 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Calorie restriction, without malnutrition, has been shown to increase lifespan and is associated with a shift away from glycolysis toward beta-oxidation. The objective of this study was to mimic this metabolic shift using low-carbohydrate diets and to determine the influence of these diets on longevity and healthspan in mice. C57BL/6 mice were assigned to a ketogenic, low-carbohydrate, or control diet at 12 months of age and were either allowed to live their natural lifespan or tested for physiological function after 1 or 14 months of dietary intervention. The ketogenic diet (KD) significantly increased median lifespan and survival compared to controls. In aged mice, only those consuming a KD displayed preservation of physiological function. The KD increased protein acetylation levels and regulated mTORC1 signaling in a tissue-dependent manner. This study demonstrates that a KD extends longevity and healthspan in mice.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG025532()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK092993()

SIRT1 Functions as a Negative Regulator of Eukaryotic Poly(A)RNA Transport.

  • Shan P
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Aug 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Most eukaryotic mRNAs are polyadenylated in the nucleus, and the poly(A)-tail is required for efficient mRNA export and translation. However, mechanisms governing mRNA transport remain unclear. Here, we report that the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 acts as an energy sensor and negatively regulates poly(A)RNA transport via deacetylating a poly(A)-binding protein, PABP1. Upon energy starvation, SIRT1 interacts with and deacetylates PABP1 and deactivates its poly(A)RNA binding, leading to nuclear accumulation of PABP1 and poly(A)RNA and thus facilitating eukaryotic cells to attenuate protein synthesis and energy consumption to adapt to energy stress. Moreover, AMPK-directed SIRT1 phosphorylation is required for energy starvation-induced PABP1-SIRT1 association, PABP1 deacetylation, and poly(A)RNA nuclear retention. In addition, the SIRT1-PABP1 association is not specific to energy starvation but represents a common stress response. These observations provide insights into dynamic modulation of eukaryotic mRNA transport and translation, suggesting that the poly(A)-tail also provides a basis for eukaryotes to effectively shut down mature mRNA transport and thereby tailor protein synthesis to maintain energy homeostasis under stress conditions.

Diencephalic Size Is Restricted by a Novel Interplay Between GCN5 Acetyltransferase Activity and Retinoic Acid Signaling.

  • Wilde JJ
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diencephalic defects underlie an array of neurological diseases. Previous studies have suggested that retinoic acid (RA) signaling is involved in diencephalic development at late stages of embryonic development, but its roles and mechanisms of action during early neural development are still unclear. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking enzymatic activity of the acetyltransferase GCN5 ((Gcn5hat/hat )), which were previously characterized with respect to their exencephalic phenotype, exhibit significant diencephalic expansion, decreased diencephalic RA signaling, and increased diencephalic WNT and SHH signaling. Using a variety of molecular biology techniques in both cultured neuroepithelial cells treated with a GCN5 inhibitor and forebrain tissue from (Gcn5hat/hat ) embryos, we demonstrate that GCN5, RARα/γ, and the poorly characterized protein TACC1 form a complex in the nucleus that binds specific retinoic acid response elements in the absence of RA. Furthermore, RA triggers GCN5-mediated acetylation of TACC1, which results in dissociation of TACC1 from retinoic acid response elements and leads to transcriptional activation of RA target genes. Intriguingly, RA signaling defects caused by in vitro inhibition of GCN5 can be rescued through RA-dependent mechanisms that require RARβ. Last, we demonstrate that the diencephalic expansion and transcriptional defects seen in (Gcn5hat/hat ) mutants can be rescued with gestational RA supplementation, supporting a direct link between GCN5, TACC1, and RA signaling in the developing diencephalon. Together, our studies identify a novel, nonhistone substrate for GCN5 whose modification regulates a previously undescribed, tissue-specific mechanism of RA signaling that is required to restrict diencephalic size during early forebrain development.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Changes in diencephalic size and shape, as well as SNPs associated with retinoic acid (RA) signaling-associated genes, have been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the mechanisms that regulate diencephalic morphogenesis and the involvement of RA signaling in this process are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate a novel role of the acetyltransferase GCN5 in a previously undescribed mechanism of RA signaling in the developing forebrain that is required to maintain the appropriate size of the diencephalon. Together, our experiments identify a novel nonhistone substrate of GCN5, highlight an essential role for both GCN5 and RA signaling in early diencephalic development, and elucidate a novel molecular regulatory mechanism for RA signaling that is specific to the developing forebrain.

Selective Chemical Inhibition of PGC-1α Gluconeogenic Activity Ameliorates Type 2 Diabetes.

  • Sharabi K
  • Cell
  • 2017 Mar 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide epidemic with a medical need for additional targeted therapies. Suppression of hepatic glucose production (HGP) effectively ameliorates diabetes and can be exploited for its treatment. We hypothesized that targeting PGC-1α acetylation in the liver, a chemical modification known to inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis, could be potentially used for treatment of T2D. Thus, we designed a high-throughput chemical screen platform to quantify PGC-1α acetylation in cells and identified small molecules that increase PGC-1α acetylation, suppress gluconeogenic gene expression, and reduce glucose production in hepatocytes. On the basis of potency and bioavailability, we selected a small molecule, SR-18292, that reduces blood glucose, strongly increases hepatic insulin sensitivity, and improves glucose homeostasis in dietary and genetic mouse models of T2D. These studies have important implications for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of glucose metabolism and treatment of T2D.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U54 HG005032()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R03 DA032468()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F32 DK102293()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK040936()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK069966()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R24 DK080261()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U2C DK059635()