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Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) Secondary Antibody, Alexa Fluor 488 conjugate


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Rabbit IgG (H+L) rabbit

Proper Citation

(Thermo Fisher Scientific Cat# R37116, RRID:AB_2556544)


polyclonal antibody


Applications: IF (Assay-Dependent), Flow (Assay-Dependent), ICC (Assay Dependent)

Host Organism



Thermo Fisher Scientific Go To Vendor

Autophagy Regulates the Liver Clock and Glucose Metabolism by Degrading CRY1.

  • Toledo M
  • Cell Metab.
  • 2018 Jun 11

Literature context:


The circadian clock coordinates behavioral and circadian cues with availability and utilization of nutrients. Proteasomal degradation of clock repressors, such as cryptochrome (CRY)1, maintains periodicity. Whether macroautophagy, a quality control pathway, degrades circadian proteins remains unknown. Here we show that circadian proteins BMAL1, CLOCK, REV-ERBα, and CRY1 are lysosomal targets, and that macroautophagy affects the circadian clock by selectively degrading CRY1. Autophagic degradation of CRY1, an inhibitor of gluconeogenesis, occurs in a diurnal window when rodents rely on gluconeogenesis, suggesting that CRY1 degradation is time-imprinted to maintenance of blood glucose. High-fat feeding accelerates autophagic CRY1 degradation and contributes to obesity-associated hyperglycemia. CRY1 contains several light chain 3 (LC3)-interacting region (LIR) motifs, which facilitate the interaction of cargo proteins with the autophagosome marker LC3. Using mutational analyses, we identified two distinct LIRs on CRY1 that exert circadian glycemic control by regulating CRY1 degradation, revealing LIRs as potential targets for controlling hyperglycemia.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - T32DC006612(United States)

An ERK-Dependent Feedback Mechanism Prevents Hematopoietic Stem Cell Exhaustion.

  • Baumgartner C
  • Cell Stem Cell
  • 2018 Jun 1

Literature context:


Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) sustain hematopoiesis throughout life. HSCs exit dormancy to restore hemostasis in response to stressful events, such as acute blood loss, and must return to a quiescent state to prevent their exhaustion and resulting bone marrow failure. HSC activation is driven in part through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTORC1 signaling pathway, but less is known about the cell-intrinsic pathways that control HSC dormancy. Here, we delineate an ERK-dependent, rate-limiting feedback mechanism that controls HSC fitness and their re-entry into quiescence. We show that the MEK/ERK and PI3K pathways are synchronously activated in HSCs during emergency hematopoiesis and that feedback phosphorylation of MEK1 by activated ERK counterbalances AKT/mTORC1 activation. Genetic or chemical ablation of this feedback loop tilts the balance between HSC dormancy and activation, increasing differentiated cell output and accelerating HSC exhaustion. These results suggest that MEK inhibitors developed for cancer therapy may find additional utility in controlling HSC activation.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - K08 AG024816-05(United States)

Ectopic positioning of Bergmann glia and impaired cerebellar wiring in Mlc1-overexpressing mice.

  • Kikuchihara S
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2018 Jun 19

Literature context:


Mlc1 is a causative gene for megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (MLC), and is expressed in astrocytes. Mlc1-overexpressing mice represent an animal model of early-onset leukoencephalopathy, which manifests as astrocytic swelling followed by myelin membrane splitting in the white matter. It has previously reported that Mlc1 is highly expressed in Bergmann glia, while the cerebellar phenotypes of Mlc1-overexpressing mouse have not been characterized. Here, we examined the cerebellum of Mlc1-overexpressing mouse and found that the distribution of BG was normally compacted along the PC layer until postnatal day 10 (P10), while most BG were dispersed throughout the molecular layer by P28. Ectopic BG were poorly wrapped around somatodendritic elements of PCs and exhibited reduced expression of the glutamate transporter GLAST. Extraordinarily slow and small climbing fiber (CF)-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents, which are known to be elicited under accelerated glutamate spillover, emerged at P20-P28 when BG ectopia was severe, but not at P9-P12 when ectopia was mild. Furthermore, maturation of CF wiring, which translocates the site of innervation from somata to proximal dendrites, was also impaired. Manipulations that restricted the Mlc1-overexpressing period successfully generated mice with and without BG ectopia, depending on the overexpressing period. Together, these findings suggest that there is a critical time window for mechanisms that promote the positioning of BG in the PC layer. Once normal positioning of BG is affected, the differentiation of BG is impaired, leading to insufficient glial wrapping, exacerbated glutamate spillover, and aberrant synaptic wiring in PCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Funding information:
  • Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas: 'Glial Assembly a new regulatory machinery of brain function and diso - 25117001()
  • NHGRI NIH HHS - 5P50 HG002360(United States)

Drosophila TNF Modulates Tissue Tension in the Embryo to Facilitate Macrophage Invasive Migration.

  • Ratheesh A
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 May 7

Literature context:


Migrating cells penetrate tissue barriers during development, inflammatory responses, and tumor metastasis. We study if migration in vivo in such three-dimensionally confined environments requires changes in the mechanical properties of the surrounding cells using embryonic Drosophila melanogaster hemocytes, also called macrophages, as a model. We find that macrophage invasion into the germband through transient separation of the apposing ectoderm and mesoderm requires cell deformations and reductions in apical tension in the ectoderm. Interestingly, the genetic pathway governing these mechanical shifts acts downstream of the only known tumor necrosis factor superfamily member in Drosophila, Eiger, and its receptor, Grindelwald. Eiger-Grindelwald signaling reduces levels of active Myosin in the germband ectodermal cortex through the localization of a Crumbs complex component, Patj (Pals-1-associated tight junction protein). We therefore elucidate a distinct molecular pathway that controls tissue tension and demonstrate the importance of such regulation for invasive migration in vivo.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P50 CA130805(United States)

Replay of Episodic Memories in the Rat.

  • Panoz-Brown D
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 May 21

Literature context:


Vivid episodic memories in people have been characterized as the replay of multiple unique events in sequential order [1-3]. The hippocampus plays a critical role in episodic memories in both people and rodents [2, 4-6]. Although rats remember multiple unique episodes [7, 8], it is currently unknown if animals "replay" episodic memories. Therefore, we developed an animal model of episodic memory replay. Here, we show that rats can remember a trial-unique stream of multiple episodes and the order in which these events occurred by engaging hippocampal-dependent episodic memory replay. We document that rats rely on episodic memory replay to remember the order of events rather than relying on non-episodic memories. Replay of episodic memories survives a long retention-interval challenge and interference from the memory of other events, which documents that replay is part of long-term episodic memory. The chemogenetic activating drug clozapine N-oxide (CNO), but not vehicle, reversibly impairs episodic memory replay in rats previously injected bilaterally in the hippocampus with a recombinant viral vector containing an inhibitory designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD; AAV8-hSyn-hM4Di-mCherry). By contrast, two non-episodic memory assessments are unaffected by CNO, showing selectivity of this hippocampal-dependent impairment. Our approach provides an animal model of episodic memory replay, a process by which the rat searches its representations in episodic memory in sequential order to find information. Our findings using rats suggest that the ability to replay a stream of episodic memories is quite old in the evolutionary timescale.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA200417()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R21 AG044530()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R21 AG051753()
  • NIA NIH HHS - R21 AG053524()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R01 DA041229()
  • NIDA NIH HHS - R21 DA042584()
  • NIMH NIH HHS - MH66290(United States)
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R01 MH098985()

Helicobacter pylori Infection Modulates Host Cell Metabolism through VacA-Dependent Inhibition of mTORC1.

  • Kim IJ
  • Cell Host Microbe
  • 2018 May 9

Literature context:


Helicobacter pylori (Hp) vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) is a bacterial exotoxin that enters host cells and induces mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the extent to which VacA-dependent mitochondrial perturbations affect overall cellular metabolism is poorly understood. We report that VacA perturbations in mitochondria are linked to alterations in cellular amino acid homeostasis, which results in the inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and subsequent autophagy. mTORC1, which regulates cellular metabolism during nutrient stress, is inhibited during Hp infection by a VacA-dependent mechanism. This VacA-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 signaling is linked to the dissociation of mTORC1 from the lysosomal surface and results in activation of cellular autophagy through the Unc 51-like kinase 1 (Ulk1) complex. VacA intoxication results in reduced cellular amino acids, and bolstering amino acid pools prevents VacA-mediated mTORC1 inhibition. Overall, these studies support a model that Hp modulate host cell metabolism through the action of VacA at mitochondria.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI045928()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R21 AI117497()
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U19 AI106772(United States)
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM089771()

Catch-Up Growth in Zebrafish Embryo Requires Neural Crest Cells Sustained by Irs1 Signaling.

  • Kamei H
  • Endocrinology
  • 2018 Apr 1

Literature context:


Most animals display retarded growth in adverse conditions; however, upon the removal of unfavorable factors, they often show quick growth restoration, which is known as "catch-up" growth. In zebrafish embryos, hypoxia causes growth arrest, but subsequent reoxygenation induces catch-up growth. Here, we report the role of insulin receptor substrate (Irs)1-mediated insulin/insulinlike growth factor signaling (IIS) and the involvement of stem cells in catch-up growth in reoxygenated zebrafish embryos. Disturbed irs1 expression attenuated IIS, resulting in greater inhibition in catch-up growth than in normal growth and forced IIS activation‒restored catch-up growth. The irs1 knockdown induced noticeable cell death in neural crest cells (NCCs; multipotent stem cells) under hypoxia, and the pharmacological/genetic ablation of NCCs hindered catch-up growth. Furthermore, inhibition of the apoptotic pathway by pan-caspase inhibition or forced activation of Akt signaling in irs1 knocked-down embryos blocked NCC cell death and rescued catch-up growth. Our data indicate that this multipotent stem cell is indispensable for embryonic catch-up growth and that Irs1-mediated IIS is a prerequisite for its survival under severe adverse environments such as prolonged hypoxia.

The Polyploid State Plays a Tumor-Suppressive Role in the Liver.

  • Zhang S
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2018 Feb 26

Literature context:


Most cells in the liver are polyploid, but the functional role of polyploidy is unknown. Polyploidization occurs through cytokinesis failure and endoreduplication around the time of weaning. To interrogate polyploidy while avoiding irreversible manipulations of essential cell-cycle genes, we developed orthogonal mouse models to transiently and potently alter liver ploidy. Premature weaning, as well as knockdown of E2f8 or Anln, allowed us to toggle between diploid and polyploid states. While there was no detectable impact of ploidy alterations on liver function, metabolism, or regeneration, mice with more polyploid hepatocytes suppressed tumorigenesis and mice with more diploid hepatocytes accelerated tumorigenesis in mutagen- and high-fat-induced models. Mechanistically, the diploid state was more susceptible to Cas9-mediated tumor-suppressor loss but was similarly susceptible to MYC oncogene activation, indicating that polyploidy differentially protected the liver from distinct genomic aberrations. This suggests that polyploidy evolved in part to prevent malignant outcomes of liver injury.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - (United Kingdom)
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA190525()

Loss of functional BAP1 augments sensitivity to TRAIL in cancer cells.

  • Kolluri KK
  • Elife
  • 2018 Jan 18

Literature context:


Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is poorly responsive to systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy and invariably fatal. Here we describe a screen of 94 drugs in 15 exome-sequenced MM lines and the discovery of a subset defined by loss of function of the nuclear deubiquitinase BRCA associated protein-1 (BAP1) that demonstrate heightened sensitivity to TRAIL (tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand). This association is observed across human early passage MM cultures, mouse xenografts and human tumour explants. We demonstrate that BAP1 deubiquitinase activity and its association with ASXL1 to form the Polycomb repressive deubiquitinase complex (PR-DUB) impacts TRAIL sensitivity implicating transcriptional modulation as an underlying mechanism. Death receptor agonists are well-tolerated anti-cancer agents demonstrating limited therapeutic benefit in trials without a targeting biomarker. We identify BAP1 loss-of-function mutations, which are frequent in MM, as a potential genomic stratification tool for TRAIL sensitivity with immediate and actionable therapeutic implications.

Funding information:
  • Cancer Research UK - A17341()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01NS043915(United States)
  • Wellcome - WT097452MA()
  • Wellcome Trust - 106555/Z/14/Z()
  • Wellcome Trust - WT107963AIA()

Isolation, Cryosection and Immunostaining of Skeletal Muscle.

  • Ortuste Quiroga HP
  • Methods Mol. Biol.
  • 2018 Jan 12

Literature context:


Adult skeletal muscle is maintained and repaired by resident stem cells called satellite cells, located between the plasmalemma of a muscle fiber, and the surrounding basal lamina. When needed, satellite cells are activated to form proliferative myoblasts, that then differentiate and fuse to existing muscle fibers, or fuse together to form replacement myofibers. In parallel, a proportion of satellite cells self-renew, to maintain the stem cell pool. To date, Pax7 is the marker of choice for identifying quiescent satellite cells. Co-immunostaining of skeletal muscle with Pax7 and laminin allows both identification of satellite cells, and the myofiber that they are associated with. Furthermore, satellite cells can be followed through the early stages of the myogenic program by co-immunostaining with myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD. To test genetically modified mice for satellite cell expression, co-immunostaining can be performed for Pax7 and reporter genes such as eGFP. Here, we describe a method for identification of satellite cells in skeletal muscle sections, including muscle isolation, cryosectioning and co-immunostaining for Pax7 and laminin.

Structural Mechanism for Modulation of Synaptic Neuroligin-Neurexin Signaling by MDGA Proteins.

  • Elegheert J
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Aug 16

Literature context:


Neuroligin-neurexin (NL-NRX) complexes are fundamental synaptic organizers in the central nervous system. An accurate spatial and temporal control of NL-NRX signaling is crucial to balance excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission, and perturbations are linked with neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. MDGA proteins bind NLs and control their function and interaction with NRXs via unknown mechanisms. Here, we report crystal structures of MDGA1, the NL1-MDGA1 complex, and a spliced NL1 isoform. Two large, multi-domain MDGA molecules fold into rigid triangular structures, cradling a dimeric NL to prevent NRX binding. Structural analyses guided the discovery of a broad, splicing-modulated interaction network between MDGA and NL family members and helped rationalize the impact of autism-linked mutations. We demonstrate that expression levels largely determine whether MDGAs act selectively or suppress the synapse organizing function of multiple NLs. These results illustrate a potentially brain-wide regulatory mechanism for NL-NRX signaling modulation.

ACK1/TNK2 Regulates Histone H4 Tyr88-phosphorylation and AR Gene Expression in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

  • Mahajan K
  • Cancer Cell
  • 2017 Jun 12

Literature context:


The androgen receptor (AR) is critical for the progression of prostate cancer to a castration-resistant (CRPC) state. AR antagonists are ineffective due to their inability to repress the expression of AR or its splice variant, AR-V7. Here, we report that the tyrosine kinase ACK1 (TNK2) phosphorylates histone H4 at tyrosine 88 upstream of the AR transcription start site. The WDR5/MLL2 complex reads the H4-Y88-phosphorylation marks and deposits the transcriptionally activating H3K4-trimethyl marks promoting AR transcription. Reversal of the pY88-H4 epigenetic marks by the ACK1 inhibitor (R)-9bMS-sensitized naive and enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells and reduced AR and AR-V7 levels to mitigate CRPC tumor growth. Thus, a feedforward ACK1/pY88-H4/WDR5/MLL2/AR epigenetic circuit drives CRPC and is necessary for maintenance of the malignant state.

Funding information:
  • NCI NIH HHS - P30 CA076292()
  • NCI NIH HHS - R01 CA135328()

Ciliary transcription factors and miRNAs precisely regulate Cp110 levels required for ciliary adhesions and ciliogenesis.

  • Walentek P
  • Elife
  • 2016 Sep 13

Literature context:


Upon cell cycle exit, centriole-to-basal body transition facilitates cilia formation. The centriolar protein Cp110 is a regulator of this process and cilia inhibitor, but its positive roles in ciliogenesis remain poorly understood. Using Xenopus we show that Cp110 inhibits cilia formation at high levels, while optimal levels promote ciliogenesis. Cp110 localizes to cilia-forming basal bodies and rootlets, and is required for ciliary adhesion complexes that facilitate Actin interactions. The opposing roles of Cp110 in ciliation are generated in part by coiled-coil domains that mediate preferential binding to centrioles over rootlets. Because of its dual role in ciliogenesis, Cp110 levels must be precisely controlled. In multiciliated cells, this is achieved by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation through ciliary transcription factors and microRNAs, which activate and repress cp110 to produce optimal Cp110 levels during ciliogenesis. Our data provide novel insights into how Cp110 and its regulation contribute to development and cell function.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - 293681(International)

BCL11A Haploinsufficiency Causes an Intellectual Disability Syndrome and Dysregulates Transcription.

  • Dias C
  • Am. J. Hum. Genet.
  • 2016 Aug 4

Literature context:


Intellectual disability (ID) is a common condition with considerable genetic heterogeneity. Next-generation sequencing of large cohorts has identified an increasing number of genes implicated in ID, but their roles in neurodevelopment remain largely unexplored. Here we report an ID syndrome caused by de novo heterozygous missense, nonsense, and frameshift mutations in BCL11A, encoding a transcription factor that is a putative member of the BAF swi/snf chromatin-remodeling complex. Using a comprehensive integrated approach to ID disease modeling, involving human cellular analyses coupled to mouse behavioral, neuroanatomical, and molecular phenotyping, we provide multiple lines of functional evidence for phenotypic effects. The etiological missense variants cluster in the amino-terminal region of human BCL11A, and we demonstrate that they all disrupt its localization, dimerization, and transcriptional regulatory activity, consistent with a loss of function. We show that Bcl11a haploinsufficiency in mice causes impaired cognition, abnormal social behavior, and microcephaly in accordance with the human phenotype. Furthermore, we identify shared aberrant transcriptional profiles in the cortex and hippocampus of these mouse models. Thus, our work implicates BCL11A haploinsufficiency in neurodevelopmental disorders and defines additional targets regulated by this gene, with broad relevance for our understanding of ID and related syndromes.

Funding information:
  • European Research Council - (International)

GnRH Episodic Secretion Is Altered by Pharmacological Blockade of Gap Junctions: Possible Involvement of Glial Cells.

  • Pinet-Charvet C
  • Endocrinology
  • 2016 Jan 31

Literature context:


Episodic release of GnRH is essential for reproductive function. In vitro studies have established that this episodic release is an endogenous property of GnRH neurons and that GnRH secretory pulses are associated with synchronization of GnRH neuron activity. The cellular mechanisms by which GnRH neurons synchronize remain largely unknown. There is no clear evidence of physical coupling of GnRH neurons through gap junctions to explain episodic synchronization. However, coupling of glial cells through gap junctions has been shown to regulate neuron activity in their microenvironment. The present study investigated whether glial cell communication through gap junctions plays a role in GnRH neuron activity and secretion in the mouse. Our findings show that Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein-expressing glial cells located in the median eminence in close vicinity to GnRH fibers expressed Gja1 encoding connexin-43. To study the impact of glial-gap junction coupling on GnRH neuron activity, an in vitro model of primary cultures from mouse embryo nasal placodes was used. In this model, GnRH neurons possess a glial microenvironment and were able to release GnRH in an episodic manner. Our findings show that in vitro glial cells forming the microenvironment of GnRH neurons expressed connexin-43 and displayed functional gap junctions. Pharmacological blockade of the gap junctions with 50 μM 18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid decreased GnRH secretion by reducing pulse frequency and amplitude, suppressed neuronal synchronization and drastically reduced spontaneous electrical activity, all these effects were reversed upon 18-α-glycyrrhetinic acid washout.

Funding information:
  • NIMH NIH HHS - R37 MH063105(United States)

Oxytocin receptor in the hypothalamus is sufficient to rescue normal thermoregulatory function in male oxytocin receptor knockout mice.

  • Kasahara Y
  • Endocrinology
  • 2013 Nov 21

Literature context:


Oxytocin (OXT) and OXT receptor (OXTR) have been implicated in the regulation of energy homeostasis, but the detailed mechanism is still unclear. We recently showed late-onset obesity and impaired cold-induced thermogenesis in male OXTR knockout (Oxtr(-/-)) mice. Here we demonstrate that the OXTR in the hypothalamus has important functions in thermoregulation. Male Oxtr(-/-) mice failed to maintain their body temperatures during exposure to a cold environment. Oxtr(-/-) mice also showed decreased neuronal activation in the thermoregulatory hypothalamic region during cold exposure. Normal cold-induced thermogenesis was recovered in Oxtr(-/-) mice by restoring OXTR to the hypothalamus with an adeno-associated virus-Oxtr vector. In addition, brown adipose tissue (BAT) in Oxtr(-/-) mice contained larger lipid droplets in both 10- and 20-week-old compared with BAT from age-matched Oxtr(+/+) control mice. In BAT, the expression level of β3-adrenergic receptor at normal temperature was lower in Oxtr(-/-) mice than that in control mice. In contrast, α2A-adrenergic receptor expression level was higher in BAT from Oxtr(-/-) mice in both normal and cold temperatures. Because β3- and α2A-adrenergic receptors are known to have opposite effects on the thermoregulation, the imbalance of adrenergic receptors is suspected to affect this dysfunction in the thermoregulation. Our study is the first to demonstrate that the central OXT/OXTR system plays important roles in the regulation of body temperature homeostasis.

Funding information:
  • NIAAA NIH HHS - R01 AA019454(United States)