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Rabbit Anti-NR2B Polyclonal antibody, Unconjugated

RRID:AB_310193

Antibody ID

AB_310193

Target Antigen

NR2B bovine, canine, human, mouse, rat, simian, bovine, canine, human, monkey

Proper Citation

(Millipore Cat# 06-600, RRID:AB_310193)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

seller recommendations: Immunocytochemistry; Immunoprecipitation; Western Blot; Western Blotting, Immunoprecipitation

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Millipore

Rescue of Learning and Memory Deficits in the Human Nonsyndromic Intellectual Disability Cereblon Knock-Out Mouse Model by Targeting the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-mTORC1 Translational Pathway.

  • Bavley CC
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Mar 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

A homozygous nonsense mutation in the cereblon (CRBN) gene results in autosomal recessive, nonsyndromic intellectual disability that is devoid of other phenotypic features, suggesting a critical role of CRBN in mediating learning and memory. In this study, we demonstrate that adult male Crbn knock-out (CrbnKO) mice exhibit deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks that are recapitulated by focal knock-out of Crbn in the adult dorsal hippocampus, with no changes in social or repetitive behavior. Cellular studies identify deficits in long-term potentiation at Schaffer collateral CA1 synapses. We further show that Crbn is robustly expressed in the mouse hippocampus and CrbnKO mice exhibit hyperphosphorylated levels of AMPKα (Thr172). Examination of processes downstream of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) finds that CrbnKO mice have a selective impairment in mediators of the mTORC1 translation initiation pathway in parallel with lower protein levels of postsynaptic density glutamatergic proteins and higher levels of excitatory presynaptic markers in the hippocampus with no change in markers of the unfolded protein response or autophagy pathways. Acute pharmacological inhibition of AMPK activity in adult CrbnKO mice rescues learning and memory deficits and normalizes hippocampal mTORC1 activity and postsynaptic glutamatergic proteins without altering excitatory presynaptic markers. Thus, this study identifies that loss of Crbn results in learning, memory, and synaptic defects as a consequence of exaggerated AMPK activity, inhibition of mTORC1 signaling, and decreased glutamatergic synaptic proteins. Thus, CrbnKO mice serve as an ideal model of intellectual disability to further explore molecular mechanisms of learning and memory.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Intellectual disability (ID) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders. The cereblon (CRBN) gene has been linked to autosomal recessive, nonsyndromic ID, characterized by an intelligence quotient between 50 and 70 but devoid of other phenotypic features, making cereblon an ideal protein for the study of the fundamental aspects of learning and memory. Here, using the cereblon knock-out mouse model, we show that cereblon deficiency disrupts learning, memory, and synaptic function via AMP-activated protein kinase hyperactivity, downregulation of mTORC1, and dysregulation of excitatory synapses, with no changes in social or repetitive behaviors, consistent with findings in the human population. This establishes the cereblon knock-out mouse as a model of pure ID without the confounding behavioral phenotypes associated with other current models of ID.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U137761446(United Kingdom)
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA029122()

Ambra1 Shapes Hippocampal Inhibition/Excitation Balance: Role in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

  • Nobili A
  • Mol. Neurobiol.
  • 2018 Feb 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission cause brain network dysfunction and are central to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Parvalbumin interneurons are highly implicated in this imbalance. Here, we probed the social behavior and hippocampal function of mice carrying a haploinsufficiency for Ambra1, a pro-autophagic gene crucial for brain development. We show that heterozygous Ambra1 mice (Ambra+/-) are characterized by loss of hippocampal parvalbumin interneurons, decreases in the inhibition/excitation ratio, and altered social behaviors that are solely restricted to the female gender. Loss of parvalbumin interneurons in Ambra1+/- females is further linked to reductions of the inhibitory drive onto principal neurons and alterations in network oscillatory activity, CA1 synaptic plasticity, and pyramidal neuron spine density. Parvalbumin interneuron loss is underlined by increased apoptosis during the embryonic development of progenitor neurons in the medial ganglionic eminence. Together, these findings identify an Ambra1-dependent mechanism that drives inhibition/excitation imbalance in the hippocampus, contributing to abnormal brain activity reminiscent of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Funding information:
  • Ministero della Salute - GR-2011-02351457()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01NS052455(United States)

Inactivation of NMDA Receptors in the Ventral Tegmental Area during Cocaine Self-Administration Prevents GluA1 Upregulation but with Paradoxical Increases in Cocaine-Seeking Behavior.

  • Guzman D
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cocaine self-administration increases expression of GluA1 subunits in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons, which subsequently enhance the motivation for cocaine. This increase in GluA1 may be dependent on concomitant NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation during self-administration, similar to cocaine-induced long-term potentiation in the VTA. In this study, we used viral-mediated expression of a dominant-negative GluN1 subunit (HSV-dnGluN1) in VTA neurons to study the effect of transient NMDAR inactivation on the GluA1 increases induced by chronic cocaine self-administration in male rats. We found that dnGluN1 expression in the VTA limited to the 3 weeks of cocaine self-administration prevents the subsequent increase in tissue GluA1 levels when compared with control infusions of HSV-LacZ. Surprisingly, dnGluN1 expression led to an enhancement in the motivation to self-administer cocaine as measured using a progressive ratio reinforcement schedule and to enhanced cocaine seeking measured in extinction/reinstatement tests following an extended 3 week withdrawal period. Despite blocking tissue GluA1 increases in cocaine self-administering animals, the HSV-dnGluN1 treatment resulted in increased membrane levels of GluA1 and GluN2B, along with markedly higher locomotor responses to intra-VTA infusions of AMPA, suggesting a paradoxical increase in VTA AMPA receptor responsiveness. Together, these data suggest that NMDARs mediate cocaine-induced increases in VTA GluA1 expression, but such transient NMDAR inactivation also leads to compensatory scaling of synaptic AMPA receptors that enhance the motivational for cocaine.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are critical substrates of drug rewards. Animal models indicate that chronic cocaine use enhances excitatory glutamatergic input to these neurons, making them more susceptible to environmental stimuli that trigger drug craving and relapse. We previously found that self-administration of cocaine increases AMPA glutamate receptors in the VTA, and this effect enhances motivation for cocaine. Here we report that the mechanism for this upregulation involves NMDA receptor activity during cocaine use. While interference with NMDA receptor function blocks AMPA receptor upregulation, it also produces a paradoxical enhancement in membrane AMPA receptor subunits, AMPA responsiveness, and the motivation for cocaine. Thus, pharmacotherapy targeting NMDA receptors may inadvertently produce substantial adverse consequences for cocaine addiction.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA022445()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - F31 DA035073()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA018743()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA032708()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - T32 DA007290()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - 1R01GM100768-01A1(United States)

TRPC6 expression in neurons is differentially regulated by NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors.

  • Qu Z
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Nov 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

The expression of transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) in central nervous system (CNS) is important for neuronal functions and certain neural disorders. However, the regulatory mechanism of TRPC6 expression in neurons is still obscure. In this study, we show that TRPC6 expression in the primary cultured cortical neurons is bidirectionally regulated by glutamate. Activation of NR2A-containing NMDARs induces TRPC6 transcription through a calcineurin-dependent pathway. In contrast, activation of NR2B-containing NMDARs causes TRPC6 degradation through calpain. Thus, TRPC6 expression in neurons is regulated by glutamate in a bidirectional manner that is dependent on NR2A and NR2B.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA AI000955-06(United States)

Apolipoprotein E4 Impairs Neuronal Insulin Signaling by Trapping Insulin Receptor in the Endosomes.

  • Zhao N
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diabetes and impaired brain insulin signaling are linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The association between diabetes and AD-associated amyloid pathology is stronger among carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 gene allele, the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset AD. Here we report that apoE4 impairs neuronal insulin signaling in human apoE-targeted replacement (TR) mice in an age-dependent manner. High-fat diet (HFD) accelerates these effects in apoE4-TR mice at middle age. In primary neurons, apoE4 interacts with insulin receptor and impairs its trafficking by trapping it in the endosomes, leading to impaired insulin signaling and insulin-stimulated mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. In aging brains, the increased apoE4 aggregation and compromised endosomal function further exacerbate the inhibitory effects of apoE4 on insulin signaling and related functions. Together, our study provides novel mechanistic insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of apoE4 and insulin resistance in AD.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - P50 AG016574()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG027924()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG035355()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG046205()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R37 AG027924()
  • NIA NIH HHS - RF1 AG051504()

Erbb4 Deletion from Medium Spiny Neurons of the Nucleus Accumbens Core Induces Schizophrenia-Like Behaviors via Elevated GABAA Receptor α1 Subunit Expression.

  • Geng HY
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Aug 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Medium spiny neurons (MSNs), the major GABAergic projection neurons in the striatum, are implicated in many neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We found that a deficiency in Erbb4, a schizophrenia risk gene, in MSNs of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core, but not the dorsomedial striatum, markedly induced schizophrenia-like behaviors such as hyperactivity, abnormal marble-burying behavior, damaged social novelty recognition, and impaired sensorimotor gating function in male mice. Using immunohistochemistry, Western blot, RNA interference, electrophysiology, and behavior test studies, we found that these phenomena were mediated by increased GABAA receptor α1 subunit (GABAAR α1) expression, which enhanced inhibitory synaptic transmission on MSNs. These results suggest that Erbb4 in MSNs of the NAc core may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia by regulating GABAergic transmission and raise the possibility that GABAAR α1 may therefore serve as a new therapeutic target for schizophrenia.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although ErbB4 is highly expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), its role in this type of neuron has not been reported previously. The present study demonstrates that Erbb4 deletion in nucleus accumbens (NAc) core MSNs can induce schizophrenia-like behaviors via elevated GABAA receptor α1 subunit (GABAAR α1) expression. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that ErbB4 signaling in the MSNs is involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. Furthermore, restoration of GABAAR α1 in the NAc core, but not the dorsal medium striatum, alleviated the abnormal behaviors. Here, we highlight the role of the NAc core in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and suggest that GABAAR α1 may be a potential pharmacological target for its treatment.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS062822(United States)

Aging Triggers Cytoplasmic Depletion and Nuclear Translocation of the E3 Ligase Mahogunin: A Function for Ubiquitin in Neuronal Survival.

  • Benvegnù S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 May 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

A decline in proteasome function is causally connected to neuronal aging and aging-associated neuropathologies. By using hippocampal neurons in culture and in vivo, we show that aging triggers a reduction and a cytoplasm-to-nucleus redistribution of the E3 ubiquitin ligase mahogunin (MGRN1). Proteasome impairment induces MGRN1 monoubiquitination, the key post-translational modification for its nuclear entry. One potential mechanism for MGRN1 monoubiquitination is via progressive deubiquitination at the proteasome of polyubiquitinated MGRN1. Once in the nucleus, MGRN1 potentiates the transcriptional cellular response to proteotoxic stress. Inhibition of MGRN1 impairs ATF3-mediated neuronal responsiveness to proteosomal stress and increases neuronal stress, while increasing MGRN1 ameliorates signs of neuronal aging, including cognitive performance in old animals. Our results imply that, among others, the strength of neuronal survival in a proteasomal deterioration background, like during aging, depends on the fine-tuning of ubiquitination-deubiquitination.

Insulin-like growth factor-I regulates LH release by modulation of kisspeptin and NMDA-mediated neurotransmission in young and middle-aged female rats.

  • Neal-Perry G
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 May 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

This study investigated potential mechanisms by which age and IGF-I receptor (IGF-Ir) signaling in the neuroendocrine hypothalamus affect estradiol-positive feedback effects on GnRH neuronal activation and on kisspeptin and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced LH release and on the abundance of NMDA receptor subunits Nr1 and Nr2b and Kiss1r transcript and protein in the hypothalamus of young and middle-aged female rats. We infused vehicle, IGF-I, or JB-1, a selective antagonist of IGF-Ir, into the third ventricle of ovariectomized female rats primed with estradiol or vehicle and injected with vehicle, kisspeptin (3 or 30 nmol/kg), or NMDA (15 or 30 mg/kg). Regardless of dose, NMDA and kisspeptin resulted in significantly more LH release, GnRH/c-Fos colabeling, and c-Fos immunoreative cells in young than in middle-aged females. Estradiol priming significantly increased Kiss1r, Nr1, and Nr2b receptor transcript and protein abundance in young but not middle-aged female hypothalamus. JB-1 attenuated kisspeptin and NMDA-induced LH release, numbers of GnRH/c-Fos and c-Fos cells, and Kiss1r, Nr1, and Nr2b transcript and protein abundance in young females to levels observed in middle-aged females. IGF-I significantly enhanced NMDA and kisspeptin-induced LH release in middle-aged females without increasing numbers of GnRH/c-Fos or c-Fos immunoreactive cells. IGF-I infusion in middle-aged females also increased Kiss1r, Nr1, and Nr2b protein and transcript to levels that were equivalent to young estradiol-primed females. These findings indicate that age-related changes in estradiol-regulated responsiveness to excitatory input from glutamate and kisspeptin reflect reduced IGF-Ir signaling.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA140550(United States)

Drebrin a knockout eliminates the rapid form of homeostatic synaptic plasticity at excitatory synapses of intact adult cerebral cortex.

  • Aoki C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) is important for maintaining neurons' excitability within the dynamic range and for protecting neurons from unconstrained long-term potentiation that can cause breakdown of synapse specificity (Turrigiano [2008] Cell 135:422-435). Knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains incomplete, especially for the rapid form of HSP. To test whether HSP in adulthood depends on an F-actin binding protein, drebrin A, mice deleted of the adult isoform of drebrin (DAKO) but retaining the embryonic isoform (drebrin E) were generated. HSP was assayed by determining whether the NR2A subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) can rise rapidly within spines following the application of an NMDAR antagonist, D-APV, onto the cortical surface. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry revealed that, as expected, the D-APV treatment of wild-type (WT) mouse cortex increased the proportion of NR2A-immunolabeled spines within 30 minutes relative to basal levels in hemispheres treated with an inactive enantiomer, L-APV. This difference was significant at the postsynaptic membrane and postsynaptic density (i.e., synaptic junction) as well as at nonsynaptic sites within spines and was not accompanied by spine size changes. In contrast, the D-APV treatment of DAKO brains did not augment NR2A labeling within the spine cytoplasm or at the synaptic junction, even though basal levels of NR2A were not significantly different from those of WT cortices. These findings indicate that drebrin A is required for the rapid (<30 minutes) form of HSP at excitatory synapses of adult cortices, whereas drebrin E is sufficient for maintaining basal NR2A levels within spines.

Developmental expression of NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits in vestibular nuclear neurons that encode gravity-related horizontal orientations.

  • Tse YC
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 May 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

We examined the expression profile of subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors [N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-proprionate (AMPA)] during postnatal development of connectivity in the rat vestibular nucleus. Vestibular nuclear neurons were functionally activated by constant velocity off-vertical axis rotation, a strategy to stimulate otolith organs in the inner ear. These neurons indicated Fos expression as a result. By immunodetection for Fos, otolith-related neurons that expressed NMDA/AMPA receptor subunits were identified as early as P7, and these neurons were found to increase progressively up to adulthood. Although there was developmental invariance in the percentage of Fos-immunoreactive neurons expressing the NR1, NR2A, GluR1, or GluR2/3 subunits, those expressing the NR2B subunit decreased from P14 onward, and those expressing the GluR4 subunit decreased in adults. These double-immunohistochemical data were corroborated by combined immuno-/hybridization histochemical data obtained from Fos-immunoreactive neurons expressing NR2B mRNA or GluR4 mRNA. The staining of both NR2B and GluR4 in the cytoplasm of these neurons decreased upon maturation. The percentage of Fos-immunoreactive neurons expressing the other ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits (viz. NR1, NR2A, GluR1, and GluR2/3) remained relatively constant throughout postnatal maturation. Triple immunofluorescence further demonstrated coexpression of NR1 and NR2 subunits in Fos-immunoreactive neurons. Coexpression of NR1 subunit with each of the GluR subunits was also observed among the Fos-immunoreactive neurons. Taken together, the different expression profiles of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits constitute the histological basis for glutamatergic neurotransmission in the maturation of central vestibular connectivity for the coding of gravity-related horizontal head movements.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD007491(United States)