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Monoclonal Anti-polyHistidine antibody produced in mouse


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

polyHistidine antibody produced in mouse

Proper Citation

(Sigma-Aldrich Cat# H1029, RRID:AB_260015)


monoclonal antibody


Vendor recommendations: IgG2a Immunoprecipitation; ELISA; Other; Western Blot; dot blot: suitable, indirect ELISA: suitable, immunoblotting: 1:3,000

Host Organism




Arabidopsis Serrate Coordinates Histone Methyltransferases ATXR5/6 and RNA Processing Factor RDR6 to Regulate Transposon Expression.

  • Ma Z
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Jun 18

Literature context:


Serrate (SE) is a key component in RNA metabolism. Little is known about whether and how it can regulate epigenetic silencing. Here, we report histone methyltransferases ATXR5 and ATXR6 (ATXR5/6) as novel partners of SE. ATXR5/6 deposit histone 3 lysine 27 monomethylation (H3K27me1) to promote heterochromatin formation, repress transposable elements (TEs), and control genome stability in Arabidopsis. SE binds to ATXR5/6-regulated TE loci and promotes H3K27me1 accumulation in these regions. Furthermore, SE directly enhances ATXR5 enzymatic activity in vitro. Unexpectedly, se mutation suppresses the TE reactivation and DNA re-replication phenotypes in the atxr5 atxr6 mutant. The suppression of TE expression results from triggering RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6)-dependent RNA silencing in the se atxr5 atxr6 mutant. We propose that SE facilitates ATXR5/6-mediated deposition of the H3K27me1 mark while inhibiting RDR6-mediated RNA silencing to protect TE transcripts. Hence, SE coordinates epigenetic silencing and RNA processing machineries to fine-tune the TE expression.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R37 AI040098-11(United States)

The Receptor-like Cytoplasmic Kinase BIK1 Localizes to the Nucleus and Regulates Defense Hormone Expression during Plant Innate Immunity.

  • Lal NK
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 Apr 11

Literature context:


Plants employ cell-surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to detect pathogens. Although phytohormones produced during PRR signaling play an essential role in innate immunity, a direct link between PRR activation and hormone regulation is unknown. EFR is a PRR that recognizes bacterial EF-Tu and activates immune signaling. Here we report that EFR regulates the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) through direct phosphorylation of a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, BIK1. The BIK1 structure revealed that the EFR-phosphorylated sites reside on a uniquely extended loop away from the BIK1 kinase core domain. Phosphomimetic mutations of these sites resulted in increased phytohormones and enhanced resistance to bacterial infections. In addition to its documented plasma membrane localization, BIK1 also localizes to the nucleus and interacts directly with WRKY transcription factors involved in the JA and salicylic acid (SA) regulation. These findings demonstrate the mechanistic basis of signal transduction from PRR to phytohormones, mediated through a PRR-BIK1-WRKY axis.

Funding information:
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - P01 ES022832(United States)

The Glycolytic Pyruvate Kinase Is Recruited Directly into the Viral Replicase Complex to Generate ATP for RNA Synthesis.

  • Chuang C
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2017 Nov 8

Literature context:


Viruses accomplish their replication by exploiting many cellular resources, including metabolites and energy. Similarly to other (+)RNA viruses, tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) induces major changes in infected cells. However, the source of energy required to fuel TBSV replication is unknown. We find that TBSV co-opts the cellular glycolytic ATP-generating pyruvate kinase (PK) directly into the viral replicase complex to boost progeny RNA synthesis. The co-opted PK generates high levels of ATP within the viral replication compartment at the expense of a reduction in cytosolic ATP pools. The ATP generated by the co-opted PK is used to promote the helicase activity of recruited cellular DEAD-box helicases, which are involved in the production of excess viral (+)RNA progeny. Altogether, recruitment of PK and local production of ATP within the replication compartment allow the virus replication machinery an access to plentiful ATP, facilitating robust virus replication.

Role of PCNA and RFC in promoting Mus81-complex activity.

  • Sisakova A
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2017 Oct 2

Literature context:


BACKGROUND: Proper DNA replication is essential for faithful transmission of the genome. However, replication stress has serious impact on the integrity of the cell, leading to stalling or collapse of replication forks, and has been determined as a driving force of carcinogenesis. Mus81-Mms4 complex is a structure-specific endonuclease previously shown to be involved in processing of aberrant replication intermediates and promotes POLD3-dependent DNA synthesis via break-induced replication. However, how replication components might be involved in this process is not known. RESULTS: Herein, we show the interaction and robust stimulation of Mus81-Mms4 nuclease activity by heteropentameric replication factor C (RFC) complex, the processivity factor of replicative DNA polymerases that is responsible for loading of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) during DNA replication and repair. This stimulation is enhanced by RFC-dependent ATP hydrolysis and by PCNA loading on the DNA. Moreover, this stimulation is not specific to Rfc1, the largest of subunit of this complex, thus indicating that alternative clamp loaders may also play a role in the stimulation. We also observed a targeting of Mus81 by RFC to the nick-containing DNA substrate and we provide further evidence that indicates cooperation between Mus81 and the RFC complex in the repair of DNA lesions generated by various DNA-damaging agents. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of new interacting partners and modulators of Mus81-Mms4 nuclease, RFC, and PCNA imply the cooperation of these factors in resolution of stalled replication forks and branched DNA structures emanating from the restarted replication forks under conditions of replication stress.

Structural Basis for Specific Interaction of TGFβ Signaling Regulators SARA/Endofin with HD-PTP.

  • Gahloth D
  • Structure
  • 2017 Jul 5

Literature context:


SARA and endofin are endosomal adaptor proteins that drive Smad phosphorylation by ligand-activated transforming growth factor β/bone morphogenetic protein (TGFβ/BMP) receptors. We show in this study that SARA and endofin also recruit the tumor supressor HD-PTP, a master regulator of endosomal sorting and ESCRT-dependent receptor downregulation. High-affinity interactions occur between the SARA/endofin N termini, and the conserved hydrophobic region in the HD-PTP Bro1 domain that binds CHMP4/ESCRT-III. CHMP4 engagement is a universal feature of Bro1 proteins, but SARA/endofin binding is specific to HD-PTP. Crystallographic structures of HD-PTPBro1 in complex with SARA, endofin, and three CHMP4 isoforms revealed that all ligands bind similarly to the conserved site but, critically, only SARA/endofin interact at a neighboring pocket unique to HD-PTP. The structures, together with mutagenesis and binding analysis, explain the high affinity and specific binding of SARA/endofin, and why they compete so effectively with CHMP4. Our data invoke models for how endocytic regulation of TGFβ/BMP signaling is controlled.

RhoD Inhibits RhoC-ROCK-Dependent Cell Contraction via PAK6.

  • Durkin CH
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 May 8

Literature context:


RhoA-mediated regulation of myosin-II activity in the actin cortex controls the ability of cells to contract and bleb during a variety of cellular processes, including cell migration and division. Cell contraction and blebbing also frequently occur as part of the cytopathic effect seen during many different viral infections. We now demonstrate that the vaccinia virus protein F11, which localizes to the plasma membrane, is required for ROCK-mediated cell contraction from 2 hr post infection. Curiously, F11-induced cell contraction is dependent on RhoC and not RhoA signaling to ROCK. Moreover, RhoC-driven cell contraction depends on the upstream inhibition of RhoD signaling by F11. This inhibition prevents RhoD from regulating its downstream effector Pak6, alleviating the suppression of RhoC by the kinase. Our observations with vaccinia have now demonstrated that RhoD recruits Pak6 to the plasma membrane to antagonize RhoC signaling during cell contraction and blebbing.

Phosphoglycerate Kinase 1 Phosphorylates Beclin1 to Induce Autophagy.

  • Qian X
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2017 Mar 2

Literature context:


Autophagy is crucial for maintaining cell homeostasis. However, the precise mechanism underlying autophagy initiation remains to be defined. Here, we demonstrate that glutamine deprivation and hypoxia result in inhibition of mTOR-mediated acetyl-transferase ARD1 S228 phosphorylation, leading to ARD1-dependent phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) K388 acetylation and subsequent PGK1-mediated Beclin1 S30 phosphorylation. This phosphorylation enhances ATG14L-associated class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase VPS34 activity by increasing the binding of phosphatidylinositol to VPS34. ARD1-dependent PGK1 acetylation and PGK1-mediated Beclin1 S30 phosphorylation are required for glutamine deprivation- and hypoxia-induced autophagy and brain tumorigenesis. Furthermore, PGK1 K388 acetylation levels correlate with Beclin1 S30 phosphorylation levels and poor prognosis in glioblastoma patients. Our study unearths an important mechanism underlying cellular-stress-induced autophagy initiation in which the protein kinase activity of the metabolic enzyme PGK1 plays an instrumental role and reveals the significance of the mutual regulation of autophagy and cell metabolism in maintaining cell homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA016672()
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA127001()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA109035()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA169603()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS089754()

The pesticidal Cry6Aa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis is structurally similar to HlyE-family alpha pore-forming toxins.

  • Dementiev A
  • BMC Biol.
  • 2016 Aug 30

Literature context:


BACKGROUND: The Cry6 family of proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis represents a group of powerful toxins with great potential for use in the control of coleopteran insects and of nematode parasites of importance to agriculture. These proteins are unrelated to other insecticidal toxins at the level of their primary sequences and the structure and function of these proteins has been poorly studied to date. This has inhibited our understanding of these toxins and their mode of action, along with our ability to manipulate the proteins to alter their activity to our advantage. To increase our understanding of their mode of action and to facilitate further development of these proteins we have determined the structure of Cry6Aa in protoxin and trypsin-activated forms and demonstrated a pore-forming mechanism of action. RESULTS: The two forms of the toxin were resolved to 2.7 Å and 2.0 Å respectively and showed very similar structures. Cry6Aa shows structural homology to a known class of pore-forming toxins including hemolysin E from Escherichia coli and two Bacillus cereus proteins: the hemolytic toxin HblB and the NheA component of the non-hemolytic toxin (pfam05791). Cry6Aa also shows atypical features compared to other members of this family, including internal repeat sequences and small loop regions within major alpha helices. Trypsin processing was found to result in the loss of some internal sequences while the C-terminal region remains disulfide-linked to the main core of the toxin. Based on the structural similarity of Cry6Aa to other toxins, the mechanism of action of the toxin was probed and its ability to form pores in vivo in Caenorhabditis elegans was demonstrated. A non-toxic mutant was also produced, consistent with the proposed pore-forming mode of action. CONCLUSIONS: Cry6 proteins are members of the alpha helical pore-forming toxins - a structural class not previously recognized among the Cry toxins of B. thuringiensis and representing a new paradigm for nematocidal and insecticidal proteins. Elucidation of both the structure and the pore-forming mechanism of action of Cry6Aa now opens the way to more detailed analysis of toxin specificity and the development of new toxin variants with novel activities.

cpg15 and cpg15-2 constitute a family of activity-regulated ligands expressed differentially in the nervous system to promote neurite growth and neuronal survival.

  • Fujino T
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2008 Apr 10

Literature context:


Many ligands that affect nervous system development are members of gene families that function together to coordinate the assembly of complex neural circuits. cpg15/neuritin encodes an extracellular ligand that promotes neurite growth, neuronal survival, and synaptic maturation. Here we identify cpg15-2 as the only paralogue of cpg15 in the mouse and human genome. Both genes are expressed predominantly in the nervous system, where their expression is regulated by activity. cpg15-2 expression increases by more than twofold in response to kainate-induced seizures and nearly fourfold in the visual cortex in response to 24 hours of light exposure following dark adaptation. cpg15 and cpg15-2 diverge in their spatial and temporal expression profiles. cpg15-2 mRNA is most abundant in the retina and the olfactory bulb, as opposed to the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus for cpg15. In the retina, they differ in their cell-type specificity. cpg15 is expressed in retinal ganglion cells, whereas cpg15-2 is predominantly in bipolar cells. Developmentally, onset of cpg15-2 expression is delayed compared with cpg15 expression. CPG15-2 is glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored to the cell membrane and, like CPG15, can be released in a soluble-secreted form, but with lower efficiency. CPG15 and CPG15-2 were found to form homodimers and heterodimers with each other. In hippocampal explants and dissociated cultures, CPG15 and CPG15-2 promote neurite growth and neuronal survival with similar efficacy. Our findings suggest that CPG15 and CPG15-2 perform similar cellular functions but may play distinct roles in vivo through their cell-type- and tissue-specific transcriptional regulation.

Funding information:
  • NIH HHS - R24 OD010435(United States)