Hematopoiesis occurs in distinct waves. "Definitive" hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with the potential for all blood lineages emerge in the aorta-gonado-mesonephros, while "primitive" progenitors, whose potential is thought to be limited to erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, and macrophages, arise earlier in the yolk sac (YS). Here, we questioned whether other YS lineages exist that have not been identified, partially owing to limitations of current lineage tracing models. We established the use of Cdh5-CreERT2 for hematopoietic fate mapping, which revealed the YS origin of mast cells (MCs). YS-derived MCs were replaced by definitive MCs, which maintained themselves independently from the bone marrow in the adult. Replacement occurred with tissue-specific kinetics. MCs in the embryonic skin, but not other organs, remained largely YS derived prenatally and were phenotypically and transcriptomically distinct from definite adult MCs. We conclude that within myeloid lineages, dual hematopoietic origin is shared between macrophages and MCs.
Psoriasis is a chronic autoinflammatory skin disease. Although interleukin-17, derived from lymphocytes, has been shown to be critical in psoriasis, the initiation and maintenance of chronic skin inflammation has not been well understood. IL-25 (also called IL-17E), another IL-17 family cytokine, is well known to regulate allergic responses and type 2 immunity. Here we have shown that IL-25, also highly expressed in the lesional skin of psoriasis patients, was regulated by IL-17 in murine skin of a imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis model. IL-25 injection induced skin inflammation, whereas germline or keratinocyte-specific deletion of IL-25 caused resistance to IMQ-induced psoriasis. Via IL-17RB expression in keratinocytes, IL-25 stimulated the proliferation of keratinocytes and induced the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, via activation of the STAT3 transcription factor. Thus, our data demonstrate that an IL-17-induced autoregulatory circuit in keratinocytes is mediated by IL-25 and suggest that this circuit could be targeted in the treatment of psoriasis patients.
T cell antigen-presenting cell (APC) interactions early during chronic viral infection are crucial for determining viral set point and disease outcome, but how and when different APC subtypes contribute to these outcomes is unclear. The TNF receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) member GITR is important for CD4+ T cell accumulation and control of chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We found that type I interferon (IFN-I) induced TNFSF ligands GITRL, 4-1BBL, OX40L, and CD70 predominantly on monocyte-derived APCs and CD80 and CD86 predominantly on classical dendritic cells (cDCs). Mice with hypofunctional GITRL in Lyz2+ cells had decreased LCMV-specific CD4+ T cell accumulation and increased viral load. GITR signals in CD4+ T cells occurred after priming to upregulate OX40, CD25, and chemokine receptor CX3CR1. Thus IFN-I (signal 3) induced a post-priming checkpoint (signal 4) for CD4+ T cell accumulation, revealing a division of labor between cDCs and monocyte-derived APCs in regulating T cell expansion.