X
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

Monoclonal ANTI-FLAG® M2 antibody

RRID:AB_262044

Antibody ID

AB_262044

Target Antigen

FLAG

Proper Citation

(Sigma-Aldrich Cat# F1804, RRID:AB_262044)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Comments

Applications: immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemisty, immunofluorescence and immunocyotchemistry.

Clone ID

M2

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

Sigma-Aldrich

Cat Num

F1804

Publications that use this research resource

Histone Methylation by SETD1A Protects Nascent DNA through the Nucleosome Chaperone Activity of FANCD2.

  • Higgs MR
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Components of the Fanconi anemia and homologous recombination pathways play a vital role in protecting newly replicated DNA from uncontrolled nucleolytic degradation, safeguarding genome stability. Here we report that histone methylation by the lysine methyltransferase SETD1A is crucial for protecting stalled replication forks from deleterious resection. Depletion of SETD1A sensitizes cells to replication stress and leads to uncontrolled DNA2-dependent resection of damaged replication forks. The ability of SETD1A to prevent degradation of these structures is mediated by its ability to catalyze methylation on Lys4 of histone H3 (H3K4) at replication forks, which enhances FANCD2-dependent histone chaperone activity. Suppressing H3K4 methylation or expression of a chaperone-defective FANCD2 mutant leads to loss of RAD51 nucleofilament stability and severe nucleolytic degradation of replication forks. Our work identifies epigenetic modification and histone mobility as critical regulatory mechanisms in maintaining genome stability by restraining nucleases from irreparably damaging stalled replication forks.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - RR024574(United States)

Highly multiplexed immunofluorescence imaging of human tissues and tumors using t-CyCIF and conventional optical microscopes.

  • Lin JR
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jul 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

The architecture of normal and diseased tissues strongly influences the development and progression of disease as well as responsiveness and resistance to therapy. We describe a tissue-based cyclic immunofluorescence (t-CyCIF) method for highly multiplexed immuno-fluorescence imaging of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens mounted on glass slides, the most widely used specimens for histopathological diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. t-CyCIF generates up to 60-plex images using an iterative process (a cycle) in which conventional low-plex fluorescence images are repeatedly collected from the same sample and then assembled into a high dimensional representation. t-CyCIF requires no specialized instruments or reagents and is compatible with super-resolution imaging; we demonstrate its application to quantifying signal transduction cascades, tumor antigens and immune markers in diverse tissues and tumors. The simplicity and adaptability of t-CyCIF makes it an effective method for pre-clinical and clinical research and a natural complement to single-cell genomics.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/G006474/2(United Kingdom)
  • Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center - Claudia Adams Barr Program()
  • Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center - GI SPORE Developmental Research Project Award()
  • National Institutes of Health - K08CA222663()
  • National Institutes of Health - P50GM107618()
  • National Institutes of Health - R41-CA224503()
  • National Institutes of Health - U54HL127365()

PARP1-dependent recruitment of the FBXL10-RNF68-RNF2 ubiquitin ligase to sites of DNA damage controls H2A.Z loading.

  • Rona G
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jul 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mammalian FBXL10-RNF68-RNF2 ubiquitin ligase complex (FRRUC) mono-ubiquitylates H2A at Lys119 to repress transcription in unstressed cells. We found that the FRRUC is rapidly and transiently recruited to sites of DNA damage in a PARP1- and TIMELESS-dependent manner to promote mono-ubiquitylation of H2A at Lys119, a local decrease of H2A levels, and an increase of H2A.Z incorporation. Both the FRRUC and H2A.Z promote transcriptional repression, double strand break signaling, and homologous recombination repair (HRR). All these events require both the presence and activity of the FRRUC. Moreover, the FRRUC and its activity are required for the proper recruitment of BMI1-RNF2 and MEL18-RNF2, two other ubiquitin ligases that mono-ubiquitylate Lys119 in H2A upon genotoxic stress. Notably, whereas H2A.Z is not required for H2A mono-ubiquitylation, impairment of the latter results in the inhibition of H2A.Z incorporation. We propose that the recruitment of the FRRUC represents an early and critical regulatory step in HRR.

Funding information:
  • American Cancer Society - ACS 130304-RSG-16-241-01-DMC()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01- GM057691()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01-CA076584()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01-GM057587()
  • National Institutes of Health - R21-CA187612()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - ES07784(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM057587()
  • The Rosztoczy Foundation - Fellowship()

A Sialylated Voltage-Dependent Ca2+ Channel Binds Hemagglutinin and Mediates Influenza A Virus Entry into Mammalian Cells.

  • Fujioka Y
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Jun 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Influenza A virus (IAV) infection is initiated by the attachment of the viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) to sialic acid on the host cell surface. However, the sialic acid-containing receptor crucial for IAV infection has remained unidentified. Here, we show that HA binds to the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel Cav1.2 to trigger intracellular Ca2+ oscillations and subsequent IAV entry and replication. IAV entry was inhibited by Ca2+ channel blockers (CCBs) or by knockdown of Cav1.2. The CCB diltiazem also inhibited virus replication in vivo. Reintroduction of wild-type but not the glycosylation-deficient mutants of Cav1.2 restored Ca2+ oscillations and virus infection in Cav1.2-depleted cells, demonstrating the significance of Cav1.2 sialylation. Taken together, we identify Cav1.2 as a sialylated host cell surface receptor that binds HA and is critical for IAV entry.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 089275(United Kingdom)

Phospholipase PLA2G6, a Parkinsonism-Associated Gene, Affects Vps26 and Vps35, Retromer Function, and Ceramide Levels, Similar to α-Synuclein Gain.

  • Lin G
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jun 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations in PLA2G6 (PARK14) cause neurodegenerative disorders in humans, including autosomal recessive neuroaxonal dystrophy and early-onset parkinsonism. We show that loss of iPLA2-VIA, the fly homolog of PLA2G6, reduces lifespan, impairs synaptic transmission, and causes neurodegeneration. Phospholipases typically hydrolyze glycerol phospholipids, but loss of iPLA2-VIA does not affect the phospholipid composition of brain tissue but rather causes an elevation in ceramides. Reducing ceramides with drugs, including myriocin or desipramine, alleviates lysosomal stress and suppresses neurodegeneration. iPLA2-VIA binds the retromer subunits Vps35 and Vps26 and enhances retromer function to promote protein and lipid recycling. Loss of iPLA2-VIA impairs retromer function, leading to a progressive increase in ceramide. This induces a positive feedback loop that affects membrane fluidity and impairs retromer function and neuronal function. Similar defects are observed upon loss of vps26 or vps35 or overexpression of α-synuclein, indicating that these defects may be common in Parkinson disease.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA130893(United States)

SHRED Is a Regulatory Cascade that Reprograms Ubr1 Substrate Specificity for Enhanced Protein Quality Control during Stress.

  • Szoradi T
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

When faced with proteotoxic stress, cells mount adaptive responses to eliminate aberrant proteins. Adaptive responses increase the expression of protein folding and degradation factors to enhance the cellular quality control machinery. However, it is unclear whether and how this augmented machinery acquires new activities during stress. Here, we uncover a regulatory cascade in budding yeast that consists of the hydrophilin protein Roq1/Yjl144w, the HtrA-type protease Ynm3/Nma111, and the ubiquitin ligase Ubr1. Various stresses stimulate ROQ1 transcription. The Roq1 protein is cleaved by Ynm3. Cleaved Roq1 interacts with Ubr1, transforming its substrate specificity. Altered substrate recognition by Ubr1 accelerates proteasomal degradation of misfolded as well as native proteins at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and in the cytosol. We term this pathway stress-induced homeostatically regulated protein degradation (SHRED) and propose that it promotes physiological adaptation by reprogramming a key component of the quality control machinery.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

Esrrb Unlocks Silenced Enhancers for Reprogramming to Naive Pluripotency.

  • Adachi K
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transcription factor (TF)-mediated reprogramming to pluripotency is a slow and inefficient process, because most pluripotency TFs fail to access relevant target sites in a refractory chromatin environment. It is still unclear how TFs actually orchestrate the opening of repressive chromatin during the long latency period of reprogramming. Here, we show that the orphan nuclear receptor Esrrb plays a pioneering role in recruiting the core pluripotency factors Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog to inactive enhancers in closed chromatin during the reprogramming of epiblast stem cells. Esrrb binds to silenced enhancers containing stable nucleosomes and hypermethylated DNA, which are inaccessible to the core factors. Esrrb binding is accompanied by local loss of DNA methylation, LIF-dependent engagement of p300, and nucleosome displacement, leading to the recruitment of core factors within approximately 2 days. These results suggest that TFs can drive rapid remodeling of the local chromatin structure, highlighting the remarkable plasticity of stable epigenetic information.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 AI000904-06(United States)

Epigenetic Promoter DNA Methylation of miR-124 Promotes HIV-1 Tat-Mediated Microglial Activation via MECP2-STAT3 Axis.

  • Periyasamy P
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

The present study demonstrates HIV-1 Tat-mediated epigenetic downregulation of microglial miR-124 and its association with microglial activation. Exposure of mouse primary microglia isolated from newborn pups of either sex to HIV-1 Tat resulted in decreased expression of primary miR-124-1, primary miR-124-2 as well as the mature miR-124. In parallel, HIV-1 Tat exposure to mouse primary microglial cells resulted in increased expression of DNA methylation enzymes, such as DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B, which were also accompanied by increased global DNA methylation. Bisulfite-converted genomic DNA sequencing in the HIV-1 Tat-exposed mouse primary microglial cells further confirmed increased DNA methylation of the primary miR-124-1 and primary miR-124-2 promoters. Bioinformatic analyses identified MECP2 as a novel 3'-UTR target of miR-124. This was further validated in mouse primary microglial cells wherein HIV-1 Tat-mediated downregulation of miR-124 resulted in increased expression of MECP2, leading in turn to further repression of miR-124 via the feedback loop. In addition to MECP2, miR-124 also modulated the levels of STAT3 through its binding to the 3'-UTR, leading to microglial activation. Luciferase assays and Ago2 immunoprecipitation determined the direct binding between miR-124 and 3'-UTR of both MECP2 and STAT3. Gene silencing of MECP2 and DNMT1 and overexpression of miR-124 blocked HIV-1 Tat-mediated downregulation of miR-124 and microglial activation. In vitro findings were also confirmed in the basal ganglia of SIV-infected rhesus macaques (both sexes). In summary, our findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of HIV-1 Tat-mediated activation of microglia via downregulation of miR-124, leading ultimately to increased MECP2 and STAT3 signaling.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite the effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy in controlling viremia, the CNS continues to harbor viral reservoirs. The persistence of low-level virus replication leads to the accumulation of early viral proteins, including HIV-1 Tat protein. Understanding the epigenetic/molecular mechanism(s) by which viral proteins, such as HIV-1 Tat, can activate microglia is thus of paramount importance. This study demonstrated that HIV-1 Tat-mediated DNA methylation of the miR-124 promoter leads to its downregulation with a concomitant upregulation of the MECP2-STAT3-IL6, resulting in microglial activation. These findings reveal an unexplored epigenetic/molecular mechanism(s) underlying HIV-1 Tat-mediated microglial activation, thereby providing a potential target for the development of therapeutics aimed at ameliorating microglial activation and neuroinflammation in the context of HIV-1 infection.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

H3.3K27M mutant proteins reprogram epigenome by sequestering the PRC2 complex to poised enhancers.

  • Fang D
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Expression of histone H3.3K27M mutant proteins in human diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) results in a global reduction of tri-methylation of H3K27 (H3K27me3), and paradoxically, H3K27me3 peaks remain at hundreds of genomic loci, a dichotomous change that lacks mechanistic insights. Here, we show that the PRC2 complex is sequestered at poised enhancers, but not at active promoters with high levels of H3.3K27M proteins, thereby contributing to the global reduction of H3K27me3. Moreover, the levels of H3.3K27M proteins are low at the retained H3K27me3 peaks and consequently having minimal effects on the PRC2 activity at these loci. H3K27me3-mediated silencing at specific tumor suppressor genes, including Wilms Tumor 1, promotes proliferation of DIPG cells. These results support a model in which the PRC2 complex is redistributed to poised enhancers in H3.3K27M mutant cells and contributes to tumorigenesis in part by locally enhancing H3K27me3, and hence silencing of tumor suppressor genes.

Funding information:
  • National Institutes of Health - CA204297()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM107466(United States)

Determinants of the cytosolic turnover of mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins.

  • Kowalski L
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2018 Jun 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The proteome of mitochondria comprises mostly proteins that originate as precursors in the cytosol. Before import into the organelle, such proteins are exposed to cytosolic quality control mechanisms. Multiple lines of evidence indicate a significant contribution of the major cytosolic protein degradation machinery, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, to the quality control of mitochondrial proteins. Proteins that are directed to the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) exemplify an entire class of mitochondrial proteins regulated by proteasomal degradation. However, little is known about how these proteins are selected for degradation. RESULTS: The present study revealed the heterogeneous cytosolic stability of IMS proteins. Using a screening approach, we found that different cytosolic factors are responsible for the degradation of specific IMS proteins, with no single common factor involved in the degradation of all IMS proteins. We found that the Cox12 protein is rapidly degraded when localized to the cytosol, thus providing a sensitive experimental model. Using Cox12, we found that lysine residues but not conserved cysteine residues are among the degron features important for protein ubiquitination. We observed the redundancy of ubiquitination components, with significant roles of Ubc4 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and Rsp5 E3 ubiquitin ligase. The amount of ubiquitinated Cox12 was inversely related to mitochondrial import efficiency. Importantly, we found that precursor protein ubiquitination blocks its import into mitochondria. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms the involvement of ubiquitin-proteasome system in the quality control of mitochondrial IMS proteins in the cytosol. Notably, ubiquitination of IMS proteins prohibits their import into mitochondria. Therefore, ubiquitination directly affects the availability of precursor proteins for organelle biogenesis. Importantly, despite their structural similarities, IMS proteins are not selected for degradation in a uniform way. Instead, specific IMS proteins rely on discrete components of the ubiquitination machinery to mediate their clearance by the proteasome.

Funding information:
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - Collaborative Research Center SFB1036()
  • Fundacja na rzecz Nauki Polskiej - First TEAM/2016-3/18()
  • Fundacja na rzecz Nauki Polskiej - Welcome Programme()
  • Narodowe Centrum Nauki - DEC-2013/11/D/NZ1/02294()
  • NCI NIH HHS - 1R21CA129875-01A1(United States)

Filopodia Conduct Target Selection in Cortical Neurons Using Differences in Signal Kinetics of a Single Kinase.

  • Mao YT
  • Neuron
  • 2018 May 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dendritic filopodia select synaptic partner axons by interviewing the cell surface of potential targets, but how filopodia decipher the complex pattern of adhesive and repulsive molecular cues to find appropriate contacts is unknown. Here, we demonstrate in cortical neurons that a single cue is sufficient for dendritic filopodia to reject or select specific axonal contacts for elaboration as synaptic sites. Super-resolution and live-cell imaging reveals that EphB2 is located in the tips of filopodia and at nascent synaptic sites. Surprisingly, a genetically encoded indicator of EphB kinase activity, unbiased classification, and a photoactivatable EphB2 reveal that simple differences in the kinetics of EphB kinase signaling at the tips of filopodia mediate the choice between retraction and synaptogenesis. This may enable individual filopodia to choose targets based on differences in the activation rate of a single tyrosine kinase, greatly simplifying the process of partner selection and suggesting a general principle.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 250244(International)

Boosting ATM activity alleviates aging and extends lifespan in a mouse model of progeria.

  • Qian M
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

DNA damage accumulates with age (Lombard et al., 2005). However, whether and how robust DNA repair machinery promotes longevity is elusive. Here, we demonstrate that ATM-centered DNA damage response (DDR) progressively declines with senescence and age, while low dose of chloroquine (CQ) activates ATM, promotes DNA damage clearance, rescues age-related metabolic shift, and prolongs replicative lifespan. Molecularly, ATM phosphorylates SIRT6 deacetylase and thus prevents MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Extra copies of Sirt6 extend lifespan in Atm-/- mice, with restored metabolic homeostasis. Moreover, the treatment with CQ remarkably extends lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans, but not the ATM-1 mutants. In a progeria mouse model with low DNA repair capacity, long-term administration of CQ ameliorates premature aging features and extends lifespan. Thus, our data highlights a pro-longevity role of ATM, for the first time establishing direct causal links between robust DNA repair machinery and longevity, and providing therapeutic strategy for progeria and age-related metabolic diseases.

Funding information:
  • Department of Health - (United Kingdom)
  • Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China - 2016YFC0904600()
  • Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China - 2017YFA0503900()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 81422016()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 81501206()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 81501210()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 81571374()
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China - 91439133()
  • Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province - 2014A030308011()
  • Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province - 2015A030308007()
  • Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province - 2016A030310064()
  • Research Grant Council of Hong Kong - 773313()
  • Research Grant Council of Hong Kong - HKU2/CRF/13G()
  • Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Commission - CXZZ20140903103747568()
  • Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Commission - JCYJ20140418095735645()
  • Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Commission - JCYJ20160226191451487()

Atypical Cadherin Dachsous1b Interacts with Ttc28 and Aurora B to Control Microtubule Dynamics in Embryonic Cleavages.

  • Chen J
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 May 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Atypical cadherin Dachsous (Dchs) is a conserved regulator of planar cell polarity, morphogenesis, and tissue growth during animal development. Dchs functions in part by regulating microtubules by unknown molecular mechanisms. Here we show that maternal zygotic (MZ) dchs1b zebrafish mutants exhibit cleavage furrow progression defects and impaired midzone microtubule assembly associated with decreased microtubule turnover. Mechanistically, Dchs1b interacts via a conserved motif in its intracellular domain with the tetratricopeptide motifs of Ttc28 and regulates its subcellular distribution. Excess Ttc28 impairs cleavages and decreases microtubule turnover, while ttc28 inactivation increases turnover. Moreover, ttc28 deficiency in dchs1b mutants suppresses the microtubule dynamics and midzone microtubule assembly defects. Dchs1b also binds to Aurora B, a known regulator of cleavages and microtubules. Embryonic cleavages in MZdchs1b mutants exhibit increased, and in MZttc28 mutants decreased, sensitivity to Aurora B inhibition. Thus, Dchs1b regulates microtubule dynamics and embryonic cleavages by interacting with Ttc28 and Aurora B.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R15GM100402(United States)

Germline Genetic IKZF1 Variation and Predisposition to Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

  • Churchman ML
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 May 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

Somatic genetic alterations of IKZF1, which encodes the lymphoid transcription factor IKAROS, are common in high-risk B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are associated with poor prognosis. Such alterations result in the acquisition of stem cell-like features, overexpression of adhesion molecules causing aberrant cell-cell and cell-stroma interaction, and decreased sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here we report coding germline IKZF1 variation in familial childhood ALL and 0.9% of presumed sporadic B-ALL, identifying 28 unique variants in 45 children. The majority of variants adversely affected IKZF1 function and drug responsiveness of leukemic cells. These results identify IKZF1 as a leukemia predisposition gene, and emphasize the importance of germline genetic variation in the development of both familial and sporadic ALL.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - U10 CA098413()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - P30 AR057217(United States)

Palladin Is a Neuron-Specific Translational Target of mTOR Signaling That Regulates Axon Morphogenesis.

  • Umegaki Y
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2018 May 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mTOR signaling pathway regulates protein synthesis and diverse aspects of neuronal morphology that are important for brain development and function. To identify proteins controlled translationally by mTOR signaling, we performed ribosome profiling analyses in mouse cortical neurons and embryonic stem cells upon acute mTOR inhibition. Among proteins whose translation was significantly affected by mTOR inhibition selectively in neurons, we identified the cytoskeletal regulator protein palladin, which is localized within the cell body and axons in hippocampal neurons. Knockdown of palladin eliminated supernumerary axons induced by suppression of the tuberous sclerosis complex protein TSC1 in neurons, demonstrating that palladin regulates neuronal morphogenesis downstream of mTOR signaling. Our findings provide novel insights into an mTOR-dependent mechanism that controls neuronal morphogenesis through translational regulation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study reports the discovery of neuron-specific protein translational responses to alterations of mTOR activity. By using ribosome profiling analysis, which can reveal the location and quantity of translating ribosomes on mRNAs, multiple aspects of protein translation were quantitatively analyzed in mouse embryonic stem cells and cortical neurons upon acute mTOR inhibition. Neurons displayed distinct patterns of ribosome occupancy for each codon and ribosome stalling during translation at specific positions of mRNAs. Importantly, the cytoskeletal regulator palladin was identified as a translational target protein of mTOR signaling in neurons. Palladin operates downstream of mTOR to modulate axon morphogenesis. This study identifies a novel mechanism of neuronal morphogenesis regulated by mTOR signaling through control of translation of the key protein palladin.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - (United Kingdom)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS051255()

A Potent and Specific CD38 Inhibitor Ameliorates Age-Related Metabolic Dysfunction by Reversing Tissue NAD+ Decline.

  • Tarragó MG
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Aging is characterized by the development of metabolic dysfunction and frailty. Recent studies show that a reduction in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is a key factor for the development of age-associated metabolic decline. We recently demonstrated that the NADase CD38 has a central role in age-related NAD+ decline. Here we show that a highly potent and specific thiazoloquin(az)olin(on)e CD38 inhibitor, 78c, reverses age-related NAD+ decline and improves several physiological and metabolic parameters of aging, including glucose tolerance, muscle function, exercise capacity, and cardiac function in mouse models of natural and accelerated aging. The physiological effects of 78c depend on tissue NAD+ levels and were reversed by inhibition of NAD+ synthesis. 78c increased NAD+ levels, resulting in activation of pro-longevity and health span-related factors, including sirtuins, AMPK, and PARPs. Furthermore, in animals treated with 78c we observed inhibition of pathways that negatively affect health span, such as mTOR-S6K and ERK, and attenuation of telomere-associated DNA damage, a marker of cellular aging. Together, our results detail a novel pharmacological strategy for prevention and/or reversal of age-related NAD+ decline and subsequent metabolic dysfunction.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - N01-HV-28186(United States)

Bis-Indole-Derived NR4A1 Ligands and Metformin Exhibit NR4A1-Dependent Glucose Metabolism and Uptake in C2C12 Cells.

  • Mohankumar K
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 May 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Treatment of C2C12 muscle cells with metformin or the NR4A1 ligand 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH) induced NR4A1 and Glut4 messenger RNA and protein expression. Similar results were observed with buttressed (3- or 3,5-substituted) analogs of DIM-C-pPhOH, including 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH-3-Cl-5-OCH3), and the buttressed analogs were more potent than DIM-C-pPhOH NR4A1 agonists. Metformin and the bis-indole substituted analogs also induced expression of several glycolytic genes and Rab4, which has previously been linked to enhancing cell membrane accumulation of Glut4 and overall glucose uptake in C2C12 cells, and these responses were also observed after treatment with metformin and the NR4A1 ligands. The role of NR4A1 in mediating the responses induced by the bis-indoles and metformin was determined by knockdown of NR4A1, and this resulted in attenuating the gene and protein expression and enhanced glucose uptake responses induced by these compounds. Our results demonstrate that the bis-indole-derived NR4A1 ligands represent a class of drugs that enhance glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells, and we also show that the effects of metformin in this cell line are NR4A1-dependent.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA06793(United States)
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - P30 ES023512()

Conformational Activation of Argonaute by Distinct yet Coordinated Actions of the Hsp70 and Hsp90 Chaperone Systems.

  • Tsuboyama K
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Loading of small RNAs into Argonaute, the core protein in RNA silencing, requires the Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery. This machinery also activates many other clients, including steroid hormone receptors and kinases, but how their structures change during chaperone-dependent activation remains unclear. Here, we utilized single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to probe the conformational changes of Drosophila Ago2 mediated by the chaperone machinery. We found that empty Ago2 exists in various closed conformations. The Hsp70 system (Hsp40 and Hsp70) and the Hsp90 system (Hop, Hsp90, and p23) together render Ago2 into an open, active form. The Hsp70 system, but not the Hsp90 system alone, is sufficient for Ago2 to partially populate the open form. Instead, the Hsp90 system is required to extend the dwell time of Ago2 in the open state, which must be transiently primed by the Hsp70 system. Our data uncover distinct and coordinated actions of the chaperone machinery, where the Hsp70 system expands the structural ensembles of Ago2 and the Hsp90 system captures and stabilizes the active form.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA48017(United States)

ZNFX-1 Functions within Perinuclear Nuage to Balance Epigenetic Signals.

  • Ishidate T
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Animal cells have a remarkable capacity to adopt durable and heritable gene expression programs or epigenetic states that define the physical properties and diversity of somatic cell types. The maintenance of epigenetic programs depends on poorly understood pathways that prevent gain or loss of inherited signals. In the germline, epigenetic factors are enriched in liquid-like perinuclear condensates called nuage. Here, we identify the deeply conserved helicase-domain protein, ZNFX-1, as an epigenetic regulator and component of nuage that interacts with Argonaute systems to balance epigenetic inheritance. Our findings suggest that ZNFX-1 promotes the 3' recruitment of machinery that propagates the small RNA epigenetic signal and thus counteracts a tendency for Argonaute targeting to shift 5' along the mRNA. These functional insights support the idea that recently identified subdomains of nuage, including ZNFX-1 granules or "Z-granules," may define spatial and temporal zones of molecular activity during epigenetic regulation.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 GM058800()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 AG000450-01(United States)
  • NICHD NIH HHS - P01 HD078253()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R37 GM058800()
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD010440()

Novel RNA-Affinity Proteogenomics Dissects Tumor Heterogeneity for Revealing Personalized Markers in Precision Prognosis of Cancer.

  • Wang L
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

To discriminate the patient subpopulations with different clinical outcomes within each breast cancer (BC) subtype, we introduce a robust, clinical-practical, activity-based proteogenomic method that identifies, in their oncogenically active states, candidate biomarker genes bearing patient-specific transcriptomic/genomic alterations of prognostic value. First, we used the intronic splicing enhancer (ISE) probes to sort ISE-interacting trans-acting protein factors (trans-interactome) directly from a tumor tissue for subsequent mass spectrometry characterization. In the retrospective, proteogenomic analysis of patient datasets, we identified those ISE trans-factor-encoding genes showing interaction-correlated expression patterns (iCEPs) as new BC-subtypic genes. Further, patient-specific co-alterations in mRNA expression of select iCEP genes distinguished high-risk patient subsets/subpopulations from other patients within a single BC subtype. Function analysis further validated a tumor-phenotypic trans-interactome contained the drivers of oncogenic splicing switches, representing the predominant tumor cells in a tissue, from which novel personalized biomarkers were clinically characterized/validated for precise prognostic prediction and subsequent individualized alignment of optimal therapy.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R00 CA160351()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA179992(United States)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA211732()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21 CA223675()

EP300-Mediated Lysine 2-Hydroxyisobutyrylation Regulates Glycolysis.

  • Huang H
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation (Khib) is an evolutionarily conserved and widespread histone mark like lysine acetylation (Kac). Here we report that EP300 functions as a lysine 2-hyroxyisobutyryltransferase to regulate glycolysis in response to nutritional cues. We discovered that EP300 differentially regulates Khib and Kac on distinct lysine sites, with only 6 of the 149 EP300-targeted Khib sites overlapping with the 693 EP300-targeted Kac sites. We demonstrate that diverse cellular proteins, particularly glycolytic enzymes, are targeted by EP300 for Khib, but not for Kac. Specifically, deletion of EP300 significantly reduces Khib levels on several EP300-dependent, Khib-specific sites on key glycolytic enzymes including ENO1, decreasing their catalytic activities. Consequently, EP300-deficient cells have impaired glycolysis and are hypersensitive to glucose-depletion-induced cell death. Our study reveals an EP300-catalyzed, Khib-specific molecular mechanism that regulates cellular glucose metabolism and further indicate that EP300 has an intrinsic ability to select short-chain acyl-CoA-dependent protein substrates.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA ES102205-10()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK107868()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM115961()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS073502(United States)

The HIV-1 Tat protein recruits a ubiquitin ligase to reorganize the 7SK snRNP for transcriptional activation.

  • Faust TB
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 30

Literature context:


Abstract:

The HIV-1 Tat protein hijacks P-TEFb kinase to activate paused RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) at the viral promoter. Tat binds additional host factors, but it is unclear how they regulate RNAP II elongation. Here, we identify the cytoplasmic ubiquitin ligase UBE2O as critical for Tat transcriptional activity. Tat hijacks UBE2O to ubiquitinate the P-TEFb kinase inhibitor HEXIM1 of the 7SK snRNP, a fraction of which also resides in the cytoplasm bound to P-TEFb. HEXIM1 ubiquitination sequesters it in the cytoplasm and releases P-TEFb from the inhibitory 7SK complex. Free P-TEFb then becomes enriched in chromatin, a process that is also stimulated by treating cells with a CDK9 inhibitor. Finally, we demonstrate that UBE2O is critical for P-TEFb recruitment to the HIV-1 promoter. Together, the data support a unique model of elongation control where non-degradative ubiquitination of nuclear and cytoplasmic 7SK snRNP pools increases P-TEFb levels for transcriptional activation.

Funding information:
  • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases - R01AI114362()
  • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases - RO1AI114362()
  • National Institute of General Medical Sciences - P50GM082250()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R15 HL071526(United States)
  • NIAID NIH HHS - P30 AI027763()
  • Welch Foundation - I-1782()

Complement C3 Drives Autophagy-Dependent Restriction of Cyto-invasive Bacteria.

  • Sorbara MT
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 May 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

In physiological settings, the complement protein C3 is deposited on all bacteria, including invasive pathogens. However, because experimental host-bacteria systems typically use decomplemented serum to avoid the lytic action of complement, the impact of C3 coating on epithelial cell responses to invasive bacteria remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that following invasion, intracellular C3-positive Listeria monocytogenes is targeted by autophagy through a direct C3/ATG16L1 interaction, resulting in autophagy-dependent bacterial growth restriction. In contrast, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella Typhimurium escape autophagy-mediated growth restriction in part through the action of bacterial outer membrane proteases that cleave bound C3. Upon oral infection with Listeria, C3-deficient mice displayed defective clearance at the intestinal mucosa. Together, these results demonstrate an intracellular role of complement in triggering antibacterial autophagy and immunity against intracellular pathogens. Since C3 indiscriminately associates with foreign surfaces, the C3-ATG16L1 interaction may provide a universal mechanism of xenophagy initiation.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R03 DA029480(United States)

Direct Promoter Repression by BCL11A Controls the Fetal to Adult Hemoglobin Switch.

  • Liu N
  • Cell
  • 2018 Apr 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fetal hemoglobin (HbF, α2γ2) level is genetically controlled and modifies severity of adult hemoglobin (HbA, α2β2) disorders, sickle cell disease, and β-thalassemia. Common genetic variation affects expression of BCL11A, a regulator of HbF silencing. To uncover how BCL11A supports the developmental switch from γ- to β- globin, we use a functional assay and protein binding microarray to establish a requirement for a zinc-finger cluster in BCL11A in repression and identify a preferred DNA recognition sequence. This motif appears in embryonic and fetal-expressed globin promoters and is duplicated in γ-globin promoters. The more distal of the duplicated motifs is mutated in individuals with hereditary persistence of HbF. Using the CUT&RUN approach to map protein binding sites in erythroid cells, we demonstrate BCL11A occupancy preferentially at the distal motif, which can be disrupted by editing the promoter. Our findings reveal that direct γ-globin gene promoter repression by BCL11A underlies hemoglobin switching.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - K01 DK093543()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG003985()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - P01 HL032262()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL032259()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL119099()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI053721(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R03 DK109232()

Elevated Levels of the Reactive Metabolite Methylglyoxal Recapitulate Progression of Type 2 Diabetes.

  • Moraru A
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Apr 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

The molecular causes of type 2 diabetes (T2D) are not well understood. Both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and T2D are characterized by impaired insulin signaling and hyperglycemia. From analogy to T1D, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are thought to also play causal roles in T2D. Recent clinical studies, however, found that T2D patients treated to maintain glycemia below the diabetes definition threshold (HbA1c < 6.5%) still develop diabetic complications. This suggests additional insulin- and glucose-independent mechanisms could be involved in T2D progression and/or initiation. T2D patients have elevated levels of the metabolite methylglyoxal (MG). We show here, using Drosophila glyoxalase 1 knockouts, that animals with elevated methylglyoxal recapitulate several core aspects of T2D: insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia. Thus elevated MG could constitute one root cause of T2D, suggesting that the molecular causes of elevated MG warrant further study.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01AI100934(United States)

KLRG1+ Effector CD8+ T Cells Lose KLRG1, Differentiate into All Memory T Cell Lineages, and Convey Enhanced Protective Immunity.

  • Herndler-Brandstetter D
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Apr 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Protective immunity against pathogens depends on the efficient generation of functionally diverse effector and memory T lymphocytes. However, whether plasticity during effector-to-memory CD8+ T cell differentiation affects memory lineage specification and functional versatility remains unclear. Using genetic fate mapping analysis of highly cytotoxic KLRG1+ effector CD8+ T cells, we demonstrated that KLRG1+ cells receiving intermediate amounts of activating and inflammatory signals downregulated KLRG1 during the contraction phase in a Bach2-dependent manner and differentiated into all memory T cell linages, including CX3CR1int peripheral memory cells and tissue-resident memory cells. "ExKLRG1" memory cells retained high cytotoxic and proliferative capacity distinct from other populations, which contributed to effective anti-influenza and anti-tumor immunity. Our work demonstrates that developmental plasticity of KLRG1+ effector CD8+ T cells is important in promoting functionally versatile memory cells and long-term protective immunity.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - T32AI055434(United States)

FOXL2C134W-Induced CYP19 Expression via Cooperation With SMAD3 in HGrC1 Cells.

  • Belli M
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Apr 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Germline knockout studies in female mice demonstrated an essential role for forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) in early follicle development, whereas an inducible granulosa cell (GC)-specific deletion of Foxl2 in adults has shown ovary-to-testis somatic sex reprogramming. In women, over 120 different germline mutations in the FOXL2 gene have been shown to cause blepharophimosis/ptosis/epicantus inversus syndrome associated with or without primary ovarian insufficiency. By contrast, a single somatic mutation (FOXL2C134W) accounts for almost all adult-type GC tumors (aGCTs). To test the hypothesis that FOXL2C134W differentially regulates the expression of aGCT markers, we investigated the effect of FOXL2C134W on inhibin B and P450 aromatase expression using a recently established human GC line (HGrC1), which we now show to bear two normal alleles of FOXL2. Neither FOXL2wt nor FOXL2C134W regulate INHBB messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. However, FOXL2C134W selectively displays a 50-fold induction of CYP19 mRNA expression dependent upon activin A. Mechanistically, the CYP19 promoter is activated in a similar way by FOXL2C134W interaction with SMAD3, but not by FOXL2wt. SMAD2 had no effect. Moreover, FOXL2C134W interactions with SMAD3 and with the FOX binding element located at -199 bp upstream of the ATG initiation codon of CYP19 are more sustainable than FOXL2wt. Thus, FOXL2C134W potentiates CYP19 expression in HGrC1 cells via enhanced recruitment of SMAD3 to a proximal FOX binding element. These findings may explain the pathophysiology of estrogen excess in patients with aGCT.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - L30 CA171131(United States)

Dynamics of PARKIN-Dependent Mitochondrial Ubiquitylation in Induced Neurons and Model Systems Revealed by Digital Snapshot Proteomics.

  • Ordureau A
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Flux through kinase and ubiquitin-driven signaling systems depends on the modification kinetics, stoichiometry, primary site specificity, and target abundance within the pathway, yet we rarely understand these parameters and their spatial organization within cells. Here we develop temporal digital snapshots of ubiquitin signaling on the mitochondrial outer membrane in embryonic stem cell-derived neurons, and we model HeLa cell systems upon activation of the PINK1 kinase and PARKIN ubiquitin ligase by proteomic counting of ubiquitylation and phosphorylation events. We define the kinetics and site specificity of PARKIN-dependent target ubiquitylation, and we demonstrate the power of this approach to quantify pathway modulators and to mechanistically define the role of PARKIN UBL phosphorylation in pathway activation in induced neurons. Finally, through modulation of pS65-Ub on mitochondria, we demonstrate that Ub hyper-phosphorylation is inhibitory to mitophagy receptor recruitment, indicating that pS65-Ub stoichiometry in vivo is optimized to coordinate PARKIN recruitment via pS65-Ub and mitophagy receptors via unphosphorylated chains.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/I004815/1(United Kingdom)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K01 DK098285()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM067945()

GRASP55 Senses Glucose Deprivation through O-GlcNAcylation to Promote Autophagosome-Lysosome Fusion.

  • Zhang X
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Golgi apparatus is the central hub for protein trafficking and glycosylation in the secretory pathway. However, how the Golgi responds to glucose deprivation is so far unknown. Here, we report that GRASP55, the Golgi stacking protein located in medial- and trans-Golgi cisternae, is O-GlcNAcylated by the O-GlcNAc transferase OGT under growth conditions. Glucose deprivation reduces GRASP55 O-GlcNAcylation. De-O-GlcNAcylated GRASP55 forms puncta outside of the Golgi area, which co-localize with autophagosomes and late endosomes/lysosomes. GRASP55 depletion reduces autophagic flux and results in autophagosome accumulation, while expression of an O-GlcNAcylation-deficient mutant of GRASP55 accelerates autophagic flux. Biochemically, GRASP55 interacts with LC3-II on the autophagosomes and LAMP2 on late endosomes/lysosomes and functions as a bridge between LC3-II and LAMP2 for autophagosome and lysosome fusion; this function is negatively regulated by GRASP55 O-GlcNAcylation. Therefore, GRASP55 senses glucose levels through O-GlcNAcylation and acts as a tether to facilitate autophagosome maturation.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS43987(United States)

The Receptor-like Cytoplasmic Kinase BIK1 Localizes to the Nucleus and Regulates Defense Hormone Expression during Plant Innate Immunity.

  • Lal NK
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Apr 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Plants employ cell-surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to detect pathogens. Although phytohormones produced during PRR signaling play an essential role in innate immunity, a direct link between PRR activation and hormone regulation is unknown. EFR is a PRR that recognizes bacterial EF-Tu and activates immune signaling. Here we report that EFR regulates the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) through direct phosphorylation of a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, BIK1. The BIK1 structure revealed that the EFR-phosphorylated sites reside on a uniquely extended loop away from the BIK1 kinase core domain. Phosphomimetic mutations of these sites resulted in increased phytohormones and enhanced resistance to bacterial infections. In addition to its documented plasma membrane localization, BIK1 also localizes to the nucleus and interacts directly with WRKY transcription factors involved in the JA and salicylic acid (SA) regulation. These findings demonstrate the mechanistic basis of signal transduction from PRR to phytohormones, mediated through a PRR-BIK1-WRKY axis.

Funding information:
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - P01 ES022832(United States)

Ari-1 Regulates Myonuclear Organization Together with Parkin and Is Associated with Aortic Aneurysms.

  • Tan KL
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Apr 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nuclei are actively positioned and anchored to the cytoskeleton via the LINC (Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton) complex. We identified mutations in the Parkin-like E3 ubiquitin ligase Ariadne-1 (Ari-1) that affect the localization and distribution of LINC complex members in Drosophila. ari-1 mutants exhibit nuclear clustering and morphology defects in larval muscles. We show that Ari-1 mono-ubiquitinates the core LINC complex member Koi. Surprisingly, we discovered functional redundancy between Parkin and Ari-1: increasing Parkin expression rescues ari-1 mutant phenotypes and vice versa. We further show that rare variants in the human homolog of ari-1 (ARIH1) are associated with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections, conditions resulting from smooth muscle cell (SMC) dysfunction. Human ARIH1 rescues fly ari-1 mutant phenotypes, whereas human variants found in patients fail to do so. In addition, SMCs obtained from patients display aberrant nuclear morphology. Hence, ARIH1 is critical in anchoring myonuclei to the cytoskeleton.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

Cand1-Mediated Adaptive Exchange Mechanism Enables Variation in F-Box Protein Expression.

  • Liu X
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Skp1⋅Cul1⋅F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase assembly is regulated by the interplay of substrate binding, reversible Nedd8 conjugation on Cul1, and the F-box protein (FBP) exchange factors Cand1 and Cand2. Detailed investigations into SCF assembly and function in reconstituted systems and Cand1/2 knockout cells informed the development of a mathematical model for how dynamical assembly of SCF complexes is controlled and how this cycle is coupled to degradation of an SCF substrate. Simulations predicted an unanticipated hypersensitivity of Cand1/2-deficient cells to FBP expression levels, which was experimentally validated. Together, these and prior observations lead us to propose the adaptive exchange hypothesis, which posits that regulation of the koff of an FBP from SCF by the actions of substrate, Nedd8, and Cand1 molds the cellular repertoire of SCF complexes and that the plasticity afforded by this exchange mechanism may enable large variations in FBP expression during development and in FBP gene number during evolution.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - F32 GM112308()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM065997()
  • Wellcome Trust - 092076(United Kingdom)

A Sex Chromosome piRNA Promotes Robust Dosage Compensation and Sex Determination in C. elegans.

  • Tang W
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

In metazoans, Piwi-related Argonaute proteins engage piRNAs (Piwi-interacting small RNAs) to defend the genome against invasive nucleic acids, such as transposable elements. Yet many organisms-including worms and humans-express thousands of piRNAs that do not target transposons, suggesting that piRNA function extends beyond genome defense. Here, we show that the X chromosome-derived piRNA 21ux-1 downregulates XOL-1 (XO Lethal), a master regulator of X chromosome dosage compensation and sex determination in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mutations in 21ux-1 and several Piwi-pathway components sensitize hermaphrodites to dosage compensation and sex determination defects. We show that the piRNA pathway also targets xol-1 in C. briggsae, a nematode species related to C. elegans. Our findings reveal physiologically important piRNA-mRNA interactions, raising the possibility that piRNAs function broadly to ensure robust gene expression and germline development.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - T32 AG021890(United States)

Myotubularin related protein-2 and its phospholipid substrate PIP2 control Piezo2-mediated mechanotransduction in peripheral sensory neurons.

  • Narayanan P
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

Piezo2 ion channels are critical determinants of the sense of light touch in vertebrates. Yet, their regulation is only incompletely understood. We recently identified myotubularin related protein-2 (Mtmr2), a phosphoinositide (PI) phosphatase, in the native Piezo2 interactome of murine dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Here, we demonstrate that Mtmr2 attenuates Piezo2-mediated rapidly adapting mechanically activated (RA-MA) currents. Interestingly, heterologous Piezo1 and other known MA current subtypes in DRG appeared largely unaffected by Mtmr2. Experiments with catalytically inactive Mtmr2, pharmacological blockers of PI(3,5)P2 synthesis, and osmotic stress suggest that Mtmr2-dependent Piezo2 inhibition involves depletion of PI(3,5)P2. Further, we identified a PI(3,5)P2 binding region in Piezo2, but not Piezo1, that confers sensitivity to Mtmr2 as indicated by functional analysis of a domain-swapped Piezo2 mutant. Altogether, our results propose local PI(3,5)P2 modulation via Mtmr2 in the vicinity of Piezo2 as a novel mechanism to dynamically control Piezo2-dependent mechanotransduction in peripheral sensory neurons.

Funding information:
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - CRC 937 Project A13()
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - CRC889 Project A9()
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - GO 2481/2-1()
  • Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - SCHM 2533/2-1()
  • Göttinger Graduiertenschule für Neurowissenschaften, Biophysik und Molekulare Biowissenschaften - PhD fellowship()
  • Max-Planck-Gesellschaft - Open-access funding()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R37 MH059520(United States)

Drosophila Fezf coordinates laminar-specific connectivity through cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic mechanisms.

  • Peng J
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Laminar arrangement of neural connections is a fundamental feature of neural circuit organization. Identifying mechanisms that coordinate neural connections within correct layers is thus vital for understanding how neural circuits are assembled. In the medulla of the Drosophila visual system neurons form connections within ten parallel layers. The M3 layer receives input from two neuron types that sequentially innervate M3 during development. Here we show that M3-specific innervation by both neurons is coordinated by Drosophila Fezf (dFezf), a conserved transcription factor that is selectively expressed by the earlier targeting input neuron. In this cell, dFezf instructs layer specificity and activates the expression of a secreted molecule (Netrin) that regulates the layer specificity of the other input neuron. We propose that employment of transcriptional modules that cell-intrinsically target neurons to specific layers, and cell-extrinsically recruit other neurons is a general mechanism for building layered networks of neural connections.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - Gilliam Fellowship for Advanced Study()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI073587(United States)

CRISPR RNA-Dependent Binding and Cleavage of Endogenous RNAs by the Campylobacter jejuni Cas9.

  • Dugar G
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cas9 nucleases naturally utilize CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) to silence foreign double-stranded DNA. While recent work has shown that some Cas9 nucleases can also target RNA, RNA recognition has required nuclease modifications or accessory factors. Here, we show that the Campylobacter jejuni Cas9 (CjCas9) can bind and cleave complementary endogenous mRNAs in a crRNA-dependent manner. Approximately 100 transcripts co-immunoprecipitated with CjCas9 and generally can be subdivided through their base-pairing potential to the four crRNAs. A subset of these RNAs was cleaved around or within the predicted binding site. Mutational analyses revealed that RNA binding was crRNA and tracrRNA dependent and that target RNA cleavage required the CjCas9 HNH domain. We further observed that RNA cleavage was PAM independent, improved with greater complementarity between the crRNA and the RNA target, and was programmable in vitro. These findings suggest that C. jejuni Cas9 is a promiscuous nuclease that can coordinately target both DNA and RNA.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BB/D015480/1(United Kingdom)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM119561()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM008776()

ROS-Mediated 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase Degradation via Cysteine Oxidation Promotes NAD+-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

  • Wang W
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2018 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels decrease with aging as a result of aging-associated CD38 upregulation. Here, we established a cell model with decreased cellular NAD levels by overexpressing CD38 or treating cells with FK866, an inhibitor of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase. We revealed that decreased NAD triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated degradation of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), which drove cells to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, we showed that oxidation of the Cys44 residue to sulfonic acid in 15-PGDH led to its degradation via non-canonical ubiquitination-proteasome and autophagy pathways. Mutation of Cys44 to alanine abolished ROS-induced 15-PGDH degradation. We demonstrated that 15-PGDH silencing promoted EMT, whereas supplementation with NAD precursors increased NAD and 15-PGDH stability, and reversed the EMT process. Taken together, these results suggest that declining NAD levels contribute to age-dependent increases in cancer incidence, and repletion of NAD precursors is beneficial for increasing 15-PGDH expression.

Funding information:
  • National Health and Medical Research Council - 1061122(United States)

NuRD and CAF-1-mediated silencing of the D4Z4 array is modulated by DUX4-induced MBD3L proteins.

  • Campbell AE
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

The DUX4 transcription factor is encoded by a retrogene embedded in each unit of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat. DUX4 is normally expressed in the cleavage-stage embryo, whereas chromatin repression prevents DUX4 expression in most somatic tissues. Failure of this repression causes facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) due to mis-expression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle. In this study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 engineered chromatin immunoprecipitation (enChIP) locus-specific proteomics to characterize D4Z4-associated proteins. These and other approaches identified the Nucleosome Remodeling Deacetylase (NuRD) and Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) complexes as necessary for DUX4 repression in human skeletal muscle cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, DUX4-induced expression of MBD3L proteins partly relieved this repression in FSHD muscle cells. Together, these findings identify NuRD and CAF-1 as mediators of DUX4 chromatin repression and suggest a mechanism for the amplification of DUX4 expression in FSHD muscle cells.

Funding information:
  • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development - T32HD007183()
  • FSH Society - FSHS-22014-01()
  • Medical Research Council - (United Kingdom)
  • National Cancer Institute - T32CA009657()
  • National Human Genome Research Institute - T32HG000035()
  • National Human Genome Research Institute - T32HG00035()
  • National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases - R01AR045203()
  • National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases - R01AR066248()
  • National Institute of General Medical Sciences - T32GM007270()
  • National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - P01NS069539()
  • Prinses Beatrix Spierfonds - W.OP14-01()

Sense-Antisense lncRNA Pair Encoded by Locus 6p22.3 Determines Neuroblastoma Susceptibility via the USP36-CHD7-SOX9 Regulatory Axis.

  • Mondal T
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Trait-associated loci often map to genomic regions encoding long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), but the role of these lncRNAs in disease etiology is largely unexplored. We show that a pair of sense/antisense lncRNA (6p22lncRNAs) encoded by CASC15 and NBAT1 located at the neuroblastoma (NB) risk-associated 6p22.3 locus are tumor suppressors and show reduced expression in high-risk NBs. Loss of functional synergy between 6p22lncRNAs results in an undifferentiated state that is maintained by a gene-regulatory network, including SOX9 located on 17q, a region frequently gained in NB. 6p22lncRNAs regulate SOX9 expression by controlling CHD7 stability via modulating the cellular localization of USP36, encoded by another 17q gene. This regulatory nexus between 6p22.3 and 17q regions may lead to potential NB treatment strategies.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS047331(United States)

SPIN1 promotes tumorigenesis by blocking the uL18 (universal large ribosomal subunit protein 18)-MDM2-p53 pathway in human cancer.

  • Fang Z
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ribosomal proteins (RPs) play important roles in modulating the MDM2-p53 pathway. However, less is known about the upstream regulators of the RPs. Here, we identify SPIN1 (Spindlin 1) as a novel binding partner of human RPL5/uL18 that is important for this pathway. SPIN1 ablation activates p53, suppresses cell growth, reduces clonogenic ability, and induces apoptosis of human cancer cells. Mechanistically, SPIN1 sequesters uL18 in the nucleolus, preventing it from interacting with MDM2, and thereby alleviating uL18-mediated inhibition of MDM2 ubiquitin ligase activity toward p53. SPIN1 deficiency increases ribosome-free uL18 and uL5 (human RPL11), which are required for SPIN1 depletion-induced p53 activation. Analysis of cancer genomic databases suggests that SPIN1 is highly expressed in several human cancers, and its overexpression is positively correlated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. Altogether, our findings reveal that the oncogenic property of SPIN1 may be attributed to its negative regulation of uL18, leading to p53 inactivation.

Funding information:
  • National Institutes of Health - 2G12MD007595()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01CA095441()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01CA127724()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01CA172468()
  • National Institutes of Health - R21 CA201889()
  • National Institutes of Health - R21CA190775()
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA89194(United States)

A compartmentalized signaling network mediates crossover control in meiosis.

  • Zhang L
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 9

Literature context:


Abstract:

During meiosis, each pair of homologous chromosomes typically undergoes at least one crossover (crossover assurance), but these exchanges are strictly limited in number and widely spaced along chromosomes (crossover interference). The molecular basis for this chromosome-wide regulation remains mysterious. A family of meiotic RING finger proteins has been implicated in crossover regulation across eukaryotes. Caenorhabditis elegans expresses four such proteins, of which one (ZHP-3) is known to be required for crossovers. Here we investigate the functions of ZHP-1, ZHP-2, and ZHP-4. We find that all four ZHP proteins, like their homologs in other species, localize to the synaptonemal complex, an unusual, liquid crystalline compartment that assembles between paired homologs. Together they promote accumulation of pro-crossover factors, including ZHP-3 and ZHP-4, at a single recombination intermediate, thereby patterning exchanges along paired chromosomes. These proteins also act at the top of a hierarchical, symmetry-breaking process that enables crossovers to direct accurate chromosome segregation.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - R56MH082068(United States)
  • National Institute of General Medical Sciences - GM065591()
  • National Institutes of Health - P40 OD010440()

Tumor-Repopulating Cells Induce PD-1 Expression in CD8+ T Cells by Transferring Kynurenine and AhR Activation.

  • Liu Y
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Despite the clinical successes fostered by immune checkpoint inhibitors, mechanisms underlying PD-1 upregulation in tumor-infiltrating T cells remain an enigma. Here, we show that tumor-repopulating cells (TRCs) drive PD-1 upregulation in CD8+ T cells through a transcellular kynurenine (Kyn)-aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Interferon-γ produced by CD8+ T cells stimulates release of high levels of Kyn produced by TRCs, which is transferred into adjacent CD8+ T cells via the transporters SLC7A8 and PAT4. Kyn induces and activates AhR and thereby upregulates PD-1 expression. This Kyn-AhR pathway is confirmed in both tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients and its blockade enhances antitumor adoptive T cell therapy efficacy. Thus, we uncovered a mechanism of PD-1 upregulation with potential tumor immunotherapeutic applications.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F32 DK076443(United States)

ICE1 promotes the link between splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.

  • Baird TD
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway detects aberrant transcripts containing premature termination codons (PTCs) and regulates expression of 5-10% of non-aberrant human mRNAs. To date, most proteins involved in NMD have been identified by genetic screens in model organisms; however, the increased complexity of gene expression regulation in human cells suggests that additional proteins may participate in the human NMD pathway. To identify proteins required for NMD, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen against >21,000 genes. Canonical members of the NMD pathway were highly enriched as top hits in the siRNA screen, along with numerous candidate NMD factors, including the conserved ICE1/KIAA0947 protein. RNAseq studies reveal that depletion of ICE1 globally enhances accumulation and stability of NMD-target mRNAs. Further, our data suggest that ICE1 uses a putative MIF4G domain to interact with exon junction complex (EJC) proteins and promotes the association of the NMD protein UPF3B with the EJC.

Funding information:
  • National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences - Intramural Research Program()
  • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute - Intramural Research Program()
  • NIA NIH HHS - T32AG000222-17(United States)

A Non-canonical BCOR-PRC1.1 Complex Represses Differentiation Programs in Human ESCs.

  • Wang Z
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Polycomb group proteins regulate self-renewal and differentiation in many stem cell systems. When assembled into two canonical complexes, PRC1 and PRC2, they sequentially deposit H3K27me3 and H2AK119ub histone marks and establish repressive chromatin, referred to as Polycomb domains. Non-canonical PRC1 complexes retain RING1/RNF2 E3-ubiquitin ligases but have unique sets of accessory subunits. How these non-canonical complexes recognize and regulate their gene targets remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the BCL6 co-repressor (BCOR), a member of the PRC1.1 complex, is critical for maintaining primed pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). BCOR depletion leads to the erosion of Polycomb domains at key developmental loci and the initiation of differentiation along endoderm and mesoderm lineages. The C terminus of BCOR regulates the assembly and targeting of the PRC1.1 complex, while the N terminus contributes to BCOR-PRC1.1 repressor function. Our findings advance understanding of Polycomb targeting and repression in ESCs and could apply broadly across developmental systems.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA071540()
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR027990()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R01 HD084459()
  • NIDCR NIH HHS - R01DE01461301(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM105772()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM107092()

Arabidopsis ARGONAUTE 1 Binds Chromatin to Promote Gene Transcription in Response to Hormones and Stresses.

  • Liu C
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Conventional RNA interference (RNAi) pathways suppress eukaryotic gene expression at the transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. At the core of RNAi are small RNAs (sRNAs) and effector Argonaute (AGO) proteins. Arabidopsis AGO1 is known to bind microRNAs (miRNAs) and post-transcriptionally repress target genes in the cytoplasm. Here, we report that AGO1 also binds to the chromatin of active genes and promotes their transcription. We show that sRNAs and SWI/SNF complexes associate with nuclear AGO1 and are required for AGO1 binding to chromatin. Moreover, we show that various stimuli, including plant hormones and stresses, specifically trigger AGO1 binding to stimulus-responsive genes. Finally, we show that AGO1 facilitates the induction of genes in jasmonate (JA) signaling pathways and the activation of JA responses. Our findings suggest that, by binding and facilitating the expression of stimuli-specific genes, AGO1 may regulate diverse signaling pathways and associated biological processes.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - (United States)

As Extracellular Glutamine Levels Decline, Asparagine Becomes an Essential Amino Acid.

  • Pavlova NN
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Feb 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

When mammalian cells are deprived of glutamine, exogenous asparagine rescues cell survival and growth. Here we report that this rescue results from use of asparagine in protein synthesis. All mammalian cell lines tested lacked cytosolic asparaginase activity and could not utilize asparagine to produce other amino acids or biosynthetic intermediates. Instead, most glutamine-deprived cell lines are capable of sufficient glutamine synthesis to maintain essential amino acid uptake and production of glutamine-dependent biosynthetic precursors, with the exception of asparagine. While experimental introduction of cytosolic asparaginase could enhance the synthesis of glutamine and increase tricarboxylic acid cycle anaplerosis and the synthesis of nucleotide precursors, cytosolic asparaginase suppressed the growth and survival of cells in glutamine-depleted medium in vitro and severely compromised the in vivo growth of tumor xenografts. These results suggest that the lack of asparaginase activity represents an evolutionary adaptation to allow mammalian cells to survive pathophysiologic variations in extracellular glutamine.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA008748()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI091457(United States)

Nuclear Receptor Nur77 Facilitates Melanoma Cell Survival under Metabolic Stress by Protecting Fatty Acid Oxidation.

  • Li XX
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is crucial for cells to overcome metabolic stress by providing ATP and NADPH. However, the mechanism by which FAO is regulated in tumors remains elusive. Here we show that Nur77 is required for the metabolic adaptation of melanoma cells by protecting FAO. Glucose deprivation activates ERK2 to phosphorylate and induce Nur77 translocation to the mitochondria, where Nur77 binds to TPβ, a rate-limiting enzyme in FAO. Although TPβ activity is normally inhibited by oxidation under glucose deprivation, the Nur77-TPβ association results in Nur77 self-sacrifice to protect TPβ from oxidation. FAO is therefore able to maintain NADPH and ATP levels and prevent ROS increase and cell death. The Nur77-TPβ interaction further promotes melanoma metastasis by facilitating circulating melanoma cell survival. This study demonstrates a novel regulatory function of Nur77 with linkage of the FAO-NADPH-ROS pathway during metabolic stress, suggesting Nur77 as a potential therapeutic target in melanoma.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR052785(United States)

A Metabolic Basis for Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.

  • Xiong J
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is a cellular process often initiated by the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of ligands. Although required for normal heart valve development, deregulated EndoMT is linked to a wide range of pathological conditions. Here, we demonstrate that endothelial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is a critical in vitro and in vivo regulator of EndoMT. We further show that this FAO-dependent metabolic regulation of EndoMT occurs through alterations in intracellular acetyl-CoA levels. Disruption of FAO via conditional deletion of endothelial carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (Cpt2E-KO) augments the magnitude of embryonic EndoMT, resulting in thickening of cardiac valves. Consistent with the known pathological effects of EndoMT, adult Cpt2E-KO mice demonstrate increased permeability in multiple vascular beds. Taken together, these results demonstrate that endothelial FAO is required to maintain endothelial cell fate and that therapeutic manipulation of endothelial metabolism could provide the basis for treating a growing number of EndoMT-linked pathological conditions.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 HL005012-11()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - K08 HL121174()
  • NIA NIH HHS - P30 AG024827()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - T32 DK007052()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - GM084445(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS072241()

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 VP22 Inhibits AIM2-Dependent Inflammasome Activation to Enable Efficient Viral Replication.

  • Maruzuru Y
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Feb 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

The AIM2 inflammasome is activated by DNA, leading to caspase-1 activation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18, which are critical mediators in host innate immune responses against various pathogens. Some viruses employ strategies to counteract inflammasome-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but their in vivo relevance is less well understood. Here we show that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) tegument protein VP22 inhibits AIM2-dependent inflammasome activation. VP22 interacts with AIM2 and prevents its oligomerization, an initial step in AIM2 inflammasome activation. A mutant virus lacking VP22 (HSV-1ΔVP22) activates AIM2 and induces IL-1β and IL-18 secretion, but these responses are lost in the absence of AIM2. Additionally, HSV-1ΔVP22 infection results in diminished viral yields in vivo, but HSV-1ΔVP22 replication is largely restored in AIM2-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings reveal a mechanism of HSV-1 evasion of the host immune response that enables efficient viral replication in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA89520(United States)

The InR/Akt/TORC1 Growth-Promoting Signaling Negatively Regulates JAK/STAT Activity and Migratory Cell Fate during Morphogenesis.

  • Kang D
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cell growth and cell differentiation are two distinct yet coupled developmental processes, but how they are coordinated is not well understood. During Drosophila oogenesis, we found that the growth-promoting InR/Akt/TOR pathway was involved in suppressing the fate determination of the migratory border cells. The InR/Akt/TOR pathway signals through TOR and Raptor, components of TORC1, to downregulate the JAK/STAT pathway, which is necessary and sufficient for border cell fate determination. TORC1 promotes the protein stability of SOCS36E, the conserved negative regulator of JAK/STAT signaling, through physical interaction, suggesting that TORC1 acts as a key regulator coordinating both cell growth and cell differentiation.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - (Canada)

The Resource Identification Initiative: a cultural shift in publishing.

  • Bandrowski A
  • Brain Behav
  • 2018 Feb 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

A central tenet in support of research reproducibility is the ability to uniquely identify research resources, that is, reagents, tools, and materials that are used to perform experiments. However, current reporting practices for research resources are insufficient to identify the exact resources that are reported or to answer basic questions such as "How did other studies use resource X?" To address this issue, the Resource Identification Initiative was launched as a pilot project to improve the reporting standards for research resources in the methods sections of papers and thereby improve identifiability and scientific reproducibility. The pilot engaged over 25 biomedical journal editors from most major publishers, as well as scientists and funding officials. Authors were asked to include Research Resource Identifiers (RRIDs) in their manuscripts prior to publication for three resource types: antibodies, model organisms, and tools (i.e., software and databases). RRIDs are assigned by an authoritative database, for example, a model organism database for each type of resource. To make it easier for authors to obtain RRIDs, resources were aggregated from the appropriate databases and their RRIDs made available in a central web portal ( http://scicrunch.org/resources). RRIDs meet three key criteria: they are machine readable, free to generate and access, and are consistent across publishers and journals. The pilot was launched in February of 2014 and over 300 papers have appeared that report RRIDs. The number of journals participating has expanded from the original 25 to more than 40 with RRIDs appearing in 62 different journals to date. Here, we present an overview of the pilot project and its outcomes to date. We show that authors are able to identify resources and are supportive of the goals of the project. Identifiability of the resources post-pilot showed a dramatic improvement for all three resource types, suggesting that the project has had a significant impact on identifiability of research resources.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY026065(United States)

A Multiplex Enzymatic Machinery for Cellular Protein S-nitrosylation.

  • Seth D
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

S-nitrosylation, the oxidative modification of Cys residues by nitric oxide (NO) to form S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), modifies all main classes of proteins and provides a fundamental redox-based cellular signaling mechanism. However, in contrast to other post-translational protein modifications, S-nitrosylation is generally considered to be non-enzymatic, involving multiple chemical routes. We report here that endogenous protein S-nitrosylation in the model organism E. coli depends principally upon the enzymatic activity of the hybrid cluster protein Hcp, employing NO produced by nitrate reductase. Anaerobiosis on nitrate induces both Hcp and nitrate reductase, thereby resulting in the S-nitrosylation-dependent assembly of a large interactome including enzymes that generate NO (NO synthase), synthesize SNO-proteins (SNO synthase), and propagate SNO-based signaling (trans-nitrosylases) to regulate cell motility and metabolism. Thus, protein S-nitrosylation by NO in E. coli is essentially enzymatic, and the potential generality of the multiplex enzymatic mechanism that we describe may support a re-conceptualization of NO-based cellular signaling.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - HL086555(United States)

Identification of PNG kinase substrates uncovers interactions with the translational repressor TRAL in the oocyte-to-embryo transition.

  • Hara M
  • Elife
  • 2018 Feb 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Drosophila Pan Gu (PNG) kinase complex regulates hundreds of maternal mRNAs that become translationally repressed or activated as the oocyte transitions to an embryo. In a previous paper (Hara et al., 2017), we demonstrated PNG activity is under tight developmental control and restricted to this transition. Here, examination of PNG specificity showed it to be a Thr-kinase yet lacking a clear phosphorylation site consensus sequence. An unbiased biochemical screen for PNG substrates identified the conserved translational repressor Trailer Hitch (TRAL). Phosphomimetic mutation of the PNG phospho-sites in TRAL reduced its ability to inhibit translation in vitro. In vivo, mutation of tral dominantly suppressed png mutants and restored Cyclin B protein levels. The repressor Pumilio (PUM) has the same relationship with PNG, and we also show that PUM is a PNG substrate. Furthermore, PNG can phosphorylate BICC and ME31B, repressors that bind TRAL in cytoplasmic RNPs. Therefore, PNG likely promotes translation at the oocyte-to-embryo transition by phosphorylating and inactivating translational repressors.

Funding information:
  • Canadian Institutes of Health Research - MOP7770(Canada)
  • National Institutes of Health - GM104047()
  • National Institutes of Health - GM118090()
  • National Institutes of Health - GM39341()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM039341()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM118098()

R-2HG Exhibits Anti-tumor Activity by Targeting FTO/m6A/MYC/CEBPA Signaling.

  • Su R
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jan 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG), produced at high levels by mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) enzymes, was reported as an oncometabolite. We show here that R-2HG also exerts a broad anti-leukemic activity in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting leukemia cell proliferation/viability and by promoting cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Mechanistically, R-2HG inhibits fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) activity, thereby increasing global N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification in R-2HG-sensitive leukemia cells, which in turn decreases the stability of MYC/CEBPA transcripts, leading to the suppression of relevant pathways. Ectopically expressed mutant IDH1 and S-2HG recapitulate the effects of R-2HG. High levels of FTO sensitize leukemic cells to R-2HG, whereas hyperactivation of MYC signaling confers resistance that can be reversed by the inhibition of MYC signaling. R-2HG also displays anti-tumor activity in glioma. Collectively, while R-2HG accumulated in IDH1/2 mutant cancers contributes to cancer initiation, our work demonstrates anti-tumor effects of 2HG in inhibiting proliferation/survival of FTO-high cancer cells via targeting FTO/m6A/MYC/CEBPA signaling.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA178454()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA182528()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA211614()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA214965()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R50 CA211404()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - RM1 HG008935()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - NIH R01 GM087650(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM071440()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS089815()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS100077()

Hypoxic Induction of Vasorin Regulates Notch1 Turnover to Maintain Glioma Stem-like Cells.

  • Man J
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jan 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tumor hypoxia is associated with poor patient survival and is a characteristic of glioblastoma. Notch signaling is implicated in maintaining glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) within the hypoxic niche, although the molecular mechanisms linking hypoxia to Notch activation have not been clearly delineated. Here we show that Vasorin is a critical link between hypoxia and Notch signaling in GSCs. Vasorin is preferentially induced in GSCs by a HIF1α/STAT3 co-activator complex and stabilizes Notch1 protein at the cell membrane. This interaction prevents Numb from binding Notch1, rescuing it from Numb-mediated lysosomal degradation. Thus, Vasorin acts as a switch to augment Notch signaling under hypoxic conditions. Vasorin promotes tumor growth and reduces survival in mouse models of glioblastoma, and its expression correlates with increased aggression of human gliomas. These findings provide mechanistic insights into how hypoxia promotes Notch signaling in glioma and identify Vasorin as a potential therapeutic target.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA184090()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM102491(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS091080()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS092641()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS094199()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS099175()

Lipid Homeostasis Is Maintained by Dual Targeting of the Mitochondrial PE Biosynthesis Enzyme to the ER.

  • Friedman JR
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jan 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spatial organization of phospholipid synthesis in eukaryotes is critical for cellular homeostasis. The synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC), the most abundant cellular phospholipid, occurs redundantly via the ER-localized Kennedy pathway and a pathway that traverses the ER and mitochondria via membrane contact sites. The basis of the ER-mitochondrial PC synthesis pathway is the exclusive mitochondrial localization of a key pathway enzyme, phosphatidylserine decarboxylase Psd1, which generates phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). We find that Psd1 is localized to both mitochondria and the ER. Our data indicate that Psd1-dependent PE made at mitochondria and the ER has separable cellular functions. In addition, the relative organellar localization of Psd1 is dynamically modulated based on metabolic needs. These data reveal a critical role for ER-localized Psd1 in cellular phospholipid homeostasis, question the significance of an ER-mitochondrial PC synthesis pathway to cellular phospholipid homeostasis, and establish the importance of fine spatial regulation of lipid biosynthesis for cellular functions.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z01 HL005101-04(United States)

Lessons in PROTAC Design from Selective Degradation with a Promiscuous Warhead.

  • Bondeson DP
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2018 Jan 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inhibiting protein function selectively is a major goal of modern drug discovery. Here, we report a previously understudied benefit of small molecule proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) that recruit E3 ubiquitin ligases to target proteins for their ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-mediated degradation. Using promiscuous CRBN- and VHL-recruiting PROTACs that bind >50 kinases, we show that only a subset of bound targets is degraded. The basis of this selectivity relies on protein-protein interactions between the E3 ubiquitin ligase and the target protein, as illustrated by engaged proteins that are not degraded as a result of unstable ternary complexes with PROTAC-recruited E3 ligases. In contrast, weak PROTAC:target protein affinity can be stabilized by high-affinity target:PROTAC:ligase trimer interactions, leading to efficient degradation. This study highlights design guidelines for generating potent PROTACs as well as possibilities for degrading undruggable proteins immune to traditional small-molecule inhibitors.

Nuclear localization of EIF4G3 suggests a role for the XY body in translational regulation during spermatogenesis in mice.

  • Hu J
  • Biol. Reprod.
  • 2018 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (EIF4G) is an important scaffold protein in the translation initiation complex. In mice, mutation of the Eif4g3 gene causes male infertility, with arrest of meiosis at the end of meiotic prophase. This study documents features of the developmental expression and subcellular localization of EIF4G3 that might contribute to its highly specific role in meiosis and spermatogenesis. Quite unexpectedly, EIF4G3 is located in the nucleus of spermatocytes, where it is highly enriched in the XY body, the chromatin domain formed by the transcriptionally inactive sex chromosomes. Moreover, many other, but not all, translation-related proteins are also localized in the XY body. These unanticipated observations implicate roles for the XY body in controlling mRNA metabolism and/or "poising" protein translation complexes before the meiotic division phase in spermatocytes.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_UU_12012/5(United Kingdom)

Engineered Multivalent Sensors to Detect Coexisting Histone Modifications in Living Stem Cells.

  • Delachat AM
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2018 Jan 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

The regulation of fundamental processes such as gene expression or cell differentiation involves chromatin states, demarcated by combinatorial histone post-translational modification (PTM) patterns. The subnuclear organization and dynamics of chromatin states is not well understood, as tools for their detection and modulation in live cells are lacking. Here, we report the development of genetically encoded chromatin-sensing multivalent probes, cMAPs, selective for bivalent chromatin, a PTM pattern associated with pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). cMAPs were engineered from a set of PTM-binding (reader) proteins and optimized using synthetic nucleosomes carrying defined PTMs. Applied in live ESCs, cMAPs formed discrete subnuclear foci, revealing the organization of bivalent chromatin into local clusters. Moreover, cMAPs enabled direct monitoring of the loss of bivalency upon treatment with small-molecule epigenetic modulators. cMAPs thus provide a versatile platform to monitor chromatin state dynamics in live cells.

Funding information:
  • PHS HHS - P60-05130(United States)

Dissection of affinity captured LINE-1 macromolecular complexes.

  • Taylor MS
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jan 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 (LINE-1, L1) is a mobile genetic element active in human genomes. L1-encoded ORF1 and ORF2 proteins bind L1 RNAs, forming ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). These RNPs interact with diverse host proteins, some repressive and others required for the L1 lifecycle. Using differential affinity purifications, quantitative mass spectrometry, and next generation RNA sequencing, we have characterized the proteins and nucleic acids associated with distinctive, enzymatically active L1 macromolecular complexes. Among them, we describe a cytoplasmic intermediate that we hypothesize to be the canonical ORF1p/ORF2p/L1-RNA-containing RNP, and we describe a nuclear population containing ORF2p, but lacking ORF1p, which likely contains host factors participating in target-primed reverse transcription.

Funding information:
  • National Institutes of Health - P41GM103314()
  • National Institutes of Health - P41GM109824()
  • National Institutes of Health - P50GM107632()
  • National Institutes of Health - R01GM126170()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P41 GM103314()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P41 GM109824()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P50 GM107632()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM126170()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U54 NS048843(United States)

N6-Methyladenosines Modulate A-to-I RNA Editing.

  • Xiang JF
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jan 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) and adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing are two of the most abundant RNA modifications, both at adenosines. Yet, the interaction of these two types of adenosine modifications is largely unknown. Here we show a global A-to-I difference between m6A-positive and m6A-negative RNA populations. Both the presence and extent of A-to-I sites in m6A-negative RNA transcripts suggest a negative correlation between m6A and A-to-I. Suppression of m6A-catalyzing enzymes results in global A-to-I RNA editing changes. Further depletion of m6A modification increases the association of m6A-depleted transcripts with adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, resulting in upregulated A-to-I editing on the same m6A-depleted transcripts. Collectively, the effect of m6A on A-to-I suggests a previously underappreciated interplay between two distinct and abundant RNA modifications, highlighting a complex epitranscriptomic landscape.

A Distinct Class of Genome Rearrangements Driven by Heterologous Recombination.

  • León-Ortiz AM
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jan 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Erroneous DNA repair by heterologous recombination (Ht-REC) is a potential threat to genome stability, but evidence supporting its prevalence is lacking. Here we demonstrate that recombination is possible between heterologous sequences and that it is a source of chromosomal alterations in mitotic and meiotic cells. Mechanistically, we find that the RTEL1 and HIM-6/BLM helicases and the BRCA1 homolog BRC-1 counteract Ht-REC in Caenorhabditis elegans, whereas mismatch repair does not. Instead, MSH-2/6 drives Ht-REC events in rtel-1 and brc-1 mutants and excessive crossovers in rtel-1 mutant meioses. Loss of vertebrate Rtel1 also causes a variety of unusually large and complex structural variations, including chromothripsis, breakage-fusion-bridge events, and tandem duplications with distant intra-chromosomal insertions, whose structure are consistent with a role for RTEL1 in preventing Ht-REC during break-induced replication. Our data establish Ht-REC as an unappreciated source of genome instability that underpins a novel class of complex genome rearrangements that likely arise during replication stress.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS054221(United States)

A Map of Human Mitochondrial Protein Interactions Linked to Neurodegeneration Reveals New Mechanisms of Redox Homeostasis and NF-κB Signaling.

  • Malty RH
  • Cell Syst
  • 2017 Dec 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mitochondrial protein (MP) dysfunction has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders (NDs); however, the discovery of the molecular mechanisms underlying NDs has been impeded by the limited characterization of interactions governing MP function. Here, using mass spectrometry (MS)-based analysis of 210 affinity-purified mitochondrial (mt) fractions isolated from 27 epitope-tagged human ND-linked MPs in HEK293 cells, we report a high-confidence MP network including 1,964 interactions among 772 proteins (>90% previously unreported). Nearly three-fourths of these interactions were confirmed in mouse brain and multiple human differentiated neuronal cell lines by primary antibody immunoprecipitation and MS, with many linked to NDs and autism. We show that the SOD1-PRDX5 interaction, critical for mt redox homeostasis, can be perturbed by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked SOD1 allelic variants and establish a functional role for ND-linked factors coupled with IκBɛ in NF-κB activation. Our results identify mechanisms for ND-linked MPs and expand the human mt interaction landscape.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM106019()

Exendin-4, a Glucagonlike Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist, Attenuates Breast Cancer Growth by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation.

  • Iwaya C
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Incretin therapies have received much attention because of their tissue-protective effects, which extend beyond those associated with glycemic control. Cancer is a primary cause of death in patients who have diabetes mellitus. We previously reported antiprostate cancer effects of the glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4). Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in female patients who have type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Thus, we examined whether GLP-1 action could attenuate breast cancer. GLP-1R was expressed in human breast cancer tissue and MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and KPL-1 cell lines. We found that 0.1 to 10 nM Ex-4 significantly decreased the number of breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Although Ex-4 did not induce apoptosis, it attenuated breast cancer cell proliferation significantly and dose-dependently. However, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin did not affect breast cancer cell proliferation. When MCF-7 cells were transplanted into athymic mice, Ex-4 decreased MCF-7 tumor size in vivo. Ki67 immunohistochemistry revealed that breast cancer cell proliferation was significantly reduced in tumors extracted from Ex-4-treated mice. In MCF-7 cells, Ex-4 significantly inhibited nuclear factor κB (NF-κB ) nuclear translocation and target gene expression. Furthermore, Ex-4 decreased both Akt and IκB phosphorylation. These results suggest that GLP-1 could attenuate breast cancer cell proliferation via activation of GLP-1R and subsequent inhibition of NF-κB activation.

Funding information:
  • The Dunhill Medical Trust - R302/0713(United Kingdom)

A picorna-like virus suppresses the N-end rule pathway to inhibit apoptosis.

  • Wang Z
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The N-end rule pathway is an evolutionarily conserved proteolytic system that degrades proteins containing N-terminal degradation signals called N-degrons, and has emerged as a key regulator of various processes. Viruses manipulate diverse host pathways to facilitate viral replication and evade antiviral defenses. However, it remains unclear if viral infection has any impact on the N-end rule pathway. Here, using a picorna-like virus as a model, we found that viral infection promoted the accumulation of caspase-cleaved Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (DIAP1) by inducing the degradation of N-terminal amidohydrolase 1 (NTAN1), a key N-end rule component that identifies N-degron to initiate the process. The virus-induced NTAN1 degradation is independent of polyubiquitylation but dependent on proteasome. Furthermore, the virus-induced N-end rule pathway suppression inhibits apoptosis and benefits viral replication. Thus, our findings demonstrate that a virus can suppress the N-end rule pathway, and uncover a new mechanism for virus to evade apoptosis.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - AA017288(United States)

Neuropilin-2/PlexinA3 Receptors Associate with GluA1 and Mediate Sema3F-Dependent Homeostatic Scaling in Cortical Neurons.

  • Wang Q
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Dec 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Regulation of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) number at synapses is a major mechanism for controlling synaptic strength during homeostatic scaling in response to global changes in neural activity. We show that the secreted guidance cue semaphorin 3F (Sema3F) and its neuropilin-2 (Npn-2)/plexinA3 (PlexA3) holoreceptor mediate homeostatic plasticity in cortical neurons. Sema3F-Npn-2/PlexA3 signaling is essential for cell surface AMPAR homeostatic downscaling in response to an increase in neuronal activity, Npn-2 associates with AMPARs, and Sema3F regulates this interaction. Therefore, Sema3F-Npn-2/PlexA3 signaling controls both synapse development and synaptic plasticity.

Paxillin facilitates timely neurite initiation on soft-substrate environments by interacting with the endocytic machinery.

  • Chang TY
  • Elife
  • 2017 Dec 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neurite initiation is the first step in neuronal development and occurs spontaneously in soft tissue environments. Although the mechanisms regulating the morphology of migratory cells on rigid substrates in cell culture are widely known, how soft environments modulate neurite initiation remains elusive. Using hydrogel cultures, pharmacologic inhibition, and genetic approaches, we reveal that paxillin-linked endocytosis and adhesion are components of a bistable switch controlling neurite initiation in a substrate modulus-dependent manner. On soft substrates, most paxillin binds to endocytic factors and facilitates vesicle invagination, elevating neuritogenic Rac1 activity and expression of genes encoding the endocytic machinery. By contrast, on rigid substrates, cells develop extensive adhesions, increase RhoA activity and sequester paxillin from the endocytic machinery, thereby delaying neurite initiation. Our results highlight paxillin as a core molecule in substrate modulus-controlled morphogenesis and define a mechanism whereby neuronal cells respond to environments exhibiting varying mechanical properties.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI030914(United States)

A J-Protein Co-chaperone Recruits BiP to Monomerize IRE1 and Repress the Unfolded Protein Response.

  • Amin-Wetzel N
  • Cell
  • 2017 Dec 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

When unfolded proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the unfolded protein response (UPR) increases ER-protein-folding capacity to restore protein-folding homeostasis. Unfolded proteins activate UPR signaling across the ER membrane to the nucleus by promoting oligomerization of IRE1, a conserved transmembrane ER stress receptor. However, the coupling of ER stress to IRE1 oligomerization and activation has remained obscure. Here, we report that the ER luminal co-chaperone ERdj4/DNAJB9 is a selective IRE1 repressor that promotes a complex between the luminal Hsp70 BiP and the luminal stress-sensing domain of IRE1α (IRE1LD). In vitro, ERdj4 is required for complex formation between BiP and IRE1LD. ERdj4 associates with IRE1LD and recruits BiP through the stimulation of ATP hydrolysis, forcibly disrupting IRE1 dimers. Unfolded proteins compete for BiP and restore IRE1LD to its default, dimeric, and active state. These observations establish BiP and its J domain co-chaperones as key regulators of the UPR.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK-64400(United States)

Genetic Intersection of Tsix and Hedgehog Signaling during the Initiation of X-Chromosome Inactivation.

  • Del Rosario BC
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) silences one X chromosome in the female mammal and is essential to peri-implantation development. XCI is thought to be cell autonomous, with all factors required being produced within each cell. Nevertheless, external cues may exist. Here, we search for such developmental signals by combining bioinformatic, biochemical, and genetic approaches. Using ex vivo and in vivo models, we identify the Hedgehog (HH) paracrine system as a candidate signaling cascade. HH signaling keeps XCI in check in pluripotent cells and is transduced by GLI transcription factors to binding sites in Tsix, the antisense repressor of XCI. GLI potentiates Tsix expression and impedes XCI. In vivo, mutating Indian Hedgehog results in a sex ratio bias against females, and the female lethality is rescued by a second-site mutation in Tsix. These data demonstrate a genetic and functional intersection between HH and XCI and support a role for intercellular signaling during XCI.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 GM058839()
  • Medical Research Council - G0502028(United Kingdom)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R37 GM058839()

The Primate-Specific Gene TMEM14B Marks Outer Radial Glia Cells and Promotes Cortical Expansion and Folding.

  • Liu J
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Nov 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human brain evolution is associated with expansion and folding of the neocortex. Increased diversity in neural progenitor (NP) populations (such as basally located radial glia [RG], which reside in an enlarged outer subventricular zone [OSVZ]) likely contributes to this evolutionary expansion, although their characteristics and relative contributions are only partially understood. Through single-cell transcriptional profiling of sorted human NP subpopulations, we identified the primate-specific TMEM14B gene as a marker of basal RG. Expression of TMEM14B in embryonic NPs induces cortical thickening and gyrification in postnatal mice. This is accompanied by SVZ expansion, the appearance of outer RG-like cells, and the proliferation of multiple NP subsets, with proportional increases in all cortical layers and normal lamination. TMEM14B drives NP proliferation by increasing the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of IQGAP1, which in turn promotes G1/S cell cycle transitions. These data show that a single primate-specific gene can drive neurodevelopmental changes that contribute to brain evolution.

11β-HSD2 SUMOylation Modulates Cortisol-Induced Mineralocorticoid Receptor Nuclear Translocation Independently of Effects on Transactivation.

  • Jiménez-Canino R
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Nov 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) has an essential role in aldosterone target tissues, conferring aldosterone selectivity for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) by converting 11β-hydroxyglucocorticoids to inactive 11-ketosteroids. Congenital deficiency of 11β-HSD2 causes a form of salt-sensitive hypertension known as the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess. The disease phenotype, which ranges from mild to severe, correlates well with reduction in enzyme activity. Furthermore, polymorphisms in the 11β-HSD2 coding gene (HSD11B2) have been linked to high blood pressure and salt sensitivity, major cardiovascular risk factors. 11β-HSD2 expression is controlled by different factors such as cytokines, sex steroids, or vasopressin, but posttranslational modulation of its activity has not been explored. Analysis of 11β-HSD2 sequence revealed a consensus site for conjugation of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) peptide, a major posttranslational regulatory event in several cellular processes. Our results demonstrate that 11β-HSD2 is SUMOylated at lysine 266. Non-SUMOylatable mutant K266R showed slightly higher substrate affinity and decreased Vmax, but no effects on protein stability or subcellular localization. Despite mild changes in enzyme activity, mutant K266R was unable to prevent cortisol-dependent MR nuclear translocation. The same effect was achieved by coexpression of wild-type 11β-HSD2 with sentrin-specific protease 1, a protease that catalyzes SUMO deconjugation. In the presence of 11β-HSD2-K266R, increased nuclear MR localization did not correlate with increased response to cortisol or increased recruitment of transcriptional coregulators. Taken together, our data suggests that SUMOylation of 11β-HSD2 at residue K266 modulates cortisol-mediated MR nuclear translocation independently of effects on transactivation.

Tumor-Suppressor Inactivation of GDF11 Occurs by Precursor Sequestration in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

  • Bajikar SS
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and heterogeneous carcinoma in which various tumor-suppressor genes are lost by mutation, deletion, or silencing. Here we report a tumor-suppressive mode of action for growth-differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) and an unusual mechanism of its inactivation in TNBC. GDF11 promotes an epithelial, anti-invasive phenotype in 3D triple-negative cultures and intraductal xenografts by sustaining expression of E-cadherin and inhibitor of differentiation 2 (ID2). Surprisingly, clinical TNBCs retain the GDF11 locus and expression of the protein itself. GDF11 bioactivity is instead lost because of deficiencies in its convertase, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5), causing inactive GDF11 precursor to accumulate intracellularly. PCSK5 reconstitution mobilizes the latent TNBC reservoir of GDF11 in vitro and suppresses triple-negative mammary cancer metastasis to the lung of syngeneic hosts. Intracellular GDF11 retention adds to the concept of tumor-suppressor inactivation and reveals a cell-biological vulnerability for TNBCs lacking therapeutically actionable mutations.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC011184(United States)

Life-Long Neurogenic Activity of Individual Neural Stem Cells and Continuous Growth Establish an Outside-In Architecture in the Teleost Pallium.

  • Furlan G
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Nov 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spatiotemporal variations of neurogenesis are thought to account for the evolution of brain shape. In the dorsal telencephalon (pallium) of vertebrates, it remains unresolved which ancestral neurogenesis mode prefigures the highly divergent cytoarchitectures that are seen in extant species. To gain insight into this question, we developed genetic tools to generate here the first 4-dimensional (3D + birthdating time) map of pallium construction in the adult teleost zebrafish. Using a Tet-On-based genetic birthdating strategy, we identify a "sequential stacking" construction mode where neurons derived from the zebrafish pallial germinal zone arrange in outside-in, age-related layers from a central core generated during embryogenesis. We obtained no evidence for overt radial or tangential neuronal migrations. Cre-lox-mediated tracing, which included following Brainbow clones, further demonstrates that this process is sustained by the persistent neurogenic activity of individual pallial neural stem cells (NSCs) from embryo to adult. Together, these data demonstrate that the spatiotemporal control of NSC activity is an important driver of the macroarchitecture of the zebrafish adult pallium. This simple mode of pallium construction shares distinct traits with pallial genesis in mammals and non-mammalian amniotes such as birds or reptiles, suggesting that it may exemplify the basal layout from which vertebrate pallial architectures were elaborated.

An Eya1-Notch axis specifies bipotential epibranchial differentiation in mammalian craniofacial morphogenesis.

  • Zhang H
  • Elife
  • 2017 Nov 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Craniofacial morphogenesis requires proper development of pharyngeal arches and epibranchial placodes. We show that the epibranchial placodes, in addition to giving rise to cranial sensory neurons, generate a novel lineage-related non-neuronal cell population for mouse pharyngeal arch development. Eya1 is essential for the development of epibranchial placodes and proximal pharyngeal arches. We identify an Eya1-Notch regulatory axis that specifies both the neuronal and non-neuronal commitment of the epibranchial placode, where Notch acts downstream of Eya1 and promotes the non-neuronal cell fate. Notch is regulated by the threonine phosphatase activity of Eya1. Eya1 dephosphorylates p-threonine-2122 of the Notch1 intracellular domain (Notch1 ICD), which increases the stability of Notch1 ICD and maintains Notch signaling activity in the non-neuronal epibranchial placodal cells. Our data unveil a more complex differentiation program in epibranchial placodes and an important role for the Eya1-Notch axis in craniofacial morphogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - T32 HL007088(United States)

Organelle Specific O-Glycosylation Drives MMP14 Activation, Tumor Growth, and Metastasis.

  • Nguyen AT
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Nov 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cancers grow within tissues through molecular mechanisms still unclear. Invasiveness correlates with perturbed O-glycosylation, a covalent modification of cell-surface proteins. Here, we show that, in human and mouse liver cancers, initiation of O-glycosylation by the GALNT glycosyl-transferases increases and shifts from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In a mouse liver cancer model, expressing an ER-targeted GALNT1 (ER-G1) massively increased tumor expansion, with median survival reduced from 23 to 10 weeks. In vitro cell growth was unaffected, but ER-G1 strongly enabled matrix degradation and tissue invasion. Unlike its Golgi-localized counterpart, ER-G1 glycosylates the matrix metalloproteinase MMP14, a process required for tumor expansion. Together, our results indicate that GALNTs strongly promote liver tumor growth after relocating to the ER.

NOTCH2 Hajdu-Cheney Mutations Escape SCFFBW7-Dependent Proteolysis to Promote Osteoporosis.

  • Fukushima H
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Nov 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HCS), a rare autosomal disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in NOTCH2, is clinically characterized by acro-osteolysis, severe osteoporosis, short stature, neurological symptoms, cardiovascular defects, and polycystic kidneys. Recent studies identified that aberrant NOTCH2 signaling and consequent osteoclast hyperactivity are closely associated with the bone-related disorder pathogenesis, but the exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that sustained osteoclast activity is largely due to accumulation of NOTCH2 carrying a truncated C terminus that escapes FBW7-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. Mice with osteoclast-specific Fbw7 ablation revealed osteoporotic phenotypes reminiscent of HCS, due to elevated Notch2 signaling. Importantly, administration of Notch inhibitors in Fbw7 conditional knockout mice alleviated progressive bone resorption. These findings highlight the molecular basis of HCS pathogenesis and provide clinical insights into potential targeted therapeutic strategies for skeletal disorders associated with the aberrant FBW7/NOTCH2 pathway as observed in patients with HCS.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH086920(United States)

The Glycolytic Pyruvate Kinase Is Recruited Directly into the Viral Replicase Complex to Generate ATP for RNA Synthesis.

  • Chuang C
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Nov 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Viruses accomplish their replication by exploiting many cellular resources, including metabolites and energy. Similarly to other (+)RNA viruses, tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) induces major changes in infected cells. However, the source of energy required to fuel TBSV replication is unknown. We find that TBSV co-opts the cellular glycolytic ATP-generating pyruvate kinase (PK) directly into the viral replicase complex to boost progeny RNA synthesis. The co-opted PK generates high levels of ATP within the viral replication compartment at the expense of a reduction in cytosolic ATP pools. The ATP generated by the co-opted PK is used to promote the helicase activity of recruited cellular DEAD-box helicases, which are involved in the production of excess viral (+)RNA progeny. Altogether, recruitment of PK and local production of ATP within the replication compartment allow the virus replication machinery an access to plentiful ATP, facilitating robust virus replication.

Notch Signaling Controls Transdifferentiation of Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Cells in Response to Lung Injury.

  • Yao E
  • Stem Cells
  • 2017 Nov 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Production of an appropriate number of distinct cell types in precise locations during embryonic development is critical for proper tissue function. Homeostatic renewal or repair of damaged tissues in adults also requires cell expansion and transdifferentiation to replenish lost cells. However, the responses of diverse cell types to tissue injury are not fully elucidated. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying transdifferentiation remain poorly understood. This knowledge is essential for harnessing the regenerative potential of individual cell types. This study investigated the fate of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) following lung damage to understand their plasticity and potential. PNECs are proposed to carry out diverse physiological functions in the lung and can also be the cells of origin of human small cell lung cancer. We found that Notch signaling is activated in proliferating PNECs in response to epithelial injury. Forced induction of high levels of Notch signaling in PNECs in conjunction with lung injury results in extensive proliferation and transdifferentiation of PNECs toward the fate of club cells, ciliated cells and goblet cells. Conversely, inactivating Notch signaling in PNECs abolishes their ability to switch cell fate following lung insult. We also established a connection between PNEC transdifferentiation and epigenetic modification mediated by the polycomb repressive complex 2 and inflammatory responses that involve the IL6-STAT3 pathway. These studies not only reveal a major pathway that controls PNEC fate change following lung injury but also provide tools to uncover the molecular basis of cell proliferation and fate determination in response to lung injury. Stem Cells 2018;36:377-391.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI083450-04(United States)

GBPs Inhibit Motility of Shigella flexneri but Are Targeted for Degradation by the Bacterial Ubiquitin Ligase IpaH9.8.

  • Wandel MP
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Oct 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Interferon exposure boosts cell-autonomous immunity for more efficient pathogen control. But how interferon-enhanced immunity protects the cytosol against bacteria and how professionally cytosol-dwelling bacteria avoid clearance are insufficiently understood. Here we demonstrate that the interferon-induced GTPase family of guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) coats Shigella flexneri in a hierarchical manner reliant on GBP1. GBPs inhibit actin-dependent motility and cell-to-cell spread of bacteria but are antagonized by IpaH9.8, a bacterial ubiquitin ligase secreted into the host cytosol. IpaH9.8 ubiquitylates GBP1, GBP2, and GBP4 to cause the proteasome-dependent destruction of existing GBP coats. This ubiquitin coating of Shigella favors the pathogen as it liberates bacteria from GBP encapsulation to resume actin-mediated motility and cell-to-cell spread. We conclude that an important function of GBP recruitment to S. flexneri is to prevent the spread of infection to neighboring cells while IpaH9.8 helps bacterial propagation by counteracting GBP-dependent cell-autonomous immunity.

Structure of the Dnmt1 Reader Module Complexed with a Unique Two-Mono-Ubiquitin Mark on Histone H3 Reveals the Basis for DNA Methylation Maintenance.

  • Ishiyama S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The proper location and timing of Dnmt1 activation are essential for DNA methylation maintenance. We demonstrate here that Dnmt1 utilizes two-mono-ubiquitylated histone H3 as a unique ubiquitin mark for its recruitment to and activation at DNA methylation sites. The crystal structure of the replication foci targeting sequence (RFTS) of Dnmt1 in complex with H3-K18Ub/23Ub reveals striking differences to the known ubiquitin-recognition structures. The two ubiquitins are simultaneously bound to the RFTS with a combination of canonical hydrophobic and atypical hydrophilic interactions. The C-lobe of RFTS, together with the K23Ub surface, also recognizes the N-terminal tail of H3. The binding of H3-K18Ub/23Ub results in spatial rearrangement of two lobes in the RFTS, suggesting the opening of its active site. Actually, incubation of Dnmt1 with H3-K18Ub/23Ub increases its catalytic activity in vitro. Our results therefore shed light on the essential role of a unique ubiquitin-binding module in DNA methylation maintenance.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - 5R03HD077545(United States)

Slp1-Emp65: A Guardian Factor that Protects Folding Polypeptides from Promiscuous Degradation.

  • Zhang S
  • Cell
  • 2017 Oct 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Newly synthesized proteins engage molecular chaperones that assist folding. Their progress is monitored by quality control systems that target folding errors for degradation. Paradoxically, chaperones that promote folding also direct unfolded polypeptides for degradation. Hence, a mechanism was previously hypothesized that prevents the degradation of actively folding polypeptides. In this study, we show that a conserved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein complex, consisting of Slp1 and Emp65 proteins, performs this function in the ER lumen. The complex binds unfolded proteins and protects them from degradation during folding. In its absence, approximately 20%-30% of newly synthesized proteins that could otherwise fold are degraded. Although the Slp1-Emp65 complex hosts a broad range of clients, it is specific for soluble proteins. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the vulnerability of newly translated, actively folding polypeptides and the discovery of a new proteostasis functional class we term "guardian" that protects them from degradation.

SAGA Is a General Cofactor for RNA Polymerase II Transcription.

  • Baptista T
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prior studies suggested that SAGA and TFIID are alternative factors that promote RNA polymerase II transcription, with about 10% of genes in S. cerevisiae dependent on SAGA. We reassessed the role of SAGA by mapping its genome-wide location and role in global transcription in budding yeast. We find that SAGA maps to the UAS elements of most genes, overlapping with Mediator binding and irrespective of previous designations of SAGA- or TFIID-dominated genes. Disruption of SAGA through mutation or rapid subunit depletion reduces transcription from nearly all genes, measured by newly synthesized RNA. We also find that the acetyltransferase Gcn5 synergizes with Spt3 to promote global transcription and that Spt3 functions to stimulate TBP recruitment at all tested genes. Our data demonstrate that SAGA acts as a general cofactor required for essentially all RNA polymerase II transcription and is not consistent with the previous classification of SAGA- and TFIID-dominated genes.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM053451()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM075114()

Ribosome Collision Is Critical for Quality Control during No-Go Decay.

  • Simms CL
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

No-go decay (NGD) is a eukaryotic quality control mechanism that evolved to cope with translational arrests. The process is characterized by an endonucleolytic cleavage near the stall sequence, but the mechanistic details are unclear. Our analysis of cleavage sites indicates that cleavage requires multiple ribosomes on the mRNA. We also show that reporters harboring stall sequences near the initiation codon, which cannot accommodate multiple ribosomes, are not subject to NGD. Consistent with our model, we uncover an inverse correlation between ribosome density per mRNA and cleavage efficiency. Furthermore, promoting global ribosome collision in vivo resulted in ubiquitination of ribosomal proteins, suggesting that collision is sensed by the cell to initiate downstream quality control processes. Collectively, our data suggest that NGD and subsequent quality control are triggered by ribosome collision. This model provides insight into the regulation of quality control processes and the manner by which they reduce off-target effects.

Site-specific monoubiquitination downregulates Rab5 by disrupting effector binding and guanine nucleotide conversion.

  • Shin D
  • Elife
  • 2017 Oct 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Rab GTPases, which are involved in intracellular trafficking pathways, have recently been reported to be ubiquitinated. However, the functions of ubiquitinated Rab proteins remain unexplored. Here we show that Rab5 is monoubiquitinated on K116, K140, and K165. Upon co-transfection with ubiquitin, Rab5 exhibited abnormalities in endosomal localization and EGF-induced EGF receptor degradation. Rab5 K140R and K165R mutants restored these abnormalities, whereas K116R did not. We derived structural models of individual monoubiquitinated Rab5 proteins (mUbRab5s) by solution scattering and observed different conformational flexibilities in a site-specific manner. Structural analysis combined with biochemical data revealed that interactions with downstream effectors were impeded in mUbRab5K140, whereas GDP release and GTP loading activities were altered in mUbRab5K165. By contrast, mUbRab5K116 apparently had no effect. We propose a regulatory mechanism of Rab5 where monoubiquitination downregulates effector recruitment and GDP/GTP conversion in a site-specific manner.

Conformational Change in the Ligand-Binding Pocket via a KISS1R Mutation (P147L) Leads to Isolated Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Deficiency.

  • Shimizu K
  • J Endocr Soc
  • 2017 Oct 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Context: Kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) is expressed in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and responsible for pubertal onset and reproductive functions. KISS1R mutations remain a rare cause of congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the genetic cause of CHH in a patient and to functionally characterize a KISS1R mutation. Design: The patient was a 47-year-old Japanese man whose parents were first cousins. He lacked secondary sexual characteristics owing to normosmic CHH. Exon segments for the KISS1R gene in this patient were screened for mutations. Functional analyses were performed using HEK293 cells expressing KISS1R mutants. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to compare the ligand-KISS1R mutant complex with those of wild-type KISS1R variants. Results: A homozygous mutation (c.440C>T, p.P147L) in KISS1R was identified. The P147L mutation did not affect either receptor expression level or subcellular localization in the recombinant expression system. Intracellular calcium measurements and cellular dielectric spectroscopy demonstrated that the P147L mutation impaired receptor function to an extent more severe than that of a previously reported L148S mutation. A receptor-ligand binding assay showed the P147L mutation causes a substantial loss of ligand-binding affinity. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed the P147L mutation decreases the contact surface area of the ligand-receptor complex in an expanded ligand-binding pocket. Conclusion: We identified a loss-of-function mutation in KISS1R associated with CHH. Our results demonstrated that the P147L mutation causes a severe phenotype and functional impairment resulting from the loss of ligand-binding affinity due to an expanded ligand-binding pocket.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 097726(United Kingdom)

A Split-Abl Kinase for Direct Activation in Cells.

  • Diaz JE
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

To dissect the cellular roles of individual kinases, it is useful to design tools for their selective activation. We describe the engineering of a split-cAbl kinase (sKin-Abl) that is rapidly activated in cells with rapamycin and allows temporal, dose, and compartmentalization control. Our design strategy involves an empirical screen in mammalian cells and identification of split site in the N lobe. This split site leads to complete loss of activity, which can be restored upon small-molecule-induced dimerization in cells. Remarkably, the split site is transportable to the related Src Tyr kinase and the distantly related Ser/Thr kinase, AKT, suggesting broader applications to kinases. To quantify the fold induction of phosphotyrosine (pTyr) modification, we employed quantitative proteomics, NeuCode SILAC. We identified a number of known Abl substrates, including autophosphorylation sites and novel pTyr targets, 432 pTyr sites in total. We believe that this split-kinase technology will be useful for direct activation of protein kinases in cells.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA191018()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - F32 GM089082()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P41 GM108538()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM097316()
  • NLM NIH HHS - T15 LM007359()

Epigenetic control of early neurodegenerative events in diabetic retinopathy by the histone deacetylase SIRT6.

  • Zorrilla-Zubilete MA
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the common complications associated with diabetes mellitus and the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Recent research has demonstrated that DR is not only a microvascular disease but may be a result of neurodegenerative processes. Moreover, glucose-induced neuron and glial cell damage may occur shortly after the onset of diabetes which makes the disease hard to diagnose at early stages. SIRT6, a NAD-dependent sirtuin deacylase, modulates aging, energy metabolism, and neurodegeneration. In previous studies we showed that SIRT6 deficiency causes major retinal transmission defects, changes in the expression of glycolytic genes, and elevated levels of apoptosis. Given the importance of glucose availability for retinal function and the critical role of SIRT6 in modulating glycolysis, we aimed to analyze SIRT6 participation in the molecular machinery that regulates the development of experimental DR. Using non-obese diabetic mice, we determined by western blot that 2 weeks after the onset of the disease, high glucose concentrations induced retinal increase in a neovascularization promoting factor (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF), and the loss of a neuroprotective factor (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF) associated with reduced levels of SIRT6 and increased acetylation levels of its substrates (H3K9 and H3K56) suggesting a deregulation of key neural factors. Noteworthy, retinas from CNS conditionally deleted SIRT6 mice showed a resemblance to diabetic retinas exhibiting lower protein levels of BDNF factor and increased protein levels of VEGF. Moreover, cultured Müller glial cells subjected to high glucose concentrations exhibited decreased levels of SIRT6 and increased levels of H3K56 acetylation. In addition, the increment of VEGF levels induced by high glucose was reverted by the over-expression of SIRT6 in this cell type. Accordingly, siRNA experiments showed that, when SIRT6 was silenced, VEGF levels increased. Our findings suggest that epigenetically regulated neurodegenerative events may occur at an early diabetic stage prior to the characteristic proliferative and vascular changes observed at a later diabetic stage.

Checkpoint Kinase Rad53 Couples Leading- and Lagging-Strand DNA Synthesis under Replication Stress.

  • Gan H
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The checkpoint kinase Rad53 is activated during replication stress to prevent fork collapse, an essential but poorly understood process. Here we show that Rad53 couples leading- and lagging-strand synthesis under replication stress. In rad53-1 cells stressed by dNTP depletion, the replicative DNA helicase, MCM, and the leading-strand DNA polymerase, Pol ε, move beyond the site of DNA synthesis, likely unwinding template DNA. Remarkably, DNA synthesis progresses further along the lagging strand than the leading strand, resulting in the exposure of long stretches of single-stranded leading-strand template. The asymmetric DNA synthesis in rad53-1 cells is suppressed by elevated levels of dNTPs in vivo, and the activity of Pol ε is compromised more than lagging-strand polymerase Pol δ at low dNTP concentrations in vitro. Therefore, we propose that Rad53 prevents the generation of excessive ssDNA under replication stress by coordinating DNA unwinding with synthesis of both strands.

Multiplex Enhancer Interference Reveals Collaborative Control of Gene Regulation by Estrogen Receptor α-Bound Enhancers.

  • Carleton JB
  • Cell Syst
  • 2017 Oct 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Multiple regulatory regions have the potential to regulate a single gene, yet how these elements combine to affect gene expression remains unclear. To uncover the combinatorial relationships between enhancers, we developed Enhancer-interference (Enhancer-i), a CRISPR interference-based approach that uses 2 different repressive domains, KRAB and SID, to prevent enhancer activation simultaneously at multiple regulatory regions. We applied Enhancer-i to promoter-distal estrogen receptor α binding sites (ERBS), which cluster around estradiol-responsive genes and therefore may collaborate to regulate gene expression. Targeting individual sites revealed predominant ERBS that are completely required for the transcriptional response, indicating a lack of redundancy. Simultaneous interference of different ERBS combinations identified supportive ERBS that contribute only when predominant sites are active. Using mathematical modeling, we find strong evidence for collaboration between predominant and supportive ERBS. Overall, our findings expose a complex functional hierarchy of enhancers, where multiple loci bound by the same transcription factor combine to fine-tune the expression of target genes.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA042014()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R00 HG006922()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - R01 HG008974()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007464()

ASF1a Promotes Non-homologous End Joining Repair by Facilitating Phosphorylation of MDC1 by ATM at Double-Strand Breaks.

  • Lee KY
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Oct 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Double-strand breaks (DSBs) of DNA in eukaryotic cells are predominantly repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The histone chaperone anti-silencing factor 1a (ASF1a) interacts with MDC1 and is recruited to sites of DSBs to facilitate the interaction of phospho-ATM with MDC1 and phosphorylation of MDC1, which are required for the recruitment of RNF8/RNF168 histone ubiquitin ligases. Thus, ASF1a deficiency reduces histone ubiquitination at DSBs, decreasing the recruitment of 53BP1, and decreases NHEJ, rendering cells more sensitive to DSBs. This role of ASF1a in DSB repair cannot be provided by the closely related ASF1b and does not require its histone chaperone activity. Homozygous deletion of ASF1A is seen in 10%-15% of certain cancers, suggesting that loss of NHEJ may be selected in some malignancies and that the deletion can be used as a molecular biomarker for cancers susceptible to radiotherapy or to DSB-inducing chemotherapy.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA044579()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA060499()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA166054()

The ER-Localized Transmembrane Protein EPG-3/VMP1 Regulates SERCA Activity to Control ER-Isolation Membrane Contacts for Autophagosome Formation.

  • Zhao YG
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

During autophagosome formation in mammalian cells, isolation membranes (IMs; autophagosome precursors) dynamically contact the ER. Here, we demonstrated that the ER-localized metazoan-specific autophagy protein EPG-3/VMP1 controls ER-IM contacts. Loss of VMP1 causes stable association of IMs with the ER, thus blocking autophagosome formation. Interaction of WIPI2 with the ULK1/FIP200 complex and PI(3)P contributes to the formation of ER-IM contacts, and these interactions are enhanced by VMP1 depletion. VMP1 controls contact formation by promoting SERCA (sarco[endo]plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase) activity. VMP1 interacts with SERCA and prevents formation of the SERCA/PLN/SLN inhibitory complex. VMP1 also modulates ER contacts with lipid droplets, mitochondria, and endosomes. These ER contacts are greatly elevated by the SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin. Calmodulin acts as a sensor/effector to modulate the ER contacts mediated by VMP1/SERCA. Our study provides mechanistic insights into the establishment and disassociation of ER-IM contacts and reveals that VMP1 modulates SERCA activity to control ER contacts.

Heterophilic Type II Cadherins Are Required for High-Magnitude Synaptic Potentiation in the Hippocampus.

  • Basu R
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hippocampal CA3 neurons form synapses with CA1 neurons in two layers, stratum oriens (SO) and stratum radiatum (SR). Each layer develops unique synaptic properties but molecular mechanisms that mediate these differences are unknown. Here, we show that SO synapses normally have significantly more mushroom spines and higher-magnitude long-term potentiation (LTP) than SR synapses. Further, we discovered that these differences require the Type II classic cadherins, cadherins-6, -9, and -10. Though cadherins typically function via trans-cellular homophilic interactions, our results suggest presynaptic cadherin-9 binds postsynaptic cadherins-6 and -10 to regulate mushroom spine density and high-magnitude LTP in the SO layer. Loss of these cadherins has no effect on the lower-magnitude LTP typically observed in the SR layer, demonstrating that cadherins-6, -9, and -10 are gatekeepers for high-magnitude LTP. Thus, Type II cadherins may uniquely contribute to the specificity and strength of synaptic changes associated with learning and memory.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022073()

Single-Molecule Imaging Reveals How Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 Initiates DNA Break Repair.

  • Myler LR
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is essential for maintaining our genomes. Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) and Ku70-Ku80 (Ku) direct distinct DSB repair pathways, but the interplay between these complexes at a DSB remains unclear. Here, we use high-throughput single-molecule microscopy to show that MRN searches for free DNA ends by one-dimensional facilitated diffusion, even on nucleosome-coated DNA. Rad50 binds homoduplex DNA and promotes facilitated diffusion, whereas Mre11 is required for DNA end recognition and nuclease activities. MRN gains access to occluded DNA ends by removing Ku or other DNA adducts via an Mre11-dependent nucleolytic reaction. Next, MRN loads exonuclease 1 (Exo1) onto the free DNA ends to initiate DNA resection. In the presence of replication protein A (RPA), MRN acts as a processivity factor for Exo1, retaining the exonuclease on DNA for long-range resection. Our results provide a mechanism for how MRN promotes homologous recombination on nucleosome-coated DNA.

Dynamic Control of X Chromosome Conformation and Repression by a Histone H4K20 Demethylase.

  • Brejc K
  • Cell
  • 2017 Sep 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure play key roles in gene regulation, but their functional interplay in controlling gene expression is elusive. We have discovered the machinery and mechanism underlying the dynamic enrichment of histone modification H4K20me1 on hermaphrodite X chromosomes during C. elegans dosage compensation and demonstrated H4K20me1's pivotal role in regulating higher-order chromosome structure and X-chromosome-wide gene expression. The structure and the activity of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) subunit DPY-21 define a Jumonji demethylase subfamily that converts H4K20me2 to H4K20me1 in worms and mammals. Selective inactivation of demethylase activity eliminates H4K20me1 enrichment in somatic cells, elevates X-linked gene expression, reduces X chromosome compaction, and disrupts X chromosome conformation by diminishing the formation of topologically associating domains (TADs). Unexpectedly, DPY-21 also associates with autosomes of germ cells in a DCC-independent manner to enrich H4K20me1 and trigger chromosome compaction. Our findings demonstrate the direct link between chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure in long-range regulation of gene expression.

Dysfunctional tubular endoplasmic reticulum constitutes a pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease.

  • Sharoar MG
  • Mol. Psychiatry
  • 2017 Sep 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pathological features in Alzheimer's brains include mitochondrial dysfunction and dystrophic neurites (DNs) in areas surrounding amyloid plaques. Using a mouse model that overexpresses reticulon 3 (RTN3) and spontaneously develops age-dependent hippocampal DNs, here we report that DNs contain both RTN3 and REEPs, topologically similar proteins that can shape tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Importantly, ultrastructural examinations of such DNs revealed gradual accumulation of tubular ER in axonal termini, and such abnormal tubular ER inclusion is found in areas surrounding amyloid plaques in biopsy samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Functionally, abnormally clustered tubular ER induces enhanced mitochondrial fission in the early stages of DN formation and eventual mitochondrial degeneration at later stages. Furthermore, such DNs are abrogated when RTN3 is ablated in aging and AD mouse models. Hence, abnormally clustered tubular ER can be pathogenic in brain regions: disrupting mitochondrial integrity, inducing DNs formation and impairing cognitive function in AD and aging brains.

Funding information:
  • NCRR NIH HHS - S10 RR027696(United States)

Epitranscriptomic Enhancement of Influenza A Virus Gene Expression and Replication.

  • Courtney DG
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Sep 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many viral RNAs are modified by methylation of the N6 position of adenosine (m6A). m6A is thought to regulate RNA splicing, stability, translation, and secondary structure. Influenza A virus (IAV) expresses m6A-modified RNAs, but the effects of m6A on this segmented RNA virus remain unclear. We demonstrate that global inhibition of m6A addition inhibits IAV gene expression and replication. In contrast, overexpression of the cellular m6A "reader" protein YTHDF2 increases IAV gene expression and replication. To address whether m6A residues modulate IAV RNA function in cis, we mapped m6A residues on the IAV plus (mRNA) and minus (vRNA) strands and used synonymous mutations to ablate m6A on both strands of the hemagglutinin (HA) segment. These mutations inhibited HA mRNA and protein expression while leaving other IAV mRNAs and proteins unaffected, and they also resulted in reduced IAV pathogenicity in mice. Thus, m6A residues in IAV transcripts enhance viral gene expression.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - T32 CA009111()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI130574()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007184()

Sengers Syndrome-Associated Mitochondrial Acylglycerol Kinase Is a Subunit of the Human TIM22 Protein Import Complex.

  • Kang Y
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Aug 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Acylglycerol kinase (AGK) is a mitochondrial lipid kinase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of monoacylglycerol and diacylglycerol to lysophosphatidic acid and phosphatidic acid, respectively. Mutations in AGK cause Sengers syndrome, which is characterized by congenital cataracts, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, exercise intolerance, and lactic acidosis. Here we identified AGK as a subunit of the mitochondrial TIM22 protein import complex. We show that AGK functions in a kinase-independent manner to maintain the integrity of the TIM22 complex, where it facilitates the import and assembly of mitochondrial carrier proteins. Mitochondria isolated from Sengers syndrome patient cells and tissues show a destabilized TIM22 complex and defects in the biogenesis of carrier substrates. Consistent with this phenotype, we observe perturbations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in cells lacking AGK. Our identification of AGK as a bona fide subunit of TIM22 provides an exciting and unexpected link between mitochondrial protein import and Sengers syndrome.

Dendritic Cells but Not Macrophages Sense Tumor Mitochondrial DNA for Cross-priming through Signal Regulatory Protein α Signaling.

  • Xu MM
  • Immunity
  • 2017 Aug 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Inhibition of cytosolic DNA sensing represents a strategy that tumor cells use for immune evasion, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we have shown that CD47-signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) axis dictates the fate of ingested DNA in DCs for immune evasion. Although macrophages were more potent in uptaking tumor DNA, increase of DNA sensing by blocking the interaction of SIRPα with CD47 preferentially occurred in dendritic cells (DCs) but not in macrophages. Mechanistically, CD47 blockade enabled the activation of NADPH oxidase NOX2 in DCs, which in turn inhibited phagosomal acidification and reduced the degradation of tumor mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in DCs. mtDNA was recognized by cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) in the DC cytosol, contributing to type I interferon (IFN) production and antitumor adaptive immunity. Thus, our findings have demonstrated how tumor cells inhibit innate sensing in DCs and suggested that the CD47-SIRPα axis is critical for DC-driven antitumor immunity.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA134563()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA141975()

Transcription-Replication Conflict Orientation Modulates R-Loop Levels and Activates Distinct DNA Damage Responses.

  • Hamperl S
  • Cell
  • 2017 Aug 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Conflicts between transcription and replication are a potent source of DNA damage. Co-transcriptional R-loops could aggravate such conflicts by creating an additional barrier to replication fork progression. Here, we use a defined episomal system to investigate how conflict orientation and R-loop formation influence genome stability in human cells. R-loops, but not normal transcription complexes, induce DNA breaks and orientation-specific DNA damage responses during conflicts with replication forks. Unexpectedly, the replisome acts as an orientation-dependent regulator of R-loop levels, reducing R-loops in the co-directional (CD) orientation but promoting their formation in the head-on (HO) orientation. Replication stress and deregulated origin firing increase the number of HO collisions leading to genome-destabilizing R-loops. Our findings connect DNA replication to R-loop homeostasis and suggest a mechanistic basis for genome instability resulting from deregulated DNA replication, observed in cancer and other disease states.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM119334()

Acylglycerol Kinase Mutated in Sengers Syndrome Is a Subunit of the TIM22 Protein Translocase in Mitochondria.

  • Vukotic M
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Aug 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations in mitochondrial acylglycerol kinase (AGK) cause Sengers syndrome, which is characterized by cataracts, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and skeletal myopathy. AGK generates phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid, bioactive phospholipids involved in lipid signaling and the regulation of tumor progression. However, the molecular mechanisms of the mitochondrial pathology remain enigmatic. Determining its mitochondrial interactome, we have identified AGK as a constituent of the TIM22 complex in the mitochondrial inner membrane. AGK assembles with TIMM22 and TIMM29 and supports the import of a subset of multi-spanning membrane proteins. The function of AGK as a subunit of the TIM22 complex does not depend on its kinase activity. However, enzymatically active AGK is required to maintain mitochondrial cristae morphogenesis and the apoptotic resistance of cells. The dual function of AGK as lipid kinase and constituent of the TIM22 complex reveals that disturbances in both phospholipid metabolism and mitochondrial protein biogenesis contribute to the pathogenesis of Sengers syndrome.

SIRT1 Functions as a Negative Regulator of Eukaryotic Poly(A)RNA Transport.

  • Shan P
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2017 Aug 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Most eukaryotic mRNAs are polyadenylated in the nucleus, and the poly(A)-tail is required for efficient mRNA export and translation. However, mechanisms governing mRNA transport remain unclear. Here, we report that the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 acts as an energy sensor and negatively regulates poly(A)RNA transport via deacetylating a poly(A)-binding protein, PABP1. Upon energy starvation, SIRT1 interacts with and deacetylates PABP1 and deactivates its poly(A)RNA binding, leading to nuclear accumulation of PABP1 and poly(A)RNA and thus facilitating eukaryotic cells to attenuate protein synthesis and energy consumption to adapt to energy stress. Moreover, AMPK-directed SIRT1 phosphorylation is required for energy starvation-induced PABP1-SIRT1 association, PABP1 deacetylation, and poly(A)RNA nuclear retention. In addition, the SIRT1-PABP1 association is not specific to energy starvation but represents a common stress response. These observations provide insights into dynamic modulation of eukaryotic mRNA transport and translation, suggesting that the poly(A)-tail also provides a basis for eukaryotes to effectively shut down mature mRNA transport and thereby tailor protein synthesis to maintain energy homeostasis under stress conditions.

In Situ Capture of Chromatin Interactions by Biotinylated dCas9.

  • Liu X
  • Cell
  • 2017 Aug 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cis-regulatory elements (CREs) are commonly recognized by correlative chromatin features, yet the molecular composition of the vast majority of CREs in chromatin remains unknown. Here, we describe a CRISPR affinity purification in situ of regulatory elements (CAPTURE) approach to unbiasedly identify locus-specific chromatin-regulating protein complexes and long-range DNA interactions. Using an in vivo biotinylated nuclease-deficient Cas9 protein and sequence-specific guide RNAs, we show high-resolution and selective isolation of chromatin interactions at a single-copy genomic locus. Purification of human telomeres using CAPTURE identifies known and new telomeric factors. In situ capture of individual constituents of the enhancer cluster controlling human β-globin genes establishes evidence for composition-based hierarchical organization. Furthermore, unbiased analysis of chromatin interactions at disease-associated cis-elements and developmentally regulated super-enhancers reveals spatial features that causally control gene transcription. Thus, comprehensive and unbiased analysis of locus-specific regulatory composition provides mechanistic insight into genome structure and function in development and disease.

Enhancer Reprogramming Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Metastasis.

  • Roe JS
  • Cell
  • 2017 Aug 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most lethal human malignancies, owing in part to its propensity for metastasis. Here, we used an organoid culture system to investigate how transcription and the enhancer landscape become altered during discrete stages of disease progression in a PDA mouse model. This approach revealed that the metastatic transition is accompanied by massive and recurrent alterations in enhancer activity. We implicate the pioneer factor FOXA1 as a driver of enhancer activation in this system, a mechanism that renders PDA cells more invasive and less anchorage-dependent for growth in vitro, as well as more metastatic in vivo. In this context, FOXA1-dependent enhancer reprogramming activates a transcriptional program of embryonic foregut endoderm. Collectively, our study implicates enhancer reprogramming, FOXA1 upregulation, and a retrograde developmental transition in PDA metastasis.

SNX16 Regulates the Recycling of E-Cadherin through a Unique Mechanism of Coordinated Membrane and Cargo Binding.

  • Xu J
  • Structure
  • 2017 Aug 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

E-Cadherin is a major component of adherens junctions on cell surfaces. SNX16 is a unique member of sorting nexins that contains a coiled-coil (CC) domain downstream of the PX domain. We report here that SNX16 regulates the recycling trafficking of E-cadherin. We solved the crystal structure of PX-CC unit of SNX16 and revealed a unique shear shaped homodimer. We identified a novel PI3P binding pocket in SNX16 that consists of both the PX and the CC domains. Surprisingly, we showed that the PPII/α2 loop, which is generally regarded as a membrane insertion loop in PX family proteins, is involved in the E-cadherin binding with SNX16. We then proposed a multivalent membrane binding model for SNX16. Our study postulates a new mechanism for coordinated membrane binding and cargo binding for SNX family proteins in general, and provide novel insights into recycling trafficking of E-cadherin.

Autophagy-Dependent Shuttling of TBC1D5 Controls Plasma Membrane Translocation of GLUT1 and Glucose Uptake.

  • Roy S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Autophagy traditionally sustains metabolism in stressed cells by promoting intracellular catabolism and nutrient recycling. Here, we demonstrate that in response to stresses requiring increased glycolytic demand, the core autophagy machinery also facilitates glucose uptake and glycolytic flux by promoting cell surface expression of the glucose transporter GLUT1/Slc2a1. During metabolic stress, LC3+ autophagic compartments bind and sequester the RabGAP protein TBC1D5 away from its inhibitory interactions with the retromer complex, thereby enabling retromer recruitment to endosome membranes and GLUT1 plasma membrane translocation. In contrast, TBC1D5 inhibitory interactions with the retromer are maintained in autophagy-deficient cells, leading to GLUT1 mis-sorting into endolysosomal compartments. Furthermore, TBC1D5 depletion in autophagy-deficient cells rescues retromer recruitment to endosomal membranes and GLUT1 surface recycling. Hence, TBC1D5 shuttling to autophagosomes during metabolic stress facilitates retromer-dependent GLUT1 trafficking. Overall, our results illuminate key interconnections between the autophagy and endosomal pathways dictating GLUT1 trafficking and extracellular nutrient uptake.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA126792()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA172845()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R21 CA201849()

Viral Replication Complexes Are Targeted by LC3-Guided Interferon-Inducible GTPases.

  • Biering SB
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

All viruses with positive-sense RNA genomes replicate on membranous structures in the cytoplasm called replication complexes (RCs). RCs provide an advantageous microenvironment for viral replication, but it is unknown how the host immune system counteracts these structures. Here we show that interferon-gamma (IFNG) disrupts the RC of murine norovirus (MNV) via evolutionarily conserved autophagy proteins and the induction of IFN-inducible GTPases, which are known to destroy the membrane of vacuoles containing bacteria, protists, or fungi. The MNV RC was marked by the microtubule-associated-protein-1-light-chain-3 (LC3) conjugation system of autophagy and then targeted by immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) and guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) upon their induction by IFNG. Further, the LC3 conjugation system and the IFN-inducible GTPases were necessary to inhibit MNV replication in mice and human cells. These data suggest that viral RCs can be marked and antagonized by a universal immune defense mechanism targeting diverse pathogens replicating in cytosolic membrane structures.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI103197()

Reduced Expression of Foxp1 as a Contributing Factor in Huntington's Disease.

  • Louis Sam Titus ASC
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the huntington protein (htt). The neuropathological hallmark of HD is the loss of neurons in the striatum and, to a lesser extent, in the cortex. Foxp1 is a member of the Forkhead family of transcription factors expressed selectively in the striatum and the cortex. In the brain, three major Foxp1 isoforms are expressed: isoform-A (∼90 kDa), isoform-D (∼70 kDa), and isoform-C (∼50 kDa). We find that expression of Foxp1 isoform-A and -D is selectively reduced in the striatum and cortex of R6/2 HD mice as well as in the striatum of HD patients. Furthermore, expression of mutant htt in neurons results in the downregulation of Foxp1 Elevating expression of isoform-A or -D protects cortical neurons from death caused by the expression of mutant htt On the other hand, knockdown of Foxp1 promotes death in otherwise healthy neurons. Neuroprotection by Foxp1 is likely to be mediated by the transcriptional stimulation of the cell-cycle inhibitory protein p21Waf1/Cip1 Consistently, Foxp1 activates transcription of the p21Waf1/Cip1 gene promoter, and overexpression of Foxp1 in neurons results in the elevation of p21 expression. Moreover, knocking down of p21Waf1/Cip1 blocks the ability of Foxp1 to protect neurons from mut-Htt-induced neurotoxicity. We propose that the selective vulnerability of neurons of the striatum and cortex in HD is related to the loss of expression of Foxp1, a protein that is highly expressed in these neurons and required for their survival.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although the mutant huntingtin gene is expressed widely, neurons of the striatum and cortex are selectively affected in Huntington's disease (HD). Our results suggest that this selectivity is attributable to the reduced expression of Foxp1, a protein expressed selectively in striatal and cortical neurons that plays a neuroprotective role in these cells. We show that protection by Foxp1 involves stimulation of the p21Waf1/Cip1 (Cdkn1a) gene. Although three major Foxp1 isoforms (A, C, and D) are expressed in the brain, only isoform-A has been studied in the nervous system. We show that isoform-D is also expressed selectively, neuroprotective and downregulated in HD mice and patients. Our results suggest that Foxp1 might be an attractive therapeutic target for HD.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS040408()

Axon Death Pathways Converge on Axundead to Promote Functional and Structural Axon Disassembly.

  • Neukomm LJ
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jul 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Axon degeneration is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease and neural injury. Axotomy activates an intrinsic pro-degenerative axon death signaling cascade involving loss of the NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme Nmnat/Nmnat2 in axons, activation of dSarm/Sarm1, and subsequent Sarm-dependent depletion of NAD+. Here we identify Axundead (Axed) as a mediator of axon death. axed mutants suppress axon death in several types of axons for the lifespan of the fly and block the pro-degenerative effects of activated dSarm in vivo. Neurodegeneration induced by loss of the sole fly Nmnat ortholog is also fully blocked by axed, but not dsarm, mutants. Thus, pro-degenerative pathways activated by dSarm signaling or Nmnat elimination ultimately converge on Axed. Remarkably, severed axons morphologically preserved by axon death pathway mutations remain integrated in circuits and able to elicit complex behaviors after stimulation, indicating that blockade of axon death signaling results in long-term functional preservation of axons.

Opening a New Time Window for Treatment of Stroke by Targeting HDAC2.

  • Lin YH
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

Narrow therapeutic window limits treatments with thrombolysis and neuroprotection for most stroke patients. Widening therapeutic window remains a critical challenge. Understanding the key mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological events in the peri-infarct area where secondary injury coexists with neuroplasticity over days to weeks may offer an opportunity for expanding the therapeutic window. Here we show that ischemia-induced histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) upregulation from 5 to 7 d after stroke plays a crucial role. In this window phase, suppressing HDAC2 in the peri-infarct cortex of rodents by HDAC inhibitors, knockdown or knock-out of Hdac2 promoted recovery of motor function from stroke via epigenetically enhancing cells survival and neuroplasticity of surviving neurons as well as reducing neuroinflammation, whereas overexpressing HDAC2 worsened stroke-induced functional impairment of both WT and Hdac2 conditional knock-out mice. More importantly, inhibiting other isoforms of HDACs had no effect. Thus, the intervention by precisely targeting HDAC2 in this window phase is a novel strategy for the functional recovery of stroke survivors.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Narrow time window phase impedes current therapies for stroke patients. Understanding the key mechanisms underlying secondary injury may open a new window for pharmacological interventions to promote recovery from stroke. Our study indicates that ischemia-induced histone deacetylase 2 upregulation from 5 to 7 d after stroke mediates the secondary functional loss by reducing survival and neuroplasticity of peri-infarct neurons as well as augmenting neuroinflammation. Thus, precisely targeting histone deacetylase 2 in the window phase provides a novel therapeutic strategy for stroke recovery.

Wnt-Dependent Inactivation of the Groucho/TLE Co-repressor by the HECT E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Hyd/UBR5.

  • Flack JE
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Extracellular signals are transduced to the cell nucleus by effectors that bind to enhancer complexes to operate transcriptional switches. For example, the Wnt enhanceosome is a multiprotein complex associated with Wnt-responsive enhancers through T cell factors (TCF) and kept silent by Groucho/TLE co-repressors. Wnt-activated β-catenin binds to TCF to overcome this repression, but how it achieves this is unknown. Here, we discover that this process depends on the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase Hyd/UBR5, which is required for Wnt signal responses in Drosophila and human cell lines downstream of activated Armadillo/β-catenin. We identify Groucho/TLE as a functionally relevant substrate, whose ubiquitylation by UBR5 is induced by Wnt signaling and conferred by β-catenin. Inactivation of TLE by UBR5-dependent ubiquitylation also involves VCP/p97, an AAA ATPase regulating the folding of various cellular substrates including ubiquitylated chromatin proteins. Thus, Groucho/TLE ubiquitylation by Hyd/UBR5 is a key prerequisite that enables Armadillo/β-catenin to activate transcription.

Characterisation of a stably integrated expression system for exogenous protein expression in DT40.

  • Skouteri M
  • Wellcome Open Res
  • 2017 Jul 12

Literature context:


Abstract:

The use of constitutive promoters to drive exogenous protein expression is an important tool for the study of diverse biological processes. To create and characterise a stably integrated expression system for DT40 cells, we constructed integration cassettes for three commonly used promoter elements; CMV, CBA or CAG, and used these to stably integrate a TOPBP1 transgene at the OVA locus, a transcriptionally silent locus commonly used in DT40. We next performed a comparative analysis of protein expression levels and identified CAG as the most efficient of the promoter elements we have tested in DT40 cells. To assess whether the site of integration affected the levels of transgene expression, a second chromosomal locus, immediately adjacent to the endogenous TOPBP1 gene, was tested for CAG. No major differences in TopBP1 overexpression were observed. This confirms that use of the OVA locus for integrating transgenes is a rational choice for DT40. Finally, we demonstrate that our stably integrated overexpression system (SIOS) constructs can be efficiently excised by the induction of tamoxifen-regulated Cre expression. Taken together, SIOS is an easy-to-use and versatile system for constitutive, reversible exogenous protein production that provides a range of potential expression levels. This will be a useful experimental tool for future DT40 experiments.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - G1100074()
  • Wellcome Trust - 110047/Z/15/Z()

Exosome RNA Unshielding Couples Stromal Activation to Pattern Recognition Receptor Signaling in Cancer.

  • Nabet BY
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jul 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Interactions between stromal fibroblasts and cancer cells generate signals for cancer progression, therapy resistance, and inflammatory responses. Although endogenous RNAs acting as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) for pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) may represent one such signal, these RNAs must remain unrecognized under non-pathological conditions. We show that triggering of stromal NOTCH-MYC by breast cancer cells results in a POL3-driven increase in RN7SL1, an endogenous RNA normally shielded by RNA binding proteins SRP9/14. This increase in RN7SL1 alters its stoichiometry with SRP9/14 and generates unshielded RN7SL1 in stromal exosomes. After exosome transfer to immune cells, unshielded RN7SL1 drives an inflammatory response. Upon transfer to breast cancer cells, unshielded RN7SL1 activates the PRR RIG-I to enhance tumor growth, metastasis, and therapy resistance. Corroborated by evidence from patient tumors and blood, these results demonstrate that regulation of RNA unshielding couples stromal activation with deployment of RNA DAMPs that promote aggressive features of cancer. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Coordinated circRNA Biogenesis and Function with NF90/NF110 in Viral Infection.

  • Li X
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) generated via back-splicing are enhanced by flanking complementary sequences. Expression levels of circRNAs vary under different conditions, suggesting participation of protein factors in their biogenesis. Using genome-wide siRNA screening that targets all human unique genes and an efficient circRNA expression reporter, we identify double-stranded RNA-binding domain containing immune factors NF90/NF110 as key regulators in circRNA biogenesis. NF90/NF110 promote circRNA production in the nucleus by associating with intronic RNA pairs juxtaposing the circRNA-forming exon(s); they also interact with mature circRNAs in the cytoplasm. Upon viral infection, circRNA expression is decreased, in part owing to the nuclear export of NF90/NF110 to the cytoplasm. Meanwhile, NF90/NF110 released from circRNP complexes bind to viral mRNAs as part of their functions in antiviral immune response. Our results therefore implicate a coordinated regulation of circRNA biogenesis and function by NF90/NF110 in viral infection.

Retrograde Synaptic Inhibition Is Mediated by α-Neurexin Binding to the α2δ Subunits of N-Type Calcium Channels.

  • Tong XJ
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jul 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The synaptic adhesion molecules Neurexin and Neuroligin alter the development and function of synapses and are linked to autism in humans. In C. elegans, post-synaptic Neurexin (NRX-1) and pre-synaptic Neuroligin (NLG-1) mediate a retrograde synaptic signal that inhibits acetylcholine (ACh) release at neuromuscular junctions. Here, we show that the retrograde signal decreases ACh release by inhibiting the function of pre-synaptic UNC-2/CaV2 calcium channels. Post-synaptic NRX-1 binds to an auxiliary subunit of pre-synaptic UNC-2/CaV2 channels (UNC-36/α2δ), decreasing UNC-36 abundance at pre-synaptic elements. Retrograde inhibition is mediated by a soluble form of NRX-1's ectodomain, which is released from the post-synaptic membrane by the SUP-17/ADAM10 protease. Mammalian Neurexin-1α binds α2δ-3 and decreases CaV2.2 current in transfected cells, whereas Neurexin-1α has no effect on CaV2.2 reconstituted with α2δ-1 and α2δ-2. Collectively, these results suggest that α-Neurexin binding to α2δ is a conserved mechanism for regulating synaptic transmission.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM054728()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS032196()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS055251()

A UTX-MLL4-p300 Transcriptional Regulatory Network Coordinately Shapes Active Enhancer Landscapes for Eliciting Transcription.

  • Wang SP
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Enhancer activation is a critical step for gene activation. Here we report an epigenetic crosstalk at enhancers between the UTX (H3K27 demethylase)-MLL4 (H3K4 methyltransferase) complex and the histone acetyltransferase p300. We demonstrate that UTX, in a demethylase activity-independent manner, facilitates conversion of inactive enhancers in embryonic stem cells to an active (H3K4me1+/H3K27ac+) state by recruiting and coupling the enzymatic functions of MLL4 and p300. Loss of UTX leads to attenuated enhancer activity, characterized by reduced levels of H3K4me1 and H3K27ac as well as impaired transcription. The UTX-MLL4 complex enhances p300-dependent H3K27 acetylation through UTX-dependent stimulation of p300 recruitment, while MLL4-mediated H3K4 monomethylation, reciprocally, requires p300 function. Importantly, MLL4-generated H3K4me1 further enhances p300-dependent transcription. This work reveals a previously unrecognized cooperativity among enhancer-associated chromatin modulators, including a unique function for UTX, in establishing an "active enhancer landscape" and defines a detailed mechanism for the joint deposition of H3K4me1 and H3K27ac.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA129325()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA178765()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK071900()

Xenopus laevis M18BP1 Directly Binds Existing CENP-A Nucleosomes to Promote Centromeric Chromatin Assembly.

  • French BT
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jul 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Vertebrate centromeres are epigenetically defined by nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant, CENP-A. CENP-A nucleosome assembly requires the three-protein Mis18 complex (Mis18α, Mis18β, and M18BP1) that recruits the CENP-A chaperone HJURP to centromeres, but how the Mis18 complex recognizes centromeric chromatin is unknown. Using Xenopus egg extract, we show that direct, cell-cycle-regulated binding of M18BP1 to CENP-A nucleosomes recruits the Mis18 complex to interphase centromeres to promote new CENP-A nucleosome assembly. We demonstrate that Xenopus M18BP1 binds CENP-A nucleosomes using a motif that is widely conserved except in mammals. The M18BP1 motif resembles a CENP-A nucleosome binding motif in CENP-C, and we show that CENP-C competes with M18BP1 for CENP-A nucleosome binding at centromeres. We show that both CENP-C and M18BP1 recruit HJURP to centromeres for new CENP-A assembly. This study defines cellular mechanisms for recruiting CENP-A assembly factors to existing CENP-A nucleosomes for the epigenetic inheritance of centromeres.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM074728()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007276()

RECQ5 Helicase Cooperates with MUS81 Endonuclease in Processing Stalled Replication Forks at Common Fragile Sites during Mitosis.

  • Di Marco S
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The MUS81-EME1 endonuclease cleaves late replication intermediates at common fragile sites (CFSs) during early mitosis to trigger DNA-repair synthesis that ensures faithful chromosome segregation. Here, we show that these DNA transactions are promoted by RECQ5 DNA helicase in a manner dependent on its Ser727 phosphorylation by CDK1. Upon replication stress, RECQ5 associates with CFSs in early mitosis through its physical interaction with MUS81 and promotes MUS81-dependent mitotic DNA synthesis. RECQ5 depletion or mutational inactivation of its ATP-binding site, RAD51-interacting domain, or phosphorylation site causes excessive binding of RAD51 to CFS loci and impairs CFS expression. This leads to defective chromosome segregation and accumulation of CFS-associated DNA damage in G1 cells. Biochemically, RECQ5 alleviates the inhibitory effect of RAD51 on 3'-flap DNA cleavage by MUS81-EME1 through its RAD51 filament disruption activity. These data suggest that RECQ5 removes RAD51 filaments stabilizing stalled replication forks at CFSs and hence facilitates CFS cleavage by MUS81-EME1.

A Class of Environmental and Endogenous Toxins Induces BRCA2 Haploinsufficiency and Genome Instability.

  • Tan SLW
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jun 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations truncating a single copy of the tumor suppressor, BRCA2, cause cancer susceptibility. In cells bearing such heterozygous mutations, we find that a cellular metabolite and ubiquitous environmental toxin, formaldehyde, stalls and destabilizes DNA replication forks, engendering structural chromosomal aberrations. Formaldehyde selectively depletes BRCA2 via proteasomal degradation, a mechanism of toxicity that affects very few additional cellular proteins. Heterozygous BRCA2 truncations, by lowering pre-existing BRCA2 expression, sensitize to BRCA2 haploinsufficiency induced by transient exposure to natural concentrations of formaldehyde. Acetaldehyde, an alcohol catabolite detoxified by ALDH2, precipitates similar effects. Ribonuclease H1 ameliorates replication fork instability and chromosomal aberrations provoked by aldehyde-induced BRCA2 haploinsufficiency, suggesting that BRCA2 inactivation triggers spontaneous mutagenesis during DNA replication via aberrant RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops). These findings suggest a model wherein carcinogenesis in BRCA2 mutation carriers can be incited by compounds found pervasively in the environment and generated endogenously in certain tissues with implications for public health.

The Highly Dynamic Nature of ERdj5 Is Key to Efficient Elimination of Aberrant Protein Oligomers through ER-Associated Degradation.

  • Maegawa KI
  • Structure
  • 2017 Jun 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

ERdj5, composed of an N-terminal J domain followed by six thioredoxin-like domains, is the largest protein disulfide isomerase family member and functions as an ER-localized disulfide reductase that enhances ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Our previous studies indicated that ERdj5 comprises two regions, the N- and C-terminal clusters, separated by a linker loop and with distinct functional roles in ERAD. We here present a new crystal structure of ERdj5 with a largely different cluster arrangement relative to that in the original crystal structure. Single-molecule observation by high-speed atomic force microscopy visualized rapid cluster movement around the flexible linker loop, indicating the highly dynamic nature of ERdj5 in solution. ERdj5 mutants with a fixed-cluster orientation compromised the ERAD enhancement activity, likely because of less-efficient reduction of aberrantly formed disulfide bonds and prevented substrate transfer in the ERdj5-mediated ERAD pathway. We propose a significant role of ERdj5 conformational dynamics in ERAD of disulfide-linked oligomers.

SAF-A Regulates Interphase Chromosome Structure through Oligomerization with Chromatin-Associated RNAs.

  • Nozawa RS
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Higher eukaryotic chromosomes are organized into topologically constrained functional domains; however, the molecular mechanisms required to sustain these complex interphase chromatin structures are unknown. A stable matrix underpinning nuclear organization was hypothesized, but the idea was abandoned as more dynamic models of chromatin behavior became prevalent. Here, we report that scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A), originally identified as a structural nuclear protein, interacts with chromatin-associated RNAs (caRNAs) via its RGG domain to regulate human interphase chromatin structures in a transcription-dependent manner. Mechanistically, this is dependent on SAF-A's AAA+ ATPase domain, which mediates cycles of protein oligomerization with caRNAs, in response to ATP binding and hydrolysis. SAF-A oligomerization decompacts large-scale chromatin structure while SAF-A loss or monomerization promotes aberrant chromosome folding and accumulation of genome damage. Our results show that SAF-A and caRNAs form a dynamic, transcriptionally responsive chromatin mesh that organizes large-scale chromosome structures and protects the genome from instability.

Reciprocal regulation of ARPP-16 by PKA and MAST3 kinases provides a cAMP-regulated switch in protein phosphatase 2A inhibition.

  • Musante V
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 14

Literature context:


Abstract:

ARPP-16, ARPP-19, and ENSA are inhibitors of protein phosphatase PP2A. ARPP-19 and ENSA phosphorylated by Greatwall kinase inhibit PP2A during mitosis. ARPP-16 is expressed in striatal neurons where basal phosphorylation by MAST3 kinase inhibits PP2A and regulates key components of striatal signaling. The ARPP-16/19 proteins were discovered as substrates for PKA, but the function of PKA phosphorylation is unknown. We find that phosphorylation by PKA or MAST3 mutually suppresses the ability of the other kinase to act on ARPP-16. Phosphorylation by PKA also acts to prevent inhibition of PP2A by ARPP-16 phosphorylated by MAST3. Moreover, PKA phosphorylates MAST3 at multiple sites resulting in its inhibition. Mathematical modeling highlights the role of these three regulatory interactions to create a switch-like response to cAMP. Together, the results suggest a complex antagonistic interplay between the control of ARPP-16 by MAST3 and PKA that creates a mechanism whereby cAMP mediates PP2A disinhibition.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P01 DA010044()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P30 DA018343()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS091336()

LARP1 functions as a molecular switch for mTORC1-mediated translation of an essential class of mRNAs.

  • Hong S
  • Elife
  • 2017 Jun 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

The RNA binding protein, LARP1, has been proposed to function downstream of mTORC1 to regulate the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs such as those encoding ribosome proteins (RP). However, the roles of LARP1 in the translation of 5'TOP mRNAs are controversial and its regulatory roles in mTORC1-mediated translation remain unclear. Here we show that LARP1 is a direct substrate of mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1. Deep sequencing of LARP1-bound mRNAs reveal that non-phosphorylated LARP1 interacts with both 5' and 3'UTRs of RP mRNAs and inhibits their translation. Importantly, phosphorylation of LARP1 by mTORC1 and Akt/S6K1 dissociates it from 5'UTRs and relieves its inhibitory activity on RP mRNA translation. Concomitantly, phosphorylated LARP1 scaffolds mTORC1 on the 3'UTRs of translationally-competent RP mRNAs to facilitate mTORC1-dependent induction of translation initiation. Thus, in response to cellular mTOR activity, LARP1 serves as a phosphorylation-sensitive molecular switch for turning off or on RP mRNA translation and subsequent ribosome biogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK083491()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM088565()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM110019()

Coupled Caspase and N-End Rule Ligase Activities Allow Recognition and Degradation of Pluripotency Factor LIN-28 during Non-Apoptotic Development.

  • Weaver BP
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Jun 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Recent findings suggest that components of the classical cell death machinery also have important non-cell-death (non-apoptotic) functions in flies, nematodes, and mammals. However, the mechanisms for non-canonical caspase substrate recognition and proteolysis, and the direct roles for caspases in gene expression regulation, remain largely unclear. Here we report that CED-3 caspase and the Arg/N-end rule pathway cooperate to inactivate the LIN-28 pluripotency factor in seam cells, a stem-like cell type in Caenorhabditis elegans, thereby ensuring proper temporal cell fate patterning. Importantly, the caspase and the E3 ligase execute this function in a non-additive manner. We show that CED-3 caspase and the E3 ubiquitin ligase UBR-1 form a complex that couples their in vivo activities, allowing for recognition and rapid degradation of LIN-28 and thus facilitating a switch in developmental programs. The interdependence of these proteolytic activities provides a paradigm for non-apoptotic caspase-mediated protein inactivation.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM047869()

The Sec14-like phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins Sec14l3/SEC14L2 act as GTPase proteins to mediate Wnt/Ca2+ signaling.

  • Gong B
  • Elife
  • 2017 May 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

The non-canonical Wnt/Ca2+ signaling pathway plays important roles in embryonic development, tissue formation and diseases. However, it is unclear how the Wnt ligand-stimulated, G protein-coupled receptor Frizzled activates phospholipases for calcium release. Here, we report that the zebrafish/human phosphatidylinositol transfer protein Sec14l3/SEC14L2 act as GTPase proteins to transduce Wnt signals from Frizzled to phospholipase C (PLC). Depletion of sec14l3 attenuates Wnt/Ca2+ responsive activity and causes convergent and extension (CE) defects in zebrafish embryos. Biochemical analyses in mammalian cells indicate that Sec14l3-GDP forms complex with Frizzled and Dishevelled; Wnt ligand binding of Frizzled induces translocation of Sec14l3 to the plasma membrane; and then Sec14l3-GTP binds to and activates phospholipase Cδ4a (Plcδ4a); subsequently, Plcδ4a initiates phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) signaling, ultimately stimulating calcium release. Furthermore, Plcδ4a can act as a GTPase-activating protein to accelerate the hydrolysis of Sec14l3-bound GTP to GDP. Our data provide a new insight into GTPase protein-coupled Wnt/Ca2+ signaling transduction.

Astrocytic Process Plasticity and IKKβ/NF-κB in Central Control of Blood Glucose, Blood Pressure, and Body Weight.

  • Zhang Y
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 May 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Central regulation of metabolic physiology is mediated critically through neuronal functions; however, whether astrocytes are also essential remains unclear. Here we show that the high-order processes of astrocytes in the mediobasal hypothalamus displayed shortening in fasting and elongation in fed status. Chronic overnutrition and astrocytic IKKβ/NF-κB upregulation similarly impaired astrocytic plasticity, leading to sustained shortening of high-order processes. In physiology, astrocytic IKKβ/NF-κB upregulation resulted in early-onset effects, including glucose intolerance and blood pressure rise, and late-onset effects, including body weight and fat gain. Appropriate inhibition in astrocytic IKKβ/NF-κB protected against chronic overnutrition impairing astrocytic plasticity and these physiological functions. Mechanistically, astrocytic regulation of hypothalamic extracellular GABA level and therefore BDNF expression were found partly accountable. Hence, astrocytic process plasticity and IKKβ/NF-κB play significant roles in central control of blood glucose, blood pressure, and body weight as well as the central induction of these physiological disorders leading to disease.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL113180()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG031774()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK078750()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK099136()

Hybrid Cellular Metabolism Coordinated by Zic3 and Esrrb Synergistically Enhances Induction of Naive Pluripotency.

  • Sone M
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2017 May 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Naive pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) utilize both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to satisfy their metabolic demands. However, it is unclear how somatic cells acquire this hybrid energy metabolism during reprogramming toward naive pluripotency. Here, we show that when transduced with Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 (OSK) into murine fibroblasts, Zic3 and Esrrb synergistically enhance the reprogramming efficiency by regulating cellular metabolic pathways. These two transcription factors (TFs) cooperatively activate glycolytic metabolism independently of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs). In contrast, the regulatory modes of the TFs on OXPHOS are antagonistic: Zic3 represses OXPHOS, whereas Esrrb activates it. Therefore, when introduced with Zic3, Esrrb restores OXPHOS activity, which is essential for efficient reprogramming. In addition, Esrrb-mediated OXPHOS activation is critical for the conversion of primed PSCs into the naive state. Our study suggests that the combinatorial function of TFs achieves an appropriate balance of metabolic pathways to induce naive PSCs.

Hippo Signaling Suppresses Cell Ploidy and Tumorigenesis through Skp2.

  • Zhang S
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 May 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Polyploidy can lead to aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. Here, we report that the Hippo pathway effector Yap promotes the diploid-polyploid conversion and polyploid cell growth through the Akt-Skp2 axis. Yap strongly induces the acetyltransferase p300-mediated acetylation of the E3 ligase Skp2 via Akt signaling. Acetylated Skp2 is exclusively localized to the cytosol, which causes hyper-accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27, leading to mitotic arrest and subsequently cell polyploidy. In addition, the pro-apoptotic factors FoxO1/3 are overly degraded by acetylated Skp2, resulting in polyploid cell division, genomic instability, and oncogenesis. Importantly, the depletion or inactivation of Akt or Skp2 abrogated Hippo signal deficiency-induced liver tumorigenesis, indicating their epistatic interaction. Thus, we conclude that Hippo-Yap signaling suppresses cell polyploidy and oncogenesis through Skp2.

Bromodomain Protein BRD4 Is a Transcriptional Repressor of Autophagy and Lysosomal Function.

  • Sakamaki JI
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Autophagy is a membrane-trafficking process that directs degradation of cytoplasmic material in lysosomes. The process promotes cellular fidelity, and while the core machinery of autophagy is known, the mechanisms that promote and sustain autophagy are less well defined. Here we report that the epigenetic reader BRD4 and the methyltransferase G9a repress a TFEB/TFE3/MITF-independent transcriptional program that promotes autophagy and lysosome biogenesis. We show that BRD4 knockdown induces autophagy in vitro and in vivo in response to some, but not all, situations. In the case of starvation, a signaling cascade involving AMPK and histone deacetylase SIRT1 displaces chromatin-bound BRD4, instigating autophagy gene activation and cell survival. Importantly, this program is directed independently and also reciprocally to the growth-promoting properties of BRD4 and is potently repressed by BRD4-NUT, a driver of NUT midline carcinoma. These findings therefore identify a distinct and selective mechanism of autophagy regulation.

The murine catecholamine methyltransferase mTOMT is essential for mechanotransduction by cochlear hair cells.

  • Cunningham CL
  • Elife
  • 2017 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hair cells of the cochlea are mechanosensors for the perception of sound. Mutations in the LRTOMT gene, which encodes a protein with homology to the catecholamine methyltransferase COMT that is linked to schizophrenia, cause deafness. Here, we show that Tomt/Comt2, the murine ortholog of LRTOMT, has an unexpected function in the regulation of mechanotransduction by hair cells. The role of mTOMT in hair cells is independent of mTOMT methyltransferase function and mCOMT cannot substitute for mTOMT function. Instead, mTOMT binds to putative components of the mechanotransduction channel in hair cells and is essential for the transport of some of these components into the mechanically sensitive stereocilia of hair cells. Our studies thus suggest functional diversification between mCOMT and mTOMT, where mTOMT is critical for the assembly of the mechanotransduction machinery of hair cells. Defects in this process are likely mechanistically linked to deafness caused by mutations in LRTOMT/Tomt.

MORC-1 Integrates Nuclear RNAi and Transgenerational Chromatin Architecture to Promote Germline Immortality.

  • Weiser NE
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 May 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Germline-expressed endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) transmit multigenerational epigenetic information to ensure fertility in subsequent generations. In Caenorhabditis elegans, nuclear RNAi ensures robust inheritance of endo-siRNAs and deposition of repressive H3K9me3 marks at target loci. How target silencing is maintained in subsequent generations is poorly understood. We discovered that morc-1 is essential for transgenerational fertility and acts as an effector of endo-siRNAs. Unexpectedly, morc-1 is dispensable for siRNA inheritance but is required for target silencing and maintenance of siRNA-dependent chromatin organization. A forward genetic screen identified mutations in met-1, which encodes an H3K36 methyltransferase, as potent suppressors of morc-1(-) and nuclear RNAi mutant phenotypes. Further analysis of nuclear RNAi and morc-1(-) mutants revealed a progressive, met-1-dependent enrichment of H3K36me3, suggesting that robust fertility requires repression of MET-1 activity at nuclear RNAi targets. Without MORC-1 and nuclear RNAi, MET-1-mediated encroachment of euchromatin leads to detrimental decondensation of germline chromatin and germline mortality.

Funding information:
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U01 HG004276()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - T32 HD007505()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM060398()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM079533()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM093173()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM111752()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM118875()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R35 GM119775()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R37 GM060398()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007315()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007544()
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD010440()

Deficiency in Neuronal TGF-β Signaling Leads to Nigrostriatal Degeneration and Activation of TGF-β Signaling Protects against MPTP Neurotoxicity in Mice.

  • Tesseur I
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Apr 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an important role in the development and maintenance of embryonic dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the midbrain. To study the function of TGF-β signaling in the adult nigrostriatal system, we generated transgenic mice with reduced TGF-β signaling in mature neurons. These mice display age-related motor deficits and degeneration of the nigrostriatal system. Increasing TGF-β signaling in the substantia nigra through adeno-associated virus expressing a constitutively active type I receptor significantly reduces 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration and motor deficits. These results suggest that TGF-β signaling is critical for adult DA neuron survival and that modulating this signaling pathway has therapeutic potential in Parkinson disease.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show that reducing Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling promotes Parkinson disease-related pathologies and motor deficits, and increasing TGF-β signaling reduces neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a parkinsonism-inducing agent. Our results provide a rationale to pursue a means of increasing TGF-β signaling as a potential therapy for Parkinson's disease.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - R01 AG020603()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R21 AG023708()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS092868()

Quantitative High-Throughput Screening Using a Coincidence Reporter Biocircuit.

  • Schuck BW
  • Curr Protoc Neurosci
  • 2017 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Reporter-biased artifacts-i.e., compounds that interact directly with the reporter enzyme used in a high-throughput screening (HTS) assay and not the biological process or pharmacology being interrogated-are now widely recognized to reduce the efficiency and quality of HTS used for chemical probe and therapeutic development. Furthermore, narrow or single-concentration HTS perpetuates false negatives during primary screening campaigns. Titration-based HTS, or quantitative HTS (qHTS), and coincidence reporter technology can be employed to reduce false negatives and false positives, respectively, thereby increasing the quality and efficiency of primary screening efforts, where the number of compounds investigated can range from tens of thousands to millions. The three protocols described here allow for generation of a coincidence reporter (CR) biocircuit to interrogate a biological or pharmacological question of interest, generation of a stable cell line expressing the CR biocircuit, and qHTS using the CR biocircuit to efficiently identify high-quality biologically active small molecules. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Funding information:
  • Intramural NIH HHS - Z99 TR999999()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA TR000052-01()
  • Intramural NIH HHS - ZIA TR000053-01()

Celastrol-Induced Nur77 Interaction with TRAF2 Alleviates Inflammation by Promoting Mitochondrial Ubiquitination and Autophagy.

  • Hu M
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mitochondria play an integral role in cell death, autophagy, immunity, and inflammation. We previously showed that Nur77, an orphan nuclear receptor, induces apoptosis by targeting mitochondria. Here, we report that celastrol, a potent anti-inflammatory pentacyclic triterpene, binds Nur77 to inhibit inflammation and induce autophagy in a Nur77-dependent manner. Celastrol promotes Nur77 translocation from the nucleus to mitochondria, where it interacts with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), a scaffold protein and E3 ubiquitin ligase important for inflammatory signaling. The interaction is mediated by an LxxLL motif in TRAF2 and results not only in the inhibition of TRAF2 ubiquitination but also in Lys63-linked Nur77 ubiquitination. Under inflammatory conditions, ubiquitinated Nur77 resides at mitochondria, rendering them sensitive to autophagy, an event involving Nur77 interaction with p62/SQSTM1. Together, our results identify Nur77 as a critical intracellular target for celastrol and unravel a mechanism of Nur77-dependent clearance of inflamed mitochondria to alleviate inflammation.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - 1P30 DA035756-01(United States)

Molecular Basis of Substrate Specific Acetylation by N-Terminal Acetyltransferase NatB.

  • Hong H
  • Structure
  • 2017 Apr 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

The NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase specifically acetylates the N-terminal group of substrate protein peptides starting with Met-Asp/Glu/Asn/Gln. How NatB recognizes and acetylates these substrates remains unknown. Here, we report crystal structures of a NatB holoenzyme from Candida albicans in the presence of its co-factor CoA and substrate peptides. The auxiliary subunit Naa25 of NatB forms a horseshoe-like deck to hold specifically its catalytic subunit Naa20. The first two amino acids Met and Asp of a substrate peptide mediate the major interactions with the active site in the Naa20 subunit. The hydrogen bonds between the substrate Asp and pocket residues of Naa20 are essential to determine the NatB substrate specificity. Moreover, a hydrogen bond between the amino group of the substrate Met and a carbonyl group in the Naa20 active site directly anchors the substrate toward acetyl-CoA. Together, these structures define a unique molecular mechanism of specific N-terminal acetylation acted by NatB.

Circ-ZNF609 Is a Circular RNA that Can Be Translated and Functions in Myogenesis.

  • Legnini I
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) constitute a family of transcripts with unique structures and still largely unknown functions. Their biogenesis, which proceeds via a back-splicing reaction, is fairly well characterized, whereas their role in the modulation of physiologically relevant processes is still unclear. Here we performed expression profiling of circRNAs during in vitro differentiation of murine and human myoblasts, and we identified conserved species regulated in myogenesis and altered in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. A high-content functional genomic screen allowed the study of their functional role in muscle differentiation. One of them, circ-ZNF609, resulted in specifically controlling myoblast proliferation. Circ-ZNF609 contains an open reading frame spanning from the start codon, in common with the linear transcript, and terminating at an in-frame STOP codon, created upon circularization. Circ-ZNF609 is associated with heavy polysomes, and it is translated into a protein in a splicing-dependent and cap-independent manner, providing an example of a protein-coding circRNA in eukaryotes.

Funding information:
  • Telethon - GGP16213()

RNA Helicase DDX5 Inhibits Reprogramming to Pluripotency by miRNA-Based Repression of RYBP and its PRC1-Dependent and -Independent Functions.

  • Li H
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), in addition to their functions in cellular homeostasis, play important roles in lineage specification and maintaining cellular identity. Despite their diverse and essential functions, which touch on nearly all aspects of RNA metabolism, the roles of RBPs in somatic cell reprogramming are poorly understood. Here we show that the DEAD-box RBP DDX5 inhibits reprogramming by repressing the expression and function of the non-canonical polycomb complex 1 (PRC1) subunit RYBP. Disrupting Ddx5 expression improves the efficiency of iPSC generation and impedes processing of miR-125b, leading to Rybp upregulation and suppression of lineage-specific genes via RYBP-dependent ubiquitination of H2AK119. Furthermore, RYBP is required for PRC1-independent recruitment of OCT4 to the promoter of Kdm2b, a histone demethylase gene that promotes reprogramming by reactivating endogenous pluripotency genes. Together, these results reveal important functions of DDX5 in regulating reprogramming and highlight the importance of a Ddx5-miR125b-Rybp axis in controlling cell fate.

LSM12 and ME31B/DDX6 Define Distinct Modes of Posttranscriptional Regulation by ATAXIN-2 Protein Complex in Drosophila Circadian Pacemaker Neurons.

  • Lee J
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 6

Literature context:


Abstract:

ATAXIN-2 (ATX2) has been implicated in human neurodegenerative diseases, yet it remains elusive how ATX2 assembles specific protein complexes to execute its physiological roles. Here we employ the posttranscriptional co-activator function of Drosophila ATX2 to demonstrate that LSM12 and ME31B/DDX6 are two ATX2-associating factors crucial for sustaining circadian rhythms. LSM12 acts as a molecular adaptor for the recruitment of TWENTY-FOUR (TYF) to ATX2. The ATX2-LSM12-TYF complex thereby stimulates TYF-dependent translation of the rate-limiting clock gene period (per) to maintain 24 hr periodicity in circadian behaviors. In contrast, ATX2 contributes to NOT1-mediated gene silencing and associates with NOT1 in a ME31B/DDX6-dependent manner. The ME31B/DDX6-NOT1 complex does not affect PER translation but supports high-amplitude behavioral rhythms along with ATX2, indicating a PER-independent clock function of ATX2. Taken together, these data suggest that the ATX2 complex may switch distinct modes of posttranscriptional regulation through its associating factors to control circadian clocks and ATX2-related physiology.

Myrf ER-Bound Transcription Factors Drive C. elegans Synaptic Plasticity via Cleavage-Dependent Nuclear Translocation.

  • Meng J
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synaptic refinement is a critical step in nervous system maturation, requiring a carefully timed reorganization and refinement of neuronal connections. We have identified myrf-1 and myrf-2, two C. elegans homologs of Myrf family transcription factors, as key regulators of synaptic rewiring. MYRF-1 and its paralog MYRF-2 are functionally redundant specifically in synaptic rewiring. They co-exist in the same protein complex and act cooperatively to regulate synaptic rewiring. We find that the MYRF proteins localize to the ER membrane and that they are cleaved into active N-terminal fragments, which then translocate into the nucleus to drive synaptic rewiring. Overexpression of active forms of MYRF is sufficient to accelerate synaptic rewiring. MYRF-1 and MYRF-2 are the first genes identified to be indispensable for promoting synaptic rewiring in C. elegans. These findings reveal a molecular mechanism underlying synaptic rewiring and developmental circuit plasticity.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - P40 OD010440()
  • NIH HHS - R01 NS035546()

Aubergine Controls Germline Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Progeny Differentiation via Distinct Mechanisms.

  • Ma X
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Piwi family protein Aubergine (Aub) maintains genome integrity in late germ cells of the Drosophila ovary through Piwi-associated RNA-mediated repression of transposon activities. Although it is highly expressed in germline stem cells (GSCs) and early progeny, it remains unclear whether it plays any roles in early GSC lineage development. Here we report that Aub promotes GSC self-renewal and GSC progeny differentiation. RNA-iCLIP results show that Aub binds the mRNAs encoding self-renewal and differentiation factors in cultured GSCs. Aub controls GSC self-renewal by preventing DNA-damage-induced Chk2 activation and by translationally controlling the expression of self-renewal factors. It promotes GSC progeny differentiation by translationally controlling the expression of differentiation factors, including Bam. Therefore, this study reveals a function of Aub in GSCs and their progeny, which promotes translation of self-renewal and differentiation factors by directly binding to its target mRNAs and interacting with translational initiation factors.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL133166(United States)

Thermo-Induced Maintenance of Photo-oxidoreductases Underlies Plant Autotrophic Development.

  • Ha JH
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chlorophyll biosynthesis enables autotrophic development of developing seedlings. Upon light exposure, the chlorophyll precursor protochlorophyllide produces reactive oxygen species (ROS). Developing seedlings acquire photosynthetic competence through the action of protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (PORs) that convert protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, reducing ROS production that would otherwise induce cellular damage and chlorophyll bleaching. Here, we show that FCA mediates the thermostabilization of PORs to trigger the conversion of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide in developing seedlings. FCA also facilitates the thermal induction of POR genes through histone acetylation that promotes the accessibility of RNA polymerases to the gene promoters. The combined action of FCA maintains PORs at warm temperatures, shifting the chlorophyll-ROS balance toward autotrophic development. We propose that the FCA-mediated thermal adaptation of autotrophic development allows developing seedlings to cope with the heat-absorbing soil surface layer under natural conditions. The thermal adaptive mechanism would provide a potential basis for studying crop performance at warm temperatures.

Co-option of an endogenous retrovirus envelope for host defense in hominid ancestors.

  • Blanco-Melo D
  • Elife
  • 2017 Apr 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Endogenous retroviral sequences provide a molecular fossil record of ancient infections whose analysis might illuminate mechanisms of viral extinction. A close relative of gammaretroviruses, HERV-T, circulated in primates for ~25 million years (MY) before apparent extinction within the past ~8 MY. Construction of a near-complete catalog of HERV-T fossils in primate genomes allowed us to estimate a ~32 MY old ancestral sequence and reconstruct a functional envelope protein (ancHTenv) that could support infection of a pseudotyped modern gammaretrovirus. Using ancHTenv, we identify monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT-1) as a receptor used by HERV-T for attachment and infection. A single HERV-T provirus in hominid genomes includes an env gene (hsaHTenv) that has been uniquely preserved. This apparently exapted HERV-T env could not support virion infection but could block ancHTenv mediated infection, by causing MCT-1 depletion from cell surfaces. Thus, hsaHTenv may have contributed to HERV-T extinction, and could also potentially regulate cellular metabolism.

Pyroptosis and Apoptosis Pathways Engage in Bidirectional Crosstalk in Monocytes and Macrophages.

  • Taabazuing CY
  • Cell Chem Biol
  • 2017 Apr 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pyroptosis is a lytic form of programmed cell death mediated by the inflammatory caspase-1, -4, and -5. We recently discovered that small-molecule inhibitors of the serine peptidases DPP8 and DPP9 (DPP8/9) induce pro-caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis in monocytes and macrophages. Notably, DPP8/9 inhibitors, unlike microbial agents, absolutely require caspase-1 to induce cell death. Therefore, DPP8/9 inhibitors are useful probes to study caspase-1 in cells. Here, we show that, in the absence of the pyroptosis-mediating substrate gasdermin D (GSDMD), caspase-1 activates caspase-3 and -7 and induces apoptosis, demonstrating that GSDMD is the only caspase-1 substrate that induces pyroptosis. Conversely, we found that, during apoptosis, caspase-3/-7 specifically block pyroptosis by cleaving GSDMD at a distinct site from the inflammatory caspases that inactivates the protein. Overall, this work reveals bidirectional crosstalk between apoptosis and pyroptosis in monocytes and macrophages, further illuminating the complex interplay between cell death pathways in the innate immune system.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA008748()

Spectraplakin Induces Positive Feedback between Fusogens and the Actin Cytoskeleton to Promote Cell-Cell Fusion.

  • Yang Y
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Apr 10

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cell-cell fusion generally requires cellular fusogenic proteins and actin-propelled membrane protrusions. However, the molecular connections between fusogens and the actin cytoskeleton remain unclear. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans fusogen EFF-1 and F-actin are enriched at the cortex of the post-embryonic fusing cells, and conditional mutations of WASP and Arp2/3 delay cell-cell fusion by impairing EFF-1 localization. Our affinity purification and mass spectrometry analyses determined that an actin-binding protein, spectraplakin/VAB-10A, binds to EFF-1. VAB-10A promotes cell-cell fusion by linking EFF-1 to the actin cytoskeleton. Conversely, EFF-1 enhanced the F-actin bundling activity of VAB-10A in vitro, and actin dynamics in the cortex were reduced in eff-1 or vab-10a mutants. Thus, cell-cell fusion is promoted by a positive feedback loop in which actin filaments that are crosslinked by spectraplakin to recruit fusogens to fusion sites are reinforced via fusogens, thereby increasing the probability of further fusogen accumulation to form fusion synapses.

ARPP-16 Is a Striatal-Enriched Inhibitor of Protein Phosphatase 2A Regulated by Microtubule-Associated Serine/Threonine Kinase 3 (Mast 3 Kinase).

  • Andrade EC
  • J. Neurosci.
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

ARPP-16 (cAMP-regulated phospho-protein of molecular weight 16 kDa) is one of several small acid-soluble proteins highly expressed in medium spiny neurons of striatum that are phosphorylated in response to dopamine acting via D1 receptor/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. We show here that ARPP-16 is also phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo by microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase 3 (MAST3 kinase), an enzyme of previously unknown function that is enriched in striatum. We find that ARPP-16 interacts directly with the scaffolding A subunit of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase, PP2A, and that phosphorylation of ARPP-16 at Ser46 by MAST3 kinase converts the protein into a selective inhibitor of B55α- and B56δ-containing heterotrimeric forms of PP2A. Ser46 of ARPP-16 is phosphorylated to a high basal stoichiometry in striatum, suggestive of basal inhibition of PP2A in striatal neurons. In support of this hypothesis, conditional knock-out of ARPP-16 in CaMKIIα::cre/floxed ARPP-16/19 mice results in dephosphorylation of a subset of PP2A substrates including phospho-Thr75-DARPP-32, phospho-T308-Akt, and phospho-T202/Y204-ERK. Conditional knock-out of ARPP-16/19 is associated with increased motivation measured on a progressive ratio schedule of food reinforcement, yet an attenuated locomotor response to acute cocaine. Our previous studies have shown that ARPP-16 is phosphorylated at Ser88 by PKA. Activation of PKA in striatal slices leads to phosphorylation of Ser88, and this is accompanied by marked dephosphorylation of Ser46. Together, these studies suggest that phospho-Ser46-ARPP-16 acts to basally control PP2A in striatal medium spiny neurons but that dopamine acting via PKA inactivates ARPP-16 leading to selective potentiation of PP2A signaling.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We describe a novel mechanism of signal transduction enriched in medium spiny neurons of striatum that likely mediates effects of the neurotransmitter dopamine acting on these cells. We find that the protein ARPP-16, which is highly expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons, acts as a selective inhibitor of certain forms of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase, PP2A, when phosphorylated by the kinase, MAST3. Under basal conditions, ARPP-16 is phosphorylated by MAST3 to a very high stoichiometry. However, the actions of MAST3 are antagonized by dopamine and cAMP-regulated signaling leading to disinhibition of ARPP-16 and increased PP2A action.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR001863()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - P30 DA018343()

Nek7 Protects Telomeres from Oxidative DNA Damage by Phosphorylation and Stabilization of TRF1.

  • Tan R
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Telomeric repeat binding factor 1 (TRF1) is essential to the maintenance of telomere chromatin structure and integrity. However, how telomere integrity is maintained, especially in response to damage, remains poorly understood. Here, we identify Nek7, a member of the Never in Mitosis Gene A (NIMA) kinase family, as a regulator of telomere integrity. Nek7 is recruited to telomeres and stabilizes TRF1 at telomeres after damage in an ATM activation-dependent manner. Nek7 deficiency leads to telomere aberrations, long-lasting γH2AX and 53BP1 foci, and augmented cell death upon oxidative telomeric DNA damage. Mechanistically, Nek7 interacts with and phosphorylates TRF1 on Ser114, which prevents TRF1 from binding to Fbx4, an Skp1-Cul1-F box E3 ligase subunit, thereby alleviating proteasomal degradation of TRF1, leading to a stable association of TRF1 with Tin2 to form a shelterin complex. Our data reveal a mechanism of efficient protection of telomeres from damage through Nek7-dependent stabilization of TRF1.

SoxC Transcription Factors Promote Contralateral Retinal Ganglion Cell Differentiation and Axon Guidance in the Mouse Visual System.

  • Kuwajima T
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Transcription factors control cell identity by regulating diverse developmental steps such as differentiation and axon guidance. The mammalian binocular visual circuit is comprised of projections of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to ipsilateral and contralateral targets in the brain. A transcriptional code for ipsilateral RGC identity has been identified, but less is known about the transcriptional regulation of contralateral RGC development. Here we demonstrate that SoxC genes (Sox4, 11, and 12) act on the progenitor-to-postmitotic transition to implement contralateral, but not ipsilateral, RGC differentiation, by binding to Hes5 and thus repressing Notch signaling. When SoxC genes are deleted in postmitotic RGCs, contralateral RGC axons grow poorly on chiasm cells in vitro and project ipsilaterally at the chiasm midline in vivo, and Plexin-A1 and Nr-CAM expression in RGCs is downregulated. These data implicate SoxC transcription factors in the regulation of contralateral RGC differentiation and axon guidance.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY012736()
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY015290()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR046249()
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - R01 AR060016()

GARLH Family Proteins Stabilize GABAA Receptors at Synapses.

  • Yamasaki T
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Mar 8

Literature context:


Abstract:

Ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors mediate fast synaptic transmission by functioning as ligand-gated ion channels. Fast inhibitory transmission in the brain is mediated mostly by ionotropic GABAA receptors (GABAARs), but their essential components for synaptic localization remain unknown. Here, we identify putative auxiliary subunits of GABAARs, which we term GARLHs, consisting of LH4 and LH3 proteins. LH4 forms a stable tripartite complex with GABAARs and neuroligin-2 in the brain. Moreover, LH4 is required for the synaptic localization of GABAARs and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Our findings propose GARLHs as the first identified auxiliary subunits for anion channels. These findings provide new insights into the regulation of inhibitory transmission and the molecular constituents of native anion channels in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NCATS NIH HHS - UL1 TR001863()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - T32 GM007205()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - F30 MH099742()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - U01 MH104984()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U24 NS050606()

The Super Elongation Complex Drives Neural Stem Cell Fate Commitment.

  • Liu K
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Asymmetric stem cell division establishes an initial difference between a stem cell and its differentiating sibling, critical for maintaining homeostasis and preventing carcinogenesis. Yet the mechanisms that consolidate and lock in such initial fate bias remain obscure. Here, we use Drosophila neuroblasts to demonstrate that the super elongation complex (SEC) acts as an intrinsic amplifier to drive cell fate commitment. SEC is highly expressed in neuroblasts, where it promotes self-renewal by physically associating with Notch transcription activation complex and enhancing HES (hairy and E(spl)) transcription. HES in turn upregulates SEC activity, forming an unexpected self-reinforcing feedback loop with SEC. SEC inactivation leads to neuroblast loss, whereas its forced activation results in neural progenitor dedifferentiation and tumorigenesis. Our studies unveil an SEC-mediated intracellular amplifier mechanism in ensuring robustness and precision in stem cell fate commitment and provide mechanistic explanation for the highly frequent association of SEC overactivation with human cancers.

PCGF6-PRC1 suppresses premature differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells by regulating germ cell-related genes.

  • Endoh M
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

The ring finger protein PCGF6 (polycomb group ring finger 6) interacts with RING1A/B and E2F6 associated factors to form a non-canonical PRC1 (polycomb repressive complex 1) known as PCGF6-PRC1. Here, we demonstrate that PCGF6-PRC1 plays a role in repressing a subset of PRC1 target genes by recruiting RING1B and mediating downstream mono-ubiquitination of histone H2A. PCGF6-PRC1 bound loci are highly enriched for promoters of germ cell-related genes in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Conditional ablation of Pcgf6 in ESCs leads to robust de-repression of such germ cell-related genes, in turn affecting cell growth and viability. We also find a role for PCGF6 in pre- and peri-implantation mouse embryonic development. We further show that a heterodimer of the transcription factors MAX and MGA recruits PCGF6 to target loci. PCGF6 thus links sequence specific target recognition by the MAX/MGA complex to PRC1-dependent transcriptional silencing of germ cell-specific genes in pluripotent stem cells.

Constitutive scaffolding of multiple Wnt enhanceosome components by Legless/BCL9.

  • van Tienen LM
  • Elife
  • 2017 Mar 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Wnt/β-catenin signaling elicits context-dependent transcription switches that determine normal development and oncogenesis. These are mediated by the Wnt enhanceosome, a multiprotein complex binding to the Pygo chromatin reader and acting through TCF/LEF-responsive enhancers. Pygo renders this complex Wnt-responsive, by capturing β-catenin via the Legless/BCL9 adaptor. We used CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering of Drosophila legless (lgs) and human BCL9 and B9L to show that the C-terminus downstream of their adaptor elements is crucial for Wnt responses. BioID proximity labeling revealed that BCL9 and B9L, like PYGO2, are constitutive components of the Wnt enhanceosome. Wnt-dependent docking of β-catenin to the enhanceosome apparently causes a rearrangement that apposes the BCL9/B9L C-terminus to TCF. This C-terminus binds to the Groucho/TLE co-repressor, and also to the Chip/LDB1-SSDP enhanceosome core complex via an evolutionary conserved element. An unexpected link between BCL9/B9L, PYGO2 and nuclear co-receptor complexes suggests that these β-catenin co-factors may coordinate Wnt and nuclear hormone responses.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U105184273()
  • Medical Research Council - MC_U105192713()

CaMKII Signaling Stimulates Mef2c Activity In Vitro but Only Minimally Affects Murine Long Bone Development in vivo.

  • Amara CS
  • Front Cell Dev Biol
  • 2017 Mar 31

Literature context:


Abstract:

The long bones of vertebrate limbs form by endochondral ossification, whereby mesenchymal cells differentiate into chondrogenic progenitors, which then differentiate into chondrocytes. Chondrocytes undergo further differentiation from proliferating to prehypertrophic, and finally to hypertrophic chondrocytes. Several signaling pathways and transcription factors regulate this process. Previously, we and others have shown in chicken that overexpression of an activated form of Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) results in ectopic chondrocyte maturation. Here, we show that this is not the case in the mouse. Although, in vitro Mef2c activity was upregulated by about 55-fold in response to expression of an activated form of CaMKII (DACaMKII), transgenic mice that expressed a dominant-active form of CaMKII under the control of the Col2a1 regulatory elements display only a very transient and mild phenotype. Here, only the onset of chondrocyte hypertrophy at E12.5 is accelerated. It is also this early step in chondrocyte differentiation that is temporarily delayed around E13.5 in transgenic mice expressing the peptide inhibitor CaM-KIIN from rat (rKIIN) under the control of the Col2a1 regulatory elements. Yet, ultimately DACaMKII, as well as rKIIN transgenic mice are born with completely normal skeletal elements with regard to their length and growth plate organization. Hence, our in vivo analysis suggests that CaMKII signaling plays a minor role in chondrocyte maturation in mice.

Single-Molecule Analysis of mtDNA Replication Uncovers the Basis of the Common Deletion.

  • Phillips AF
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Mutations in mtDNA lead to muscular and neurological diseases and are linked to aging. The most frequent aberrancy is the "common deletion" that involves a 4,977-bp region flanked by 13-bp repeats. To investigate the basis of this deletion, we developed a single-molecule mtDNA combing method. The analysis of replicating mtDNA molecules provided in vivo evidence in support of the asymmetric mode of replication. Furthermore, we observed frequent fork stalling at the junction of the common deletion, suggesting that impaired replication triggers the formation of this toxic lesion. In parallel experiments, we employed mito-TALENs to induce breaks in distinct loci of the mitochondrial genome and found that breaks adjacent to the 5' repeat trigger the common deletion. Interestingly, this process was mediated by the mitochondrial replisome independent of canonical DSB repair. Altogether, our data underscore a unique replication-dependent repair pathway that leads to the mitochondrial common deletion.

Paf1 Has Distinct Roles in Transcription Elongation and Differential Transcript Fate.

  • Fischl H
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

RNA polymerase II (Pol2) movement through chromatin and the co-transcriptional processing and fate of nascent transcripts is coordinated by transcription elongation factors (TEFs) such as polymerase-associated factor 1 (Paf1), but it is not known whether TEFs have gene-specific functions. Using strand-specific nucleotide resolution techniques, we show that levels of Paf1 on Pol2 vary between genes, are controlled dynamically by environmental factors via promoters, and reflect levels of processing and export factors on the encoded transcript. High levels of Paf1 on Pol2 promote transcript nuclear export, whereas low levels reflect nuclear retention. Strains lacking Paf1 show marked elongation defects, although low levels of Paf1 on Pol2 are sufficient for transcription elongation. Our findings support distinct Paf1 functions: a core general function in transcription elongation, satisfied by the lowest Paf1 levels, and a regulatory function in determining differential transcript fate by varying the level of Paf1 on Pol2.

Resolving Heart Regeneration by Replacement Histone Profiling.

  • Goldman JA
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Chromatin regulation is a principal mechanism governing animal development, yet it is unclear to what extent structural changes in chromatin underlie tissue regeneration. Non-mammalian vertebrates such as zebrafish activate cardiomyocyte (CM) division after tissue damage to regenerate lost heart muscle. Here, we generated transgenic zebrafish expressing a biotinylatable H3.3 histone variant in CMs and derived cell-type-specific profiles of histone replacement. We identified an emerging program of putative enhancers that revise H3.3 occupancy during regeneration, overlaid upon a genome-wide reduction of H3.3 from promoters. In transgenic reporter lines, H3.3-enriched elements directed gene expression in subpopulations of CMs. Other elements increased H3.3 enrichment and displayed enhancer activity in settings of injury- and/or Neuregulin1-elicited CM proliferation. Dozens of consensus sequence motifs containing predicted transcription factor binding sites were enriched in genomic regions with regeneration-responsive H3.3 occupancy. Thus, cell-type-specific regulatory programs of tissue regeneration can be revealed by genome-wide H3.3 profiling.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - F32 HL120494()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - K08 HL116485()
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R01 HL081674()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM098461()

The Drosophila speciation factor HMR localizes to genomic insulator sites.

  • Gerland TA
  • PLoS ONE
  • 2017 Feb 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hybrid incompatibility between Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans is caused by a lethal interaction of the proteins encoded by the Hmr and Lhr genes. In D. melanogaster the loss of HMR results in mitotic defects, an increase in transcription of transposable elements and a deregulation of heterochromatic genes. To better understand the molecular mechanisms that mediate HMR's function, we measured genome-wide localization of HMR in D. melanogaster tissue culture cells by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Interestingly, we find HMR localizing to genomic insulator sites that can be classified into two groups. One group belongs to gypsy insulators and another one borders HP1a bound regions at active genes. The transcription of the latter group genes is strongly affected in larvae and ovaries of Hmr mutant flies. Our data suggest a novel link between HMR and insulator proteins, a finding that implicates a potential role for genome organization in the formation of species.

Ligand and Target Discovery by Fragment-Based Screening in Human Cells.

  • Parker CG
  • Cell
  • 2017 Jan 26

Literature context:


Abstract:

Advances in the synthesis and screening of small-molecule libraries have accelerated the discovery of chemical probes for studying biological processes. Still, only a small fraction of the human proteome has chemical ligands. Here, we describe a platform that marries fragment-based ligand discovery with quantitative chemical proteomics to map thousands of reversible small molecule-protein interactions directly in human cells, many of which can be site-specifically determined. We show that fragment hits can be advanced to furnish selective ligands that affect the activity of proteins heretofore lacking chemical probes. We further combine fragment-based chemical proteomics with phenotypic screening to identify small molecules that promote adipocyte differentiation by engaging the poorly characterized membrane protein PGRMC2. Fragment-based screening in human cells thus provides an extensive proteome-wide map of protein ligandability and facilitates the coordinated discovery of bioactive small molecules and their molecular targets.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA132630()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R24 DK099810()
  • NIH HHS - S10 OD016357()

Loss of Nardilysin, a Mitochondrial Co-chaperone for α-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase, Promotes mTORC1 Activation and Neurodegeneration.

  • Yoon WH
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jan 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

We previously identified mutations in Nardilysin (dNrd1) in a forward genetic screen designed to isolate genes whose loss causes neurodegeneration in Drosophila photoreceptor neurons. Here we show that NRD1 is localized to mitochondria, where it recruits mitochondrial chaperones and assists in the folding of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH), a rate-limiting enzyme in the Krebs cycle. Loss of Nrd1 or Ogdh leads to an increase in α-ketoglutarate, a substrate for OGDH, which in turn leads to mTORC1 activation and a subsequent reduction in autophagy. Inhibition of mTOR activity by rapamycin or partially restoring autophagy delays neurodegeneration in dNrd1 mutant flies. In summary, this study reveals a novel role for NRD1 as a mitochondrial co-chaperone for OGDH and provides a mechanistic link between mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction, mTORC1 signaling, and impaired autophagy in neurodegeneration.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - T32 NS043124()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA125123()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - U54 HG006542()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - U54 HD083092()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - K12 GM084897()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM098387()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 NS058529()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - RC4 GM096355()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - K08 NS076547()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 GM067858()

An Ancient, Unified Mechanism for Metformin Growth Inhibition in C. elegans and Cancer.

  • Wu L
  • Cell
  • 2016 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Metformin has utility in cancer prevention and treatment, though the mechanisms for these effects remain elusive. Through genetic screening in C. elegans, we uncover two metformin response elements: the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family member-10 (ACAD10). We demonstrate that biguanides inhibit growth by inhibiting mitochondrial respiratory capacity, which restrains transit of the RagA-RagC GTPase heterodimer through the NPC. Nuclear exclusion renders RagC incapable of gaining the GDP-bound state necessary to stimulate mTORC1. Biguanide-induced inactivation of mTORC1 subsequently inhibits growth through transcriptional induction of ACAD10. This ancient metformin response pathway is conserved from worms to humans. Both restricted nuclear pore transit and upregulation of ACAD10 are required for biguanides to reduce viability in melanoma and pancreatic cancer cells, and to extend C. elegans lifespan. This pathway provides a unified mechanism by which metformin kills cancer cells and extends lifespan, and illuminates potential cancer targets. PAPERCLIP.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA166717()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K01 DK098285()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - K08 DK087941()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK040561()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK057521()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK072041()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK101522()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R03 DK098436()
  • NIH HHS - P40 OD010440()

Two subunits of human ORC are dispensable for DNA replication and proliferation.

  • Shibata E
  • Elife
  • 2016 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The six-subunit Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) is believed to be an essential eukaryotic ATPase that binds to origins of replication as a ring-shaped heterohexamer to load MCM2-7 and initiate DNA replication. We have discovered that human cell lines in culture proliferate with intact chromosomal origins of replication after disruption of both alleles of ORC2 or of the ATPase subunit, ORC1. The ORC1 or ORC2-depleted cells replicate with decreased chromatin loading of MCM2-7 and become critically dependent on another ATPase, CDC6, for survival and DNA replication. Thus, either the ORC ring lacking a subunit, even its ATPase subunit, can load enough MCM2-7 in partnership with CDC6 to initiate DNA replication, or cells have an ORC-independent, CDC6-dependent mechanism to load MCM2-7 on origins of replication.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - DC 00716(United States)

Mutations in Three Genes Encoding Proteins Involved in Hair Shaft Formation Cause Uncombable Hair Syndrome.

  • Ü Basmanav FB
  • Am. J. Hum. Genet.
  • 2016 Dec 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Uncombable hair syndrome (UHS), also known as "spun glass hair syndrome," "pili trianguli et canaliculi," or "cheveux incoiffables" is a rare anomaly of the hair shaft that occurs in children and improves with age. UHS is characterized by dry, frizzy, spangly, and often fair hair that is resistant to being combed flat. Until now, both simplex and familial UHS-affected case subjects with autosomal-dominant as well as -recessive inheritance have been reported. However, none of these case subjects were linked to a molecular genetic cause. Here, we report the identification of UHS-causative mutations located in the three genes PADI3 (peptidylarginine deiminase 3), TGM3 (transglutaminase 3), and TCHH (trichohyalin) in a total of 11 children. All of these individuals carry homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in one of these three genes, indicating an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern in the majority of UHS case subjects. The two enzymes PADI3 and TGM3, responsible for posttranslational protein modifications, and their target structural protein TCHH are all involved in hair shaft formation. Elucidation of the molecular outcomes of the disease-causing mutations by cell culture experiments and tridimensional protein models demonstrated clear differences in the structural organization and activity of mutant and wild-type proteins. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed morphological alterations in hair coat of Padi3 knockout mice. All together, these findings elucidate the molecular genetic causes of UHS and shed light on its pathophysiology and hair physiology in general.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - 1R21EB017539-01A1(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS039444(United States)

DNA methylation directs genomic localization of Mbd2 and Mbd3 in embryonic stem cells.

  • Hainer SJ
  • Elife
  • 2016 Nov 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic and regulatory mark that functions in part through recruitment of chromatin remodeling complexes containing methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) proteins. Two MBD proteins, Mbd2 and Mbd3, were previously shown to bind methylated or hydroxymethylated DNA, respectively; however, both of these findings have been disputed. Here, we investigated this controversy using experimental approaches and re-analysis of published data and find no evidence for methylation-independent functions of Mbd2 or Mbd3. We show that chromatin localization of Mbd2 and Mbd3 is highly overlapping and, unexpectedly, we find Mbd2 and Mbd3 are interdependent for chromatin association. Further investigation reveals that both proteins are required for normal levels of cytosine methylation and hydroxymethylation in murine embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, Mbd2 and Mbd3 regulate overlapping sets of genes that are also regulated by DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation factors. These findings reveal an interdependent regulatory mechanism mediated by the DNA methylation machinery and its readers.

Recreating the synthesis of starch granules in yeast.

  • Pfister B
  • Elife
  • 2016 Nov 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Starch, as the major nutritional component of our staple crops and a feedstock for industry, is a vital plant product. It is composed of glucose polymers that form massive semi-crystalline granules. Its precise structure and composition determine its functionality and thus applications; however, there is no versatile model system allowing the relationships between the biosynthetic apparatus, glucan structure and properties to be explored. Here, we expressed the core Arabidopsis starch-biosynthesis pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae purged of its endogenous glycogen-metabolic enzymes. Systematic variation of the set of biosynthetic enzymes illustrated how each affects glucan structure and solubility. Expression of the complete set resulted in dense, insoluble granules with a starch-like semi-crystalline organization, demonstrating that this system indeed simulates starch biosynthesis. Thus, the yeast system has the potential to accelerate starch research and help create a holistic understanding of starch granule biosynthesis, providing a basis for the targeted biotechnological improvement of crops.

ATPase activity of the DEAD-box protein Dhh1 controls processing body formation.

  • Mugler CF
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Translational repression and mRNA degradation are critical mechanisms of posttranscriptional gene regulation that help cells respond to internal and external cues. In response to certain stress conditions, many mRNA decay factors are enriched in processing bodies (PBs), cellular structures involved in degradation and/or storage of mRNAs. Yet, how cells regulate assembly and disassembly of PBs remains poorly understood. Here, we show that in budding yeast, mutations in the DEAD-box ATPase Dhh1 that prevent ATP hydrolysis, or that affect the interaction between Dhh1 and Not1, the central scaffold of the CCR4-NOT complex and an activator of the Dhh1 ATPase, prevent PB disassembly in vivo. Intriguingly, this process can be recapitulated in vitro, since recombinant Dhh1 and RNA, in the presence of ATP, phase-separate into liquid droplets that rapidly dissolve upon addition of Not1. Our results identify the ATPase activity of Dhh1 as a critical regulator of PB formation.

Rickettsia Sca4 Reduces Vinculin-Mediated Intercellular Tension to Promote Spread.

  • Lamason RL
  • Cell
  • 2016 Oct 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae are human pathogens that infect cells in the vasculature. They disseminate through host tissues by a process of cell-to-cell spread that involves protrusion formation, engulfment, and vacuolar escape. Other bacterial pathogens rely on actin-based motility to provide a physical force for spread. Here, we show that SFG species Rickettsia parkeri typically lack actin tails during spread and instead manipulate host intercellular tension and mechanotransduction to promote spread. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified surface cell antigen 4 (Sca4) as a secreted effector of spread that specifically promotes protrusion engulfment. Sca4 interacts with the cell-adhesion protein vinculin and blocks association with vinculin's binding partner, α-catenin. Using traction and monolayer stress microscopy, we show that Sca4 reduces vinculin-dependent mechanotransduction at cell-cell junctions. Our results suggest that Sca4 relieves intercellular tension to promote protrusion engulfment, which represents a distinctive strategy for manipulating cytoskeletal force generation to enable spread.

TP53 exon-6 truncating mutations produce separation of function isoforms with pro-tumorigenic functions.

  • Shirole NH
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

TP53 truncating mutations are common in human tumors and are thought to give rise to p53-null alleles. Here, we show that TP53 exon-6 truncating mutations occur at higher than expected frequencies and produce proteins that lack canonical p53 tumor suppressor activities but promote cancer cell proliferation, survival, and metastasis. Functionally and molecularly, these p53 mutants resemble the naturally occurring alternative p53 splice variant, p53-psi. Accordingly, these mutants can localize to the mitochondria where they promote tumor phenotypes by binding and activating the mitochondria inner pore permeability regulator, Cyclophilin D (CypD). Together, our studies reveal that TP53 exon-6 truncating mutations, contrary to current beliefs, act beyond p53 loss to promote tumorigenesis, and could inform the development of strategies to target cancers driven by these prevalent mutations.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY006069(United States)

Regulation of mTORC1 by lysosomal calcium and calmodulin.

  • Li RJ
  • Elife
  • 2016 Oct 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Blockade of lysosomal calcium release due to lysosomal lipid accumulation has been shown to inhibit mTORC1 signaling. However, the mechanism by which lysosomal calcium regulates mTORC1 has remained undefined. Herein we report that proper lysosomal calcium release through the calcium channel TRPML1 is required for mTORC1 activation. TRPML1 depletion inhibits mTORC1 activity, while overexpression or pharmacologic activation of TRPML1 has the opposite effect. Lysosomal calcium activates mTORC1 by inducing association of calmodulin (CaM) with mTOR. Blocking the interaction between mTOR and CaM by antagonists of CaM significantly inhibits mTORC1 activity. Moreover, CaM is capable of stimulating the kinase activity of mTORC1 in a calcium-dependent manner in vitro. These results reveal that mTOR is a new type of CaM-dependent kinase, and TRPML1, lysosomal calcium and CaM play essential regulatory roles in the mTORC1 signaling pathway.

Distinct subcellular localization of alternative splicing variants of EFA6D, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf6, in the mouse brain.

  • Fukaya M
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

EFA6D (guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ADP-ribosylation factor 6 [Arf6]D) is also known as EFA6R, Psd3, and HCA67. It is the fourth member of the EFA6 family with guanine nucleotide exchange activity for Arf6, a small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that regulates endosomal trafficking and actin cytoskeleton remodeling. We propose a classification and nomenclature of 10 EFA6D variants deposited in the GenBank database as EFA6D1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1s, 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, and 2s based on the combination of N-terminal and C-terminal insertions. Polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the expression of all EFA6D variants except for variants a and d in the adult mouse brain. Immunoblotting analysis with novel variant-specific antibodies showed the endogenous expression of EFA6D1b, EFA6D1c, and EFA6D1s at the protein level, with the highest expression being EFA6D1s, in the brain. Immunoblotting analysis of forebrain subcellular fractions showed the distinct subcellular distribution of EFA6D1b/c and EFA6D1s. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed distinct but overlapping immunoreactive patterns between EFA6D1b/c and EFA6D1s in the mouse brain. In immunoelectron microscopic analyses of the hippocampal CA3 region, EFA6D1b/c was present predominantly in the mossy fiber axons of dentate granule cells, whereas EFA6D1s was present abundantly in the cell bodies, dendritic shafts, and spines of hippocampal pyramidal cells. These results provide the first anatomical evidence suggesting the functional diversity of EFA6D variants, particularly EFA6D1b/c and EFA6D1s, in neurons. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2531-2552, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R15 MH099590(United States)

An alternative splicing program promotes adipose tissue thermogenesis.

  • Vernia S
  • Elife
  • 2016 Sep 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

Alternative pre-mRNA splicing expands the complexity of the transcriptome and controls isoform-specific gene expression. Whether alternative splicing contributes to metabolic regulation is largely unknown. Here we investigated the contribution of alternative splicing to the development of diet-induced obesity. We found that obesity-induced changes in adipocyte gene expression include alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Bioinformatics analysis associated part of this alternative splicing program with sequence specific NOVA splicing factors. This conclusion was confirmed by studies of mice with NOVA deficiency in adipocytes. Phenotypic analysis of the NOVA-deficient mice demonstrated increased adipose tissue thermogenesis and improved glycemia. We show that NOVA proteins mediate a splicing program that suppresses adipose tissue thermogenesis. Together, these data provide quantitative analysis of gene expression at exon-level resolution in obesity and identify a novel mechanism that contributes to the regulation of adipose tissue function and the maintenance of normal glycemia.

Ciliary transcription factors and miRNAs precisely regulate Cp110 levels required for ciliary adhesions and ciliogenesis.

  • Walentek P
  • Elife
  • 2016 Sep 13

Literature context:


Abstract:

Upon cell cycle exit, centriole-to-basal body transition facilitates cilia formation. The centriolar protein Cp110 is a regulator of this process and cilia inhibitor, but its positive roles in ciliogenesis remain poorly understood. Using Xenopus we show that Cp110 inhibits cilia formation at high levels, while optimal levels promote ciliogenesis. Cp110 localizes to cilia-forming basal bodies and rootlets, and is required for ciliary adhesion complexes that facilitate Actin interactions. The opposing roles of Cp110 in ciliation are generated in part by coiled-coil domains that mediate preferential binding to centrioles over rootlets. Because of its dual role in ciliogenesis, Cp110 levels must be precisely controlled. In multiciliated cells, this is achieved by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation through ciliary transcription factors and microRNAs, which activate and repress cp110 to produce optimal Cp110 levels during ciliogenesis. Our data provide novel insights into how Cp110 and its regulation contribute to development and cell function.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 293681(International)

Portable, On-Demand Biomolecular Manufacturing.

  • Pardee K
  • Cell
  • 2016 Sep 22

Literature context:


Abstract:

Synthetic biology uses living cells as molecular foundries for the biosynthesis of drugs, therapeutic proteins, and other commodities. However, the need for specialized equipment and refrigeration for production and distribution poses a challenge for the delivery of these technologies to the field and to low-resource areas. Here, we present a portable platform that provides the means for on-site, on-demand manufacturing of therapeutics and biomolecules. This flexible system is based on reaction pellets composed of freeze-dried, cell-free transcription and translation machinery, which can be easily hydrated and utilized for biosynthesis through the addition of DNA encoding the desired output. We demonstrate this approach with the manufacture and functional validation of antimicrobial peptides and vaccines and present combinatorial methods for the production of antibody conjugates and small molecules. This synthetic biology platform resolves important practical limitations in the production and distribution of therapeutics and molecular tools, both to the developed and developing world.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - U24 NS050606(United States)

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity.

  • Zeng M
  • Cell
  • 2016 Aug 25

Literature context:


Abstract:

Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) are membrane semi-enclosed, submicron protein-enriched cellular compartments beneath postsynaptic membranes, which constantly exchange their components with bulk aqueous cytoplasm in synaptic spines. Formation and activity-dependent modulation of PSDs is considered as one of the most basic molecular events governing synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. In this study, we discover that SynGAP, one of the most abundant PSD proteins and a Ras/Rap GTPase activator, forms a homo-trimer and binds to multiple copies of PSD-95. Binding of SynGAP to PSD-95 induces phase separation of the complex, forming highly concentrated liquid-like droplets reminiscent of the PSD. The multivalent nature of the SynGAP/PSD-95 complex is critical for the phase separation to occur and for proper activity-dependent SynGAP dispersions from the PSD. In addition to revealing a dynamic anchoring mechanism of SynGAP at the PSD, our results also suggest a model for phase-transition-mediated formation of PSD.

Tim29 is a novel subunit of the human TIM22 translocase and is involved in complex assembly and stability.

  • Kang Y
  • Elife
  • 2016 Aug 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

The TIM22 complex mediates the import of hydrophobic carrier proteins into the mitochondrial inner membrane. While the TIM22 machinery has been well characterised in yeast, the human complex remains poorly characterised. Here, we identify Tim29 (C19orf52) as a novel, metazoan-specific subunit of the human TIM22 complex. The protein is integrated into the mitochondrial inner membrane with it's C-terminus exposed to the intermembrane space. Tim29 is required for the stability of the TIM22 complex and functions in the assembly of hTim22. Furthermore, Tim29 contacts the Translocase of the Outer Mitochondrial Membrane, TOM complex, enabling a mechanism for transport of hydrophobic carrier substrates across the aqueous intermembrane space. Identification of Tim29 highlights the significance of analysing mitochondrial import systems across phylogenetic boundaries, which can reveal novel components and mechanisms in higher organisms.

A conserved quality-control pathway that mediates degradation of unassembled ribosomal proteins.

  • Sung MK
  • Elife
  • 2016 Aug 23

Literature context:


Abstract:

Overproduced yeast ribosomal protein (RP) Rpl26 fails to assemble into ribosomes and is degraded in the nucleus/nucleolus by a ubiquitin-proteasome system quality control pathway comprising the E2 enzymes Ubc4/Ubc5 and the ubiquitin ligase Tom1. tom1 cells show reduced ubiquitination of multiple RPs, exceptional accumulation of detergent-insoluble proteins including multiple RPs, and hypersensitivity to imbalances in production of RPs and rRNA, indicative of a profound perturbation to proteostasis. Tom1 directly ubiquitinates unassembled RPs primarily via residues that are concealed in mature ribosomes. Together, these data point to an important role for Tom1 in normal physiology and prompt us to refer to this pathway as ERISQ, for excess ribosomal protein quality control. A similar pathway, mediated by the Tom1 homolog Huwe1, restricts accumulation of overexpressed hRpl26 in human cells. We propose that ERISQ is a key element of the quality control machinery that sustains protein homeostasis and cellular fitness in eukaryotes.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS036715(United States)
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS078434(United States)

Heterozygous Loss-of-Function SEC61A1 Mutations Cause Autosomal-Dominant Tubulo-Interstitial and Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease with Anemia.

  • Bolar NA
  • Am. J. Hum. Genet.
  • 2016 Jul 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

Autosomal-dominant tubulo-interstitial kidney disease (ADTKD) encompasses a group of disorders characterized by renal tubular and interstitial abnormalities, leading to slow progressive loss of kidney function requiring dialysis and kidney transplantation. Mutations in UMOD, MUC1, and REN are responsible for many, but not all, cases of ADTKD. We report on two families with ADTKD and congenital anemia accompanied by either intrauterine growth retardation or neutropenia. Ultrasound and kidney biopsy revealed small dysplastic kidneys with cysts and tubular atrophy with secondary glomerular sclerosis, respectively. Exclusion of known ADTKD genes coupled with linkage analysis, whole-exome sequencing, and targeted re-sequencing identified heterozygous missense variants in SEC61A1-c.553A>G (p.Thr185Ala) and c.200T>G (p.Val67Gly)-both affecting functionally important and conserved residues in SEC61. Both transiently expressed SEC6A1A variants are delocalized to the Golgi, a finding confirmed in a renal biopsy from an affected individual. Suppression or CRISPR-mediated deletions of sec61al2 in zebrafish embryos induced convolution defects of the pronephric tubules but not the pronephric ducts, consistent with the tubular atrophy observed in the affected individuals. Human mRNA encoding either of the two pathogenic alleles failed to rescue this phenotype as opposed to a complete rescue by human wild-type mRNA. Taken together, these findings provide a mechanism by which mutations in SEC61A1 lead to an autosomal-dominant syndromic form of progressive chronic kidney disease. We highlight protein translocation defects across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, the principal role of the SEC61 complex, as a contributory pathogenic mechanism for ADTKD.

Autosomal-Recessive Mutations in the tRNA Splicing Endonuclease Subunit TSEN15 Cause Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia and Progressive Microcephaly.

  • Breuss MW
  • Am. J. Hum. Genet.
  • 2016 Jul 7

Literature context:


Abstract:

The tRNA splicing endonuclease is a highly evolutionarily conserved protein complex, involved in the cleavage of intron-containing tRNAs. In human it consists of the catalytic subunits TSEN2 and TSEN34, as well as the non-catalytic TSEN54 and TSEN15. Recessive mutations in the corresponding genes of the first three are known to cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) types 2A-C, 4, and 5. Here, we report three homozygous TSEN15 variants that cause a milder version of PCH2. The affected individuals showed progressive microcephaly, delayed developmental milestones, intellectual disability, and, in two out of four cases, epilepsy. None, however, displayed the central visual failure seen in PCH case subjects where other subunits of the TSEN are mutated, and only one was affected by the extensive motor defects that are typical in other forms of PCH2. The three amino acid substitutions impacted the protein level of TSEN15 and the stoichiometry of the interacting subunits in different ways, but all resulted in an almost complete loss of in vitro tRNA cleavage activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that mutations in any known subunit of the TSEN complex can cause PCH and progressive microcephaly, emphasizing the importance of its function during brain development.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS084396(United States)

eIF4A inactivates TORC1 in response to amino acid starvation.

  • Tsokanos FF
  • EMBO J.
  • 2016 May 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Amino acids regulate TOR complex 1 (TORC1) via two counteracting mechanisms, one activating and one inactivating. The presence of amino acids causes TORC1 recruitment to lysosomes where TORC1 is activated by binding Rheb. How the absence of amino acids inactivates TORC1 is less well understood. Amino acid starvation recruits the TSC1/TSC2 complex to the vicinity of TORC1 to inhibit Rheb; however, the upstream mechanisms regulating TSC2 are not known. We identify here the eIF4A-containing eIF4F translation initiation complex as an upstream regulator of TSC2 in response to amino acid withdrawal in Drosophila We find that TORC1 and translation preinitiation complexes bind each other. Cells lacking eIF4F components retain elevated TORC1 activity upon amino acid removal. This effect is specific for eIF4F and not a general consequence of blocked translation. This study identifies specific components of the translation machinery as important mediators of TORC1 inactivation upon amino acid removal.

Registered report: Diverse somatic mutation patterns and pathway alterations in human cancers.

  • Sharma V
  • Elife
  • 2016 Feb 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology seeks to address growing concerns about reproducibility in scientific research by conducting replications of selected experiments from a number of high-profile papers in the field of cancer biology. The papers, which were published between 2010 and 2012, were selected on the basis of citations and Altmetric scores (Errington et al., 2014). This Registered Report describes the proposed replication plan of key experiments from "Diverse somatic mutation patterns and pathway alterations in human cancers" by Kan and colleagues published in Nature in 2010 (Kan et al., 2010). The experiments to be replicated are those reported in Figures 3D-F and 4C-F. Kan and colleagues utilized mismatch repair detection (MRD) technology to identify somatic mutations in primary human tumor samples and identified a previously uncharacterized arginine 243 to histidine (R243H) mutation in the G-protein α subunit GNAO1 in breast carcinoma tissue. In Figures 3D-F, Kan and colleagues demonstrated that stable expression of mutant GNAO1(R243D) conferred a significant growth advantage in human mammary epithelial cells, confirming the oncogenic potential of this mutation. Similarly, expression of variants with somatic mutations in MAP2K4, a JNK pathway kinase (shown in Figures 4C-E) resulted in a significant increase in anchorage-independent growth. Interestingly, these mutants exhibited reduced kinase activity compared to wild type MAP2K4, indicating these mutations impose a dominant-negative influence to promote growth (Figure 4F). The Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange and the results of the replications will be published in eLife.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY026024(United States)

The Resource Identification Initiative: A Cultural Shift in Publishing.

  • Bandrowski A
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Jan 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

A central tenet in support of research reproducibility is the ability to uniquely identify research resources, i.e., reagents, tools, and materials that are used to perform experiments. However, current reporting practices for research resources are insufficient to identify the exact resources that are reported or to answer basic questions such as "How did other studies use resource X?" To address this issue, the Resource Identification Initiative was launched as a pilot project to improve the reporting standards for research resources in the Methods sections of articles and thereby improve identifiability and scientific reproducibility. The pilot engaged over 25 biomedical journal editors from most major publishers, as well as scientists and funding officials. Authors were asked to include Research Resource Identifiers (RRIDs) in their articles prior to publication for three resource types: antibodies, model organisms, and tools (i.e., software and databases). RRIDs are assigned by an authoritative database, for example, a model organism database for each type of resource. To make it easier for authors to obtain RRIDs, resources were aggregated from the appropriate databases and their RRIDs made available in a central Web portal (http://scicrunch.org/resources). RRIDs meet three key criteria: they are machine-readable, free to generate and access, and are consistent across publishers and journals. The pilot was launched in February of 2014 and over 300 articles have appeared that report RRIDs. The number of journals participating has expanded from the original 25 to more than 40, with RRIDs appearing in 62 different journals to date. Here we present an overview of the pilot project and its outcomes to date. We show that authors are able to identify resources and are supportive of the goals of the project. Identifiability of the resources post-pilot showed a dramatic improvement for all three resource types, suggesting that the project has had a significant impact on identifiability of research resources.

Funding information:
  • HHMI - R35NS097974(United States)

Tctex1d2 Is a Negative Regulator of GLUT4 Translocation and Glucose Uptake.

  • Shimoda Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tctex1d2 (Tctex1 domain containing 2) is an open reading frame that encodes for a functionally unknown protein that contains a Tctex1 domain found in dynein light chain family members. Examination of gene expression during adipogenesis demonstrated a marked increase in Tctex1d2 protein expression that was essentially undetectable in preadipocytes and markedly induced during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Tctex1d2 overexpression significantly inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake. In contrast, Tctex1d2 knockdown significantly increased insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake. However, acute insulin stimulation (up to 30 min) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with overexpression or knockdown of Tctex1d2 had no effect on Akt phosphorylation, a critical signal transduction target required for GLUT4 translocation. Although overexpression of Tctex1d2 had no significant effect on GLUT4 internalization, Tctex1d2 was found to associate with syntaxin 4 in an insulin-dependent manner and inhibit Doc2b binding to syntaxin 4. In addition, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide rescued the Tctex1d2 inhibition of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation by suppressing the Tctex1d2-syntaxin 4 interaction and increasing Doc2b-Synatxin4 interactions. Taking these results together, we hypothesized that Tctex1d2 is a novel syntaxin 4 binding protein that functions as a negative regulator of GLUT4 plasma membrane translocation through inhibition of the Doc2b-syntaxin 4 interaction.

Funding information:
  • NIAMS NIH HHS - AR061933(United States)

The Resource Identification Initiative: A cultural shift in publishing.

  • Bandrowski A
  • F1000Res
  • 2015 Dec 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

A central tenet in support of research reproducibility is the ability to uniquely identify research resources, i.e., reagents, tools, and materials that are used to perform experiments. However, current reporting practices for research resources are insufficient to allow humans and algorithms to identify the exact resources that are reported or answer basic questions such as "What other studies used resource X?" To address this issue, the Resource Identification Initiative was launched as a pilot project to improve the reporting standards for research resources in the methods sections of papers and thereby improve identifiability and reproducibility. The pilot engaged over 25 biomedical journal editors from most major publishers, as well as scientists and funding officials. Authors were asked to include Research Resource Identifiers (RRIDs) in their manuscripts prior to publication for three resource types: antibodies, model organisms, and tools (including software and databases). RRIDs represent accession numbers assigned by an authoritative database, e.g., the model organism databases, for each type of resource. To make it easier for authors to obtain RRIDs, resources were aggregated from the appropriate databases and their RRIDs made available in a central web portal ( www.scicrunch.org/resources). RRIDs meet three key criteria: they are machine readable, free to generate and access, and are consistent across publishers and journals. The pilot was launched in February of 2014 and over 300 papers have appeared that report RRIDs. The number of journals participating has expanded from the original 25 to more than 40. Here, we present an overview of the pilot project and its outcomes to date. We show that authors are generally accurate in performing the task of identifying resources and supportive of the goals of the project. We also show that identifiability of the resources pre- and post-pilot showed a dramatic improvement for all three resource types, suggesting that the project has had a significant impact on reproducibility relating to research resources.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - HHSN271200577531C()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - U24 DA039832()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - U24 DK097771()

Transport of Iodothyronines by Human L-Type Amino Acid Transporters.

  • Zevenbergen C
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Nov 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Thyroid hormone (TH) transporters facilitate cellular TH influx and efflux, which is paramount for normal physiology. The L-type amino acid transporters LAT1 and LAT2 are known to facilitate TH transport. However, the role of LAT3, LAT4, and LAT5 is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further characterize TH transport by LAT1 and LAT2 and to explore possible TH transport by LAT3, LAT4, and LAT5. FLAG-LAT1-5 constructs were transiently expressed in COS1 cells. LAT1 and LAT2 were cotransfected with the CD98 heavy chain. Cellular transport was measured using 10 nM (125)I-labeled T4, T3, rT3, 3,3'-T2, and 10 μM [(125)I]3'-iodotyrosine (MIT) as substrates. Intracellular metabolism of these substrates was determined in cells cotransfected with either of the LATs with type 1 or type 3 deiodinase. LAT1 facilitated cellular uptake of all substrates and LAT2 showed a net uptake of T3, 3,3'-T2, and MIT. Expression of LAT3 or LAT4 did not affect transport of T4 and T3 but resulted in the decreased cellular accumulation of 3,3'-T2 and MIT. LAT5 did not facilitate the transport of any substrate. Cotransfection with LAT3 or LAT4 strongly diminished the cellular accumulation of 3,3'-T2 and MIT by LAT1 and LAT2. These data were confirmed by metabolism studies. LAT1 and LAT2 show distinct preferences for the uptake of the different iodocompounds, whereas LAT3 and LAT4 specifically facilitate the 3,3'-T2 and MIT efflux. Together our findings suggest that different sets of transporters with specific influx or efflux capacities may cooperate to regulate the cellular thyroid state.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022369(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK52574(United States)

Revisiting PC1/3 Mutants: Dominant-Negative Effect of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Retained Mutants.

  • Blanco EH
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Oct 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), encoded by the gene PCSK1, is critical for peptide hormone synthesis. An increasing number of studies have shown that inactivating mutations in PCSK1 are correlated with endocrine pathologies ranging from intestinal dysfunction to morbid obesity, whereas the common nonsynonymous polymorphisms rs6232 (N221D) and rs6234-rs6235 (Q665E-S690T) are highly associated with obesity risk. In this report, we revisited the biochemical and cellular properties of PC1/3 variants in the context of a wild-type PC1/3 background instead of the S357G hypermorph background used for all previous studies. In the wild-type background the PC1/3 N221D variant exhibited 30% lower enzymatic activity in a fluorogenic assay than wild-type PC1/3; this inhibition was greater than that detected in an equivalent experiment using the PC1/3 S357G background. A PC1/3 variant with the linked carboxyl-terminal polymorphisms Q665E-S690T did not show this difference. We also analyzed the biochemical properties of 2 PC1/3 mutants, G209R and G593R, which are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and studied their effects on wild-type PC1/3. The expression of ER-retained mutants induced ER stress markers and also resulted in dominant-negative blockade of wild-type PC1/3 prodomain cleavage and decreased expression of wild-type PC1/3, suggesting facilitation of the entry of wild-type protein to a degradative proteasomal pathway. Dominant-negative effects of PC1/3 mutations on the expression and maturation of wild-type protein, with consequential effects on PC1/3 availability, add a new element which must be considered in population and clinical studies of this gene.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - MH67121(United States)

Emergence of an Ancestral Glycoprotein Hormone in the Pituitary of the Sea Lamprey, a Basal Vertebrate.

  • Sower SA
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Aug 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

The gnathostome (jawed vertebrates) classical pituitary glycoprotein hormones, FSH, LH, and TSH, consist of a common α-subunit (GpA1) and unique β-subunits (Gpβ1, -2, and -3), whereas a recently identified pituitary glycoprotein hormone, thyrostimulin, consists of GpA2 and GpB5. This paper reports the identification, expression, and function of an ancestral, nonclassical, pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone (GpH) consisting of the thyrostimulin A2 subunit with the classical β-subunit in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, a jawless basal vertebrate. Lamprey (l) GpA2, and lGpHβ were shown to form a heterodimer by coimmunoprecipitation of lGpA2 with FLAG-tagged lGpHβ after the overexpression in transiently transfected COS7 cells using a bipromoter vector. Dual-label fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed the coexpression of individual subunits in the proximal pars distalis of the pituitary. GnRH-III (1μΜ) significantly increased the expression of lGpHβ and lGpA2 in in vitro pituitary culture. Recombinant lamprey GpH was constructed by tethering the N terminal of lGpA2 to the C terminal of lGpHβ with a linker region composed of six histidine residues followed by three glycine-serine repeats. This recombinant lamprey GpH activated the lamprey glycoprotein hormone receptor I as measured by increased cAMP/luciferase activity. These data are the first to demonstrate a functional, unique glycoprotein heterodimer that is not found in any other vertebrate. These data suggest an intermediate stage of the structure-function of the gonadotropin/thyroid-stimulating hormone in a basal vertebrate, leading to the emergence of the highly specialized gonadotropin hormones and thyroid stimulating hormones in gnathostomes.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - R01 EY022157-01(United States)
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - 1R01DK083567(United States)

Functional characterization of obesity-associated variants involving the α and β isoforms of human SH2B1.

  • Pearce LR
  • Endocrinology
  • 2014 Nov 4

Literature context:


Abstract:

We have previously reported rare variants in sarcoma (Src) homology 2 (SH2) B adaptor protein 1 (SH2B1) in individuals with obesity, insulin resistance, and maladaptive behavior. Here, we identify 4 additional SH2B1 variants by sequencing 500 individuals with severe early-onset obesity. SH2B1 has 4 alternatively spliced isoforms. One variant (T546A) lies within the N-terminal region common to all isoforms. As shown for past variants in this region, T546A impairs SH2B1β enhancement of nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth, and the individual with the T546A variant exhibits mild developmental delay. The other 3 variants (A663V, V695M, and A723V) lie in the C-terminal tail of SH2B1α. SH2B1α variant carriers were hyperinsulinemic but did not exhibit the behavioral phenotype observed in individuals with SH2B1 variants that disrupt all isoforms. In in vitro assays, SH2B1α, like SH2B1β, enhances insulin- and leptin-induced insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) phosphorylation and GH-induced cell motility. None of the variants affect SH2B1α enhancement of insulin- and leptin-induced IRS2 phosphorylation. However, T546A, A663V, and A723V all impair the ability of SH2B1α to enhance GH-induced cell motility. In contrast to SH2B1β, SH2B1α does not enhance nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth. These studies suggest that genetic variants that disrupt isoforms other than SH2B1β may be functionally significant. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanism by which the individual isoforms regulate energy homeostasis and behavior.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA163793(United States)

Systems analysis of the prostate tumor suppressor NKX3.1 supports roles in DNA repair and luminal cell differentiation.

  • Yang CC
  • F1000Res
  • 2014 Sep 16

Literature context:


Abstract:

NKX3.1 is a homeobox transcription factor whose function as a prostate tumor suppressor remains insufficiently understood because neither the transcriptional program governed by NKX3.1, nor its interacting proteins have been fully revealed. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we have established an extensive NKX3.1 interactome which contains the DNA repair proteins Ku70, Ku80, and PARP, thus providing a molecular underpinning to previous reports implicating NKX3.1 in DNA repair. Transcriptomic profiling of NKX3.1-negative prostate epithelial cells acutely expressing NKX3.1 revealed a rapid and complex response that is a near mirror image of the gene expression signature of human prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Pathway and network analyses suggested that NKX3.1 actuates a cellular reprogramming toward luminal cell differentiation characterized by suppression of pro-oncogenic c-MYC and interferon-STAT signaling and activation of tumor suppressor pathways. Consistently, ectopic expression of NKX3.1 conferred a growth arrest depending on TNFα and JNK signaling. We propose that the tumor suppressor function of NKX3.1 entails a transcriptional program that maintains the differentiation state of secretory luminal cells and that disruption of NKX3.1 contributes to prostate tumorigenesis by permitting luminal cell de-differentiation potentially augmented by defects in DNA repair.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA116571()
  • NCI NIH HHS - RC2 CA148414()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - P50 GM085764()
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM059780()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R21 NS061675()