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Rat Anti-Mouse CD68 Monoclonal antibody, Unconjugated, Clone FA-11

RRID:AB_322219

Antibody ID

AB_322219

Target Antigen

Mouse CD68 mouse

Proper Citation

(Bio-Rad Cat# MCA1957, RRID:AB_322219)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

manufacturer recommendations: Flow Cytometry; Immunohistochemistry; Immunoprecipitation; Western Blot; Immunohistology - Frozen, Western Blotting, Immunoprecipitation, Flow Cytometry

Clone ID

Clone FA-11

Host Organism

rat

Current concepts in the neuropathogenesis of mucolipidosis type IV.

  • Boudewyn LC
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV) is an autosomal recessive, lysosomal storage disorder causing progressively severe intellectual disability, motor and speech deficits, retinal degeneration often culminating in blindness, and systemic disease causing a shortened lifespan. MLIV results from mutations in the gene MCOLN1 encoding the transient receptor potential channel mucolipin-1. It is an ultra-rare disease and is currently known to affect just over 100 diagnosed individuals. The last decade has provided a wealth of research focused on understanding the role of the enigmatic mucolipin-1 protein in cell and brain function and how its absence causes disease. This review explores our current understanding of the mucolipin-1 protein in relation to neuropathogenesis in MLIV and describes recent findings implicating mucolipin-1's important role in mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) and TFEB (transcription factor EB) signaling feedback loops as well as in the function of the greater endosomal/lysosomal system. In addition to addressing the vital role of mucolipin-1 in the brain, we also report new data on the question of whether haploinsufficiency as would be anticipated in MCOLN1 heterozygotes is associated with any evidence of neuron dysfunction or disease. Greater insights into the role of mucolipin-1 in the nervous system can be expected to shed light not only on MLIV disease but also on numerous processes governing normal brain function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - F32 AG027631(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P30 HD071593()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD045561()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD090260()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS053677()

mTORC1 Is Transiently Reactivated in Injured Nerves to Promote c-Jun Elevation and Schwann Cell Dedifferentiation.

  • Norrmén C
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Schwann cells (SCs) are endowed with a remarkable plasticity. When peripheral nerves are injured, SCs dedifferentiate and acquire new functions to coordinate nerve repair as so-called repair SCs. Subsequently, SCs redifferentiate to remyelinate regenerated axons. Given the similarities between SC dedifferentiation/redifferentiation in injured nerves and in demyelinating neuropathies, elucidating the signals involved in SC plasticity after nerve injury has potentially wider implications. c-Jun has emerged as a key transcription factor regulating SC dedifferentiation and the acquisition of repair SC features. However, the upstream pathways that control c-Jun activity after nerve injury are largely unknown. We report that the mTORC1 pathway is transiently but robustly reactivated in dedifferentiating SCs. By inducible genetic deletion of the functionally crucial mTORC1-subunit Raptor in mouse SCs (including male and female animals), we found that mTORC1 reactivation is necessary for proper myelin clearance, SC dedifferentiation, and consequently remyelination, without major alterations in the inflammatory response. In the absence of mTORC1 signaling, c-Jun failed to be upregulated correctly. Accordingly, a c-Jun binding motif was found to be enriched in promoters of genes with reduced expression in injured mutants. Furthermore, using cultured SCs, we found that mTORC1 is involved in c-Jun regulation by promoting its translation, possibly via the eIF4F-subunit eIF4A. These results provide evidence that proper c-Jun elevation after nerve injury involves also mTORC1-dependent post-transcriptional regulation to ensure timely dedifferentiation of SCs.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A crucial evolutionary acquisition of vertebrates is the envelopment of axons in myelin sheaths produced by oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells (SCs) in the PNS. When myelin is damaged, conduction of action potentials along axons slows down or is blocked, leading to debilitating diseases. Unlike oligodendrocytes, SCs have a high regenerative potential, granted by their remarkable plasticity. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying SC plasticity may uncover new therapeutic targets in nerve regeneration and demyelinating diseases. Our work reveals that reactivation of the mTORC1 pathway in SCs is essential for efficient SC dedifferentiation after nerve injury. Accordingly, modulating this signaling pathway might be of therapeutic relevance in peripheral nerve injury and other diseases.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U120081321(United Kingdom)

Proliferating NG2-Cell-Dependent Angiogenesis and Scar Formation Alter Axon Growth and Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury in Mice.

  • Hesp ZC
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Feb 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a centralized fibrotic scar surrounded by a reactive glial scar at the lesion site. The origin of these scars is thought to be perivascular cells entering lesions on ingrowing blood vessels and reactive astrocytes, respectively. However, two NG2-expressing cell populations, pericytes and glia, may also influence scar formation. In the periphery, new blood vessel growth requires proliferating NG2+ pericytes; if this were also true in the CNS, then the fibrotic scar would depend on dividing NG2+ pericytes. NG2+ glial cells (also called oligodendrocyte progenitors or polydendrocytes) also proliferate after SCI and accumulate in large numbers among astrocytes in the glial scar. Their effect there, if any, is unknown. We show that proliferating NG2+ pericytes and glia largely segregate into the fibrotic and glial scars, respectively; therefore, we used a thymidine kinase/ganciclovir paradigm to ablate both dividing NG2+ cell populations to determine whether either scar was altered. Results reveal that loss of proliferating NG2+ pericytes in the lesion prevented intralesion angiogenesis and completely abolished the fibrotic scar. The glial scar was also altered in the absence of acutely dividing NG2+ cells, displaying discontinuous borders and significantly reduced GFAP density. Collectively, these changes enhanced edema, prolonged hemorrhage, and impaired forelimb functional recovery. Interestingly, after halting GCV at 14 d postinjury, scar elements and vessels entered the lesions over the next 7 d, as did large numbers of axons that were not present in controls. Collectively, these data reveal that acutely dividing NG2+ pericytes and glia play fundamental roles in post-SCI tissue remodeling.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by formation of astrocytic and fibrotic scars, both of which are necessary for lesion repair. NG2+ cells may influence both scar-forming processes. This study used a novel transgenic mouse paradigm to ablate proliferating NG2+ cells after SCI to better understand their role in repair. For the first time, our data show that dividing NG2+ pericytes are required for post-SCI angiogenesis, which in turn is needed for fibrotic scar formation. Moreover, loss of cycling NG2+ glia and pericytes caused significant multicellular tissue changes, including altered astrocyte responses and impaired functional recovery. This work reveals previously unknown ways in which proliferating NG2+ cells contribute to endogenous repair after SCI.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32GM082729(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS049267()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS073425()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS074870()

Immune or Genetic-Mediated Disruption of CASPR2 Causes Pain Hypersensitivity Due to Enhanced Primary Afferent Excitability.

  • Dawes JM
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Feb 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human autoantibodies to contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) are often associated with neuropathic pain, and CASPR2 mutations have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, in which sensory dysfunction is increasingly recognized. Human CASPR2 autoantibodies, when injected into mice, were peripherally restricted and resulted in mechanical pain-related hypersensitivity in the absence of neural injury. We therefore investigated the mechanism by which CASPR2 modulates nociceptive function. Mice lacking CASPR2 (Cntnap2-/-) demonstrated enhanced pain-related hypersensitivity to noxious mechanical stimuli, heat, and algogens. Both primary afferent excitability and subsequent nociceptive transmission within the dorsal horn were increased in Cntnap2-/- mice. Either immune or genetic-mediated ablation of CASPR2 enhanced the excitability of DRG neurons in a cell-autonomous fashion through regulation of Kv1 channel expression at the soma membrane. This is the first example of passive transfer of an autoimmune peripheral neuropathic pain disorder and demonstrates that CASPR2 has a key role in regulating cell-intrinsic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron excitability.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS18400(United States)

Three-Dimensional Adipose Tissue Imaging Reveals Regional Variation in Beige Fat Biogenesis and PRDM16-Dependent Sympathetic Neurite Density.

  • Chi J
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jan 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

While the cell-intrinsic pathways governing beige adipocyte development and phenotype have been increasingly delineated, comparatively little is known about how beige adipocytes interact with other cell types in fat. Here, we introduce a whole-tissue clearing method for adipose that permits immunolabeling and three-dimensional profiling of structures including thermogenic adipocytes and sympathetic innervation. We found that tissue architecture and sympathetic innervation differ significantly between subcutaneous and visceral depots. Subcutaneous fat demonstrates prominent regional variation in beige fat biogenesis with localization of UCP1+ beige adipocytes to areas with dense sympathetic neurites. We present evidence that the density of sympathetic projections is dependent on PRDM16 in adipocytes, providing another potential mechanism underlying the metabolic benefits mediated by PRDM16. This powerful imaging tool highlights the interaction of tissue components during beige fat biogenesis and reveals a previously undescribed mode of regulation of the sympathetic nervous system by adipocytes.

Mixed Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Pathology in Nhe6-Null Mouse Model of Christianson Syndrome.

  • Xu M
  • eNeuro
  • 2018 Jan 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Christianson syndrome (CS) is an X-linked disorder resulting from loss-of-function mutations in SLC9A6, which encodes the endosomal Na+/H+ exchanger 6 (NHE6). Symptoms include early developmental delay, seizures, intellectual disability, nonverbal status, autistic features, postnatal microcephaly, and progressive ataxia. Neuronal development is impaired in CS, involving defects in neuronal arborization and synaptogenesis, likely underlying diminished brain growth postnatally. In addition to neurodevelopmental defects, some reports have supported neurodegenerative pathology in CS with age. The objective of this study was to determine the nature of progressive changes in the postnatal brain in Nhe6-null mice. We examined the trajectories of brain growth and atrophy in mutant mice from birth until very old age (2 yr). We report trajectories of volume changes in the mutant that likely reflect both brain undergrowth as well as tissue loss. Reductions in volume are first apparent at 2 mo, particularly in the cerebellum, which demonstrates progressive loss of Purkinje cells (PCs). We report PC loss in two distinct Nhe6-null mouse models. More widespread reductions in tissue volumes, namely, in the hippocampus, striatum, and cortex, become apparent after 2 mo, largely reflecting delays in growth with more limited tissue losses with aging. Also, we identify pronounced glial responses, particularly in major fiber tracts such as the corpus callosum, where the density of activated astrocytes and microglia are substantially increased. The prominence of the glial response in axonal tracts suggests a primary axonopathy. Importantly, therefore, our data support both neurodevelopmental and degenerative mechanisms in the pathobiology of CS.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL67067(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH102418()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH105442()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R21 MH115392()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R25 MH101076()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS093880()

Environmental stimuli shape microglial plasticity in glioma.

  • Garofalo S
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

In glioma, microglia and infiltrating macrophages are exposed to factors that force them to produce cytokines and chemokines, which contribute to tumor growth and to maintaining a pro-tumorigenic, immunosuppressed microenvironment. We demonstrate that housing glioma-bearing mice in enriched environment (EE) reverts the immunosuppressive phenotype of infiltrating myeloid cells, by modulating inflammatory gene expression. Under these conditions, the branching and patrolling activity of myeloid cells is increased, and their phagocytic activity is promoted. Modulation of gene expression depends on interferon-(IFN)-γ produced by natural killer (NK) cells. This modulation disappears in mice depleted of NK cells or lacking IFN-γ, and was mimicked by exogenous interleukin-15 (IL-15). Further, we describe a key role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that is produced in the brain of mice housed in EE, in mediating the expression of IL-15 in CD11b+ cells. These data define novel mechanisms linking environmental cues to the acquisition of a pro-inflammatory, anti-tumor microenvironment in mouse brain.

Funding information:
  • Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro - AIRC2014 IG16014()
  • Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro - AIRC2015 IG16699()
  • CRCHU - Starting Grant()
  • European Commission - Euronanomed2: Nanoglio()
  • Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca - PRIN 2015()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P01 CA055164(United States)

Neutrophils Are Critical for Myelin Removal in a Peripheral Nerve Injury Model of Wallerian Degeneration.

  • Lindborg JA
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Oct 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Wallerian degeneration (WD) is considered an essential preparatory stage to the process of axonal regeneration. In the peripheral nervous system, infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages, which use the chemokine receptor CCR2 to gain entry to injured tissues from the bloodstream, are purportedly necessary for efficient WD. However, our laboratory has previously reported that myelin clearance in the injured sciatic nerve proceeds unhindered in the Ccr2-/- mouse model. Here, we extensively characterize WD in male Ccr2-/- mice and identify a compensatory mechanism of WD that is facilitated primarily by neutrophils. In response to the loss of CCR2, injured Ccr2-/- sciatic nerves demonstrate prolonged expression of neutrophil chemokines, a concomitant extended increase in the accumulation of neutrophils in the nerve, and elevated phagocytosis by neutrophils. Neutrophil depletion substantially inhibits myelin clearance after nerve injury in both male WT and Ccr2-/- mice, highlighting a novel role for these cells in peripheral nerve degeneration that spans genotypes.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The accepted view in the basic and clinical neurosciences is that the clearance of axonal and myelin debris after a nerve injury is directed primarily by inflammatory CCR2+ macrophages. However, we demonstrate that this clearance is nearly identical in WT and Ccr2-/- mice, and that neutrophils replace CCR2+ macrophages as the primary phagocytic cell. We find that neutrophils play a major role in myelin clearance not only in Ccr2-/- mice but also in WT mice, highlighting their necessity during nerve degeneration in the peripheral nervous system. These degeneration studies may propel improvements in nerve regeneration and draw critical parallels to mechanisms of nerve degeneration and regeneration in the CNS and in the context of peripheral neuropathies.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY011373()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK097223()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R56 DK097223()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD016164()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - F31 NS093694()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS095017()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - T32 NS067431()

Glucosylsphingosine Promotes α-Synuclein Pathology in Mutant GBA-Associated Parkinson's Disease.

  • Taguchi YV
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Oct 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Glucocerebrosidase 1 (GBA) mutations responsible for Gaucher disease (GD) are the most common genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the genetic link between GD and PD is well established, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) are not well understood. We propose that glucosylsphingosine, a sphingolipid accumulating in GD, mediates PD pathology in GBA-associated PD. We show that, whereas GD-related sphingolipids (glucosylceramide, glucosylsphingosine, sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate) promote α-synuclein aggregation in vitro, glucosylsphingosine triggers the formation of oligomeric α-synuclein species capable of templating in human cells and neurons. Using newly generated GD/PD mouse lines of either sex [Gba mutant (N370S, L444P, KO) crossed to α-synuclein transgenics], we show that Gba mutations predispose to PD through a loss-of-function mechanism. We further demonstrate that glucosylsphingosine specifically accumulates in young GD/PD mouse brain. With age, brains exhibit glucosylceramide accumulations colocalized with α-synuclein pathology. These findings indicate that glucosylsphingosine promotes pathological aggregation of α-synuclein, increasing PD risk in GD patients and carriers.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder in the aging population. Glucocerebrosidase 1 mutations, which cause Gaucher disease, are the most common genetic risk factor for PD, underscoring the importance of delineating the mechanisms underlying mutant GBA-associated PD. We show that lipids accumulating in Gaucher disease, especially glucosylsphingosine, play a key role in PD pathology in the brain. These data indicate that ASAH1 (acid ceramidase 1) and GBA2 (glucocerebrosidase 2) enzymes that mediate glucosylsphingosine production and metabolism are attractive therapeutic targets for treating mutant GBA-associated PD.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR065932()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007223()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS064963()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS083846()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - T32 NS007224()

A Sensitized IGF1 Treatment Restores Corticospinal Axon-Dependent Functions.

  • Liu Y
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

A major hurdle for functional recovery after both spinal cord injury and cortical stroke is the limited regrowth of the axons in the corticospinal tract (CST) that originate in the motor cortex and innervate the spinal cord. Despite recent advances in engaging the intrinsic mechanisms that control CST regrowth, it remains to be tested whether such methods can promote functional recovery in translatable settings. Here we show that post-lesional AAV-assisted co-expression of two soluble proteins, namely insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and osteopontin (OPN), in cortical neurons leads to robust CST regrowth and the recovery of CST-dependent behavioral performance after both T10 lateral spinal hemisection and a unilateral cortical stroke. In these mice, a compound able to increase axon conduction, 4-aminopyridine-3-methanol, promotes further improvement in CST-dependent behavioral tasks. Thus, our results demonstrate a potentially translatable strategy for restoring cortical dependent function after injury in the adult.

Local Cues Establish and Maintain Region-Specific Phenotypes of Basal Ganglia Microglia.

  • De Biase LM
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jul 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Microglia play critical roles in tissue homeostasis and can also modulate neuronal function and synaptic connectivity. In contrast to astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, which arise from multiple progenitor pools, microglia arise from yolk sac progenitors and are widely considered to be equivalent throughout the CNS. However, little is known about basic properties of deep brain microglia, such as those within the basal ganglia (BG). Here, we show that microglial anatomical features, lysosome content, membrane properties, and transcriptomes differ significantly across BG nuclei. Region-specific phenotypes of BG microglia emerged during the second postnatal week and were re-established following genetic or pharmacological microglial ablation and repopulation in the adult, indicating that local cues play an ongoing role in shaping microglial diversity. These findings demonstrate that microglia in the healthy brain exhibit a spectrum of distinct functional states and provide a critical foundation for defining microglial contributions to BG circuit function.

TDP-43 Depletion in Microglia Promotes Amyloid Clearance but Also Induces Synapse Loss.

  • Paolicelli RC
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jul 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Microglia coordinate various functions in the central nervous system ranging from removing synaptic connections, to maintaining brain homeostasis by monitoring neuronal function, and clearing protein aggregates across the lifespan. Here we investigated whether increased microglial phagocytic activity that clears amyloid can also cause pathological synapse loss. We identified TDP-43, a DNA-RNA binding protein encoded by the Tardbp gene, as a strong regulator of microglial phagocytosis. Mice lacking TDP-43 in microglia exhibit reduced amyloid load in a model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but at the same time display drastic synapse loss, even in the absence of amyloid. Clinical examination from TDP-43 pathology cases reveal a considerably reduced prevalence of AD and decreased amyloid pathology compared to age-matched healthy controls, confirming our experimental results. Overall, our data suggest that dysfunctional microglia might play a causative role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, critically modulating the early stages of cognitive decline.

Microglial Inflammatory Signaling Orchestrates the Hypothalamic Immune Response to Dietary Excess and Mediates Obesity Susceptibility.

  • Valdearcos M
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dietary excess triggers accumulation of pro-inflammatory microglia in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), but the components of this microgliosis and its metabolic consequences remain uncertain. Here, we show that microglial inflammatory signaling determines the immunologic response of the MBH to dietary excess and regulates hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis in mice. Either pharmacologically depleting microglia or selectively restraining microglial NF-κB-dependent signaling sharply reduced microgliosis, an effect that includes prevention of MBH entry by bone-marrow-derived myeloid cells, and greatly limited diet-induced hyperphagia and weight gain. Conversely, forcing microglial activation through cell-specific deletion of the negative NF-κB regulator A20 induced spontaneous MBH microgliosis and cellular infiltration, reduced energy expenditure, and increased both food intake and weight gain even in absence of a dietary challenge. Thus, microglial inflammatory activation, stimulated by dietary excess, orchestrates a multicellular hypothalamic response that mediates obesity susceptibility, providing a mechanistic rationale for non-neuronal approaches to treat metabolic diseases.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F32 DK108473()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K08 DK088872()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK017047()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK035816()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK098722()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103175()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK007247()

IL-19 Halts Progression of Atherosclerotic Plaque, Polarizes, and Increases Cholesterol Uptake and Efflux in Macrophages.

  • Gabunia K
  • Am. J. Pathol.
  • 2017 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Atherosclerosis regression is an important clinical goal, and treatments that can reverse atherosclerotic plaque formation are actively being sought. Our aim was to determine whether administration of exogenous IL-19, a Th2 cytokine, could attenuate progression of preformed atherosclerotic plaque and to identify molecular mechanisms. LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a Western diet for 12 weeks, then administered rIL-19 or phosphate-buffered saline concomitant with Western diet for an additional 8 weeks. Analysis of atherosclerosis burden showed that IL-19-treated mice were similar to baseline, in contrast to control mice which showed a 54% increase in plaque, suggesting that IL-19 halted the progression of atherosclerosis. Plaque characterization showed that IL-19-treated mice had key features of atherosclerosis regression, including a reduction in macrophage content and an enrichment in markers of M2 macrophages. Mechanistic studies revealed that IL-19 promotes the activation of key pathways leading to M2 macrophage polarization, including STAT3, STAT6, Kruppel-like factor 4, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, and can reduce cytokine-induced inflammation in vivo. We identified a novel role for IL-19 in regulating macrophage lipid metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-dependent regulation of scavenger receptor-mediated cholesterol uptake and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. These data show that IL-19 can halt progression of preformed atherosclerotic plaques by regulating both macrophage inflammation and cholesterol homeostasis and implicate IL-19 as a link between inflammation and macrophage cholesterol metabolism.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR027910()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - UL1 RR033184-01(United States)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL115575()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL117724()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P01 DA023860()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P30 DA013429()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA014230()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA025532()

Deficiency in Neuronal TGF-β Signaling Leads to Nigrostriatal Degeneration and Activation of TGF-β Signaling Protects against MPTP Neurotoxicity in Mice.

  • Tesseur I
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Apr 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an important role in the development and maintenance of embryonic dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain. To study the function of TGF-β signaling in the adult nigrostriatal system, we generated transgenic mice with reduced TGF-β signaling in mature neurons. These mice display age-related motor deficits and degeneration of the nigrostriatal system. Increasing TGF-β signaling in the substantia nigra through adeno-associated virus expressing a constitutively active type I receptor significantly reduces 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration and motor deficits. These results suggest that TGF-β signaling is critical for adult DA neuron survival and that modulating this signaling pathway has therapeutic potential in Parkinson disease.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show that reducing Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling promotes Parkinson disease-related pathologies and motor deficits, and increasing TGF-β signaling reduces neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a parkinsonism-inducing agent. Our results provide a rationale to pursue a means of increasing TGF-β signaling as a potential therapy for Parkinson's disease.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG020603()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R21 AG023708()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS092868()

The Glycoside Oleandrin Reduces Glioma Growth with Direct and Indirect Effects on Tumor Cells.

  • Garofalo S
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Apr 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oleandrin is a glycoside that inhibits the ubiquitous enzyme Na+/K+-ATPase. In addition to its known effects on cardiac muscle, recent in vitro and in vivo evidence highlighted its potential for anticancer properties. Here, we evaluated for the first time the effect of oleandrin on brain tumors. To this aim, mice were transplanted with human or murine glioma and analyzed for tumor progression upon oleandrin treatment. In both systems, oleandrin impaired glioma development, reduced tumor size, and inhibited cell proliferation. We demonstrated that oleandrin does the following: (1) enhances the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level in the brain; (2) reduces both microglia/macrophage infiltration and CD68 immunoreactivity in the tumor mass; (3) decreases astrogliosis in peritumoral area; and (4) reduces glioma cell infiltration in healthy parenchyma. In BDNF-deficient mice (bdnftm1Jae/J) and in glioma cells silenced for TrkB receptor expression, oleandrin was not effective, indicating a crucial role for BDNF in oleandrin's protective and antitumor functions. In addition, we found that oleandrin increases survival of temozolomide-treated mice. These results encourage the development of oleandrin as possible coadjuvant agent in clinical trials of glioma treatment.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this work, we paved the road for a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of brain tumors, demonstrating the potential of using the cardioactive glycoside oleandrin as a coadjuvant drug to standard chemotherapeutics such as temozolomide. In murine models of glioma, we demonstrated that oleandrin significantly increased mouse survival and reduced tumor growth both directly on tumor cells and indirectly by promoting an antitumor brain microenvironment with a key protective role played by the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

Tamoxifen Provides Structural and Functional Rescue in Murine Models of Photoreceptor Degeneration.

  • Wang X
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Mar 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Photoreceptor degeneration is a cause of irreversible vision loss in incurable blinding retinal diseases including retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and atrophic age-related macular degeneration. We found in two separate mouse models of photoreceptor degeneration that tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator and a drug previously linked with retinal toxicity, paradoxically provided potent neuroprotective effects. In a light-induced degeneration model, tamoxifen prevented onset of photoreceptor apoptosis and atrophy and maintained near-normal levels of electroretinographic responses. Rescue effects were correlated with decreased microglial activation and inflammatory cytokine production in the retina in vivo and a reduction of microglia-mediated toxicity to photoreceptors in vitro, indicating a microglia-mediated mechanism of rescue. Tamoxifen also rescued degeneration in a genetic (Pde6brd10) model of RP, significantly improving retinal structure, electrophysiological responses, and visual behavior. These prominent neuroprotective effects warrant the consideration of tamoxifen as a drug suitable for being repurposed to treat photoreceptor degenerative disease.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Photoreceptor degeneration is a cause of irreversible blindness in a number of retinal diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and atrophic age-related macular degeneration. Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator approved for the treatment of breast cancer and previously linked to a low incidence of retinal toxicity, was unexpectedly found to exert marked protective effects against photoreceptor degeneration. Structural and functional protective effects were found for an acute model of light-induced photoreceptor injury and for a genetic model for RP. The mechanism of protection involved the modulation of microglial activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines, highlighting the role of inflammatory mechanisms in photoreceptor degeneration. Tamoxifen may be suitable for clinical study as a potential treatment for diseases involving photoreceptor degeneration.

Phosphatidylserine Exposure Controls Viral Innate Immune Responses by Microglia.

  • Tufail Y
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Microglia are the intrinsic immune sentinels of the central nervous system. Their activation restricts tissue injury and pathogen spread, but in some settings, including viral infection, this response can contribute to cell death and disease. Identifying mechanisms that control microglial responses is therefore an important objective. Using replication-incompetent adenovirus 5 (Ad5)-based vectors as a model, we investigated the mechanisms through which microglia recognize and respond to viral uptake. Transgenic, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, and fluorescence imaging approaches revealed that phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) exposure on the outer leaflet of transduced cells triggers their engulfment by microglia through TAM receptor-dependent mechanisms. We show that inhibition of phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) activity reduces intracellular calcium dysregulation, prevents PtdSer externalization, and enables months-long protection of vector-transduced, transgene-expressing cells from microglial phagocytosis. Our study identifies PLSCR1 as a potent target through which the innate immune response to viral vectors, and potentially other stimuli, may be controlled.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI101400()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - DP2 NS083038()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS085296()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS085938()

Targeting Extracellular Cyclophilin A Reduces Neuroinflammation and Extends Survival in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

  • Pasetto L
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Feb 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuroinflammation is a major hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which is currently untreatable. Several anti-inflammatory compounds have been evaluated in patients and in animal models of ALS, but have been proven disappointing in part because effective targets have not yet been identified. Cyclophilin A, also known as peptidylprolyl cis-/trans-isomerase A (PPIA), as a foldase is beneficial intracellularly, but extracellularly has detrimental functions. We found that extracellular PPIA is a mediator of neuroinflammation in ALS. It is a major inducer of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and is selectively toxic for motor neurons. High levels of PPIA were found in the CSF of SOD1G93A mice and rats and sporadic ALS patients, suggesting that our findings may be relevant for familial and sporadic cases. A specific inhibitor of extracellular PPIA, MM218, given at symptom onset, rescued motor neurons and extended survival in the SOD1G93A mouse model of familial ALS by 11 d. The treatment resulted in the polarization of glia toward a prohealing phenotype associated with reduced NF-κB activation, proinflammatory markers, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and insoluble phosphorylated TDP-43. Our results indicates that extracellular PPIA is a promising druggable target for ALS and support further studies to develop a therapy to arrest or slow the progression of the disease in patients.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We provide evidence that extracellular cyclophilin A, also known as peptidylprolyl cis-/trans-isomerase A (PPIA), is a mediator of the neuroinflammatory reaction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and is toxic for motor neurons. Supporting this, a specific extracellular PPIA inhibitor reduced neuroinflammation, rescued motor neurons, and extended survival in the SOD1G93A mouse model of familial ALS. Our findings suggest selective pharmacological inhibition of extracellular PPIA as a novel therapeutic strategy, not only for SOD1-linked ALS, but possibly also for sporadic ALS. This approach aims to address the neuroinflammatory reaction that is a major hallmark of ALS. However, given the complexity of the disease, a combination of therapeutic approaches may be necessary.

In vivo inhibition of miR-155 significantly alters post-stroke inflammatory response.

  • Pena-Philippides JC
  • J Neuroinflammation
  • 2016 Nov 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: MicroRNA miR-155 is implicated in modulation of the inflammatory processes in various pathological conditions. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that in vivo inhibition of miR-155 promotes functional recovery after mouse experimental stroke. In the present study, we explored if this beneficial effect is associated with miR-155 inhibition-induced alterations in post-stroke inflammatory response. METHODS: Intravenous injections of a specific miR-155 inhibitor were initiated at 48 h after mouse distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO). Temporal changes in the expression of cytokines and key molecules associated with cytokine signaling were assessed at 7, 14, and 21 days after dMCAO, using mouse cytokine gene and protein arrays and Western blot analyses. Electron and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy techniques were used to evaluate the ultrastructural changes, as well as altered expression of specific phenotypic markers, at different time points after dMCAO. RESULTS: In the inhibitor-injected mice (inhibitor group), there was a significant decrease in CCL12 and CXCL3 cytokine expression at 7 days and significantly increased levels of major cytokines IL-10, IL-4, IL-6, MIP-1α, IL-5, and IL-17 at 14 days after dMCAO. These temporal changes correlated with altered expression of miR-155 target proteins SOCS-1, SHIP-1, and C/EBP-β and phosphorylation levels of cytokine signaling regulator STAT-3. Electron microscopy showed decreased number of phagocytically active peri-vascular microglia/macrophages in the inhibitor samples. Immunofluorescence and Western blot of these samples demonstrated that expression of leukocyte/ macrophage marker CD45 and phagocytosis marker CD68 was reduced at 7 days, and in contrast, significantly increased at 14 days after dMCAO, as compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, we propose that in vivo miR-155 inhibition following mouse stroke significantly alters the time course of the expression of major cytokines and inflammation-associated molecules, which could influence inflammation process and tissue repair after experimental cerebral ischemia.

Suppression of microglial activation is neuroprotective in a mouse model of human retinitis pigmentosa.

  • Peng B
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a photoreceptor-degenerative disease caused by various mutations and is characterized by death of rod photoreceptor cell followed by gradual death of cone photoreceptors. The molecular mechanisms that lead to rod and cone death are not yet fully understood. Neuroinflammation contributes to the progression of many chronic neurodegenerative disorders. However, it remains to be determined how microglia contribute to photoreceptor disruption in RP. In this study, we explored the role of microglia as a contributor to photoreceptor degeneration in the rd10 mouse model of RP. First, we demonstrated that microglia activation was an early alteration in RP retinas. Inhibition of microglia activation by minocycline reduced photoreceptor apoptosis and significantly improved retinal structure and function and visual behavior in rd10 mice. Second, we identified that minocycline exerted its neuroprotective effects through both anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Third, we found that Cx3cr1 deficiency dysregulated microglia activation and subsequently resulted in increased photoreceptor vulnerability in rd10 mice, suggesting that the Cx3cl1/Cx3cr1 signaling pathway might protect against microglia neurotoxicity. We concluded that suppression of neuroinflammatory responses could be a potential treatment strategy aimed at improving photoreceptor survival in human RP.

Conditional ablation and recovery of forebrain neurogenesis in the mouse.

  • Singer BH
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Forebrain neurogenesis persists throughout life in the rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Several strategies have been employed to eliminate adult neurogenesis and thereby determine whether depleting adult-born neurons disrupts specific brain functions, but some approaches do not specifically target neural progenitors. We have developed a transgenic mouse line to reversibly ablate adult neural stem cells and suppress neurogenesis. The nestin-tk mouse expresses herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) under the control of the nestin 2nd intronic enhancer, which drives expression in neural progenitors. Administration of ganciclovir (GCV) kills actively dividing cells expressing this transgene. We found that peripheral GCV administration suppressed SVZ-olfactory bulb and DG neurogenesis within 2 weeks but caused systemic toxicity. Intracerebroventricular GCV infusion for 28 days nearly completely depleted proliferating cells and immature neurons in both the SVZ and DG without systemic toxicity. Reversibility of the effects after prolonged GCV infusion was slow and partial. Neurogenesis did not recover 2 weeks after cessation of GCV administration, but showed limited recovery 6 weeks after GCV that differed between the SVZ and DG. Suppression of neurogenesis did not inhibit antidepressant responsiveness of mice in the tail suspension test. These findings indicate that SVZ and DG neural stem cells differ in their capacity for repopulation, and that adult-born neurons are not required for antidepressant responses in a common behavioral test of antidepressant efficacy. The nestin-tk mouse should be useful for studying how reversible depletion of adult neurogenesis influences neurophysiology, other behaviors, and neural progenitor dynamics.

Bone-marrow-derived cells that home to acoustic deafened cochlea preserved their hematopoietic identity.

  • Tan BT
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jul 10

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Abstract:

The high degree of bone marrow cell (BMC) plasticity has prompted us to test its restoration possibility in inner ear repair. Our aim was to determine the potential of these cells to transdifferentiate into specialized cochlea cell types after acoustic injury and BMC mobilization. Lethally irradiated mice were transplanted with BMCs from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice and subjected to acoustic deafening 3 months later. In a separate experiment, stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were administered to test the effect of BMC mobilization on bone marrow-derived cell (BMDC) transdifferentiation. All mice showed almost complete chimerism 3 months after bone marrow transplantation. Upon acoustic trauma, robust BMDC migration was observed in the deafened cochlea. GFP+ cell migration was most prominent during the first week after acoustic deafening, and these cells accumulated significantly at the spiral ligament, perilymphatic compartment walls, and limbus regions. Most of the BMDCs expressed CD45 and CD68 and were identified as macrophages. Upregulation of stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) was also observed in the spiral ligament during the first week after acoustic deafening. Cytokine treatment resulted in increased BMC mobilization in the systemic circulation. However, the presence of any stem cell progenitors or the differentiation of BMDCs into any cell types expressing cochlea sensory, supporting, fibrocytic, or neuronal markers were not detected in the deafened cochlea. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the homing capability of BMDCs to the deafened cochlea, and these cells displayed mature hematopoietic properties without spontaneous transdifferentiation to any cochlea cell types after acoustic trauma or bone marrow mobilization.

Embryonic and postnatal development of microglial cells in the mouse retina.

  • Santos AM
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Macrophage/microglial cells in the mouse retina during embryonic and postnatal development were studied by immunocytochemistry with Iba1, F4/80, anti-CD45, and anti-CD68 antibodies and by tomato lectin histochemistry. These cells were already present in the retina of embryos aged 11.5 days (E11.5) in association with cell death. At E12.5 some macrophage/microglial cells also appeared in peripheral regions of the retina with no apparent relationship with cell death. Immediately before birth microglial cells were present in the neuroblastic, inner plexiform (IPL), and ganglion cell (GCL) layers, and their distribution suggested that they entered the retina from the ciliary margin and the vitreous. The density of retinal microglial cells strongly decreased at birth, increased during the first postnatal week as a consequence of the entry of microglial precursors into the retina from the vitreous, and subsequently decreased owing to the cessation of microglial entry and the increase in retina size. The mature topographical distribution pattern of microglia emerged during postnatal development of the retina, apparently by radial migration of microglial cells from the vitreal surface in a vitreal-to-scleral direction. Whereas microglial cells were only seen in the GCL and IPL at birth, they progressively appeared in more scleral layers at increasing postnatal ages. Thus, microglial cells were present within all layers of the retina except the outer nuclear layer at the beginning of the second postnatal week. Once microglial cells reached their definitive location, they progressively ramified.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY002520(United States)