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Rabbit Anti-Pax-6 Polyclonal Antibody, Unconjugated

RRID:AB_291612

Antibody ID

AB_291612

Target Antigen

Pax-6 bovine, canine, donkey, feline, guinea pig, hamster, horse, human, mouse, porcine, rabbit, rat, sheep, simian, xenopus

Proper Citation

(Covance Cat# PRB-278P, RRID:AB_291612)

Clonality

polyclonal antibody

Comments

Record consolidated with RRID: AB_2313780, which was found to be a duplicate. Manufacturer recommendations: Immunocytochemistry, Immunofluorescence; Western Blot, Immunoblotting, Immunofluorescence

Host Organism

rabbit

Vendor

Covance

Preterm birth disrupts cerebellar development by affecting granule cell proliferation program and Bergmann glia.

  • Iskusnykh IY
  • Exp. Neurol.
  • 2018 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Preterm birth is a leading cause of long-term motor and cognitive deficits. Clinical studies suggest that some of these deficits result from disruption of cerebellar development, but the mechanisms that mediate cerebellar abnormalities in preterm infants are largely unknown. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment directly disrupt cerebellar development or indirectly by increasing the probability of cerebellar injury, including that resulting from clinical interventions and protocols associated with the care of preterm infants. In this study, we analyzed the cerebellum of preterm pigs delivered via c-section at 91% term and raised for 10 days, until term-equivalent age. The pigs did not receive any treatments known or suspected to affect cerebellar development and had no evidence of brain damage. Term pigs sacrificed at birth were used as controls. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that preterm birth did not affect either size or numbers of Purkinje cells or molecular layer interneurons at term-equivalent age. The number of granule cell precursors and Bergmann glial fibers, however, were reduced in preterm pigs. Preterm pigs had reduced proliferation but not differentiation of granule cells. qRT-PCR analysis of laser capture microdissected external granule cell layer showed that preterm pigs had a reduced expression of Ccnd1 (Cyclin D1), Ccnb1 (Cyclin B1), granule cell master regulatory transcription factor Atoh1, and signaling molecule Jag1. In vitro rescue experiments identified Jag1 as a central granule cell gene affected by preterm birth. Thus, preterm birth and precocious exposure to the ex-utero environment disrupt cerebellum by modulating expression of key cerebellar developmental genes, predominantly affecting development of granule precursors and Bergmann glia.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD007491(United States)

Insm1 Induces Neural Progenitor Delamination in Developing Neocortex via Downregulation of the Adherens Junction Belt-Specific Protein Plekha7.

  • Tavano S
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Mar 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Delamination of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from the ventricular surface is a crucial prerequisite to form the subventricular zone, the germinal layer linked to the expansion of the mammalian neocortex in development and evolution. Here, we dissect the molecular mechanism by which the transcription factor Insm1 promotes the generation of basal progenitors (BPs). Insm1 protein is most highly expressed in newborn BPs in mouse and human developing neocortex. Forced Insm1 expression in embryonic mouse neocortex causes NPC delamination, converting apical to basal radial glia. Insm1 represses the expression of the apical adherens junction belt-specific protein Plekha7. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of Plekha7 expression suffices to cause NPC delamination. Plekha7 overexpression impedes the intrinsic and counteracts the Insm1-induced, NPC delamination. Our findings uncover a novel molecular mechanism underlying NPC delamination in which a BP-genic transcription factor specifically targets the integrity of the apical adherens junction belt, rather than adherens junction components as such.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA BC010763-05(United States)

Differential Expression of NF2 in Neuroepithelial Compartments Is Necessary for Mammalian Eye Development.

  • Moon KH
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

The optic neuroepithelial continuum of vertebrate eye develops into three differentially growing compartments: the retina, the ciliary margin (CM), and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Neurofibromin 2 (Nf2) is strongly expressed in slowly expanding RPE and CM compartments, and the loss of mouse Nf2 causes hyperplasia in these compartments, replicating the ocular abnormalities seen in human NF2 patients. The hyperplastic ocular phenotypes were largely suppressed by heterozygous deletion of Yap and Taz, key targets of the Nf2-Hippo signaling pathway. We also found that, in addition to feedback transcriptional regulation of Nf2 by Yap/Taz in the CM, activation of Nf2 expression by Mitf in the RPE and suppression by Sox2 in retinal progenitor cells are necessary for the differential growth of the corresponding cell populations. Together, our findings reveal that Nf2 is a key player that orchestrates the differential growth of optic neuroepithelial compartments during vertebrate eye development.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY013760()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR050772-09(United States)

Loss of Intercalated Cells (ITCs) in the Mouse Amygdala of Tshz1 Mutants Correlates with Fear, Depression, and Social Interaction Phenotypes.

  • Kuerbitz J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jan 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

The intercalated cells (ITCs) of the amygdala have been shown to be critical regulatory components of amygdalar circuits, which control appropriate fear responses. Despite this, the molecular processes guiding ITC development remain poorly understood. Here we establish the zinc finger transcription factor Tshz1 as a marker of ITCs during their migration from the dorsal lateral ganglionic eminence through maturity. Using germline and conditional knock-out (cKO) mouse models, we show that Tshz1 is required for the proper migration and differentiation of ITCs. In the absence of Tshz1, migrating ITC precursors fail to settle in their stereotypical locations encapsulating the lateral amygdala and BLA. Furthermore, they display reductions in the ITC marker Foxp2 and ectopic persistence of the dorsal lateral ganglionic eminence marker Sp8. Tshz1 mutant ITCs show increased cell death at postnatal time points, leading to a dramatic reduction by 3 weeks of age. In line with this, Foxp2-null mutants also show a loss of ITCs at postnatal time points, suggesting that Foxp2 may function downstream of Tshz1 in the maintenance of ITCs. Behavioral analysis of male Tshz1 cKOs revealed defects in fear extinction as well as an increase in floating during the forced swim test, indicative of a depression-like phenotype. Moreover, Tshz1 cKOs display significantly impaired social interaction (i.e., increased passivity) regardless of partner genetics. Together, these results suggest that Tshz1 plays a critical role in the development of ITCs and that fear, depression-like and social behavioral deficits arise in their absence.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show here that the zinc finger transcription factor Tshz1 is expressed during development of the intercalated cells (ITCs) within the mouse amygdala. These neurons have previously been shown to play a crucial role in fear extinction. Tshz1 mouse mutants exhibit severely reduced numbers of ITCs as a result of abnormal migration, differentiation, and survival of these neurons. Furthermore, the loss of ITCs in mouse Tshz1 mutants correlates well with defects in fear extinction as well as the appearance of depression-like and abnormal social interaction behaviors reminiscent of depressive disorders observed in human patients with distal 18q deletions, including the Tshz1 locus.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30-CA051008-18(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM063483()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS044080()

Radial Glial Fibers Promote Neuronal Migration and Functional Recovery after Neonatal Brain Injury.

  • Jinnou H
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jan 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Radial glia (RG) are embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) that produce neuroblasts and provide fibers that act as a scaffold for neuroblast migration during embryonic development. Although they normally disappear soon after birth, here we found that RG fibers can persist in injured neonatal mouse brains and act as a scaffold for postnatal ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ)-derived neuroblasts that migrate to the lesion site. This injury-induced maintenance of RG fibers has a limited time window during post-natal development and promotes directional saltatory movement of neuroblasts via N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts that promote RhoA activation. Transplanting an N-cadherin-containing scaffold into injured neonatal brains likewise promotes migration and maturation of V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts, leading to functional improvements in impaired gait behaviors. Together these results suggest that RG fibers enable postnatal V-SVZ-derived neuroblasts to migrate toward sites of injury, thereby enhancing neuronal regeneration and functional recovery from neonatal brain injuries.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK082659(United States)

Crk proteins transduce FGF signaling to promote lens fiber cell elongation.

  • Collins TN
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jan 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Specific cell shapes are fundamental to the organization and function of multicellular organisms. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling induces the elongation of lens fiber cells during vertebrate lens development. Nonetheless, exactly how this extracellular FGF signal is transmitted to the cytoskeletal network has previously not been determined. Here, we show that the Crk family of adaptor proteins, Crk and Crkl, are required for mouse lens morphogenesis but not differentiation. Genetic ablation and epistasis experiments demonstrated that Crk and Crkl play overlapping roles downstream of FGF signaling in order to regulate lens fiber cell elongation. Upon FGF stimulation, Crk proteins were found to interact with Frs2, Shp2 and Grb2. The loss of Crk proteins was partially compensated for by the activation of Ras and Rac signaling. These results reveal that Crk proteins are important partners of the Frs2/Shp2/Grb2 complex in mediating FGF signaling, specifically promoting cell shape changes.

Funding information:
  • National Eye Institute - 5P30EY019007()
  • National Eye Institute - EY017061()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21-CA102733(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY017061()
  • Research to Prevent Blindness - Jules and Doris Stein professorship()

Gyrification of the cerebral cortex requires FGF signaling in the mammalian brain.

  • Matsumoto N
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although it has been believed that the evolution of cortical folds was a milestone, allowing for an increase in the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex, the mechanisms underlying the formation of cortical folds are largely unknown. Here we show regional differences in the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in the developing cerebral cortex of ferrets even before cortical folds are formed. By taking the advantage of our in utero electroporation technique for ferrets, we found that cortical folding was impaired in the ferret cerebral cortex when FGF signaling was inhibited. We also found that FGF signaling was crucial for producing Pax6-positive neural progenitors in the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) of the developing cerebral cortex. Furthermore, we found that upper layers of the cerebral cortex were preferentially reduced by inhibiting FGF signaling. Our results shed light on the mechanisms of cortical folding in gyrencephalic mammalian brains.

Generation and Characterization of Functional Human Hypothalamic Neurons.

  • Kirwan P
  • Curr Protoc Neurosci
  • 2017 Oct 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurons in the hypothalamus orchestrate homeostatic physiological processes and behaviors essential for life. Defects in the function of hypothalamic neurons cause a spectrum of human diseases, including obesity, infertility, growth defects, sleep disorders, social disorders, and stress disorders. These diseases have been studied in animal models such as mice, but the rarity and relative inaccessibility of mouse hypothalamic neurons and species-specific differences between mice and humans highlight the need for human cellular models of hypothalamic diseases. We and others have developed methods to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into hypothalamic neurons and related cell types, such as astrocytes. This protocol builds on published studies by providing detailed step-by-step instructions for neuronal differentiation, quality control, long-term neuronal maintenance, and the functional interrogation of hypothalamic cells by calcium imaging. Together, these protocols should enable any group with appropriate facilities to generate and study human hypothalamic cells. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Multiscale 3D Genome Rewiring during Mouse Neural Development.

  • Bonev B
  • Cell
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chromosome conformation capture technologies have revealed important insights into genome folding. Yet, how spatial genome architecture is related to gene expression and cell fate remains unclear. We comprehensively mapped 3D chromatin organization during mouse neural differentiation in vitro and in vivo, generating the highest-resolution Hi-C maps available to date. We found that transcription is correlated with chromatin insulation and long-range interactions, but dCas9-mediated activation is insufficient for creating TAD boundaries de novo. Additionally, we discovered long-range contacts between gene bodies of exon-rich, active genes in all cell types. During neural differentiation, contacts between active TADs become less pronounced while inactive TADs interact more strongly. An extensive Polycomb network in stem cells is disrupted, while dynamic interactions between neural transcription factors appear in vivo. Finally, cell type-specific enhancer-promoter contacts are established concomitant to gene expression. This work shows that multiple factors influence the dynamics of chromatin interactions in development.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 232947()

Zika-Virus-Encoded NS2A Disrupts Mammalian Cortical Neurogenesis by Degrading Adherens Junction Proteins.

  • Yoon KJ
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Zika virus (ZIKV) directly infects neural progenitors and impairs their proliferation. How ZIKV interacts with the host molecular machinery to impact neurogenesis in vivo is not well understood. Here, by systematically introducing individual proteins encoded by ZIKV into the embryonic mouse cortex, we show that expression of ZIKV-NS2A, but not Dengue virus (DENV)-NS2A, leads to reduced proliferation and premature differentiation of radial glial cells and aberrant positioning of newborn neurons. Mechanistically, in vitro mapping of protein-interactomes and biochemical analysis suggest interactions between ZIKA-NS2A and multiple adherens junction complex (AJ) components. Functionally, ZIKV-NS2A, but not DENV-NS2A, destabilizes the AJ complex, resulting in impaired AJ formation and aberrant radial glial fiber scaffolding in the embryonic mouse cortex. Similarly, ZIKA-NS2A, but not DENV-NS2A, reduces radial glial cell proliferation and causes AJ deficits in human forebrain organoids. Together, our results reveal pathogenic mechanisms underlying ZIKV infection in the developing mammalian brain.

Neurotransmitter Switching Regulated by miRNAs Controls Changes in Social Preference.

  • Dulcis D
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Changes in social preference of amphibian larvae result from sustained exposure to kinship odorants. To understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms of this neuroplasticity, we investigated the effects of olfactory system activation on neurotransmitter (NT) expression in accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) interneurons during development. We show that protracted exposure to kin or non-kin odorants changes the number of dopamine (DA)- or gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)-expressing neurons, with corresponding changes in attraction/aversion behavior. Changing the relative number of dopaminergic and GABAergic AOB interneurons or locally introducing DA or GABA receptor antagonists alters kinship preference. We then isolate AOB microRNAs (miRs) differentially regulated across these conditions. Inhibition of miR-375 and miR-200b reveals that they target Pax6 and Bcl11b to regulate the dopaminergic and GABAergic phenotypes. The results illuminate the role of NT switching governing experience-dependent social preference. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Synergistic Signaling by Light and Acetylcholine in Mouse Iris Sphincter Muscle.

  • Wang Q
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mammalian pupillary light reflex (PLR) involves a bilateral brain circuit whereby afferent light signals in the optic nerve ultimately drive iris-sphincter-muscle contraction via excitatory cholinergic parasympathetic innervation [1, 2]. Additionally, the PLR in nocturnal and crepuscular sub-primate mammals has a "local" component in the isolated sphincter muscle [3-5], as in amphibians, fish, and bird [6-10]. In mouse, this local PLR requires the pigment melanopsin [5], originally found in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) [11-19]. However, melanopsin's presence and effector pathway locally in the iris remain uncertain. The sphincter muscle itself may express melanopsin [5], or its cholinergic parasympathetic innervation may be modulated by suggested intraocular axonal collaterals of ipRGCs traveling to the eye's ciliary body or even to the iris [20-22]. Here, we show that the muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine, eliminated the effect of acetylcholine (ACh), but not of light, on isolated mouse sphincter muscle. Conversely, selective genetic deletion of melanopsin in smooth muscle mostly removed the light-induced, but not the ACh-triggered, increase in isolated sphincter muscle's tension and largely suppressed the local PLR in vivo. Thus, sphincter muscle cells are bona fide, albeit unconventional, photoreceptors. We found melanopsin expression in a small subset of mouse iris sphincter muscle cells, with the light-induced contractile signal apparently spreading through gap junctions into neighboring muscle cells. Light and ACh share a common signaling pathway in sphincter muscle. In summary, our experiments have provided details of a photosignaling process in the eye occurring entirely outside the retina.

Enhanced Axonal Extension of Subcortical Projection Neurons Isolated from Murine Embryonic Cortex using Neuropilin-1.

  • Sano N
  • Front Cell Neurosci
  • 2017 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

The cerebral cortical tissue of murine embryo and pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived neurons can survive in the brain and extend axons to the spinal cord. For efficient cell integration to the corticospinal tract (CST) after transplantation, the induction or selection of cortical motor neurons is important. However, precise information about the appropriate cell population remains unclear. To address this issue, we isolated cells expressing Neuropilin-1 (NRP1), a major axon guidance molecule receptor during the early developmental stage, from E14.5 mouse embryonic frontal cortex by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Aggregates of NRP1+ cells gradually expressed subcortical projection neuron markers, Ctip2 and VGluT1, and axon guidance molecule receptors, Robo1 and deleted in colorectal calcinoma (Dcc), in vitro, suggesting that they contained early-stage subcortical projection neurons. We transplanted NRP1+ cells into the frontal cortex of P2 neonatal mice. Compared with grafts derived from NRP1- or unsorted cells, those derived from NRP1+ cells extended a larger number of axons to the spinal cord along the CST. Our data suggest that sorting NRP1+ cells from the embryonic cerebral cortex enriches subcortical projection neurons to reconstruct the CST.

Gene expression analysis of developing cell groups in the pretectal region of Xenopus laevis.

  • Morona R
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2017 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Our previous analysis of progenitor domains in the pretectum of Xenopus revealed three molecularly distinct anteroposterior subdivisions, identified as precommissural (PcP), juxtacommissural (JcP), and commissural (CoP) histogenetic domains (Morona et al. [2011] J Comp Neurol 519:1024-1050). Here we analyzed at later developmental stages the nuclei derived from these areas, attending to their gene expression patterns and histogenesis. Transcription-factor gene markers were used to selectively map derivatives of each domain: Pax7 and Pax6 (CoP); Foxp1 and Six3 (JcP); and Xiro1, VGlut2, Ebf1, and Ebf3 (PcP). Additional genoarchitectural information was provided by the expression of Gbx2, NPY, Lhx1, and Lhx9. This allowed both unambiguous characterization of the anuran pretectal nuclei with regard to their origin in the three early anteroposterior progenitor domains, and their comparison with counterparts in the chick and mouse pretectum. Our observations demonstrated a molecular conservation, during practically all the stages analyzed, for most of the main markers used to define genoarchitecturally the main derivatives of each pretectal domain. We found molecular evidence to propose homologous derivatives from the CoP (olivary pretectal, parvocellular, and magnocellular posterior commissure and lateral terminal nuclei), JcP (spiriformis lateral and lateral terminal nuclei), and PcP (anterior pretectal nucleus) to those described in avian studies. These results represent significant progress in the comprehension of the diencephalic region of Xenopus and show that the organization of the pretectum possesses many features shared with birds. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:715-752, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK007319(United States)

A Novel and Multivalent Role of Pax6 in Cerebellar Development.

  • Yeung J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2016 Aug 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pax6 is a prominent gene in brain development. The deletion of Pax6 results in devastated development of eye, olfactory bulb, and cortex. However, it has been reported that the Pax6-null Sey cerebellum only has minor defects involving granule cells despite Pax6 being expressed throughout cerebellar development. The present work has uncovered a requirement of Pax6 in the development of all rhombic lip (RL) lineages. A significant downregulation of Tbr1 and Tbr2 expression is found in the Sey cerebellum, these are cell-specific markers of cerebellar nuclear (CN) neurons and unipolar brush cells (UBCs), respectively. The examination of Tbr1 and Lmx1a immunolabeling and Nissl staining confirmed the loss of CN neurons from the Sey cerebellum. CN neuron progenitors are produced in the mutant but there is an enhanced death of these neurons as shown by increased presence of caspase-3-positive cells. These data indicate that Pax6 regulates the survival of CN neuron progenitors. Furthermore, the analysis of experimental mouse chimeras suggests a cell-extrinsic role of Pax6 in CN neuron survival. For UBCs, using Tbr2 immunolabeling, these cells are significantly reduced in the Sey cerebellum. The loss of UBCs in the mutant is due partly to cell death in the RL and also to the reduced production of progenitors from the RL. These results demonstrate a critical role for Pax6 in regulating the generation and survival of UBCs. This and previous work from our laboratory demonstrate a seminal role of Pax6 in the development of all cerebellar glutamatergic neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Pax6 is a key molecule in development. Pax6 is best known as the master control gene in eye development with mutations causing aniridia in humans. Pax6 also plays important developmental roles in the cortex and olfactory bulb. During cerebellar development, Pax6 is robustly expressed in the germinal zone of all glutamatergic neurons [cerebellar nuclear (CN) neurons, granule cells, and unipolar brush cells (UBCs)]. Past work has not found abnormalities in the CN and UBC populations. Our study reveals that the Pax6-null mutation dramatically affects these cells and identifies Pax6 as a key regulator of cell survival in CN neurons and of cell production in UBCs. The present study shows how Pax6 is key to the development of glutamatergic cells in the cerebellum.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 101253/Z/13/Z(United Kingdom)

S-phase duration is the main target of cell cycle regulation in neural progenitors of developing ferret neocortex.

  • Turrero García M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The evolutionary expansion of the neocortex primarily reflects increases in abundance and proliferative capacity of cortical progenitors and in the length of the neurogenic period during development. Cell cycle parameters of neocortical progenitors are an important determinant of cortical development. The ferret (Mustela putorius furo), a gyrencephalic mammal, has gained increasing importance as a model for studying corticogenesis. Here, we have studied the abundance, proliferation, and cell cycle parameters of different neural progenitor types, defined by their differential expression of the transcription factors Pax6 and Tbr2, in the various germinal zones of developing ferret neocortex. We focused our analyses on postnatal day 1, a late stage of cortical neurogenesis when upper-layer neurons are produced. Based on cumulative 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling as well as Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunofluorescence, we determined the duration of the various cell cycle phases of the different neocortical progenitor subpopulations. Ferret neocortical progenitors were found to exhibit longer cell cycles than those of rodents and little variation in the duration of G1 among distinct progenitor types, also in contrast to rodents. Remarkably, the main difference in cell cycle parameters among the various progenitor types was the duration of S-phase, which became shorter as progenitors progressively changed transcription factor expression from patterns characteristic of self-renewal to those of neuron production. Hence, S-phase duration emerges as major target of cell cycle regulation in cortical progenitors of this gyrencephalic mammal.

The Role of Sonic Hedgehog in the Specification of Human Cortical Progenitors In Vitro.

  • Radonjić NV
  • Cereb. Cortex
  • 2016 Jan 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Impaired sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is involved in the pathology of cortical formation found in neuropsychiatric disorders. However, its role in the specification of human cortical progenitors is not known. Here, we report that Shh is expressed in the human developing cortex at mid-gestation by radial glia cells (RGCs) and cortical neurons. We used RGC cultures, established from the dorsal (cortical) telencephalon of human brain at mid-gestation to study the effect of Shh signaling. Cortical RGCs in vitro maintained their regional characteristics, expressed components of Shh signaling, and differentiated into Nkx2.1, Lhx6, and calretinin-positive (CalR(+)) cells, potential cortical interneuron progenitors. Treatment with exogenous Shh increased the pool of Nkx2.1(+) progenitors, decreased Lhx6 expression, and suppressed the generation of CalR(+) cells. The blockade of endogenous Shh signaling increased the number of CalR(+) cells, but did not affect Nkx2.1 expression, implying the existence of parallel Shh-independent pathways for cortical Nkx2.1 regulation. These results support the idea that, during human brain development, Shh plays an important role in the specification of cortical progenitors. Since direct functional studies in humans are limited, the in vitro system that we established here could be of great interest for modeling the development of human cortical progenitors.

Wls provides a new compartmental view of the rhombic lip in mouse cerebellar development.

  • Yeung J
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2014 Sep 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Math1 is the defining molecule of the cerebellar rhombic lip and Pax6 is downstream in the Math1 pathway. In the present study, we discover that Wntless (Wls) is a novel molecular marker of the cells in the interior face of the rhombic lip throughout normal mouse cerebellar development. Wls expression is found complementary to the expression of Math1 and Pax6, which are localized to the exterior face of the rhombic lip. To determine the interaction between these molecules, we examine the loss-of-Math1 or loss-of-Pax6 in the cerebellum, i.e., the Math1-null and Pax6-null (Sey) mutant cerebella. The presence of Wls-positive cells in the Math1-null rhombic lip indicates that Wls expression is independent of Math1. In the Sey mutant cerebellum, there is an expansion of Wls-expressing cells into regions that are normally colonized by Pax6-expressing cells. The ectopic expression of Wls in the Pax6-null cerebellum suggests a negative interaction between Wls-expressing cells and Pax6-positive cells. These findings suggest that the rhombic lip is dynamically patterned by the expression of Wls, Math1, and Pax6. We also examine five rhombic lip cell markers (Wls, Math1, Pax6, Lmx1a, and Tbr2) to identify four molecularly distinct compartments in the rhombic lip during cerebellar development. The existence of spatial compartmentation in the rhombic lip and the interplay between Wls, Math1, and Pax6 in the rhombic lip provides novel views of early cerebellar development.

Expression patterns of Pax6 and Pax7 in the adult brain of a urodele amphibian, Pleurodeles waltl.

  • Joven A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2013 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Expression patterns of Pax6, Pax7, and, to a lesser extent, Pax3 genes were analyzed by a combination of immunohistochemical techniques in the central nervous system of adult specimens of the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl. Only Pax6 was found in the telencephalon, specifically the olfactory bulbs, striatum, septum, and lateral and central parts of the amygdala. In the diencephalon, Pax6 and Pax7 were distinct in the alar and basal parts, respectively, of prosomere 3. The distribution of Pax6, Pax7, and Pax3 cells correlated with the three pretectal domains. Pax7 specifically labeled cells in the dorsal mesencephalon, mainly in the optic tectum, and Pax6 cells were the only cells found in the tegmentum. Large populations of Pax7 cells occupied the rostral rhombencephalon, along with lower numbers of Pax6 and Pax3 cells. Pax6 was found in most granule cells of the cerebellum. Pax6 cells also formed a column of scattered neurons in the reticular formation and were found in the octavolateral area. The rhombencephalic ventricular zone of the alar plate expressed Pax7. Dorsal Pax7 cells and ventral Pax6 cells were found along the spinal cord. Our results show that the expression of Pax6 and Pax7 is widely maintained in the brains of adult urodeles, in contrast to the situation in other tetrapods. This discrepancy could be due to the generally pedomorphic features of urodele brains. Although the precise role of these transcription factors in adult brains remains to be determined, our findings support the idea that they may also function in adult urodeles.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - R03 EB012461-01(United States)

Lesion-induced generation of interneuron cell types in specific dorsoventral domains in the spinal cord of adult zebrafish.

  • Kuscha V
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2012 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

In contrast to mammals, adult zebrafish regenerate neurons in the lesioned spinal cord. For example, motor neurons are generated from an olig2-expressing population of pMN-like ependymoradial glial cells in a ventrolateral position at the central canal. However, the extent of neuronal regeneration is unclear. Here we show, using a transgenic fish in which V2 interneurons are labeled by green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the vsx1 promoter, that after a complete spinal cord transection, large numbers of V2 interneurons are generated in the vicinity of the lesion site. Tg(vsx1:GFP)⁺ cells are not present in the unlesioned spinal cord and label with the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) after a lesion. Some mediolaterally elongated Tg(vsx1:GFP)⁺ cells contact the central canal in a medial position. These cells likely arise from a p2-like domain of ependymoradial glial progenitor cells, indicated by coexpression of Pax6 and Nkx6.1, but not DsRed driven by the olig2 promoter in these cells. We also present evidence that Pax2⁺ interneurons are newly generated after a spinal lesion, whereas the generation rate for a dorsal population of parvalbuminergic interneurons is comparatively low. Our results identify the regenerative potential of different interneuron types for the first time and support a model in which different progenitor cell domains in distinct dorsoventral positions around the central canal are activated by a lesion to give rise to diverse neuronal cell types in the adult zebrafish spinal cord.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R21 DC013358(United States)

Cytoarchitecture of the lateral ganglionic eminence and rostral extension of the lateral ventricle in the human fetal brain.

  • Guerrero-Cázares H
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2011 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The fetal development of the anterior subventricular zone (SVZ) involves the transformation of radial glia into neural stem cells, in addition to the migration of neuroblasts from the SVZ towards different regions in the brain. In adult rodents this migration from the anterior SVZ is restricted to the olfactory bulb following a rostral migratory stream (RMS) formed by chains of migratory neuroblasts. Similar to rodents, an RMS has been suggested in the adult human brain, where the SVZ remains as an active proliferative region. Nevertheless, a human fetal RMS has not been described and the presence of migratory neuroblasts in the adult remains controversial. Here we describe the cytoarchitecture of the human SVZ at the lateral ganglionic eminence late in the second trimester of development (23-24 weeks postconception). Cell organization in this region is heterogeneous along the ventricular wall, with GFAP-positive cells aligned to the ventricle. These cells coexpress markers for radial glia like GFAPδ, nestin, and vimentin. We also show the presence of abundant migratory neuroblasts in the anterior horn SVZ forming structures here denominated cell throngs. Interestingly, a ventral extension of the lateral ventricle suggests the presence of a putative RMS. Nevertheless, in the olfactory bulb neuroblast throngs or chain-like structures were not observed. The lack of these structures closer to the olfactory bulb could indicate a destination for the migratory neuroblasts outside the olfactory bulb in the human brain.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - P41 RR018627(United States)

GABAergic complex basket formations in the human neocortex.

  • Blazquez-Llorca L
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Certain GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex, basket cells, establish multiple connections with cell bodies that typically outline the somata and proximal dendrites of pyramidal cells. During studies into the distribution of the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) in the human cerebral cortex, we were struck by the presence of a very dense, pericellular arrangement of multiple VGAT-immunoreactive (-ir) terminals in certain cortical areas. We called these terminals "Complex basket formations" (Cbk-formations) to distinguish them from the simpler and more typical pericellular GABAergic innervations of most cortical neurons. Here we examined the distribution of these VGAT-ir Cbk-formations in various cortical areas, including the somatosensory (area 3b), visual (areas 17 and 18), motor (area 4), associative frontal (dorsolateral areas 9, 10, 45, 46, and orbital areas 11, 12, 13, 14, 47), associative temporal (areas 20, 21, 22, and 38), and limbic cingulate areas (areas 24, 32). Furthermore, we used dual or triple staining techniques to study the chemical nature of the innervated cells. We found that VGAT-ir Cbk-formations were most frequently found in area 4 followed by areas 3b, 13, and 18. In addition, they were mostly observed in layer III, except in area 17, where they were most dense in layer IV. We also found that 70% of the innervated neurons were pyramidal cells, while the remaining 30% were multipolar cells. Most of these multipolar cells expressed the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin and the lectin Vicia villosa agglutinin.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - R01RR025342(United States)
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY1765(United States)

Role of sensory activity on chemospecific populations of interneurons in the adult olfactory bulb.

  • Bastien-Dionne PO
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2010 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The olfactory bulb (OB) retains a remarkable capacity to renew its interneuronal populations throughout the lifespan of animals. Neuronal precursors giving rise to the bulbar interneurons are generated in the subventricular zone and have to migrate long distances before reaching the OB. In the adult OB these neuronal precursors differentiate into distinct neuronal types, including GABAergic cells located in the granule cell layer and a diverse set of neurons in the glomerular layer comprising GABAergic and dopaminergic interneurons, as well as other neuronal subtypes expressing calretinin and calbindin. While the role of sensory activity in the integration and/or survival of newly generated cells in the olfactory system is well established, very little is known about how odorant-induced activity affects fate specification of newborn cells as well as survival and fate maintenance of preexisting neuronal populations generated in adulthood. The present study demonstrates that sensory deprivation diminishes not only the number of newborn cells in the OB, but also reduces the density of granule and periglomerular cells generated before nostril occlusion. It also shows that sensory activity has an important influence on the development and expression of dopaminergic, but not GABAergic, calretinin or calbindin phenotypes. Our data reveal that odorant-induced activity is important for the survival of both newborn and preexisting OB interneurons generated at adulthood and suggests that these chemospecific populations are differentially affected by sensory deprivation.

The transcriptome of retinal Müller glial cells.

  • Roesch K
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Jul 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Müller glial cells are the major type of glia in the mammalian retina. To identify the molecular machinery that defines Müller glial cell identity and function, single cell gene expression profiling was performed on Affymetrix microarrays. Identification of a cluster of genes expressed at high levels suggests a Müller glia core transcriptome, which likely underlies many of the functions of Müller glia. Expression of components of the cell cycle machinery and the Notch pathway, as well as of growth factors, chemokines, and lipoproteins might allow communication between Müller glial cells and the neurons that they support, including modulation of neuronal activity. This approach revealed a set of transcripts that were not previously characterized in (Müller) glia; validation of the expression of some of these genes was performed by in situ hybridization. Genes expressed exclusively by Müller glia were identified as novel markers. In addition, a novel BAC transgenic mouse that expresses Cre in Müller glia cells was generated. The molecular fingerprint of Müller glia provides a foundation for further studies of Müller glia development and function in normal and diseased states.

Sall3 is required for the terminal maturation of olfactory glomerular interneurons.

  • Harrison SJ
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sall3 is a zinc finger containing putative transcription factor and a member of the Sall gene family. Members of the Sall gene family are highly expressed during development. Sall3-deficient mice die in the perinatal period because of dehydration and display alterations in palate formation and cranial nerve formation (Parrish et al. [2004] Mol Cell Biol 24:7102-7112). We examined the role of Sall3 in the development of the olfactory system. We determined that Sall3 is expressed by cells in the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb. Sall3 deficiency specifically alters formation of the glomerular layer. The glomerular layer was hypocellular, because of a decrease in the number of interneurons. The lateral ganglionic eminence and rostral migratory stream developed normally in Sall3-deficient animals, which suggests that Sall3 is not required for the initial specification of olfactory bulb interneurons. Fewer GAD65/67-, Pax6-, calretinin-, and calbindin-positive cells were detected in the glomerular layer, accompanied by an increase in cells positive for these markers in the granule cell layer. In addition, a complete absence of tyrosine hydroxylase expression was observed in the olfactory bulb in the absence of Sall3. However, expression of Nurr1, a marker of dopaminergic precursors, was maintained, indicating that dopaminergic precursors were present. Our data suggest that Sall3 is required for the terminal maturation of neurons destined for the glomerular layer.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 NS002787-19(United States)