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Phospho-Smad2 (Ser465/467) Antibody

RRID:AB_331673

Antibody ID

AB_331673

Target Antigen

Phospho-Smad2 (Ser465/467) human, rat, mouse, chicken/bird, zebrafish/fish, xenopus/amphibian, h, m, r, (c, x, z)

Proper Citation

(Cell Signaling Technology Cat# 3101, RRID:AB_331673)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

manufacturer recommendations: Western Blot; Western blot; Consolidated with Cell Signaling Technology Cat# 3101L, RRID:AB_331674 on 6-12-2016

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Cell Signaling Technology

Cat Num

3101 also 3101S, 3101L

T Cell Receptor-Regulated TGF-β Type I Receptor Expression Determines T Cell Quiescence and Activation.

  • Tu E
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Apr 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

It is unclear how quiescence is enforced in naive T cells, but activation by foreign antigens and self-antigens is allowed, despite the presence of inhibitory signals. We showed that active transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling was present in naive T cells, and T cell receptor (TCR) engagement reduced TGF-β signaling during T cell activation by downregulating TGF-β type 1 receptor (TβRI) through activation of caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 11 (CARD11) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). TGF-β prevented TCR-mediated TβRI downregulation, but this was abrogated by interleukin-6 (IL-6). Mitigation of TCR-mediated TβRI downregulation through overexpression of TβRI in naive and activated T cells rendered T cells less responsive and suppressed autoimmunity. Naive T cells in autoimmune patients exhibited reduced TβRI expression and increased TCR-driven proliferation compared to healthy subjects. Thus, TCR-mediated regulation of TβRI-TGF-β signaling acts as a crucial criterion to determine T cell quiescence and activation.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

Targeting Interleukin-1β Protects from Aortic Aneurysms Induced by Disrupted Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling.

  • Da Ros F
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Nov 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aortic aneurysms are life-threatening conditions with effective treatments mainly limited to emergency surgery or trans-arterial endovascular stent grafts, thus calling for the identification of specific molecular targets. Genetic studies have highlighted controversial roles of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling in aneurysm development. Here, we report on aneurysms developing in adult mice after smooth muscle cell (SMC)-specific inactivation of Smad4, an intracellular transducer of TGF-β. The results revealed that Smad4 inhibition activated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in SMCs. This danger signal later recruited innate immunity in the adventitia through chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and modified the mechanical properties of the aortic wall, thus favoring vessel dilation. SMC-specific Smad4 deletion in Il1r1- or Ccr2-null mice resulted in milder aortic pathology. A chronic treatment with anti-IL-1β antibody effectively hampered aneurysm development. These findings identify a mechanistic target for controlling the progression of aneurysms with compromised TGF-β signaling, such as those driven by SMAD4 mutations.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS039600(United States)

Tumor-Suppressor Inactivation of GDF11 Occurs by Precursor Sequestration in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

  • Bajikar SS
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and heterogeneous carcinoma in which various tumor-suppressor genes are lost by mutation, deletion, or silencing. Here we report a tumor-suppressive mode of action for growth-differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and an unusual mechanism of its inactivation in TNBC. GDF11 promotes an epithelial, anti-invasive phenotype in 3D triple-negative cultures and intraductal xenografts by sustaining expression of E-cadherin and inhibitor of differentiation 2 (ID2). Surprisingly, clinical TNBCs retain the GDF11 locus and expression of the protein itself. GDF11 bioactivity is instead lost because of deficiencies in its convertase, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5), causing inactive GDF11 precursor to accumulate intracellularly. PCSK5 reconstitution mobilizes the latent TNBC reservoir of GDF11 in vitro and suppresses triple-negative mammary cancer metastasis to the lung of syngeneic hosts. Intracellular GDF11 retention adds to the concept of tumor-suppressor inactivation and reveals a cell-biological vulnerability for TNBCs lacking therapeutically actionable mutations.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC011184(United States)

Foxh1 Occupies cis-Regulatory Modules Prior to Dynamic Transcription Factor Interactions Controlling the Mesendoderm Gene Program.

  • Charney RM
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The interplay between transcription factors and chromatin dictates gene regulatory network activity. Germ layer specification is tightly coupled with zygotic gene activation and, in most metazoans, is dependent upon maternal factors. We explore the dynamic genome-wide interactions of Foxh1, a maternal transcription factor that mediates Nodal/TGF-β signaling, with cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) during mesendodermal specification. Foxh1 marks CRMs during cleavage stages and recruits the co-repressor Tle/Groucho in the early blastula. We highlight a population of CRMs that are continuously occupied by Foxh1 and show that they are marked by H3K4me1, Ep300, and Fox/Sox/Smad motifs, suggesting interplay between these factors in gene regulation. We also propose a molecular "hand-off" between maternal Foxh1 and zygotic Foxa at these CRMs to maintain enhancer activation. Our findings suggest that Foxh1 functions at the top of a hierarchy of interactions by marking developmental genes for activation, beginning with the onset of zygotic gene expression.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA062203()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR025496()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD073179()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD010794()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD021718()

De-repression of the RAC activator ELMO1 in cancer stem cells drives progression of TGFβ-deficient squamous cell carcinoma from transition zones.

  • McCauley HA
  • Elife
  • 2017 Feb 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Squamous cell carcinomas occurring at transition zones are highly malignant tumors with poor prognosis. The identity of the cell population and the signaling pathways involved in the progression of transition zone squamous cell carcinoma are poorly understood, hence representing limited options for targeted therapies. Here, we identify a highly tumorigenic cancer stem cell population in a mouse model of transitional epithelial carcinoma and uncover a novel mechanism by which loss of TGFβ receptor II (Tgfbr2) mediates invasion and metastasis through de-repression of ELMO1, a RAC-activating guanine exchange factor, specifically in cancer stem cells of transition zone tumors. We identify ELMO1 as a novel target of TGFβ signaling and show that restoration of Tgfbr2 results in a complete block of ELMO1 in vivo. Knocking down Elmo1 impairs metastasis of carcinoma cells to the lung, thereby providing insights into the mechanisms of progression of Tgfbr2-deficient invasive transition zone squamous cell carcinoma.

Growth Differentiation Factor-8 Decreases StAR Expression Through ALK5-Mediated Smad3 and ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways in Luteinized Human Granulosa Cells.

  • Fang L
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Dec 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8) has been recently shown to be expressed in human granulosa cells, and the mature form of GDF-8 protein can be detected in the follicular fluid. However, the biological function and significance of this growth factor in the human ovary remains to be determined. Here, we investigated the effects of GDF-8 on steroidogenic enzyme expression and the potential mechanisms of action in luteinized human granulosa cells. We demonstrated that treatment with GDF-8 did not affect the mRNA levels of P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, whereas it significantly down-regulated steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression and decreased progesterone production. The suppressive effect of GDF-8 on StAR expression was abolished by the inhibition of the TGF-β type I receptor. In addition, treatment with GDF-8 activated both Smad2/3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Furthermore, knockdown of activin receptor-like kinase 5 reversed the effects of GDF-8 on Smad2/3 phosphorylation and StAR expression. The inhibition of Smad3 or ERK1/2 signaling pathways attenuated the GDF-8-induced down-regulation of StAR and production of progesterone. Interestingly, the concentrations of GDF-8 were negatively correlated with those of progesterone in human follicular fluid. These results indicate a novel autocrine function of GDF-8 to down-regulate StAR expression and decrease progesterone production in luteinized human granulosa cells, most likely through activin receptor-like kinase 5-mediated Smad3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Our findings suggest that granulosa cells might play a critical role in the regulation of progesterone production to prevent premature luteinization during the final stage of folliculogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R00 CA151827(United States)

Cytoskeletal Reorganization Drives Mesenchymal Condensation and Regulates Downstream Molecular Signaling.

  • Ray P
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2015 Aug 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Skeletal condensation occurs when specified mesenchyme cells self-organize over several days to form a distinctive cartilage template. Here, we determine how and when specified mesenchyme cells integrate mechanical and molecular information from their environment, forming cartilage condensations in the pharyngeal arches of chick embryos. By disrupting cytoskeletal reorganization, we demonstrate that dynamic cell shape changes drive condensation and modulate the response of the condensing cells to Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF), Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) and Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathways. Rho Kinase (ROCK)-driven actomyosin contractions and Myosin II-generated differential cell cortex tension regulate these cell shape changes. Disruption of the condensation process inhibits the differentiation of the mesenchyme cells into chondrocytes, demonstrating that condensation regulates the fate of the mesenchyme cells. We also find that dorsal and ventral condensations undergo distinct cell shape changes. BMP signaling is instructive for dorsal condensation-specific cell shape changes. Moreover, condensations exhibit ventral characteristics in the absence of BMP signaling, suggesting that in the pharyngeal arches ventral morphology is the ground pattern. Overall, this study characterizes the interplay between cytoskeletal dynamics and molecular signaling in a self-organizing system during tissue morphogenesis.

Unsaturated fatty acids disrupt Smad signaling in gonadotrope cells leading to inhibition of FSHβ gene expression.

  • Garrel G
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Reproductive function is highly dependent on nutritional input. We recently provided evidence that the unsaturated ω6 fatty acid (FA), linoleic acid (linoleic), interferes with transcription and secretion of the gonadotropin LH, highlighting the existence of a lipid sensing in pituitary gonadotropes. Here, we show, using a combination of in vivo and in vitro models, that linoleic differentially regulates Lhb and Fshb expression. Central exposure of rats to linoleic over 7 days was associated with increase of Lhb but not Fshb transcript levels. Consistently, exposure of rat pituitary cells or LβT2 cells to linoleic increased Lhb, whereas it dramatically decreased Fshb transcript levels without affecting its stability. This effect was also induced by ω9 and ω3-polyunsaturated FA but not by saturated palmitic acid. Analysis of the underlying mechanisms in LβT2 cells using small interfering RNA revealed that early growth response protein 1 mediates linoleic stimulation of Lhb expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that linoleic counteracts activin and bone morphogenetic protein-2 stimulation of Fshb expression. Using Western blotting and Smad-responsive reporter gene assays, linoleic was shown to decrease basal Smad2/3 phosphorylation levels as well as activin- and bone morphogenetic protein-2-dependent activation of Smad, uncovering a new FA-sensitive signaling cascade. Finally, the protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1A was shown to mediate linoleic inhibition of basal Smad phosphorylation and Fshb expression, identifying protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1A as a new target of FA in gonadotropes. Altogether, this study provides a novel mechanism by which FAs target gene expression and underlines the relevant role of pituitary gonadotropes in mediating the effects of nutritional FA on reproductive function.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM095867(United States)