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Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) Cross-Adsorbed Secondary Antibody, HRP


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Mouse IgG (H+L) Cross-Adsorbed mouse

Proper Citation

(Thermo Fisher Scientific Cat# G-21040, RRID:AB_2536527)


polyclonal antibody


Applications: WB (1:10,000-1:200,000), IHC (1:500-1:2,000), ELISA (1:500-1:2,000)

Host Organism



Thermo Fisher Scientific Go To Vendor

Overexpression of α-synuclein in an astrocyte cell line promotes autophagy inhibition and apoptosis.

  • Erustes AG
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2018 Jun 22

Literature context:


α-Synuclein is the major component of neuronal cytoplasmic aggregates called Lewy bodies, the main pathological hallmark of Parkinson disease. Although neurons are the predominant cells expressing α-synuclein in the brain, recent studies have demonstrated that primary astrocytes in culture also express α-synuclein and regulate α-synuclein trafficking. Astrocytes have a neuroprotective role in several detrimental brain conditions; we therefore analyzed the effects of the overexpression of wild-type α-synuclein and its A30P and A53T mutants on autophagy and apoptosis. We observed that in immortalized astrocyte cell lines, overexpression of α-synuclein proteins promotes the decrease of LC3-II and the increase of p62 protein levels, suggesting the inhibition of autophagy. When these cells were treated with rotenone, there was a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, especially in cells expressing mutant α-synuclein. The level of this decrease was related to the toxicity of the mutants because they show a more intense and sustained effect. The decrease in autophagy and the mitochondrial changes in conjunction with parkin expression levels may sensitize astrocytes to apoptosis.

A C9orf72 ALS/FTD Ortholog Acts in Endolysosomal Degradation and Lysosomal Homeostasis.

  • Corrionero A
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 May 21

Literature context:


The most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the expansion of a hexanucleotide repeat in a non-coding region of the gene C9orf72. We report that loss-of-function mutations in alfa-1, the Caenorhabditis elegans ortholog of C9orf72, cause a novel phenotypic defect: endocytosed yolk is abnormally released into the extra-embryonic space, resulting in refractile "blobs." The alfa-1 blob phenotype is partially rescued by the expression of the human C9orf72 protein, demonstrating that C9orf72 and alfa-1 function similarly. We show that alfa-1 and R144.5, which we identified from a genetic screen for mutants with the blob phenotype and renamed smcr-8, act in the degradation of endolysosomal content and subsequent lysosome reformation. The alfa-1 abnormality in lysosomal reformation results in a general dysregulation in lysosomal homeostasis, leading to defective degradation of phagosomal and autophagosomal contents. We suggest that, like alfa-1, C9orf72 functions in the degradation of endocytosed material and in the maintenance of lysosomal homeostasis. This previously undescribed function of C9orf72 explains a variety of disparate observations concerning the effects of mutations in C9orf72 and its homologs, including the abnormal accumulation of lysosomes and defective fusion of lysosomes to phagosomes. We suggest that aspects of the pathogenic and clinical features of ALS/FTD caused by C9orf72 mutations, such as altered immune responses, aggregation of autophagy targets, and excessive neuronal excitation, result from a reduction in C9orf72 gene function and consequent abnormalities in lysosomal degradation.

Funding information:
  • NIA NIH HHS - RC2 AG036559(United States)

Polε Instability Drives Replication Stress, Abnormal Development, and Tumorigenesis.

  • Bellelli R
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 May 17

Literature context:


DNA polymerase ε (POLE) is a four-subunit complex and the major leading strand polymerase in eukaryotes. Budding yeast orthologs of POLE3 and POLE4 promote Polε processivity in vitro but are dispensable for viability in vivo. Here, we report that POLE4 deficiency in mice destabilizes the entire Polε complex, leading to embryonic lethality in inbred strains and extensive developmental abnormalities, leukopenia, and tumor predisposition in outbred strains. Comparable phenotypes of growth retardation and immunodeficiency are also observed in human patients harboring destabilizing mutations in POLE1. In both Pole4-/- mouse and POLE1 mutant human cells, Polε hypomorphy is associated with replication stress and p53 activation, which we attribute to inefficient replication origin firing. Strikingly, removing p53 is sufficient to rescue embryonic lethality and all developmental abnormalities in Pole4 null mice. However, Pole4-/-p53+/- mice exhibit accelerated tumorigenesis, revealing an important role for controlled CMG and origin activation in normal development and tumor prevention.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - U01 AI070499(United States)

A Distinct Class of Genome Rearrangements Driven by Heterologous Recombination.

  • León-Ortiz AM
  • Mol. Cell
  • 2018 Jan 18

Literature context:


Erroneous DNA repair by heterologous recombination (Ht-REC) is a potential threat to genome stability, but evidence supporting its prevalence is lacking. Here we demonstrate that recombination is possible between heterologous sequences and that it is a source of chromosomal alterations in mitotic and meiotic cells. Mechanistically, we find that the RTEL1 and HIM-6/BLM helicases and the BRCA1 homolog BRC-1 counteract Ht-REC in Caenorhabditis elegans, whereas mismatch repair does not. Instead, MSH-2/6 drives Ht-REC events in rtel-1 and brc-1 mutants and excessive crossovers in rtel-1 mutant meioses. Loss of vertebrate Rtel1 also causes a variety of unusually large and complex structural variations, including chromothripsis, breakage-fusion-bridge events, and tandem duplications with distant intra-chromosomal insertions, whose structure are consistent with a role for RTEL1 in preventing Ht-REC during break-induced replication. Our data establish Ht-REC as an unappreciated source of genome instability that underpins a novel class of complex genome rearrangements that likely arise during replication stress.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS054221(United States)

Stabilization of Reversed Replication Forks by Telomerase Drives Telomere Catastrophe.

  • Margalef P
  • Cell
  • 2018 Jan 25

Literature context:


Telomere maintenance critically depends on the distinct activities of telomerase, which adds telomeric repeats to solve the end replication problem, and RTEL1, which dismantles DNA secondary structures at telomeres to facilitate replisome progression. Here, we establish that reversed replication forks are a pathological substrate for telomerase and the source of telomere catastrophe in Rtel1-/- cells. Inhibiting telomerase recruitment to telomeres, but not its activity, or blocking replication fork reversal through PARP1 inhibition or depleting UBC13 or ZRANB3 prevents the rapid accumulation of dysfunctional telomeres in RTEL1-deficient cells. In this context, we establish that telomerase binding to reversed replication forks inhibits telomere replication, which can be mimicked by preventing replication fork restart through depletion of RECQ1 or PARG. Our results lead us to propose that telomerase inappropriately binds to and inhibits restart of reversed replication forks within telomeres, which compromises replication and leads to critically short telomeres.

Funding information:
  • Wellcome Trust - 100140(United Kingdom)

Transcription-Replication Conflict Orientation Modulates R-Loop Levels and Activates Distinct DNA Damage Responses.

  • Hamperl S
  • Cell
  • 2017 Aug 10

Literature context:


Conflicts between transcription and replication are a potent source of DNA damage. Co-transcriptional R-loops could aggravate such conflicts by creating an additional barrier to replication fork progression. Here, we use a defined episomal system to investigate how conflict orientation and R-loop formation influence genome stability in human cells. R-loops, but not normal transcription complexes, induce DNA breaks and orientation-specific DNA damage responses during conflicts with replication forks. Unexpectedly, the replisome acts as an orientation-dependent regulator of R-loop levels, reducing R-loops in the co-directional (CD) orientation but promoting their formation in the head-on (HO) orientation. Replication stress and deregulated origin firing increase the number of HO collisions leading to genome-destabilizing R-loops. Our findings connect DNA replication to R-loop homeostasis and suggest a mechanistic basis for genome instability resulting from deregulated DNA replication, observed in cancer and other disease states.

Funding information:
  • NIGMS NIH HHS - R01 GM119334()

Eye Absence Does Not Regulate Planarian Stem Cells during Eye Regeneration.

  • LoCascio SA
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Feb 27

Literature context:


Dividing cells called neoblasts contain pluripotent stem cells and drive planarian flatworm regeneration from diverse injuries. A long-standing question is whether neoblasts directly sense and respond to the identity of missing tissues during regeneration. We used the eye to investigate this question. Surprisingly, eye removal was neither sufficient nor necessary for neoblasts to increase eye progenitor production. Neoblasts normally increase eye progenitor production following decapitation, facilitating regeneration. Eye removal alone, however, did not induce this response. Eye regeneration following eye-specific resection resulted from homeostatic rates of eye progenitor production and less cell death in the regenerating eye. Conversely, large head injuries that left eyes intact increased eye progenitor production. Large injuries also non-specifically increased progenitor production for multiple uninjured tissues. We propose a model for eye regeneration in which eye tissue production by planarian stem cells is not directly regulated by the absence of the eye itself.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R01 GM080639()