X
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

FITC BrdU Flow Kit

RRID:AB_2617060

Antibody ID

AB_2617060

Target Antigen

Bromodeoxyuridine

Proper Citation

(BD Biosciences Cat# 559619, RRID:AB_2617060)

Clonality

monoclonal antibody

Host Organism

mouse

Vendor

BD Biosciences Go To Vendor

Cat Num

559619

Activation of GPR55 increases neural stem cell proliferation and promotes early adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  • Hill JD
  • Br. J. Pharmacol.
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The cannabinoid system exerts functional regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and adult neurogenesis, yet not all effects of cannabinoid-like compounds seen can be attributed to the cannabinoid 1 (CB1 ) or CB2 receptor. The recently de-orphaned GPR55 has been shown to be activated by numerous cannabinoid ligands suggesting that GPR55 is a third cannabinoid receptor. Here, we examined the role of GPR55 activation in NSC proliferation and early adult neurogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effects of GPR55 agonists (LPI, O-1602, ML184) on human (h) NSC proliferation in vitro were assessed by flow cytometry. Human NSC differentiation was determined by flow cytometry, qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Immature neuron formation in the hippocampus of C57BL/6 and GPR55-/- mice was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS: Activation of GPR55 significantly increased proliferation rates of hNSCs in vitro. These effects were attenuated by ML193, a selective GPR55 antagonist. ML184 significantly promoted neuronal differentiation in vitro while ML193 reduced differentiation rates as compared to vehicle treatment. Continuous administration of O-1602 into the hippocampus via a cannula connected to an osmotic pump resulted in increased Ki67+ cells within the dentate gyrus. O-1602 increased immature neuron generation, as assessed by DCX+ and BrdU+ cells, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. GPR55-/- animals displayed reduced rates of proliferation and neurogenesis within the hippocampus while O-1602 had no effect as compared to vehicle controls. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Together, these findings suggest GPR55 activation as a novel target and strategy to regulate NSC proliferation and adult neurogenesis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - CA 100707-12(United States)

Spred1 Safeguards Hematopoietic Homeostasis against Diet-Induced Systemic Stress.

  • Tadokoro Y
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Abstract:

Stem cell self-renewal is critical for tissue homeostasis, and its dysregulation can lead to organ failure or tumorigenesis. While obesity can induce varied abnormalities in bone marrow components, it is unclear how diet might affect hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal. Here, we show that Spred1, a negative regulator of RAS-MAPK signaling, safeguards HSC homeostasis in animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Under steady-state conditions, Spred1 negatively regulates HSC self-renewal and fitness, in part through Rho kinase activity. Spred1 deficiency mitigates HSC failure induced by infection mimetics and prolongs HSC lifespan, but it does not initiate leukemogenesis due to compensatory upregulation of Spred2. In contrast, HFD induces ERK hyperactivation and aberrant self-renewal in Spred1-deficient HSCs, resulting in functional HSC failure, severe anemia, and myeloproliferative neoplasm-like disease. HFD-induced hematopoietic abnormalities are mediated partly through alterations to the gut microbiota. Together, these findings reveal that diet-induced stress disrupts fine-tuning of Spred1-mediated signals to govern HSC homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • Arthritis Research UK - 17522(United Kingdom)

Self-Renewal and Toll-like Receptor Signaling Sustain Exhausted Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells during Chronic Viral Infection.

  • Macal M
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Apr 17

Literature context:


Abstract:

Although characterization of T cell exhaustion has unlocked powerful immunotherapies, the mechanisms sustaining adaptations of short-lived innate cells to chronic inflammatory settings remain unknown. During murine chronic viral infection, we found that concerted events in bone marrow and spleen mediated by type I interferon (IFN-I) and Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) maintained a pool of functionally exhausted plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). In the bone marrow, IFN-I compromised the number and the developmental capacity of pDC progenitors, which generated dysfunctional pDCs. Concurrently, exhausted pDCs in the periphery were maintained by self-renewal via IFN-I- and TLR7-induced proliferation of CD4- subsets. On the other hand, pDC functional loss was mediated by TLR7, leading to compromised IFN-I production and resistance to secondary infection. These findings unveil the mechanisms sustaining a self-perpetuating pool of functionally exhausted pDCs and provide a framework for deciphering long-term exhaustion of other short-lived innate cells during chronic inflammation.

Funding information:
  • NEI NIH HHS - EY017478(United States)

A polymorphism in the tumor suppressor p53 affects aging and longevity in mouse models.

  • Zhao Y
  • Elife
  • 2018 Mar 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Tumor suppressor p53 prevents early death due to cancer development. However, the role of p53 in aging process and longevity has not been well-established. In humans, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with either arginine (R72) or proline (P72) at codon 72 influences p53 activity; the P72 allele has a weaker p53 activity and function in tumor suppression. Here, employing a mouse model with knock-in of human TP53 gene carrying codon 72 SNP, we found that despite increased cancer risk, P72 mice that escape tumor development display a longer lifespan than R72 mice. Further, P72 mice have a delayed development of aging-associated phenotypes compared with R72 mice. Mechanistically, P72 mice can better retain the self-renewal function of stem/progenitor cells compared with R72 mice during aging. This study provides direct genetic evidence demonstrating that p53 codon 72 SNP directly impacts aging and longevity, which supports a role of p53 in regulation of longevity.

Funding information:
  • Lawrence Ellison Foundation - New Investigate Award AG-NS-0781-11()
  • National Institutes of Health - 1R01CA160558()
  • National Institutes of Health - 1R01CA203965()
  • National Institutes of Health - 1R01CA227912()
  • National Institutes of Health - F99CA222734()
  • NCI NIH HHS - F99 CA222734()
  • New Jersey Commission on Cancer Research - Postdoctoral Fellowship Award()
  • NICHD NIH HHS - R37HD033082(United States)
  • U.S. Department of Defense - W81XWH-16-1-0358()

Developmental Analysis of Bone Marrow Neutrophils Reveals Populations Specialized in Expansion, Trafficking, and Effector Functions.

  • Evrard M
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Feb 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Neutrophils are specialized innate cells that require constant replenishment from proliferative bone marrow (BM) precursors as a result of their short half-life. Although it is established that neutrophils are derived from the granulocyte-macrophage progenitor (GMP), the differentiation pathways from GMP to functional mature neutrophils are poorly defined. Using mass cytometry (CyTOF) and cell-cycle-based analysis, we identified three neutrophil subsets within the BM: a committed proliferative neutrophil precursor (preNeu) which differentiates into non-proliferating immature neutrophils and mature neutrophils. Transcriptomic profiling and functional analysis revealed that preNeu require the C/EBPε transcription factor for their generation from the GMP, and their proliferative program is substituted by a gain of migratory and effector function as they mature. preNeus expand under microbial and tumoral stress, and immature neutrophils are recruited to the periphery of tumor-bearing mice. In summary, our study identifies specialized BM granulocytic populations that ensure supply under homeostasis and stress responses.

Funding information:
  • NICHD NIH HHS - L50 HD073094(United States)

Enhancing CD8+ T Cell Fatty Acid Catabolism within a Metabolically Challenging Tumor Microenvironment Increases the Efficacy of Melanoma Immunotherapy.

  • Zhang Y
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

How tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs) adapt to the metabolic constrains within the tumor microenvironment (TME) and to what degree this affects their ability to combat tumor progression remain poorly understood. Using mouse melanoma models, we report that CD8+ TILs enhance peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α signaling and catabolism of fatty acids (FAs) when simultaneously subjected to hypoglycemia and hypoxia. This metabolic switch partially preserves CD8+ TILs' effector functions, although co-inhibitor expression increases during tumor progression regardless of CD8+ TILs' antigen specificity. Further promoting FA catabolism improves the CD8+ TILs' ability to slow tumor progression. PD-1 blockade delays tumor growth without changing TIL metabolism or functions. It synergizes with metabolic reprogramming of T cells to achieve superior antitumor efficacy and even complete cures.

TGF-β superfamily member Nodal stimulates human β-cell proliferation while maintaining cellular viability.

  • Boerner BP
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Nov 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

In an effort to expand human islets and enhance allogeneic islet transplant for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, identifying signaling pathways that stimulate human β-cell proliferation is paramount. TGF-β superfamily members, in particular activin-A, are likely involved in islet development and may contribute to β-cell proliferation. Nodal, another TGF-β member, is present in both embryonic and adult rodent islets. Nodal, along with its coreceptor, Cripto, are pro-proliferative factors in certain cell types. Although Nodal stimulates apoptosis of rat insulinoma cells (INS-1), Nodal and Cripto signaling have not been studied in the context of human islets. The current study investigated the effects of Nodal and Cripto on human β-cell proliferation, differentiation, and viability. In the human pancreas and isolated human islets, we observed Nodal mRNA and protein expression, with protein expression observed in β and α-cells. Cripto expression was absent from human islets. Furthermore, in cultured human islets, exogenous Nodal stimulated modest β-cell proliferation and inhibited α-cell proliferation with no effect on cellular viability, apoptosis, or differentiation. Nodal stimulated the phosphorylation of mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD)-2, with no effect on AKT or MAPK signaling, suggesting phosphorylated SMAD signaling was involved in β-cell proliferation. Cripto had no effect on human islet cell proliferation, differentiation, or viability. In conclusion, Nodal stimulates human β-cell proliferation while maintaining cellular viability. Nodal signaling warrants further exploration to better understand and enhance human β-cell proliferative capacity.

Funding information:
  • NIBIB NIH HHS - P41 EB015896(United States)