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Rat monoclonal anti-mouse endothelial cell marker CD31 (PECAM-1) antibody

RRID:AB_2631039

Antibody ID

AB_2631039

Target Antigen

CD31 mouse, pig

Proper Citation

(Dianova Cat# DIA-310, RRID:AB_2631039)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Clone ID

SZ31

Host Organism

rat

Vendor

Dianova

Cat Num

DIA-310 also DIA-310-M

Obesity and High-Fat Diet Induce Distinct Changes in Placental Gene Expression and Pregnancy Outcome.

  • Mahany EB
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Obese women are at high risk of pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia, miscarriage, preterm birth, stillbirth, and neonatal death. In the current study, we aimed to determine the effects of obesity on pregnancy outcome and placental gene expression in preclinical mouse models of genetic and nutritional obesity. The leptin receptor (LepR) null-reactivatable (LepRloxTB), LepR-deficient (Leprdb/+), and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice were assessed for fertility, pregnancy outcome, placental morphology, and placental transcriptome using standard quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qPCR arrays. The restoration of fertility of LepRloxTB was performed by stereotaxic delivery of adeno-associated virus-Cre into the hypothalamic ventral premammillary nucleus. Fertile LepRloxTB females were morbidly obese, whereas the wild-type mice-fed HFD showed only a mild increase in body weight. Approximately 80% of the LepRloxTB females had embryo resorptions (∼40% of the embryos). In HFD mice, the number of resorptions was not different from controls fed a regular diet. Placentas of resorbed embryos from obese mice displayed necrosis and inflammatory infiltrate in the labyrinth and changes in the expression of genes associated with angiogenesis and inflammation (e.g., Vegfa, Hif1a, Nfkbia, Tlr3, Tlr4). In contrast, placentas from embryos of females on HFD showed changes in a different set of genes, mostly associated with cellular growth and response to stress (e.g., Plg, Ang, Igf1, Igfbp1, Fgf2, Tgfb2, Serpinf1). Sexual dimorphism in gene expression was only apparent in placentas from obese LepRloxTB mice. Our findings indicate that an obese environment and HFD have distinct effects on pregnancy outcome and the placental transcriptome.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BBS/E/F/00042291(United Kingdom)

Hedgehog Pathway Drives Fusion-Negative Rhabdomyosarcoma Initiated From Non-myogenic Endothelial Progenitors.

  • Drummond CJ
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric soft tissue sarcoma that histologically resembles embryonic skeletal muscle. RMS occurs throughout the body and an exclusively myogenic origin does not account for RMS occurring in sites devoid of skeletal muscle. We previously described an RMS model activating a conditional constitutively active Smoothened mutant (SmoM2) with aP2-Cre. Using genetic fate mapping, we show SmoM2 expression in Cre-expressing endothelial progenitors results in myogenic transdifferentiation and RMS. We show that endothelium and skeletal muscle within the head and neck arise from Kdr-expressing progenitors, and that hedgehog pathway activation results in aberrant expression of myogenic specification factors as a potential mechanism driving RMS genesis. These findings suggest that RMS can originate from aberrant development of non-myogenic cells.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - K08 CA151649()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA021765()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA216344()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21AI094333(United States)

Hemodynamic Forces Sculpt Developing Heart Valves through a KLF2-WNT9B Paracrine Signaling Axis.

  • Goddard LM
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hemodynamic forces play an essential epigenetic role in heart valve development, but how they do so is not known. Here, we show that the shear-responsive transcription factor KLF2 is required in endocardial cells to regulate the mesenchymal cell responses that remodel cardiac cushions to mature valves. Endocardial Klf2 deficiency results in defective valve formation associated with loss of Wnt9b expression and reduced canonical WNT signaling in neighboring mesenchymal cells, a phenotype reproduced by endocardial-specific loss of Wnt9b. Studies in zebrafish embryos reveal that wnt9b expression is similarly restricted to the endocardial cells overlying the developing heart valves and is dependent upon both hemodynamic shear forces and klf2a expression. These studies identify KLF2-WNT9B signaling as a conserved molecular mechanism by which fluid forces sensed by endothelial cells direct the complex cellular process of heart valve development and suggest that congenital valve defects may arise due to subtle defects in this mechanotransduction pathway.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - C7845/A10066(United Kingdom)
  • European Research Council - 682938()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL094326()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL007954()

Caspase-8 contributes to angiogenesis and chemotherapy resistance in glioblastoma.

  • Fianco G
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Caspase-8 is a key player in extrinsic apoptosis and its activity is often downregulated in cancer. However, human Caspase-8 expression is retained in some tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM), suggesting that it may support cancer growth in these contexts. GBM, the most aggressive of the gliomas, is characterized by extensive angiogenesis and by an inflammatory microenvironment that support its development and resistance to therapies. We have recently shown that Caspase-8 sustains neoplastic transformation in vitro in human GBM cell lines. Here, we demonstrate that Caspase-8, through activation of NF-kB, enhances the expression and secretion of VEGF, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1beta and MCP-1, leading to neovascularization and increased resistance to Temozolomide. Importantly, the bioinformatics analysis of microarray gene expression data derived from a set of high-grade human gliomas, shows that high Caspase-8 expression levels correlate with a worse prognosis.

A mouse model suggests two mechanisms for thyroid alterations in infantile cystinosis: decreased thyroglobulin synthesis due to endoplasmic reticulum stress/unfolded protein response and impaired lysosomal processing.

  • Gaide Chevronnay HP
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Jun 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Thyroid hormones are released from thyroglobulin (Tg) in lysosomes, which are impaired in infantile/nephropathic cystinosis. Cystinosis is a lysosomal cystine storage disease due to defective cystine exporter, cystinosin. Cystinotic children develop subclinical and then overt hypothyroidism. Why hypothyroidism is the most frequent and earliest endocrine complication of cystinosis is unknown. We here defined early alterations in Ctns(-/-) mice thyroid and identified subcellular and molecular mechanisms. At 9 months, T4 and T3 plasma levels were normal and TSH was moderately increased (∼4-fold). By histology, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of most follicles preceded colloid exhaustion. Increased immunolabeling for thyrocyte proliferation and apoptotic shedding indicated accelerated cell turnover. Electron microscopy revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dilation, apical lamellipodia indicating macropinocytic colloid uptake, and lysosomal cystine crystals. Tg accumulation in dilated ER contrasted with mRNA down-regulation. Increased expression of ER chaperones, glucose-regulated protein of 78 kDa and protein disulfide isomerase, associated with alternative X-box binding protein-1 splicing, revealed unfolded protein response (UPR) activation by ER stress. Decreased Tg mRNA and ER stress suggested reduced Tg synthesis. Coordinated increase of UPR markers, activating transcription factor-4 and C/EBP homologous protein, linked ER stress to apoptosis. Hormonogenic cathepsins were not altered, but lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 immunolabeling disclosed enlarged vesicles containing iodo-Tg and impaired lysosomal fusion. Isopycnic fractionation showed iodo-Tg accumulation in denser lysosomes, suggesting defective lysosomal processing and hormone release. In conclusion, Ctns(-/-) mice showed the following alterations: 1) compensated primary hypothyroidism and accelerated thyrocyte turnover; 2) impaired Tg production linked to ER stress/UPR response; and 3) altered endolysosomal trafficking and iodo-Tg processing. The Ctns(-/-) thyroid is useful to study disease progression and evaluate novel therapies.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 087618/Z/08/Z(United Kingdom)