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Anti-phospho-Histone H3 (Ser10), Mitosis Marker antibody

RRID:AB_310177

Antibody ID

AB_310177

Target Antigen

phospho-Histone H3 (Ser10) Mitosis Marker m, h

Proper Citation

(Millipore Cat# 06-570, RRID:AB_310177)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

seller recommendations: IC, IP, WB; Immunoprecipitation; Western Blot; Immunocytochemistry

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Millipore

Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan Sulfation Regulates Uterine Differentiation and Signaling During Embryo Implantation.

  • Yin Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

To prepare for embryo implantation, the uterus must undergo a series of reciprocal interactions between the uterine epithelium and the underlying stroma, which are orchestrated by ovarian hormones. During this process, multiple signaling pathways are activated to direct cell proliferation and differentiation, which render the uterus receptive to the implanting blastocysts. One important modulator of these signaling pathways is the cell surface and extracellular matrix macromolecules, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). HSPGs play crucial roles in signal transduction by regulating morphogen transport and ligand binding. In this study, we examine the role of HSPG sulfation in regulating uterine receptivity by conditionally deleting the N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase (NDST) 1 gene (Ndst1) in the mouse uterus using the Pgr-Cre driver, on an Ndst2- and Ndst3-null genetic background. Although development of the female reproductive tract and subsequent ovarian function appear normal in Ndst triple-knockout females, they are infertile due to implantation defects. Embryo attachment appears to occur but the uterine epithelium at the site of implantation persists rather than disintegrates in the mutant. Uterine epithelial cells continued to proliferate past day 4 of pregnancy, accompanied by elevated Fgf2 and Fgf9 expression, whereas uterine stroma failed to undergo decidualization, as evidenced by lack of Bmp2 induction. Despite normal Indian hedgehog expression, transcripts of Ptch1 and Gli1, both components as well as targets of the hedgehog (Hh) pathway, were detected only in the subepithelial stroma, indicating altered Hh signaling in the mutant uterus. Taken together, these data implicate an essential role for HSPGs in modulating signal transduction during mouse implantation.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA031760(United States)

SOXF factors regulate murine satellite cell self-renewal and function through inhibition of β-catenin activity.

  • Alonso-Martin S
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jun 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Muscle satellite cells are the primary source of stem cells for postnatal skeletal muscle growth and regeneration. Understanding genetic control of satellite cell formation, maintenance, and acquisition of their stem cell properties is on-going, and we have identified SOXF (SOX7, SOX17, SOX18) transcriptional factors as being induced during satellite cell specification. We demonstrate that SOXF factors regulate satellite cell quiescence, self-renewal and differentiation. Moreover, ablation of Sox17 in the muscle lineage impairs postnatal muscle growth and regeneration. We further determine that activities of SOX7, SOX17 and SOX18 overlap during muscle regeneration, with SOXF transcriptional activity requisite. Finally, we show that SOXF factors also control satellite cell expansion and renewal by directly inhibiting the output of β-catenin activity, including inhibition of Ccnd1 and Axin2. Together, our findings identify a key regulatory function of SoxF genes in muscle stem cells via direct transcriptional control and interaction with canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

Funding information:
  • Agence Nationale de la Recherche - ANR 11 BSV2 017 02()
  • Agence Nationale de la Recherche - ANR-12-BSV1-0038-04()
  • Agence Nationale de la Recherche - ANR-13-BSV1-0011-02()
  • Agence Nationale de la Recherche - ANR-15-CE13-0011-01()
  • Agence Nationale de la Recherche - ANR-15-RHUS-0003()
  • Association Française contre les Myopathies - AFM 16050()
  • Association Française contre les Myopathies - AFM 17865()
  • Association Française contre les Myopathies - TRANSLAMUSCLE 19507()
  • Basque Community - BF106.177()
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/I017585/1(United Kingdom)
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - GK 1631()
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - KFO192 (Sp1152/8-1)()
  • European Union Sixth and Seventh Framework Program - MYORES and ENDOSTEM # 241440()
  • Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale - DEQ20130326526()
  • Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale - FDT20130928236()
  • FSH Society - 262948-2()
  • FSH Society and BIODESIGN - 262948-2()
  • Horizon 2020 Framework Programme - BIODESIGN (262948-2)()
  • Horizon 2020 Framework Programme - MYORES and ENDOSTEM # 241440()
  • Labex REVIVE - ANR-10-LABX-73()
  • Medical Research Council - MR/PO23215/1()
  • Muscular Dystrophy UK - RA3/3052()

Evolution of Cortical Neurogenesis in Amniotes Controlled by Robo Signaling Levels.

  • Cárdenas A
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cerebral cortex size differs dramatically between reptiles, birds, and mammals, owing to developmental differences in neuron production. In mammals, signaling pathways regulating neurogenesis have been identified, but genetic differences behind their evolution across amniotes remain unknown. We show that direct neurogenesis from radial glia cells, with limited neuron production, dominates the avian, reptilian, and mammalian paleocortex, whereas in the evolutionarily recent mammalian neocortex, most neurogenesis is indirect via basal progenitors. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in mouse, chick, and snake embryos and in human cerebral organoids demonstrate that high Slit/Robo and low Dll1 signaling, via Jag1 and Jag2, are necessary and sufficient to drive direct neurogenesis. Attenuating Robo signaling and enhancing Dll1 in snakes and birds recapitulates the formation of basal progenitors and promotes indirect neurogenesis. Our study identifies modulation in activity levels of conserved signaling pathways as a primary mechanism driving the expansion and increased complexity of the mammalian neocortex during amniote evolution.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - (United Kingdom)

Targeting p38α Increases DNA Damage, Chromosome Instability, and the Anti-tumoral Response to Taxanes in Breast Cancer Cells.

  • Cánovas B
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death among women. Here we report a role for the protein kinase p38α in coordinating the DNA damage response and limiting chromosome instability during breast tumor progression, and identify the DNA repair regulator CtIP as a p38α substrate. Accordingly, decreased p38α signaling results in impaired ATR activation and homologous recombination repair, with concomitant increases in replication stress, DNA damage, and chromosome instability, leading to cancer cell death and tumor regression. Moreover, we show that pharmacological inhibition of p38α potentiates the effects of taxanes by boosting chromosome instability in murine models and patient-derived xenografts, suggesting the potential interest of combining p38α inhibitors with chemotherapeutic drugs that induce chromosome instability.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM068812(United States)

Cell-Specific Imd-NF-κB Responses Enable Simultaneous Antibacterial Immunity and Intestinal Epithelial Cell Shedding upon Bacterial Infection.

  • Zhai Z
  • Immunity
  • 2018 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Intestinal infection triggers potent immune responses to combat pathogens and concomitantly drives epithelial renewal to maintain barrier integrity. Current models propose that epithelial renewal is primarily driven by damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we found that in Drosophila, the Imd-NF-κB pathway controlled enterocyte (EC) shedding upon infection, via a mechanism independent of ROS-associated apoptosis. Mechanistically, the Imd pathway synergized with JNK signaling to induce epithelial cell shedding specifically in the context of bacterial infection, requiring also the reduced expression of the transcription factor GATAe. Furthermore, cell-specific NF-κB responses enabled simultaneous production of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and epithelial shedding in different EC populations. Thus, the Imd-NF-κB pathway is central to the intestinal antibacterial response by mediating both AMP production and the maintenance of barrier integrity. Considering the similarities between Drosophila Imd signaling and mammalian TNFR pathway, our findings suggest the existence of an evolutionarily conserved genetic program in immunity-induced epithelial shedding.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG31675(United States)

Premature Expression of FOXO1 in Developing Mouse Pituitary Results in Anterior Lobe Hypoplasia.

  • Stallings CE
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The process by which the somatotrope lineage emerges in the developing pituitary is regulated by the activity of specific signaling and transcription factors expressed during development. We set out to understand the contribution of FOXO1 to that process by using a mouse model in which FOXO1 is prematurely expressed in the pituitary primordium. Expression of FOXO1 in the oral ectoderm as early as embryonic day (e)9.5 results in pituitary gland hypoplasia and reduced expression of anterior lobe hormone transcripts at e18.5. Notably, the relative numbers of somatotropes and thyrotropes are also decreased at e18.5. LHX3 and PITX2, markers of pituitary identity, are present in a reduced number of cells during the formation of Rathke's pouch. Thus, premature expression of FOXO1 may affect adoption of pituitary identity during differentiation. Our results demonstrate that the timing of FOXO1 activation affects its role in pituitary gland organogenesis and somatotrope differentiation.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - R01-CA-0078815(Canada)

Cell death in neural precursor cells and neurons before neurite formation prevents the emergence of abnormal neural structures in the Drosophila optic lobe.

  • Hara Y
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2018 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Programmed cell death is a conserved strategy for neural development both in vertebrates and invertebrates and is recognized at various developmental stages in the brain from neurogenesis to adulthood. To understand the development of the central nervous system, it is essential to reveal not only molecular mechanisms but also the role of neural cell death (Pinto-Teixeira et al., 2016). To understand the role of cell death in neural development, we investigated the effect of inhibition of cell death on optic lobe development. Our data demonstrate that, in the optic lobe of Drosophila, cell death occurs in neural precursor cells and neurons before neurite formation and functions to prevent various developmental abnormalities. When neuronal cell death was inhibited by an effector caspase inhibitor, p35, multiple abnormal neuropil structures arose during optic lobe development-e.g., enlarged or fused neuropils, misrouted neurons and abnormal neurite lumps. Inhibition of cell death also induced morphogenetic defects in the lamina and medulla development-e.g., failures in the separation of the lamina and medulla cortices and the medulla rotation. These defects were reproduced in the mutant of an initiator caspase, dronc. If cell death was a mechanism for removing the abnormal neuropil structures, we would also expect to observe them in mutants defective for corpse clearance. However, they were not observed in these mutants. When dead cell-membranes were visualized with Apoliner, they were observed only in cortices and not in neuropils. These results suggest that the cell death occurs before mature neurite formation. Moreover, we found that inhibition of cell death induced ectopic neuroepithelial cells, neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells in late pupal stages, at sites where the outer and inner proliferation centers were located at earlier developmental stages. Caspase-3 activation was observed in the neuroepithelial cells and neuroblasts in the proliferation centers. These results indicate that cell death is required for elimination of the precursor cells composing the proliferation centers. This study substantiates an essential role of early neural cell death for ensuring normal development of the central nervous system.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U01 HG006500(United States)

A Temporal Transcriptional Switch Governs Stem Cell Division, Neuronal Numbers, and Maintenance of Differentiation.

  • Mora N
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

The importance of producing the correct numbers of neurons during development is illustrated by both evolutionary enhancement of cognitive capacities in larger brains, and developmental disorders of brain size. In humans, increased neuronal numbers during development is speculated to partly derive from a unique subtype of neural stem cells (NSCs) that undergo a phase of expansion through symmetric self-amplifying divisions before generating neurons. Symmetric amplification also appears to underlie adult neural stem maintenance in the mouse. However, the mechanisms regulating this behavior are unclear. We report the discovery of self-amplifying NSCs in Drosophila and show that they arise by a spatiotemporal conversion of classical self-renewing NSCs. This conversion is regulated by a temporal transition in the expression of proneural transcription factors prior to cell division. We find a causal link between stem cell self-amplification and increased neuronal numbers. We further show that the temporal transcriptional switch controls both stem cell division and subsequent neuronal differentiation.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS066019(United States)

Co-translational protein targeting facilitates centrosomal recruitment of PCNT during centrosome maturation in vertebrates.

  • Sepulveda G
  • Elife
  • 2018 Apr 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

As microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells, centrosomes guide the formation of the bipolar spindle that segregates chromosomes during mitosis. At mitosis onset, centrosomes maximize microtubule-organizing activity by rapidly expanding the pericentriolar material (PCM). This process is in part driven by the large PCM protein pericentrin (PCNT), as its level increases at the PCM and helps recruit additional PCM components. However, the mechanism underlying the timely centrosomal enrichment of PCNT remains unclear. Here, we show that PCNT is delivered co-translationally to centrosomes during early mitosis by cytoplasmic dynein, as evidenced by centrosomal enrichment of PCNT mRNA, its translation near centrosomes, and requirement of intact polysomes for PCNT mRNA localization. Additionally, the microtubule minus-end regulator, ASPM, is also targeted co-translationally to mitotic spindle poles. Together, these findings suggest that co-translational targeting of cytoplasmic proteins to specific subcellular destinations may be a generalized protein targeting mechanism.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG039756(United States)
  • University of California, Davis - New Faculty Startup Funds()

Insm1 Induces Neural Progenitor Delamination in Developing Neocortex via Downregulation of the Adherens Junction Belt-Specific Protein Plekha7.

  • Tavano S
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Mar 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Delamination of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from the ventricular surface is a crucial prerequisite to form the subventricular zone, the germinal layer linked to the expansion of the mammalian neocortex in development and evolution. Here, we dissect the molecular mechanism by which the transcription factor Insm1 promotes the generation of basal progenitors (BPs). Insm1 protein is most highly expressed in newborn BPs in mouse and human developing neocortex. Forced Insm1 expression in embryonic mouse neocortex causes NPC delamination, converting apical to basal radial glia. Insm1 represses the expression of the apical adherens junction belt-specific protein Plekha7. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of Plekha7 expression suffices to cause NPC delamination. Plekha7 overexpression impedes the intrinsic and counteracts the Insm1-induced, NPC delamination. Our findings uncover a novel molecular mechanism underlying NPC delamination in which a BP-genic transcription factor specifically targets the integrity of the apical adherens junction belt, rather than adherens junction components as such.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA BC010763-05(United States)

Nutritional Control of Stem Cell Division through S-Adenosylmethionine in Drosophila Intestine.

  • Obata F
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The intestine has direct contact with nutritional information. The mechanisms by which particular dietary molecules affect intestinal homeostasis are not fully understood. In this study, we identified S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a universal methyl donor synthesized from dietary methionine, as a critical molecule that regulates stem cell division in Drosophila midgut. Depletion of either dietary methionine or SAM synthesis reduces division rate of intestinal stem cells. Genetic screening for putative SAM-dependent methyltransferases has identified protein synthesis as a regulator of the stem cells, partially through a unique diphthamide modification on eukaryotic elongation factor 2. In contrast, SAM in nutrient-absorptive enterocytes controls the interleukin-6-like protein Unpaired 3, which is required for rapid division of the stem cells after refeeding. Our study sheds light upon a link between diet and intestinal homeostasis and highlights the key metabolite SAM as a mediator of cell-type-specific starvation response.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL059888-04(United States)

Nubbin isoform antagonism governs Drosophila intestinal immune homeostasis.

  • Lindberg BG
  • PLoS Pathog.
  • 2018 Mar 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Gut immunity is regulated by intricate and dynamic mechanisms to ensure homeostasis despite a constantly changing microbial environment. Several regulatory factors have been described to participate in feedback responses to prevent aberrant immune activity. Little is, however, known about how transcriptional programs are directly tuned to efficiently adapt host gut tissues to the current microbiome. Here we show that the POU/Oct gene nubbin (nub) encodes two transcription factor isoforms, Nub-PB and Nub-PD, which antagonistically regulate immune gene expression in Drosophila. Global transcriptional profiling of adult flies overexpressing Nub-PB in immunocompetent tissues revealed that this form is a strong transcriptional activator of a large set of immune genes. Further genetic analyses showed that Nub-PB is sufficient to drive expression both independently and in conjunction with nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), JNK and JAK/STAT pathways. Similar overexpression of Nub-PD did, conversely, repress expression of the same targets. Strikingly, isoform co-overexpression normalized immune gene transcription, suggesting antagonistic activities. RNAi-mediated knockdown of individual nub transcripts in enterocytes confirmed antagonistic regulation by the two isoforms and that both are necessary for normal immune gene transcription in the midgut. Furthermore, enterocyte-specific Nub-PB expression levels had a strong impact on gut bacterial load as well as host lifespan. Overexpression of Nub-PB enhanced bacterial clearance of ingested Erwinia carotovora carotovora 15. Nevertheless, flies quickly succumbed to the infection, suggesting a deleterious immune response. In line with this, prolonged overexpression promoted a proinflammatory signature in the gut with induction of JNK and JAK/STAT pathways, increased apoptosis and stem cell proliferation. These findings highlight a novel regulatory mechanism of host-microbe interactions mediated by antagonistic transcription factor isoforms.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - PN1 EY016586(United States)

Mechanical Forces Program the Orientation of Cell Division during Airway Tube Morphogenesis.

  • Tang Z
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Oriented cell division plays a key role in controlling organogenesis. The mechanisms for regulating division orientation at the whole-organ level are only starting to become understood. By combining 3D time-lapse imaging, mouse genetics, and mathematical modeling, we find that global orientation of cell division is the result of a combination of two types of spindles with distinct spindle dynamic behaviors in the developing airway epithelium. Fixed spindles follow the classic long-axis rule and establish their division orientation before metaphase. In contrast, rotating spindles do not strictly follow the long-axis rule and determine their division orientation during metaphase. By using both a cell-based mechanical model and stretching-lung-explant experiments, we showed that mechanical force can function as a regulatory signal in maintaining the stable ratio between fixed spindles and rotating spindles. Our findings demonstrate that mechanical forces, cell geometry, and oriented cell division function together in a highly coordinated manner to ensure normal airway tube morphogenesis.

Essential Role of Nr2f Nuclear Receptors in Patterning the Vertebrate Upper Jaw.

  • Barske L
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

The jaw is central to the extensive variety of feeding and predatory behaviors across vertebrates. The bones of the lower but not upper jaw form around an early-developing cartilage template. Whereas Endothelin1 patterns the lower jaw, the factors that specify upper-jaw morphology remain elusive. Here, we identify Nuclear Receptor 2f genes (Nr2fs) as enriched in and required for upper-jaw formation in zebrafish. Combinatorial loss of Nr2fs transforms maxillary components of the upper jaw into lower-jaw-like structures. Conversely, nr2f5 misexpression disrupts lower-jaw development. Genome-wide analyses reveal that Nr2fs repress mandibular gene expression and early chondrogenesis in maxillary precursors. Rescue of lower-jaw defects in endothelin1 mutants by reducing Nr2f dosage further demonstrates that Nr2f expression must be suppressed for normal lower-jaw development. We propose that Nr2fs shape the upper jaw by protecting maxillary progenitors from early chondrogenesis, thus preserving cells for later osteogenesis.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - K99 DE026239()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R01 DE018405()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R35 DE027550()

Variant cell cycles regulated by Notch signaling control cell size and ensure a functional blood-brain barrier.

  • Von Stetina JR
  • Development
  • 2018 Feb 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Regulation of cell size is crucial in development. In plants and animals two cell cycle variants are employed to generate large cells by increased ploidy: the endocycle and endomitosis. The rationale behind the choice of which of these cycles is implemented is unknown. We show that in the Drosophila nervous system the subperineurial glia (SPG) are unique in using both the endocycle and endomitosis to grow. In the brain, the majority of SPG initially endocycle, then switch to endomitosis during larval development. The Notch signaling pathway and the String Cdc25 phosphatase are crucial for the endocycle versus endomitosis choice, providing the means experimentally to change cells from one to the other. This revealed fundamental insights into the control of cell size and the properties of endomitotic cells. Endomitotic cells attain a higher ploidy and larger size than endocycling cells, and endomitotic SPG are necessary for the blood-brain barrier. Decreased Notch signaling promotes endomitosis even in the ventral nerve cord SPG that normally are mononucleate, but not in the endocycling salivary gland cells, revealing tissue-specific cell cycle responses.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM064642(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS092798()

mTORC1 Inactivation Promotes Colitis-Induced Colorectal Cancer but Protects from APC Loss-Dependent Tumorigenesis.

  • Brandt M
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jan 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dietary habits that can induce inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are major colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors, but mechanisms linking nutrients, IBD, and CRC are unknown. Using human data and mouse models, we show that mTORC1 inactivation-induced chromosomal instability impairs intestinal crypt proliferation and regeneration, CDK4/6 dependently. This triggers interleukin (IL)-6-associated reparative inflammation, inducing crypt hyper-proliferation, wound healing, and CRC. Blocking IL-6 signaling or reactivating mTORC1 reduces inflammation-induced CRC, so mTORC1 activation suppresses tumorigenesis in IBD. Conversely, mTORC1 inactivation is beneficial in APC loss-dependent CRC. Thus, IL-6 blockers or protein-rich-diet-linked mTORC1 activation may prevent IBD-associated CRC. However, abolishing mTORC1 can mitigate CRC in predisposed patients with APC mutations. Our work reveals mTORC1 oncogenic and tumor-suppressive roles in intestinal epithelium and avenues to optimized and personalized therapeutic regimens for CRC.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007067(United States)

Effects of Exposure to the Endocrine-Disrupting Chemical Bisphenol A During Critical Windows of Murine Pituitary Development.

  • Eckstrum KS
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Critical windows of development are often more sensitive to endocrine disruption. The murine pituitary gland has two critical windows of development: embryonic gland establishment and neonatal hormone cell expansion. During embryonic development, one environmentally ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical, bisphenol A (BPA), has been shown to alter pituitary development by increasing proliferation and gonadotrope number in females but not males. However, the effects of exposure during the neonatal period have not been examined. Therefore, we dosed pups from postnatal day (PND)0 to PND7 with 0.05, 0.5, and 50 μg/kg/d BPA, environmentally relevant doses, or 50 μg/kg/d estradiol (E2). Mice were collected after dosing at PND7 and at 5 weeks. Dosing mice neonatally with BPA caused sex-specific gene expression changes distinct from those observed with embryonic exposure. At PND7, pituitary Pit1 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was decreased with BPA 0.05 and 0.5 μg/kg/d in males only. Expression of Pomc mRNA was decreased at 0.5 μg/kg/d BPA in males and at 0.5 and 50 μg/kg/d BPA in females. Similarly, E2 decreased Pomc mRNA in both males and females. However, no noticeable corresponding changes were found in protein expression. Both E2 and BPA suppressed Pomc mRNA in pituitary organ cultures; this repression appeared to be mediated by estrogen receptor-α and estrogen receptor-β in females and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in males, as determined by estrogen receptor subtype-selective agonists. These data demonstrated that BPA exposure during neonatal pituitary development has unique sex-specific effects on gene expression and that Pomc repression in males and females can occur through different mechanisms.

Activating the regenerative potential of Müller glia cells in a regeneration-deficient retina.

  • Lust K
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jan 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

Regeneration responses in animals are widespread across phyla. To identify molecular players that confer regenerative capacities to non-regenerative species is of key relevance for basic research and translational approaches. Here, we report a differential response in retinal regeneration between medaka (Oryzias latipes) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). In contrast to zebrafish, medaka Müller glia (olMG) cells behave like progenitors and exhibit a restricted capacity to regenerate the retina. After injury, olMG cells proliferate but fail to self-renew and ultimately only restore photoreceptors. In our injury paradigm, we observed that in contrast to zebrafish, proliferating olMG cells do not maintain sox2 expression. Sustained sox2 expression in olMG cells confers regenerative responses similar to those of zebrafish MG (drMG) cells. We show that a single, cell-autonomous factor reprograms olMG cells and establishes a regeneration-like mode. Our results position medaka as an attractive model to delineate key regeneration factors with translational potential.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH073991(United States)

Differential Expression of NF2 in Neuroepithelial Compartments Is Necessary for Mammalian Eye Development.

  • Moon KH
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The optic neuroepithelial continuum of vertebrate eye develops into three differentially growing compartments: the retina, the ciliary margin (CM), and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Neurofibromin 2 (Nf2) is strongly expressed in slowly expanding RPE and CM compartments, and the loss of mouse Nf2 causes hyperplasia in these compartments, replicating the ocular abnormalities seen in human NF2 patients. The hyperplastic ocular phenotypes were largely suppressed by heterozygous deletion of Yap and Taz, key targets of the Nf2-Hippo signaling pathway. We also found that, in addition to feedback transcriptional regulation of Nf2 by Yap/Taz in the CM, activation of Nf2 expression by Mitf in the RPE and suppression by Sox2 in retinal progenitor cells are necessary for the differential growth of the corresponding cell populations. Together, our findings reveal that Nf2 is a key player that orchestrates the differential growth of optic neuroepithelial compartments during vertebrate eye development.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY013760()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR050772-09(United States)

mTORC1 Activation during Repeated Regeneration Impairs Somatic Stem Cell Maintenance.

  • Haller S
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Dec 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

The balance between self-renewal and differentiation ensures long-term maintenance of stem cell (SC) pools in regenerating epithelial tissues. This balance is challenged during periods of high regenerative pressure and is often compromised in aged animals. Here, we show that target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling is a key regulator of SC loss during repeated regenerative episodes. In response to regenerative stimuli, SCs in the intestinal epithelium of the fly and in the tracheal epithelium of mice exhibit transient activation of TOR signaling. Although this activation is required for SCs to rapidly proliferate in response to damage, repeated rounds of damage lead to SC loss. Consistently, age-related SC loss in the mouse trachea and in muscle can be prevented by pharmacologic or genetic inhibition, respectively, of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. These findings highlight an evolutionarily conserved role of TOR signaling in SC function and identify repeated rounds of mTORC1 activation as a driver of age-related SC decline.

Funding information:
  • BLRD VA - I01 BX002324()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - UL1 RR024989(United States)
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL132996()
  • NIA NIH HHS - K99 AG041764()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P01 AG036695()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R00 AG041764()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG047497()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG047820()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R37 AG023806()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK100342()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK113144()

A Balance of Yki/Sd Activator and E2F1/Sd Repressor Complexes Controls Cell Survival and Affects Organ Size.

  • Zhang P
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Dec 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Hippo/Yki and RB/E2F pathways both regulate tissue growth by affecting cell proliferation and survival, but interactions between these parallel control systems are poorly defined. In this study, we demonstrate that interaction between Drosophila E2F1 and Sd disrupts Yki/Sd complex formation and thereby suppresses Yki target gene expression. RBF modifies these effects by reducing E2F1/Sd interaction. This regulation has significant effects on apoptosis, organ size, and progenitor cell proliferation. Using a combination of DamID-seq and RNA-seq, we identified a set of Yki targets that play a diversity of roles during development and are suppressed by E2F1. Further, we found that human E2F1 competes with YAP for TEAD1 binding, affecting YAP activity, indicating that this mode of cross-regulation is conserved. In sum, our study uncovers a previously unknown mechanism in which RBF and E2F1 modify Hippo signaling responses to modulate apoptosis, organ growth, and homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 268515()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA091956(United States)

Transplantation of feeder-free human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neuron progenitors in adult male Wistar rats with focal brain ischemia.

  • Hermanto Y
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Nov 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) eliminates the ethical issues associated with fetal or embryonic materials, thus allowing progress in cell therapy research for ischemic stroke. Strict regulation of cell therapy development requires the xeno-free condition to eliminate clinical complications. Maintenance of hiPSCs with feeder-free condition presents a higher degree of spontaneous differentiation in comparison with conventional cultures. Therefore, feeder-free derivation might be not ideal for developing transplantable hiPSC derivatives. We developed the feeder-free condition for differentiation of cortical neurons from hiPSCs. Then, we evaluated the cells' characteristics upon transplantation into the sham and focal brain ischemia on adult male Wistar rats. Grafts in lesioned brains demonstrated polarized reactivity toward the ischemic border, indicated by directional preferences in axonal outgrowth and cellular migration, with no influence on graft survival. Following the transplantation, forelimb asymmetry was better restored compared with controls. Herein, we provide evidence to support the use of the xeno-free condition for the development of cell therapy for ischemic stroke.

CSNK1a1 Regulates PRMT1 to Maintain the Progenitor State in Self-Renewing Somatic Tissue.

  • Bao X
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Somatic progenitors sustain tissue self-renewal while suppressing premature differentiation. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) affect many processes; however, their role in progenitor function is incompletely understood. PRMT1 was found to be the most highly expressed PRMT in epidermal progenitors and the most downregulated PRMT during differentiation. In targeted mouse knockouts and in long-term regenerated human mosaic epidermis in vivo, epidermal PRMT1 loss abolished progenitor self-renewal and led to premature differentiation. Mass spectrometry of the PRMT1 protein interactome identified the CSNK1a1 kinase, which also proved essential for progenitor maintenance. CSNK1a1 directly bound and phosphorylated PRMT1 to control its genomic targeting to PRMT1-sustained proliferation genes as well as PRMT1-suppressed differentiation genes. Among the latter were GRHL3, whose derepression was required for the premature differentiation seen with PRMT1 and CSNK1a1 loss. Maintenance of the progenitors thus requires cooperation by PRMT1 and CSNK1a1 to sustain proliferation gene expression and suppress premature differentiation driven by GRHL3.

Channel Nucleoporins Recruit PLK-1 to Nuclear Pore Complexes to Direct Nuclear Envelope Breakdown in C. elegans.

  • Martino L
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

In animal cells, nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) is required for proper chromosome segregation. Whereas mitotic kinases have been implicated in NEBD, how they coordinate their activity to trigger this event is unclear. Here, we show that both in human cells and Caenorhabditis elegans, the Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK-1) is recruited to the nuclear pore complexes, just prior to NEBD, through its Polo-box domain (PBD). We provide evidence that PLK-1 localization to the nuclear envelope (NE) is required for efficient NEBD. We identify the central channel nucleoporins NPP-1/Nup58, NPP-4/Nup54, and NPP-11/Nup62 as the critical factors anchoring PLK-1 to the NE in C. elegans. In particular, NPP-1, NPP-4, and NPP-11 primed at multiple Polo-docking sites by Cdk1 and PLK-1 itself physically interact with the PLK-1 PBD. We conclude that nucleoporins play an unanticipated regulatory role in NEBD, by recruiting PLK-1 to the NE thereby facilitating phosphorylation of critical downstream targets.

Cellular mechanisms of cyclophosphamide-induced taste loss in mice.

  • Mukherjee N
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2017 Sep 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many commonly prescribed chemotherapy drugs such as cyclophosphamide (CYP) have adverse side effects including disruptions in taste which can result in loss of appetite, malnutrition, poorer recovery and reduced quality of life. Previous studies in mice found evidence that CYP has a two-phase disturbance in taste behavior: a disturbance immediately following drug administration and a second which emerges several days later. In this study, we examined the processes by which CYP disturbs the taste system by examining the effects of the drug on taste buds and cells responsible for taste cell renewal using immunohistochemical assays. Data reported here suggest CYP has direct cytotoxic effects on lingual epithelium immediately following administration, causing an early loss of taste sensory cells. Types II and III cells in fungiform taste buds appear to be more susceptible to this effect than circumvallate cells. In addition, CYP disrupts the population of rapidly dividing cells in the basal layer of taste epithelium responsible for taste cell renewal, manifesting a disturbance days later. The loss of these cells temporarily retards the system's capacity to replace Type II and Type III taste sensory cells that survived the cytotoxic effects of CYP and died at the end of their natural lifespan. The timing of an immediate, direct loss of taste cells and a delayed, indirect loss without replacement of taste sensory cells are broadly congruent with previously published behavioral data reporting two periods of elevated detection thresholds for umami and sucrose stimuli. These findings suggest that chemotherapeutic disturbances in the peripheral mechanisms of the taste system may cause dietary challenges at a time when the cancer patient has significant need for well balanced, high energy nutritional intake.

Engineered Epidermal Progenitor Cells Can Correct Diet-Induced Obesity and Diabetes.

  • Yue J
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Aug 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Somatic gene therapy is a promising approach for treating otherwise terminal or debilitating diseases. The human skin is a promising conduit for genetic engineering, as it is the largest and most accessible organ, epidermal autografts and tissue-engineered skin equivalents have been successfully deployed in clinical applications, and skin epidermal stem/progenitor cells for generating such grafts are easy to obtain and expand in vitro. Here, we develop skin grafts from mouse and human epidermal progenitors that were engineered by CRISPR-mediated genome editing to controllably release GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1), a critical incretin that regulates blood glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 induction from engineered mouse cells grafted onto immunocompetent hosts increased insulin secretion and reversed high-fat-diet-induced weight gain and insulin resistance. Taken together, these results highlight the clinical potential of developing long-lasting, safe, and versatile gene therapy approaches based on engineering epidermal progenitor cells.

Mitosis can drive cell cannibalism through entosis.

  • Durgan J
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jul 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Entosis is a form of epithelial cell cannibalism that is prevalent in human cancer, typically triggered by loss of matrix adhesion. Here, we report an alternative mechanism for entosis in human epithelial cells, driven by mitosis. Mitotic entosis is regulated by Cdc42, which controls mitotic morphology. Cdc42 depletion enhances mitotic deadhesion and rounding, and these biophysical changes, which depend on RhoA activation and are phenocopied by Rap1 inhibition, permit subsequent entosis. Mitotic entosis occurs constitutively in some human cancer cell lines and mitotic index correlates with cell cannibalism in primary human breast tumours. Adherent, wild-type cells can act efficiently as entotic hosts, suggesting that normal epithelia may engulf and kill aberrantly dividing neighbours. Finally, we report that Paclitaxel/taxol promotes mitotic rounding and subsequent entosis, revealing an unconventional activity of this drug. Together, our data uncover an intriguing link between cell division and cannibalism, of significance to both cancer and chemotherapy.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - R01 CA154649()

Sca-1 identifies a trophoblast population with multipotent potential in the mid-gestation mouse placenta.

  • Natale BV
  • Sci Rep
  • 2017 Jul 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Trophoblast stem (TS) cells in the mouse derive from the polar trophectoderm of the blastocyst and persist through early gestation (to E8.5) to support placental development. Further development and growth is proposed to rely on layer-restricted progenitor cells. Stem cell antigen (Sca) -1 is a member of the Ly6 gene family and a known marker of stem cells in both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic mouse tissues. Having identified that Sca-1 mRNA was highly expressed in mouse TS cells in culture, we found that it was also expressed in a subset of trophoblast within the chorion and labyrinth layer of the mouse placenta. Isolation and in vitro culture of Sca-1+ trophoblast cells from both differentiated TS cell cultures and dissected mouse placentae resulted in proliferating colonies that expressed known markers of TS cells. Furthermore, these cells could be stimulated to differentiate and expressed markers of both junctional zone and labyrinth trophoblast subtypes in a manner comparable to established mouse TS cell lines. Our results suggest that we have identified a subpopulation of TS cell-like cells that persist in the mid- to late- gestation mouse placenta as well as a cell surface protein that can be used to identify and isolate these cells.

Histone Mutants Separate R Loop Formation from Genome Instability Induction.

  • García-Pichardo D
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

R loops have positive physiological roles, but they can also be deleterious by causing genome instability, and the mechanisms for this are unknown. Here we identified yeast histone H3 and H4 mutations that facilitate R loops but do not cause instability. R loops containing single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), versus RNA-DNA hybrids alone, were demonstrated using ssDNA-specific human AID and bisulfite. Notably, they are similar size regardless of whether or not they induce genome instability. Contrary to mutants causing R loop-mediated instability, these histone mutants do not accumulate H3 serine-10 phosphate (H3S10-P). We propose a two-step mechanism in which, first, an altered chromatin facilitates R loops, and second, chromatin is modified, including H3S10-P, as a requisite for compromising genome integrity. Consistently, these histone mutations suppress the high H3S10 phosphorylation and genomic instability of hpr1 and sen1 mutants. Therefore, contrary to what was previously believed, R loops do not cause genome instability by themselves.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50MH103222(United States)

RECQ5 Helicase Cooperates with MUS81 Endonuclease in Processing Stalled Replication Forks at Common Fragile Sites during Mitosis.

  • Di Marco S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The MUS81-EME1 endonuclease cleaves late replication intermediates at common fragile sites (CFSs) during early mitosis to trigger DNA-repair synthesis that ensures faithful chromosome segregation. Here, we show that these DNA transactions are promoted by RECQ5 DNA helicase in a manner dependent on its Ser727 phosphorylation by CDK1. Upon replication stress, RECQ5 associates with CFSs in early mitosis through its physical interaction with MUS81 and promotes MUS81-dependent mitotic DNA synthesis. RECQ5 depletion or mutational inactivation of its ATP-binding site, RAD51-interacting domain, or phosphorylation site causes excessive binding of RAD51 to CFS loci and impairs CFS expression. This leads to defective chromosome segregation and accumulation of CFS-associated DNA damage in G1 cells. Biochemically, RECQ5 alleviates the inhibitory effect of RAD51 on 3'-flap DNA cleavage by MUS81-EME1 through its RAD51 filament disruption activity. These data suggest that RECQ5 removes RAD51 filaments stabilizing stalled replication forks at CFSs and hence facilitates CFS cleavage by MUS81-EME1.

Llgl1 Connects Cell Polarity with Cell-Cell Adhesion in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells.

  • Jossin Y
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Malformations of the cerebral cortex (MCCs) are devastating developmental disorders. We report here that mice with embryonic neural stem-cell-specific deletion of Llgl1 (Nestin-Cre/Llgl1fl/fl), a mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila cell polarity gene lgl, exhibit MCCs resembling severe periventricular heterotopia (PH). Immunohistochemical analyses and live cortical imaging of PH formation revealed that disruption of apical junctional complexes (AJCs) was responsible for PH in Nestin-Cre/Llgl1fl/fl brains. While it is well known that cell polarity proteins govern the formation of AJCs, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. We show that LLGL1 directly binds to and promotes internalization of N-cadherin, and N-cadherin/LLGL1 interaction is inhibited by atypical protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of LLGL1, restricting the accumulation of AJCs to the basolateral-apical boundary. Disruption of the N-cadherin-LLGL1 interaction during cortical development in vivo is sufficient for PH. These findings reveal a mechanism responsible for the physical and functional connection between cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion machineries in mammalian cells.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA131047()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA179914()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD007183()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS080194()

Amitosis of Polyploid Cells Regenerates Functional Stem Cells in the Drosophila Intestine.

  • Lucchetta EM
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 May 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Organ fitness depends on appropriate maintenance of stem cell populations, and aberrations in functional stem cell numbers are associated with malignancies and aging. Symmetrical division is the best characterized mechanism of stem cell replacement, but other mechanisms could also be deployed, particularly in situations of high stress. Here, we show that after severe depletion, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the Drosophila midgut are replaced by spindle-independent ploidy reduction of cells in the enterocyte lineage through a process known as amitosis. Amitosis is also induced by the functional loss of ISCs coupled with tissue demand and in aging flies, underscoring the generality of this mechanism. However, we also found that random homologous chromosome segregation during ploidy reduction can expose deleterious mutations through loss of heterozygosity. Together, our results highlight amitosis as an unappreciated mechanism for restoring stem cell homeostasis, but one with some associated risk in animals carrying mutations.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD055165()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK107702()

Repression of Interstitial Identity in Nephron Progenitor Cells by Pax2 Establishes the Nephron-Interstitium Boundary during Kidney Development.

  • Naiman N
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The kidney contains the functional units, the nephrons, surrounded by the renal interstitium. Previously we discovered that, once Six2-expressing nephron progenitor cells and Foxd1-expressing renal interstitial progenitor cells form at the onset of kidney development, descendant cells from these populations contribute exclusively to the main body of nephrons and renal interstitial tissues, respectively, indicating a lineage boundary between the nephron and renal interstitial compartments. Currently it is unclear how lineages are regulated during kidney organogenesis. We demonstrate that nephron progenitor cells lacking Pax2 fail to differentiate into nephron cells but can switch fates into renal interstitium-like cell types. These data suggest that Pax2 function maintains nephron progenitor cells by repressing a renal interstitial cell program. Thus, the lineage boundary between the nephron and renal interstitial compartments is maintained by the Pax2 activity in nephron progenitor cells during kidney organogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK094933()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R37 DK054364()
  • NIH HHS - R21 OD021437()

Insulin Signaling Regulates the FoxM1/PLK1/CENP-A Pathway to Promote Adaptive Pancreatic β Cell Proliferation.

  • Shirakawa J
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Investigation of cell-cycle kinetics in mammalian pancreatic β cells has mostly focused on transition from the quiescent (G0) to G1 phase. Here, we report that centromere protein A (CENP-A), which is required for chromosome segregation during the M-phase, is necessary for adaptive β cell proliferation. Receptor-mediated insulin signaling promotes DNA-binding activity of FoxM1 to regulate expression of CENP-A and polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) by modulating cyclin-dependent kinase-1/2. CENP-A deposition at the centromere is augmented by PLK1 to promote mitosis, while knocking down CENP-A limits β cell proliferation and survival. CENP-A deficiency in β cells leads to impaired adaptive proliferation in response to pregnancy, acute and chronic insulin resistance, and aging in mice. Insulin-stimulated CENP-A/PLK1 protein expression is blunted in islets from patients with type 2 diabetes. These data implicate the insulin-FoxM1/PLK1/CENP-A pathway-regulated mitotic cell-cycle progression as an essential component in the β cell adaptation to delay and/or prevent progression to diabetes.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK036836()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK055523()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK067536()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK103215()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - UC4 DK104167()

Non-nuclear Pool of Splicing Factor SFPQ Regulates Axonal Transcripts Required for Normal Motor Development.

  • Thomas-Jinu S
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent progress revealed the complexity of RNA processing and its association to human disorders. Here, we unveil a new facet of this complexity. Complete loss of function of the ubiquitous splicing factor SFPQ affects zebrafish motoneuron differentiation cell autonomously. In addition to its nuclear localization, the protein unexpectedly localizes to motor axons. The cytosolic version of SFPQ abolishes motor axonal defects, rescuing key transcripts, and restores motility in the paralyzed sfpq null mutants, indicating a non-nuclear processing role in motor axons. Novel variants affecting the conserved coiled-coil domain, so far exclusively found in fALS exomes, specifically affect the ability of SFPQ to localize in axons. They broadly rescue morphology and motility in the zebrafish mutant, but alter motor axon morphology, demonstrating functional requirement for axonal SFPQ. Altogether, we uncover the axonal function of the splicing factor SFPQ in motor development and highlight the importance of the coiled-coil domain in this process. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

The Super Elongation Complex Drives Neural Stem Cell Fate Commitment.

  • Liu K
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Asymmetric stem cell division establishes an initial difference between a stem cell and its differentiating sibling, critical for maintaining homeostasis and preventing carcinogenesis. Yet the mechanisms that consolidate and lock in such initial fate bias remain obscure. Here, we use Drosophila neuroblasts to demonstrate that the super elongation complex (SEC) acts as an intrinsic amplifier to drive cell fate commitment. SEC is highly expressed in neuroblasts, where it promotes self-renewal by physically associating with Notch transcription activation complex and enhancing HES (hairy and E(spl)) transcription. HES in turn upregulates SEC activity, forming an unexpected self-reinforcing feedback loop with SEC. SEC inactivation leads to neuroblast loss, whereas its forced activation results in neural progenitor dedifferentiation and tumorigenesis. Our studies unveil an SEC-mediated intracellular amplifier mechanism in ensuring robustness and precision in stem cell fate commitment and provide mechanistic explanation for the highly frequent association of SEC overactivation with human cancers.

Time-Specific Effects of Spindle Positioning on Embryonic Progenitor Pool Composition and Adult Neural Stem Cell Seeding.

  • Falk S
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

The developmental mechanisms regulating the number of adult neural stem cells (aNSCs) are largely unknown. Here we show that the cleavage plane orientation in murine embryonic radial glia cells (RGCs) regulates the number of aNSCs in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE). Randomizing spindle orientation in RGCs by overexpression of Insc or a dominant-negative form of Lgn (dnLgn) reduces the frequency of self-renewing asymmetric divisions while favoring symmetric divisions generating two SNPs. Importantly, these changes during embryonic development result in reduced seeding of aNSCs. Interestingly, no effects on aNSC numbers were observed when Insc was overexpressed in postnatal RGCs or aNSCs. These data suggest a new mechanism for controlling aNSC numbers and show that the role of spindle orientation during brain development is highly time and region dependent.

An Hdac1/Rpd3-Poised Circuit Balances Continual Self-Renewal and Rapid Restriction of Developmental Potential during Asymmetric Stem Cell Division.

  • Janssens DH
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

How the developmental potential of differentiating stem cell progeny becomes rapidly and stably restricted following asymmetric stem cell division is unclear. In the fly larval brain, earmuff (erm) uniquely functions to restrict the developmental potential of intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) generated by asymmetrically dividing neural stem cells (neuroblasts). Here we demonstrate that the histone deacetylase Hdac1/Rpd3 functions together with self-renewal transcriptional repressors to maintain the erm immature INP enhancer in an inactive but poised state in neuroblasts. Within 2 hr of immature INP birth, downregulation of repressor activities alleviates Rpd3-mediated repression on the erm enhancer, enabling acetylation of multiple histone proteins and activating Erm expression. Erm restricts the developmental potential in immature INPs by repressing genes encoding neuroblast transcriptional activators. We propose that poising the fast-activating enhancers of master regulators of differentiation through continual histone deacetylation in stem cells enables self-renewal and rapid restriction of developmental potential following asymmetric division.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM092818()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM111694()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007315()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS077914()

Induced Quiescence of Lgr5+ Stem Cells in Intestinal Organoids Enables Differentiation of Hormone-Producing Enteroendocrine Cells.

  • Basak O
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lgr5+ adult intestinal stem cells are highly proliferative throughout life. Single Lgr5+ stem cells can be cultured into three-dimensional organoids containing all intestinal epithelial cell types at near-normal ratios. Conditions to generate the main cell types (enterocyte, goblet cells, Paneth cells, and M cells) are well established, but signals to induce the spectrum of hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells (EECs) have remained elusive. Here, we induce Lgr5+ stem cell quiescence in vitro by blocking epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in organoids and show that their quiescent state is readily reverted. Quiescent Lgr5+ stem cells acquire a distinct molecular signature biased toward EEC differentiation. Indeed, combined inhibition of Wnt, Notch, and MAPK pathways efficiently generates a diversity of EEC hormone-expressing subtypes in vitro. Our observations uncouple Wnt-dependent stem cell maintenance from EGF-dependent proliferation and provide an approach for the study of the elusive EECs in a defined environment.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008061(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21NS073585-01A1(United States)

Norrin/Frizzled4 signalling in the preneoplastic niche blocks medulloblastoma initiation.

  • Bassett EA
  • Elife
  • 2016 Nov 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The tumor microenvironment is a critical modulator of carcinogenesis; however, in many tumor types, the influence of the stroma during preneoplastic stages is unknown. Here we explored the relationship between pre-tumor cells and their surrounding stroma in malignant progression of the cerebellar tumor medulloblastoma (MB). We show that activation of the vascular regulatory signalling axis mediated by Norrin (an atypical Wnt)/Frizzled4 (Fzd4) inhibits MB initiation in the Ptch+/- mouse model. Loss of Norrin/Fzd4-mediated signalling in endothelial cells, either genetically or by short-term blockade, increases the frequency of pre-tumor lesions and creates a tumor-permissive microenvironment at the earliest, preneoplastic stages of MB. This pro-tumor stroma, characterized by angiogenic remodelling, is associated with an accelerated transition from preneoplasia to malignancy. These data expose a stromal component that regulates the earliest stages of tumorigenesis in the cerebellum, and a novel role for the Norrin/Fzd4 axis as an endogenous anti-tumor signal in the preneoplastic niche.

Multi-organ Mapping of Cancer Risk.

  • Zhu L
  • Cell
  • 2016 Aug 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cancers are distributed unevenly across the body, but the importance of cell intrinsic factors such as stem cell function in determining organ cancer risk is unknown. Therefore, we used Cre-recombination of conditional lineage tracing, oncogene, and tumor suppressor alleles to define populations of stem and non-stem cells in mouse organs and test their life-long susceptibility to tumorigenesis. We show that tumor incidence is determined by the life-long generative capacity of mutated cells. This relationship held true in the presence of multiple genotypes and regardless of developmental stage, strongly supporting the notion that stem cells dictate organ cancer risk. Using the liver as a model system, we further show that damage-induced activation of stem cell function markedly increases cancer risk. Therefore, we propose that a combination of stem cell mutagenesis and extrinsic factors that enhance the proliferation of these cell populations, creates a "perfect storm" that ultimately determines organ cancer risk. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

LIX1 regulates YAP1 activity and controls the proliferation and differentiation of stomach mesenchymal progenitors.

  • McKey J
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2016 Apr 28

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Smooth muscle cell (SMC) plasticity maintains the balance between differentiated SMCs and proliferative mesenchymal progenitors, crucial for muscular tissue homeostasis. Studies on the development of mesenchymal progenitors into SMCs have proven useful in identifying molecular mechanisms involved in digestive musculature plasticity in physiological and pathological conditions. RESULTS: Here, we show that Limb Expression 1 (LIX1) molecularly defines the population of mesenchymal progenitors in the developing stomach. Using in vivo functional approaches in the chick embryo, we demonstrate that LIX1 is a key regulator of stomach SMC development. We show that LIX1 is required for stomach SMC determination to regulate the expression of the pro-proliferative gene YAP1 and mesenchymal cell proliferation. However, as stomach development proceeds, sustained LIX1 expression has a negative impact on further SMC differentiation and this is associated with a decrease in YAP1 activity. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that expression of LIX1 must be tightly regulated to allow fine-tuning of the transcript levels and state of activation of the pro-proliferative transcriptional coactivator YAP1 to regulate proliferation rates of stomach mesenchymal progenitors and their differentiation. Our data highlight dual roles for LIX1 and YAP1 and provide new insights into the regulation of cell density-dependent proliferation, which is essential for the development and homeostasis of organs.

Overexpression of Anti-Müllerian Hormone Disrupts Gonadal Sex Differentiation, Blocks Sex Hormone Synthesis, and Supports Cell Autonomous Sex Development in the Chicken.

  • Lambeth LS
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

The primary role of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during mammalian development is the regression of Müllerian ducts in males. This highly conserved function is retained in birds and is supported by the high levels of AMH expression in developing testes. Mammalian AMH expression is regulated by a combination of transcription factors, the most important being Sry-type high-mobility-group box transcription factor-9 (SOX9). In the chicken embryo, however, AMH mRNA expression precedes that of SOX9, leading to the view that AMH may play a more central role in avian testicular development. To define its role in chicken gonadal development, AMH was overexpressed using the RCASBP viral vector. AMH caused the gonads of both sexes to develop as small and undeveloped structures at both embryonic and adult stages. Molecular analysis revealed that although female gonads developed testis-like cords, gonads lacked Sertoli cells and were incapable of steroidogenesis. A similar gonadal phenotype was also observed in males, with a complete loss of both Sertoli cells, disrupted SOX9 expression and gonadal steroidogenesis. At sexual maturity both sexes showed a female external phenotype but retained sexually dimorphic body weights that matched their genetic sexes. These data suggest that AMH does not operate as an early testis activator in the chicken but can affect downstream events, such as sex steroid hormone production. In addition, this study provides a unique opportunity to assess chicken sexual development in an environment of sex hormone deficiency, demonstrating the importance of both hormonal signaling and direct cell autonomous factors for somatic sex identity in birds.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI062428(United States)

Cell cycle-dependent changes in localization and phosphorylation of the plasma membrane Kv2.1 K+ channel impact endoplasmic reticulum membrane contact sites in COS-1 cells.

  • Cobb MM
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2016 Mar 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS 064135(United States)

Altered proliferative ability of neuronal progenitors in PlexinA1 mutant mice.

  • Andrews WD
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cortical interneurons are generated predominantly in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and migrate through the ventral and dorsal telencephalon before taking their final positions within the developing cortical plate. Previously we demonstrated that interneurons from Robo1 knockout (Robo1(-/-)) mice contain reduced levels of neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) and PlexinA1 receptors, rendering them less responsive to the chemorepulsive actions of semaphorin ligands expressed in the striatum and affecting their course of migration (Hernandez-Miranda et al. [2011] J. Neurosci. 31:6174-6187). Earlier studies have highlighted the importance of Nrp1 and Nrp2 in interneuron migration, and here we assess the role of PlexinA1 in this process. We observed significantly fewer cells expressing the interneuron markers Gad67 and Lhx6 in the cortex of PlexinA1(-/-) mice compared with wild-type littermates at E14.5 and E18.5. Although the level of apoptosis was similar in the mutant and control forebrain, proliferation was significantly reduced in the former. Furthermore, progenitor cells in the MGE of PlexinA1(-/-) mice appeared to be poorly anchored to the ventricular surface and showed reduced adhesive properties, which may account for the observed reduction in proliferation. Together our data uncover a novel role for PlexinA1 in forebrain development.

Cell Cycle-dependent Changes in Localization and Phosphorylation of the Plasma Membrane Kv2.1 K+ Channel Impact Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Contact Sites in COS-1 Cells.

  • Cobb MM
  • J. Biol. Chem.
  • 2015 Dec 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

The plasma membrane (PM) comprises distinct subcellular domains with diverse functions that need to be dynamically coordinated with intracellular events, one of the most impactful being mitosis. The Kv2.1 voltage-gated potassium channel is conditionally localized to large PM clusters that represent specialized PM:endoplasmic reticulum membrane contact sites (PM:ER MCS), and overexpression of Kv2.1 induces more exuberant PM:ER MCS in neurons and in certain heterologous cell types. Localization of Kv2.1 at these contact sites is dynamically regulated by changes in phosphorylation at one or more sites located on its large cytoplasmic C terminus. Here, we show that Kv2.1 expressed in COS-1 cells undergoes dramatic cell cycle-dependent changes in its PM localization, having diffuse localization in interphase cells, and robust clustering during M phase. The mitosis-specific clusters of Kv2.1 are localized to PM:ER MCS, and M phase clustering of Kv2.1 induces more extensive PM:ER MCS. These cell cycle-dependent changes in Kv2.1 localization and the induction of PM:ER MCS are accompanied by increased mitotic Kv2.1 phosphorylation at several C-terminal phosphorylation sites. Phosphorylation of exogenously expressed Kv2.1 is significantly increased upon metaphase arrest in COS-1 and CHO cells, and in a pancreatic β cell line that express endogenous Kv2.1. The M phase clustering of Kv2.1 at PM:ER MCS in COS-1 cells requires the same C-terminal targeting motif needed for conditional Kv2.1 clustering in neurons. The cell cycle-dependent changes in localization and phosphorylation of Kv2.1 were not accompanied by changes in the electrophysiological properties of Kv2.1 expressed in CHO cells. Together, these results provide novel insights into the cell cycle-dependent changes in PM protein localization and phosphorylation.

The Expression of Tubb2b Undergoes a Developmental Transition in Murine Cortical Neurons.

  • Breuss M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2015 Oct 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The development of the mammalian brain requires the generation, migration, and differentiation of neurons, cellular processes that are dependent on a dynamic microtubule cytoskeleton. Mutations in tubulin genes, which encode for the structural subunits of microtubules, cause detrimental neurological disorders known as the tubulinopathies. The disease spectra associated with different tubulin genes are overlapping but distinct, an observation believed to reflect functional specification of this multigene family. Perturbation of the β-tubulin TUBB2B is known to cause polymicrogyria, pachygyria, microcephaly, and axon guidance defects. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the expression pattern of its murine homolog Tubb2b. The generation and characterization of BAC-transgenic eGFP reporter mouse lines has revealed that it is highly expressed in progenitors and postmitotic neurons during cortical development. This contrasts with the 8-week-old cortex, in which Tubb2b expression is restricted to macroglia, and expression is almost completely absent in mature neurons. This developmental transition in neurons is mirrored in the adult hippocampus and the cerebellum but is not a universal feature of Tubb2b; its expression persists in a population of postmitotic neurons in the 8-week-old retina. We propose that the dynamic spatial and temporal expression of Tubb2b reflects specific functional requirements of the microtubule cytoskeleton.

Thyrocyte-specific Dicer1 deficiency alters thyroid follicular organization and prevents goiter development.

  • Undeutsch H
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Apr 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression and involved in embryonic development, regulation of cell differentiation, and growth. Dicer1 is a key enzyme in the maturation process of functional miRNAs. However, miRNA-mediated regulation of normal thyroid function and growth is largely unknown. To understand the role of miRNAs in the thyroid, we generated constitutive and tamoxifen-inducible, thyrocyte-specific Dicer1 knockout mice. The mice with perinatal Dicer1 deletion (cTgDcrKO) showed impaired follicular organization, increased fibrosis, and accumulation of adipocytes in the thyroid. Similar histological changes were observed in tamoxifen-induced adult Dicer1-deficient mice (iTgDcrKO). The thyroid phenotype in both knockout (KO) lines was associated with significantly down-regulated mRNA expression of thyroid transcription factor 1 (Ttf-1/Nkx2-1), thyroid peroxidase, and thyroglobulin (Tg) and up-regulated expression of genes involved in Tgf-β signaling. Furthermore, in cTgDcrKO mice, which developed mild hypothyroidism, the protein expression of Nkx2-1, thyroglobulin, Paired box 8, and TSH receptor were clearly down-regulated compared with controls. Despite similar down-regulation of Dicer1 in cTgDcrKO and iTgDcrKO compared with controls, Dicer1 deletion in adult mice thyrocytes did not lead to acute hypothyroidism. No significant differences in thyroid weights between cTgDcrKO, iTgDcrKO, and controls were observed. However, a goitrogenic diet induced a 4-fold increase in thyroid weight in control animals, whereas it had no effect on iTgDcrKO thyroids. In summary, Dicer1 deficiency in thyrocytes is associated with intrathyroid fibrosis, adipogenesis, and enhanced expression of Tgf-β signaling genes. Furthermore, our data indicate that Dicer1 is required for thyroid follicular organization, thyrocyte differentiation, and goiter development.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R15 NS087606(United States)

Inhibitors of SCF-Skp2/Cks1 E3 ligase block estrogen-induced growth stimulation and degradation of nuclear p27kip1: therapeutic potential for endometrial cancer.

  • Pavlides SC
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Nov 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

In many human cancers, the tumor suppressor, p27(kip1) (p27), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor critical to cell cycle arrest, undergoes perpetual ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation by the E3 ligase complex SCF-Skp2/Cks1 and/or cytoplasmic mislocalization. Lack of nuclear p27 causes aberrant cell cycle progression, and cytoplasmic p27 mediates cell migration/metastasis. We previously showed that mitogenic 17-β-estradiol (E2) induces degradation of p27 by the E3 ligase Skp1-Cullin1-F-Box- S phase kinase-associated protein2/cyclin dependent kinase regulatory subunit 1 in primary endometrial epithelial cells and endometrial carcinoma (ECA) cell lines, suggesting a pathogenic mechanism for type I ECA, an E2-induced cancer. The current studies show that treatment of endometrial carcinoma cells-1 (ECC-1) with small molecule inhibitors of Skp2/Cks1 E3 ligase activity (Skp2E3LIs) stabilizes p27 in the nucleus, decreases p27 in the cytoplasm, and prevents E2-induced proliferation and degradation of p27 in endometrial carcinoma cells-1 and primary ECA cells. Furthermore, Skp2E3LIs increase p27 half-life by 6 hours, inhibit cell proliferation (IC50, 14.3μM), block retinoblastoma protein (pRB) phosphorylation, induce G1 phase block, and are not cytotoxic. Similarly, using super resolution fluorescence localization microscopy and quantification, Skp2E3LIs increase p27 protein in the nucleus by 1.8-fold. In vivo, injection of Skp2E3LIs significantly increases nuclear p27 and reduces proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells by 42%-62% in ovariectomized E2-primed mice. Skp2E3LIs are specific inhibitors of proteolytic degradation that pharmacologically target the binding interaction between the E3 ligase, SCF-Skp2/Cks1, and p27 to stabilize nuclear p27 and prevent cell cycle progression. These targeted inhibitors have the potential to be an important therapeutic advance over general proteasome inhibitors for cancers characterized by SCF-Skp2/Cks1-mediated destruction of nuclear p27.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - 5P20RR018788(United States)

Increased radial glia quiescence, decreased reactivation upon injury and unaltered neuroblast behavior underlie decreased neurogenesis in the aging zebrafish telencephalon.

  • Edelmann K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The zebrafish has recently become a source of new data on the mechanisms of neural stem cell (NSC) maintenance and ongoing neurogenesis in adult brains. In this vertebrate, neurogenesis occurs at high levels in all ventricular regions of the brain, and brain injuries recover successfully, owing to the recruitment of radial glia, which function as NSCs. This new vertebrate model of adult neurogenesis is thus advancing our knowledge of the molecular cues in use for the activation of NSCs and fate of their progeny. Because the regenerative potential of somatic stem cells generally weakens with increasing age, it is important to assess the extent to which zebrafish NSC potential decreases or remains unaltered with age. We found that neurogenesis in the ventricular zone, in the olfactory bulb, and in a newly identified parenchymal zone of the telencephalon indeed declines as the fish ages and that oligodendrogenesis also declines. In the ventricular zone, the radial glial cell population remains largely unaltered morphologically but enters less frequently into the cell cycle and hence produces fewer neuroblasts. The neuroblasts themselves do not change their behavior with age and produce the same number of postmitotic neurons. Thus, decreased neurogenesis in the physiologically aging zebrafish brain is correlated with an increasing quiescence of radial glia. After injuries, radial glia in aged brains are reactivated, and the percentage of cell cycle entry is increased in the radial glia population. However, this reaction is far less pronounced than in younger animals, pointing to irreversible changes in aging zebrafish radial glia.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - 5P30HD024064(United States)

Neurogenesis is required for behavioral recovery after injury in the visual system of Xenopus laevis.

  • McKeown CR
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Jul 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nonmammalian vertebrates have a remarkable capacity to regenerate brain tissue in response to central nervous system (CNS) injury. Nevertheless, it is not clear whether animals recover lost function after injury or whether injury-induced cell proliferation mediates recovery. We address these questions using the visual system and visually-guided behavior in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. We established a reproducible means to produce a unilateral focal injury to optic tectal neurons without damaging retinotectal axons. We then assayed a tectally-mediated visual avoidance behavior to evaluate behavioral impairment and recovery. Focal ablation of part of the optic tectum prevents the visual avoidance response to moving stimuli. Animals recover the behavior over the week following injury. Injury induces a burst of proliferation of tectal progenitor cells based on phospho-histone H3 immunolabeling and experiments showing that Musashi-immunoreactive tectal progenitors incorporate the thymidine analog chlorodeoxyuridine after injury. Pulse chase experiments indicate that the newly-generated cells differentiate into N-β-tubulin-immunoreactive neurons. Furthermore, in vivo time-lapse imaging shows that Sox2-expressing neural progenitors divide in response to injury and generate neurons with elaborate dendritic arbors. These experiments indicate that new neurons are generated in response to injury. To test if neurogenesis is necessary for recovery from injury, we blocked cell proliferation in vivo and found that recovery of the visual avoidance behavior is inhibited by drugs that block cell proliferation. Moreover, behavioral recovery is facilitated by changes in visual experience that increase tectal progenitor cell proliferation. Our data indicate that neurogenesis in the optic tectum is critical for recovery of visually-guided behavior after injury.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - HG002659(United States)

Thymosin β4 induces folding of the developing optic tectum in the chicken (Gallus domesticus).

  • Wirsching HG
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is a highly conserved G-actin binding polypeptide with multiple intra- and extracellular functions. While stem-cell activation as well as promotion of cell survival and migration by Tβ4 have been investigated in various in vitro and in vivo studies, there are few data on the implications of Tβ4 in brain development. In the present study we analyzed Tβ4 expression in the developing optic tectum of the chicken (Gallus domesticus) and performed in ovo retroviral transduction and plasmid electroporation for overexpression and knockdown of Tβ4. We found marked Tβ4 expression in the tectal plate and in all neuronal layers of later developmental stages, but not in the ventricular zone where neural stem cells reside and divide. Knockdown of Tβ4 inhibited growth of Tβ4-depleted hemispheres, whereas overexpression of Tβ4 led to the production of neuroepithelial folds resembling gyri and sulci, which are not normally present in avian brains. The mechanism yielding enhanced growth of Tβ4 overexpressing hemispheres involved enhanced proliferation, thus indicating an impact of Tβ4 on the neural stem cell and/or progenitor cell population. In summary, we found that due to its effects on proliferation, Tβ4 expression has a large impact on neuroepithelial and macroscopic brain development.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA016430(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS042867(United States)

Cytoarchitecture and ultrastructure of neural stem cell niches and neurogenic complexes maintaining adult neurogenesis in the olfactory midbrain of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus.

  • Schmidt M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

New interneurons are continuously generated in small proliferation zones within neuronal somata clusters in the olfactory deutocerebrum of adult decapod crustaceans. Each proliferation zone is connected to a clump of cells containing one neural stem cell (i.e., adult neuroblast), thus forming a "neurogenic complex." Here we provide a detailed analysis of the cytoarchitecture of neurogenic complexes in adult spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, based on transmission electron microscopy and labeling with cell-type-selective markers. The clump of cells is composed of unique bipolar clump-forming cells that collectively completely envelop the adult neuroblast and are themselves ensheathed by a layer of processes of multipolar cell body glia. An arteriole is attached to the clump of cells, but dye perfusion experiments show that hemolymph has no access to the interior of the clump of cells. Thus, the clump of cells fulfills morphological criteria of a protective stem cell niche, with clump-forming cells constituting the adult neuroblast's microenvironment together with the cell body glia processes separating it from other tissue components. Bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiments with short survival times suggest that adult neuroblasts are not quiescent but rather cycle actively during daytime. We propose a cell lineage model in which an asymmetrically dividing adult neuroblast repopulates the pool of neuronal progenitor cells in the associated proliferation zone. In conclusion, as in mammalian brains, adult neurogenesis in crustacean brains is fueled by neural stem cells that are maintained by stem cell niches that preserve elements of the embryonic microenvironment and contain glial and vascular elements.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - N01-NS-9-2320(United States)

Birth of ophthalmic trigeminal neurons initiates early in the placodal ectoderm.

  • McCabe KL
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 May 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The largest of the cranial ganglia, the trigeminal ganglion, relays cutaneous sensations of the head to the central nervous system. Its sensory neurons have a dual origin from both ectodermal placodes and neural crest. Here, we show that the birth of neurons derived from the chick ophthalmic trigeminal placode begins prior to their ingression (HH11), as early as HH8, and considerably earlier than previously suspected (HH16). Furthermore, cells exiting the cell cycle shortly thereafter express the ophthalmic trigeminal placode marker Pax3 (HH9). At HH11, these postmitotic Pax3+ placode cells begin to express the pan-neuronal marker neurofilament while still in the ectoderm. Analysis of the ectodermal origin and distribution of these early postmitotic neurons reveals that the ophthalmic placode extends further rostrally than anticipated, contributing to neurons that reside in and make a significant contribution to the ophthalmic trigeminal nerve. These data redefine the timing and extent of neuron formation from the ophthalmic trigeminal placode.

NG2 cells are distinct from neurogenic cells in the postnatal mouse subventricular zone.

  • Komitova M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Feb 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

NG2 cells express the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2 and are a fourth type of glia distinct from astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. NG2 cells generate oligodendrocytes but have also been reported to represent neuronal progenitor cells in the postnatal mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). We performed a detailed immunohistochemical analysis of NG2 cells in the mouse SVZ, rostral migratory stream (RMS), and olfactory bulb granule cell layer (OB GCL), which constitute a neurogenic niche in the postnatal forebrain. NG2 cells in the SVZ and RMS expressed the oligodendrocyte precursor cell antigen platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha but did not express antigens known to be expressed by neuronogenic cells in the SVZ, such as doublecortin, PSA-NCAM, beta-tubulin, Dlx2, or GFAP. More than 99.5% of the proliferating cells in the SVZ were NG2 negative. In the olfactory bulb, NG2 cells were found to generate primarily oligodendrocytes and a small number of astrocytes but not neurons. In the SVZ and RMS, NG2 cells were sparse and made up a much smaller fraction of the cells compared with the surrounding nonneurogenic parenchyma. Parenchymal NG2 cells were often located along the border of the SVZ and RMS. The abundance of NG2 cells increased in the distal parts of the RMS and especially in the OB GCL, where NG2 cell processes were seen in close proximity to many maturing interneurons. Our findings indicate that NG2 cells do not represent neuronal progenitor cells in the postnatal SVZ but are likely to be oligodendrocyte precursor cells.

Distinct molecular pathways for development of telencephalic interneuron subtypes revealed through analysis of Lhx6 mutants.

  • Zhao Y
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Here we analyze the role of the Lhx6 lim-homeobox transcription factor in regulating the development of subsets of neocortical, hippocampal, and striatal interneurons. An Lhx6 loss-of-function allele, which expresses placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), allowed analysis of the development and fate of Lhx6-expressing interneurons in mice lacking this homeobox transcription factor. There are Lhx6+;Dlx+ and Lhx6-;Dlx+ subtypes of tangentially migrating interneurons. Most interneurons in Lhx6(PLAP/PLAP) mutants migrate to the cortex, although less efficiently, and exhibit defects in populating the marginal zone and superficial parts of the neocortical plate. By contrast, migration to superficial parts of the hippocampus is not seriously affected. Furthermore, whereas parvalbumin+ and somatostatin+ interneurons do not differentiate, NPY+ interneurons are present; we suggest that these NPY+ interneurons are derived from the Lhx6-;Dlx+ subtype. Striatal interneurons show deficits distinct from pallial interneurons, including a reduction in the NPY+ subtype. We provide evidence that Lhx6 mediates these effects through promoting expression of receptors that regulate interneuron migration (ErbB4, CXCR4, and CXCR7), and through promoting the expression of transcription factors either known (Arx) or implicated (bMaf, Cux2, and NPAS1) in controlling interneuron development.

Frontal cortex subdivision patterning is coordinately regulated by Fgf8, Fgf17, and Emx2.

  • Cholfin JA
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The frontal cortex (FC) plays a major role in cognition, movement and behavior. However, little is known about the genetic mechanisms that govern its development. We recently described a panel of gene expression markers that delineate neonatal FC subdivisions and identified FC regionalization defects in Fgf17-/- mutant mice (Cholfin and Rubenstein [2007] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. [in press]). In the present study, we applied this FC gene expression panel to examine regionalization phenotypes in Fgf8(neo/neo), Emx2-/-, and Emx2-/-;Fgf17-/- newborn mice. We report that Fgf8, Fgf17 and Emx2 play distinct roles in the molecular regionalization of FC subdivisions. The changes in regionalization are presaged by differential effects of rostral patterning center Fgf8 and Fgf17 signaling on the rostral cortical neuroepithelium, revealed by altered expression of Spry1, Spry2, and "rostral" transcription factors Er81, Erm, Pea3, and Sp8. We used Emx2-/-;Fgf17-/- double mutants to provide direct evidence that Emx2 and Fgf17 antagonistically regulate the expression of Erm, Pea3, and Er81 in the rostral cortical neuroepithelium and FC regionalization. We have integrated our results to propose a model for how fibroblast growth factors regulate FC patterning through regulation of regional transcription factor expression within the FC anlage.

Aneuploid mosaicism in the developing and adult cerebellar cortex.

  • Westra JW
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neuroprogenitor cells (NPCs) in several telencephalic proliferative regions of the mammalian brain, including the embryonic cerebral cortex and postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ), display cell division "defects" in normal cells that result in aneuploid adult progeny. Here, we identify the developing cerebellum as a major, nontelencephalic proliferative region of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) that also produces aneuploid NPCs and nonmitotic cells. Mitotic NPCs assessed by metaphase chromosome analyses revealed that 15.3% and 20.8% of cerebellar NPCs are aneuploid at P0 and P7, respectively. By using immunofluorescent analysis of cerebellar NPCs, we show that chromosome segregation defects contribute to the generation of cells with an aneuploid genomic complement. Nonmitotic cells were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which revealed neuronal and nonneuronal aneuploid populations in both the adult mouse and human cerebellum. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the prevalence of neural aneuploidy includes nontelencephalic portions of the neuraxis and suggest that the generation and maintenance of aneuploid cells is a widespread, if not universal, property of central nervous system development and organization.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - R24-OD-011199(United States)

Spatial and temporal expression of RP58, a novel zinc finger transcriptional repressor, in mouse brain.

  • Ohtaka-Maruyama C
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2007 Jun 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

RP58, a novel zinc finger protein containing a POZ domain, is a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor. To understand the role of this protein, we examined RP58 gene expression in the developing mouse brain by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization. RP58 mRNA expression was detected at embryonic day (E) 10 in the neuroepithelium, and subsequently in the ventricular zones of the cerebral cortex in the E12 embryo. Strong expression was observed in the preplate in the cerebral cortex from this stage onward. High levels of expression continued to be detected in the cortical plate and subventricular zone of the neocortex, hippocampus, and parts of the amygdala, but not in the thalamus or striatum. These results suggest that RP58 plays a crucial role in neuronal proliferation, migration, and differentiation in the developing cerebral cortex. RP58 is also expressed in the adult mouse neocortex, hippocampus, parts of the amygdala, and granule cells in the cerebellum. Double in situ hybridization using GAD67 or VGLUT1 probes revealed that RP58 is expressed in glutamatergic excitatory neurons.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008471(United States)