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Streptavidin, Alexa Fluor® 555 Conjugate antibody

RRID:AB_2571525

Antibody ID

AB_2571525

Target Antigen

biotin

Proper Citation

(Thermo Fisher Scientific Cat# S32355, RRID:AB_2571525)

Clonality

unknown

Comments

Discontinued

Vendor

Thermo Fisher Scientific

Cat Num

S32355

How Diverse Retinal Functions Arise from Feedback at the First Visual Synapse.

  • Drinnenberg A
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Many brain regions contain local interneurons of distinct types. How does an interneuron type contribute to the input-output transformations of a given brain region? We addressed this question in the mouse retina by chemogenetically perturbing horizontal cells, an interneuron type providing feedback at the first visual synapse, while monitoring the light-driven spiking activity in thousands of ganglion cells, the retinal output neurons. We uncovered six reversible perturbation-induced effects in the response dynamics and response range of ganglion cells. The effects were enhancing or suppressive, occurred in different response epochs, and depended on the ganglion cell type. A computational model of the retinal circuitry reproduced all perturbation-induced effects and led us to assign specific functions to horizontal cells with respect to different ganglion cell types. Our combined experimental and theoretical work reveals how a single interneuron type can differentially shape the dynamical properties of distinct output channels of a brain region.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 233083(International)

B Cell Receptor and CD40 Signaling Are Rewired for Synergistic Induction of the c-Myc Transcription Factor in Germinal Center B Cells.

  • Luo W
  • Immunity
  • 2018 Feb 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

Positive selection of germinal center (GC) B cells is driven by B cell receptor (BCR) affinity and requires help from follicular T helper cells. The transcription factors c-Myc and Foxo1 are critical for GC B cell selection and survival. However, how different affinity-related signaling events control these transcription factors in a manner that links to selection is unknown. Here we showed that GC B cells reprogram CD40 and BCR signaling to transduce via NF-κB and Foxo1, respectively, whereas naive B cells propagate both signals downstream of either receptor. Although either BCR or CD40 ligation induced c-Myc in naive B cells, both signals were required to highly induce c-Myc, a critical mediator of GC B cell survival and cell cycle reentry. Thus, GC B cells rewire their signaling to enhance selection stringency via a requirement for both antigen receptor- and T cell-mediated signals to induce mediators of positive selection.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01MH091115(United States)

Excitatory Pathways from the Lateral Habenula Enable Propofol-Induced Sedation.

  • Gelegen C
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Feb 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

The lateral habenula has been widely studied for its contribution in generating reward-related behaviors [1, 2]. We have found that this nucleus plays an unexpected role in the sedative actions of the general anesthetic propofol. The lateral habenula is a glutamatergic, excitatory hub that projects to multiple targets throughout the brain, including GABAergic and aminergic nuclei that control arousal [3-5]. When glutamate release from the lateral habenula in mice was genetically blocked, the ability of propofol to induce sedation was greatly diminished. In addition to this reduced sensitivity to propofol, blocking output from the lateral habenula caused natural non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep to become highly fragmented, especially during the rest ("lights on") period. This fragmentation was largely reversed by the dual orexinergic antagonist almorexant. We conclude that the glutamatergic output from the lateral habenula is permissive for the sedative actions of propofol and is also necessary for the consolidation of natural sleep.

Funding information:
  • National Institute of General Medical Sciences - Gradaute Student Fellowship(United States)

Neural Circuit-Specialized Astrocytes: Transcriptomic, Proteomic, Morphological, and Functional Evidence.

  • Chai H
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Astrocytes are ubiquitous in the brain and are widely held to be largely identical. However, this view has not been fully tested, and the possibility that astrocytes are neural circuit specialized remains largely unexplored. Here, we used multiple integrated approaches, including RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), mass spectrometry, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, serial block-face-scanning electron microscopy, morphological reconstructions, pharmacogenetics, and diffusible dye, calcium, and glutamate imaging, to directly compare adult striatal and hippocampal astrocytes under identical conditions. We found significant differences in electrophysiological properties, Ca2+ signaling, morphology, and astrocyte-synapse proximity between striatal and hippocampal astrocytes. Unbiased evaluation of actively translated RNA and proteomic data confirmed significant astrocyte diversity between hippocampal and striatal circuits. We thus report core astrocyte properties, reveal evidence for specialized astrocytes within neural circuits, and provide new, integrated database resources and approaches to explore astrocyte diversity and function throughout the adult brain. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Distinct Neural Circuits for the Formation and Retrieval of Episodic Memories.

  • Roy DS
  • Cell
  • 2017 Aug 24

Literature context:


Abstract:

The formation and retrieval of a memory is thought to be accomplished by activation and reactivation, respectively, of the memory-holding cells (engram cells) by a common set of neural circuits, but this hypothesis has not been established. The medial temporal-lobe system is essential for the formation and retrieval of episodic memory for which individual hippocampal subfields and entorhinal cortex layers contribute by carrying out specific functions. One subfield whose function is poorly known is the subiculum. Here, we show that dorsal subiculum and the circuit, CA1 to dorsal subiculum to medial entorhinal cortex layer 5, play a crucial role selectively in the retrieval of episodic memories. Conversely, the direct CA1 to medial entorhinal cortex layer 5 circuit is essential specifically for memory formation. Our data suggest that the subiculum-containing detour loop is dedicated to meet the requirements associated with recall such as rapid memory updating and retrieval-driven instinctive fear responses.

Formation and Maintenance of Functional Spines in the Absence of Presynaptic Glutamate Release.

  • Sigler A
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Apr 19

Literature context:


Abstract:

Dendritic spines are the major transmitter reception compartments of glutamatergic synapses in most principal neurons of the mammalian brain and play a key role in the function of nerve cell circuits. The formation of functional spine synapses is thought to be critically dependent on presynaptic glutamatergic signaling. By analyzing CA1 pyramidal neurons in mutant hippocampal slice cultures that are essentially devoid of presynaptic transmitter release, we demonstrate that the formation and maintenance of dendrites and functional spines are independent of synaptic glutamate release.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH107460()

Immunosuppression via Loss of IL2rγ Enhances Long-Term Functional Integration of hESC-Derived Photoreceptors in the Mouse Retina.

  • Zhu J
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2017 Mar 2

Literature context:


Abstract:

Loss of photoreceptors is a common endpoint in degenerative retinal diseases. Human pluripotent stem cells provide a potential source for photoreceptor replacement, but, even in mouse models, the efficiency and efficacy of transplantation-based repair remains poor. In this study, we examined the degree to which immune rejection contributes to these disappointing outcomes using an immunodeficient IL2 receptor γ (IL2rγ)-null mouse model. Our results show that prevention of cell rejection in the normal and degenerating retinal environment significantly improves long-term survival and integration of hESC-derived donor retinal cells. Transplanted cells are able to differentiate into mature photoreceptors expressing various opsins and can functionally integrate into congenitally blind mice. Our work suggests that even though the retina is often considered immune-privileged, suppression of host immune-mediated cell rejection may well be a useful approach for improving long-term integration of transplanted cells with a view to successful clinical outcomes.

Astrocyte Intermediaries of Septal Cholinergic Modulation in the Hippocampus.

  • Pabst M
  • Neuron
  • 2016 May 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine, derived from the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca complex, has been accorded an important role in hippocampal learning and memory processes. However, the precise mechanisms whereby acetylcholine released from septohippocampal cholinergic neurons acts to modulate hippocampal microcircuits remain unknown. Here, we show that acetylcholine release from cholinergic septohippocampal projections causes a long-lasting GABAergic inhibition of hippocampal dentate granule cells in vivo and in vitro. This inhibition is caused by cholinergic activation of hilar astrocytes, which provide glutamatergic excitation of hilar inhibitory interneurons. These results demonstrate that acetylcholine release can cause slow inhibition of principal neuronal activity via astrocyte intermediaries.

Funding information:
  • NHLBI NIH HHS - R21-HL122443(United States)

Age-dependent changes in amino acid phenotype and the role of glutamate release from hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin neurons.

  • Dennison CS
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Apr 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

Hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are important regulators of energy balance. Recent studies indicate that in addition to their peptides, POMC neurons can release either the amino acid (AA) transmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or glutamate. A small subset of POMC neurons appears to have a dual AA phenotype based on coexpression of mRNA for the vesicular glutamate transporter (vGlut2) and the GABA synthetic enzyme Gad67. To determine whether the colocalization of GABAergic and glutamatergic markers may be indicative of a switch in AA transmitter phenotype, fluorescent in situ hybridization was used to detect vGlut2 and Gad mRNA in POMC neurons during early postnatal development. The percentage of POMC neurons expressing vGlut2 mRNA in POMC neurons progressively decreased from ∼40% at day 1 to less than 10% by 8 weeks of age, whereas Gad67 was only expressed in ∼10% of POMC neurons at day 1 and increased until ∼45% of POMC neurons coexpressed Gad67 at 8 weeks of age. To determine whether the expression of vGlut2 may play a role in energy balance regulation, genetic deletion of vGlut2 in POMC neurons was accomplished using Cre-lox technology. Male, but not female, mice lacking vGlut2 in POMC neurons were unable to maintain energy balance to the same extent as control mice when fed a high-fat diet. Altogether, the results indicate that POMC neurons are largely glutamatergic early in life and that the release of glutamate from these cells is involved in sex- and diet-specific regulation of energy balance.

Funding information:
  • NIDA NIH HHS - RC2 DA029475(United States)

Fezf2 expression in layer 5 projection neurons of mature mouse motor cortex.

  • Tantirigama ML
  • J. Comp. Neurol.
  • 2016 Mar 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

The mature cerebral cortex contains a wide diversity of neuron phenotypes. This diversity is specified during development by neuron-specific expression of key transcription factors, some of which are retained for the life of the animal. One of these key developmental transcription factors that is also retained in the adult is Fezf2, but the neuron types expressing it in the mature cortex are unknown. With a validated Fezf2-Gfp reporter mouse, whole-cell electrophysiology with morphology reconstruction, cluster analysis, in vivo retrograde labeling, and immunohistochemistry, we identify a heterogeneous population of Fezf2(+) neurons in both layer 5A and layer 5B of the mature motor cortex. Functional electrophysiology identified two distinct subtypes of Fezf2(+) neurons that resembled pyramidal tract projection neurons (PT-PNs) and intratelencephalic projection neurons (IT-PNs). Retrograde labeling confirmed the former type to include corticospinal projection neurons (CSpPNs) and corticothalamic projection neurons (CThPNs), whereas the latter type included crossed corticostriatal projection neurons (cCStrPNs) and crossed-corticocortical projection neurons (cCCPNs). The two Fezf2(+) subtypes expressed either CTIP2 or SATB2 to distinguish their physiological identity and confirmed that specific expression combinations of key transcription factors persist in the mature motor cortex. Our findings indicate a wider role for Fezf2 within gene expression networks that underpin the diversity of layer 5 cortical projection neurons.