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Rabbit Anti-Tubulin, beta, Class III, Neuronal Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated

RRID:AB_291637

Antibody ID

AB_291637

Target Antigen

Tubulin, beta, Class III, Neuronal bovine, canine, donkey, feline, guinea pig, hamster, horse, human, mouse, other, porcine, rabbit, rat, sheep, simian, mammalian

Proper Citation

(Covance Cat# PRB-435P-100, RRID:AB_291637)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

manufacturer recommendations: Immunohistochemistry; Other; Western Blot; Immunoblotting and Immunostaining

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Covance

Morphological and functional changes in TRPM8-expressing corneal cold thermoreceptor neurons during aging and their impact on tearing in mice.

  • Alcalde I
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2018 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Morphological and functional alterations of peripheral somatosensory neurons during the aging process lead to a decline of somatosensory perception. Here, we analyze the changes occurring with aging in trigeminal ganglion (TG), TRPM8-expressing cold thermoreceptor neurons innervating the mouse cornea, which participate in the regulation of basal tearing and blinking and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of dry eye disease (DED). TG cell bodies and axonal branches were examined in a mouse line (TRPM8BAC -EYFP) expressing a fluorescent reporter. In 3 months old animals, about 50% of TG cold thermoreceptor neurons were intensely fluorescent, likely providing strongly fluorescent axons and complex corneal nerve terminals with ongoing activity at 34°C and low-threshold, robust responses to cooling. The remaining TRPM8+ corneal axons were weakly fluorescent with nonbeaded axons, sparsely ramified nerve terminals, and exhibited a low-firing rate at 34°C, responding moderately to cooling pulses as do weakly fluorescent TG neurons. In aged (24 months) mice, the number of weakly fluorescent TG neurons was strikingly high while the morphology of TRPM8+ corneal axons changed drastically; 89% were weakly fluorescent, unbranched, and often ending in the basal epithelium. Functionally, 72.5% of aged cold terminals responded as those of young animals, but 27.5% exhibited very low-background activity and abnormal responsiveness to cooling pulses. These morpho-functional changes develop in parallel with an enhancement of tear's basal flow and osmolarity, suggesting that the aberrant sensory inflow to the brain from impaired peripheral cold thermoreceptors contributes to age-induced abnormal tearing and to the high incidence of DED in elderly people.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - DP1 OD003958(United States)

MicroRNAs Overcome Cell Fate Barrier by Reducing EZH2-Controlled REST Stability during Neuronal Conversion of Human Adult Fibroblasts.

  • Lee SW
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jul 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ability to convert human somatic cells efficiently to neurons facilitates the utility of patient-derived neurons for studying neurological disorders. As such, ectopic expression of neuronal microRNAs (miRNAs), miR-9/9∗ and miR-124 (miR-9/9∗-124) in adult human fibroblasts has been found to evoke extensive reconfigurations of the chromatin and direct the fate conversion to neurons. However, how miR-9/9∗-124 break the cell fate barrier to activate the neuronal program remains to be defined. Here, we identified an anti-neurogenic function of EZH2 in fibroblasts that acts outside its role as a subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 to directly methylate and stabilize REST, a transcriptional repressor of neuronal genes. During neuronal conversion, miR-9/9∗-124 induced the repression of the EZH2-REST axis by downregulating USP14, accounting for the opening of chromatin regions harboring REST binding sites. Our findings underscore the interplay between miRNAs and protein stability cascade underlying the activation of neuronal program.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P50 HL077107(United States)

The Orphan G Protein-coupled Receptor 75 Signaling is Activated by the Chemokine CCL5.

  • Dedoni S
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The chemokine CCL5 prevents neuronal cell death mediated both by amyloid β, as well as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral proteins gp120 and Tat. Because CCL5 binds to CCR5, CCR3 and/or CCR1 receptors, it is unclear which of these receptors plays a role in neuroprotection. Indeed, CCL5 also has neuroprotective activity in cells lacking these receptors. CCL5 may bind to a G protein-coupled receptor 75 (GPR75), which encodes for a 540 amino-acid orphan receptor of the Gqα family. In this study, we have used SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells to characterize whether CCL5 could activate a Gq signaling through GPR75. Both qPCR and flow cytometry show that these cells express GPR75 but do not express CCR5, CCR3 or CCR1 receptors. SY-SY5Y cells were then used to examine CCL5-mediated signaling. We report that CCL5 promotes a time- and concentration-dependent phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase 3β and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Specific antagonists of CCR5, CCR3 and CCR1 did not prevent CCL5 from increasing phosphorylated AKT or ERK. Moreover, CCL5 promotes a time-dependent internalization of GPR75. Lastly, knocking down GPR75 expression by a CRISPR-Cas9 approach inhibited the ability of CCL5 to activate pERK in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, we propose that GPR75 is a novel receptor for CCL5 that could explain some of the pharmacological action of this chemokine. These findings may help in the development of small molecule GPR75 agonists that mimic CCL5. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R15GM055885(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS089446()

JIP1-Mediated JNK Activation Negatively Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Spatial Memory.

  • Morel C
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Apr 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway is implicated in learning and memory. Here, we examined the role of JNK activation mediated by the JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) scaffold protein. We compared male wild-type mice with a mouse model harboring a point mutation in the Jip1 gene that selectively blocks JIP1-mediated JNK activation. These male mutant mice exhibited increased NMDAR currents, increased NMDAR-mediated gene expression, and a lower threshold for induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation. The JIP1 mutant mice also displayed improved hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and enhanced associative fear conditioning. These results were confirmed using a second JIP1 mutant mouse model that suppresses JNK activity. Together, these observations establish that JIP1-mediated JNK activation contributes to the regulation of hippocampus-dependent, NMDAR-mediated synaptic plasticity and learning.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The results of this study demonstrate that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation induced by the JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) scaffold protein negatively regulates the threshold for induction of long-term synaptic plasticity through the NMDA-type glutamate receptor. This change in plasticity threshold influences learning. Indeed, mice with defects in JIP1-mediated JNK activation display enhanced memory in hippocampus-dependent tasks, such as contextual fear conditioning and Morris water maze, indicating that JIP1-JNK constrains spatial memory. This study identifies JIP1-mediated JNK activation as a novel molecular pathway that negatively regulates NMDAR-dependent synaptic plasticity and memory.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - SC1 AG046907()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - AI-52786(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - S11 NS055883()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U54 NS083932()

Serotonin Receptor 5-HT3A Affects Development of Bladder Innervation and Urinary Bladder Function.

  • Ritter KE
  • Front Neurosci
  • 2018 Jan 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

The autonomic and sensory nervous systems are required for proper function of all visceral organs, including the lower urinary tract (LUT). Despite the wide prevalence of bladder dysfunction, effective treatment options remain limited. Pelvic innervation regenerative strategies are promising, but surprisingly little is known about the molecular factors driving the development of bladder innervation. Given prior evidence that serotonin receptor 5-HT3A is expressed early in LUT development and is an important mediator of adult bladder function, we sought to determine if 5-HT3A is required for the development of autonomic innervation of the bladder. We found that 5-HT3A is expressed early in fetal mouse pelvic ganglia and is maintained through adulthood. Htr3a knockout male mice, but not females, exhibit increased urinary voiding frequency compared to wild type littermates. Analysis of LUT function via anesthetized cystometry revealed decreased voiding efficiency in male Htr3a mutants. Htr3a-/- mutant animals exhibit a transient disturbance of autonomic neuronal subtype markers (tyrosine hydroxylase and choline acetyl transferase) within the fetal pelvic ganglia, although the imbalance of neuronal subtype markers assayed is no longer apparent in adulthood. Loss of 5-HT3A activity results in a higher density of autonomic and sensory neuronal fibers supplying bladder smooth muscle in both fetal and adult mice. Collectively, our findings highlight 5-HT3A as a critical component in the autonomic control of micturition and identify a novel role for this serotonin receptor in peripheral nervous system development.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA068485()
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY008126()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P30 HD015052()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK-70813(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F31 DK097938()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK020593()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK058404()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P60 DK020593()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R13 DK103410()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U01 DK101038()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - P50 MH096972()

Migration pathways of sacral neural crest during development of lower urogenital tract innervation.

  • Wiese CB
  • Dev. Biol.
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The migration and fate of cranial and vagal neural crest-derived progenitor cells (NCPCs) have been extensively studied; however, much less is known about sacral NCPCs particularly in regard to their distribution in the urogenital system. To construct a spatiotemporal map of NCPC migration pathways into the developing lower urinary tract, we utilized the Sox10-H2BVenus transgene to visualize NCPCs expressing Sox10. Our aim was to define the relationship of Sox10-expressing NCPCs relative to bladder innervation, smooth muscle differentiation, and vascularization through fetal development into adulthood. Sacral NCPC migration is a highly regimented, specifically timed process, with several potential regulatory mileposts. Neuronal differentiation occurs concomitantly with sacral NCPC migration, and neuronal cell bodies are present even before the pelvic ganglia coalesce. Sacral NCPCs reside within the pelvic ganglia anlagen through 13.5 days post coitum (dpc), after which they begin streaming into the bladder body in progressive waves. Smooth muscle differentiation and vascularization of the bladder initiate prior to innervation and appear to be independent processes. In adult bladder, the majority of Sox10+ cells express the glial marker S100β, consistent with Sox10 being a glial marker in other tissues. However, rare Sox10+ NCPCs are seen in close proximity to blood vessels and not all are S100β+, suggesting either glial heterogeneity or a potential nonglial role for Sox10+ cells along vasculature. Taken together, the developmental atlas of Sox10+ NCPC migration and distribution profile of these cells in adult bladder provided here will serve as a roadmap for future investigation in mouse models of lower urinary tract dysfunction.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA068485()
  • NEI NIH HHS - P30 EY008126()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P30 HD015052()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK020593()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK058404()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P60 DK020593()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK078158()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R56 DK078158()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - RC1 DK086594()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK059637()

MicroRNAs Induce a Permissive Chromatin Environment that Enables Neuronal Subtype-Specific Reprogramming of Adult Human Fibroblasts.

  • Abernathy DG
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Directed reprogramming of human fibroblasts into fully differentiated neurons requires massive changes in epigenetic and transcriptional states. Induction of a chromatin environment permissive for acquiring neuronal subtype identity is therefore a major barrier to fate conversion. Here we show that the brain-enriched miRNAs miR-9/9∗ and miR-124 (miR-9/9∗-124) trigger reconfiguration of chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation, and mRNA expression to induce a default neuronal state. miR-9/9∗-124-induced neurons (miNs) are functionally excitable and uncommitted toward specific subtypes but possess open chromatin at neuronal subtype-specific loci, suggesting that such identity can be imparted by additional lineage-specific transcription factors. Consistently, we show that ISL1 and LHX3 selectively drive conversion to a highly homogeneous population of human spinal cord motor neurons. This study shows that modular synergism between miRNAs and neuronal subtype-specific transcription factors can drive lineage-specific neuronal reprogramming, providing a general platform for high-efficiency generation of distinct subtypes of human neurons.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U01 CA200060()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG007175()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG007354()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U01 HG009391()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R25 DA027995()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - R01 ES024992()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - U24 ES026699()

Human embryonic lung epithelial tips are multipotent progenitors that can be expanded in vitro as long-term self-renewing organoids.

  • Nikolić MZ
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

The embryonic mouse lung is a widely used substitute for human lung development. For example, attempts to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells to lung epithelium rely on passing through progenitor states that have only been described in mouse. The tip epithelium of the branching mouse lung is a multipotent progenitor pool that self-renews and produces differentiating descendants. We hypothesized that the human distal tip epithelium is an analogous progenitor population and tested this by examining morphology, gene expression and in vitro self-renewal and differentiation capacity of human tips. These experiments confirm that human and mouse tips are analogous and identify signalling pathways that are sufficient for long-term self-renewal of human tips as differentiation-competent organoids. Moreover, we identify mouse-human differences, including markers that define progenitor states and signalling requirements for long-term self-renewal. Our organoid system provides a genetically-tractable tool that will allow these human-specific features of lung development to be investigated.

Pharmacological enhancement of mGlu5 receptors rescues behavioral deficits in SHANK3 knock-out mice.

  • Vicidomini C
  • Mol. Psychiatry
  • 2017 Jun 29

Literature context:


Abstract:

SHANK3 (also called PROSAP2) genetic haploinsufficiency is thought to be the major cause of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS). PMS is a rare genetic disorder that causes a severe form of intellectual disability (ID), expressive language delays and other autistic features. Furthermore, a significant number of SHANK3 mutations have been identified in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and SHANK3 truncating mutations are associated with moderate to profound ID. The Shank3 protein is a scaffold protein that is located in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapses and is crucial for synapse development and plasticity. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms associated with the ASD-like behaviors observed in Shank3Δ11-/- mice, in which exon 11 has been deleted. Our results indicate that Shank3 is essential to mediating metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5)-receptor signaling by recruiting Homer1b/c to the PSD, specifically in the striatum and cortex. Moreover, augmenting mGlu5-receptor activity by administering 3-Cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide ameliorated the functional and behavioral defects that were observed in Shank3Δ11-/- mice, suggesting that pharmaceutical treatments that increase mGlu5 activity may represent a new approach for treating patients that are affected by PMS and SHANK3 mutations.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - WT098418MA(United Kingdom)

Dynamic Palmitoylation Targets MAP6 to the Axon to Promote Microtubule Stabilization during Neuronal Polarization.

  • Tortosa E
  • Neuron
  • 2017 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) are main candidates to stabilize neuronal microtubules, playing an important role in establishing axon-dendrite polarity. However, how MAPs are selectively targeted to specific neuronal compartments remains poorly understood. Here, we show specific localization of microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6)/stable tubule-only polypeptide (STOP) throughout neuronal maturation and its role in axonal development. In unpolarized neurons, MAP6 is present at the Golgi complex and in secretory vesicles. As neurons mature, MAP6 is translocated to the proximal axon, where it binds and stabilizes microtubules. Further, we demonstrate that dynamic palmitoylation, mediated by the family of α/β Hydrolase domain-containing protein 17 (ABHD17A-C) depalmitoylating enzymes, controls shuttling of MAP6 between membranes and microtubules and is required for MAP6 retention in axons. We propose a model in which MAP6's palmitoylation mediates microtubule stabilization, allows efficient organelle trafficking, and controls axon maturation in vitro and in situ.

Hallmarks of Alzheimer's Disease in Stem-Cell-Derived Human Neurons Transplanted into Mouse Brain.

  • Espuny-Camacho I
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) provide a unique entry to study species-specific aspects of human disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, in vitro culture of neurons deprives them of their natural environment. Here we transplanted human PSC-derived cortical neuronal precursors into the brain of a murine AD model. Human neurons differentiate and integrate into the brain, express 3R/4R Tau splice forms, show abnormal phosphorylation and conformational Tau changes, and undergo neurodegeneration. Remarkably, cell death was dissociated from tangle formation in this natural 3D model of AD. Using genome-wide expression analysis, we observed upregulation of genes involved in myelination and downregulation of genes related to memory and cognition, synaptic transmission, and neuron projection. This novel chimeric model for AD displays human-specific pathological features and allows the analysis of different genetic backgrounds and mutations during the course of the disease.

Maintenance of age in human neurons generated by microRNA-based neuronal conversion of fibroblasts.

  • Huh CJ
  • Elife
  • 2016 Sep 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aging is a major risk factor in many forms of late-onset neurodegenerative disorders. The ability to recapitulate age-related characteristics of human neurons in culture will offer unprecedented opportunities to study the biological processes underlying neuronal aging. Here, we show that using a recently demonstrated microRNA-based cellular reprogramming approach, human fibroblasts from postnatal to near centenarian donors can be efficiently converted into neurons that maintain multiple age-associated signatures. Application of an epigenetic biomarker of aging (referred to as epigenetic clock) to DNA methylation data revealed that the epigenetic ages of fibroblasts were highly correlated with corresponding age estimates of reprogrammed neurons. Transcriptome and microRNA profiles reveal genes differentially expressed between young and old neurons. Further analyses of oxidative stress, DNA damage and telomere length exhibit the retention of age-associated cellular properties in converted neurons from corresponding fibroblasts. Our results collectively demonstrate the maintenance of age after neuronal conversion.

PIAS1 Regulates Mutant Huntingtin Accumulation and Huntington's Disease-Associated Phenotypes In Vivo.

  • Ochaba J
  • Neuron
  • 2016 May 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

The disruption of protein quality control networks is central to pathology in Huntington's disease (HD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. The aberrant accumulation of insoluble high-molecular-weight protein complexes containing the Huntingtin (HTT) protein and SUMOylated protein corresponds to disease manifestation. We previously identified an HTT-selective E3 SUMO ligase, PIAS1, that regulates HTT accumulation and SUMO modification in cells. Here we investigated whether PIAS1 modulation in neurons alters HD-associated phenotypes in vivo. Instrastriatal injection of a PIAS1-directed miRNA significantly improved behavioral phenotypes in rapidly progressing mutant HTT (mHTT) fragment R6/2 mice. PIAS1 reduction prevented the accumulation of mHTT and SUMO- and ubiquitin-modified proteins, increased synaptophysin levels, and normalized key inflammatory markers. In contrast, PIAS1 overexpression exacerbated mHTT-associated phenotypes and aberrant protein accumulation. These results confirm the association between aberrant accumulation of expanded polyglutamine-dependent insoluble protein species and pathogenesis, and they link phenotypic benefit to reduction of these species through PIAS1 modulation.

Large GABAergic neurons form a distinct subclass within the mouse dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus with respect to intrinsic properties, synaptic inputs, sound responses, and projections.

  • Geis HR
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC) show a remarkable diversity in their responses to sound, but it has been difficult to relate these responses to their morphology. Large cells, which are found in all subdivisions of the IC, may form an exception. We found that large neurons of the mouse dorsal cortex of the IC were GABAergic and were contacted by vesicular glutamate transporter 2-containing somatic terminals, as previously observed for the rat IC. Large cells, which were targeted under two-photon guidance, typically had a low input resistance in comparison with the other cells in the dorsal cortex of the IC. Large cells received short-latency excitatory inputs and had short first-spike latencies. These excitatory inputs were often followed by long-latency inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. In four cells, it was possible to reconstruct the ascending axon following labeling with biocytin. We found evidence that they projected to both the ventral and the dorsal divisions of the medial geniculate body of the thalamus, but they also branched off large collaterals while passing through the brachium of the IC. Our data indicate that, owing to their somatic glutamatergic inputs, large GABAergic tectothalamic projection neurons can generate short-latency, well-timed, feed-forward inhibition, which affects not only the thalamus, but also other ascending nuclei. Their remarkably homogeneous properties, which generally differed from those of the other cells in the dorsal cortex of the IC, suggest that large neurons form a distinct subclass within the dorsal cortex of the IC.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - (United Kingdom)
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY018005(United States)

Synaptic proteins are tonotopically graded in postnatal and adult type I and type II spiral ganglion neurons.

  • Flores-Otero J
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inherent in the design of the mammalian auditory system is the precision necessary to transduce complex sounds and transmit the resulting electrical signals to higher neural centers. Unique specializations in the organ of Corti are required to make this conversion, such that mechanical and electrical properties of hair cell receptors are tailored to their specific role in signal coding. Electrophysiological and immunocytochemical characterizations have shown that this principle also applies to neurons of the spiral ganglion, as evidenced by distinctly different firing features and synaptic protein distributions of neurons that innervate high- and low-frequency regions of the cochlea. However, understanding the fine structure of how these properties are distributed along the cochlear partition and within the type I and type II classes of spiral ganglion neurons is necessary to appreciate their functional significance fully. To address this issue, we assessed the localization of the postsynaptic AMPA receptor subunits GluR2 and GluR3 and the presynaptic protein synaptophysin by using immunocytochemical labeling in both postnatal and adult tissue. We report that these presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins are distributed oppositely in relation to the tonotopic map and that they are equally distributed in each neuronal class, thus having an overall gradation from one end of the cochlea to the other. For synaptophysin, an additional layer of heterogeneity was superimposed orthogonal to the tonotopic axis. The highest anti-synaptophysin antibody levels were observed within neurons located close to the scala tympani compared with those located close to the scala vestibuli. Furthermore, we noted that the protein distribution patterns observed in postnatal preparations were largely retained in adult tissue sections, indicating that these features characterize spiral ganglion neurons in the fully developed ear.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA014546(United States)

Olfactory ensheathing glia express aquaporin 1.

  • Shields SD
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) are distinct from other glia in their developmental origin, presence in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, and highly restricted location. OEG are present only in the olfactory lamina propria, olfactory nerve, and the outer two layers of the olfactory bulb, where they envelop bundles of olfactory sensory neuron axons in a manner distinct from myelination. Because of their unique properties and their association with the continually generated olfactory sensory neurons, OEG have attracted interest for their potential capacity to support axonal regeneration, for example, after spinal cord injury. However, study of the properties and function of OEG has been hampered by a paucity of neurochemical markers with which to identify and distinguish them definitively from other types of glia. Here we provide evidence through anatomical colocalization studies that OEG express the water channel aquaporin 1 (AQP1), both in vivo and in vitro. We propose that AQP1 expression represents an important distinguishing characteristic of OEG, which may impart unique function to these glia.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL66621(United States)

Effects of developmental age, brain region, and time in culture on long-term proliferation and multipotency of neural stem cell populations.

  • Gritti A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Nov 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the murine subventricular zone (SVZ) niche allow life-long neurogenesis. During the first postnatal month and throughout aging, the decrease of neuroblasts and the rise of astrocytes results in diminished neurogenesis and increased astrocyte:neuron ratio. Also, a different neurogenic activity characterizes the SVZ periventricular region (LV, lateral ventricle) as compared to its rostral extension (RE). In order to investigate whether and to what extent these physiological modifications may be ascribed to intrinsic changes of the endogenous NSC/progenitor features, we performed a functional analysis on NSCs isolated and cultured from LV and RE tissues at distinct postnatal stages that are marked by striking modifications to the SVZ niche in vivo. We evaluated the effect of age and brain region on long-term proliferation and multipotency, and characterized the cell type composition of NSC-derived progeny, comparing this make-up to that of region- and age-matched primary neural cultures. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of prolonged in vitro expansion on NSC functional properties. We documented age- and region-dependent differences on the clonogenic efficiency and on the long-term proliferative capacity of NSCs. Also, we found age- and region-dependent quantitative changes in the cell composition of NSC progeny (decreased quantity of neurons and oligodendrocytes; increased amount of astroglial cells) and these differences were maintained in long-term cultured NSC populations. Overall, these data strengthen the hypothesis that age- and region-dependent differences in neurogenesis (observed in vivo) may be ascribed to the changes in the intrinsic developmental program of the NSC populations.

Distribution of high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in rat vestibular epithelia.

  • Schweizer FE
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2009 Nov 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Voltage- and calcium-activated potassium channels (BK) are important regulators of neuronal excitability. BK channels seem to be crucial for frequency tuning in nonmammalian vestibular and auditory hair cells. However, there are a paucity of data concerning BK expression in mammalian vestibular hair cells. We therefore investigated the localization of BK channels in mammalian vestibular hair cells, specifically in rat vestibular neuroepithelia. We find that only a subset of hair cells in the utricle and the crista ampullaris express BK channels. BK-positive hair cells are located mainly in the medial striolar region of the utricle, where they constitute at most 12% of hair cells, and in the central zone of the horizontal crista. A majority of BK-positive hair cells are encapsulated by a calretinin-positive calyx defining them as type I cells. The remainder are either type I cells encapsulated by a calretinin-negative calyx or type II hair cells. Surprisingly, the number of BK-positive hair cells in the utricle peaks in juvenile rats and declines in early adulthood. BK channels were not found in vestibular afferent dendrites or somata. Our data indicate that BK channel expression in the mammalian vestibular system differs from the expression pattern in the mammalian auditory and the nonmammalian vestibular system. The molecular diversity of vestibular hair cells indicates a functional diversity that has not yet been fully characterized. The predominance of BK-positive hair cells within the medial striola of juvenile animals suggests that they contribute to a scheme of highly lateralized coding of linear head movements during late development.

Fate of endogenous stem/progenitor cells following spinal cord injury.

  • Horky LL
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2006 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The adult mammalian spinal cord contains neural stem and/or progenitor cells that slowly multiply throughout life and differentiate exclusively into glia. The contribution of adult progenitors to repair has been highlighted in recent studies, demonstrating extensive cell proliferation and gliogenesis following central nervous system (CNS) trauma. The present experiments aimed to determine the relative roles of endogenously dividing progenitor cells versus quiescent progenitor cells in posttraumatic gliogenesis. Using the mitotic indicator bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and a retroviral vector, we found that, in the adult female Fisher 344 rat, endogenously dividing neural progenitors are acutely vulnerable in response to T8 dorsal hemisection spinal cord injury. We then studied the population of cells that divide postinjury in the injury epicenter by delivering BrdU or retrovirus at 24 hours after spinal cord injury. Animals were euthanized at five timepoints postinjury, ranging from 6 hours to 9 weeks after BrdU delivery. At all timepoints, we observed extensive proliferation of ependymal and periependymal cells that immunohistochemically resembled stem/progenitor cells. BrdU+ incorporation was noted to be prominent in NG2-immunoreactive progenitors that matured into oligodendrocytes, and in a transient population of microglia. Using a green fluorescence protein (GFP) hematopoietic chimeric mouse, we determined that 90% of the dividing cells in this early proliferation event originate from the spinal cord, whereas only 10% originate from the bone marrow. Our results suggest that dividing, NG2-expressing progenitor cells are vulnerable to injury, but a separate, immature population of neural stem and/or progenitor cells is activated by injury and rapidly divides to replace this vulnerable population.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG004719-03(United States)