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Goat Anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) Highly Cross-adsorbed Antibody, Alexa Fluor 633 Conjugated


Antibody ID


Target Antigen

Mouse IgG (H+L) mouse

Proper Citation

(Molecular Probes Cat# A-21052, RRID:AB_2535719)


polyclonal antibody


Discontinued; This product offered by Molecular Probes (Invitrogen), now part of Thermo Fisher. This entry has been consolidated with the Thermo Fisher version by curator 1/2018, The previous RRID was RRID: AB_141459.

Host Organism



Molecular Probes

γ-TuRC Heterogeneity Revealed by Analysis of Mozart1.

  • Tovey CA
  • Curr. Biol.
  • 2018 Jun 22

Literature context:


Microtubules are essential for various cell processes [1] and are nucleated by multi-protein γ-tubulin ring complexes (γ-TuRCs) at various microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs), including centrosomes [2-6]. Recruitment of γ-TuRCs to different MTOCs at different times influences microtubule array formation, but how this is regulated remains an open question. It also remains unclear whether all γ-TuRCs within the same organism have the same composition and how any potential heterogeneity might influence γ-TuRC recruitment. MOZART1 (Mzt1) was recently identified as a γ-TuRC component [7, 8] and is conserved in nearly all eukaryotes [6, 9]. Mzt1 has so far been studied in cultured human cells, yeast, and plants; its absence leads to failures in γ-TuRC recruitment and cell division, resulting in cell death [7, 9-15]. Mzt1 is small (∼8.5 kDa), binds directly to core γ-TuRC components [9, 10, 14, 15], and appears to mediate the interaction between γ-TuRCs and proteins that tether γ-TuRCs to MTOCs [9, 15]. Here, we use Drosophila to investigate the function of Mzt1 in a multicellular animal for the first time. Surprisingly, we find that Drosophila Mzt1 is expressed only in the testes and is present in γ-TuRCs recruited to basal bodies, but not to mitochondria, in developing sperm cells. mzt1 mutants are viable but have defects in basal body positioning and γ-TuRC recruitment to centriole adjuncts; sperm formation is affected and mutants display a rapid age-dependent decline in sperm motility and male fertility. Our results reveal that tissue-specific and MTOC-specific γ-TuRC heterogeneity exist in Drosophila and highlight the complexity of γ-TuRC recruitment in a multicellular animal.

Funding information:
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute - R37 MH060233(United States)

Planar cell polarity signalling coordinates heart tube remodelling through tissue-scale polarisation of actomyosin activity.

  • Merks AM
  • Nat Commun
  • 2018 Jun 4

Literature context:


Development of a multiple-chambered heart from the linear heart tube is inherently linked to cardiac looping. Although many molecular factors regulating the process of cardiac chamber ballooning have been identified, the cellular mechanisms underlying the chamber formation remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that cardiac chambers remodel by cell neighbour exchange of cardiomyocytes guided by the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway triggered by two non-canonical Wnt ligands, Wnt5b and Wnt11. We find that PCP signalling coordinates the localisation of actomyosin activity, and thus the efficiency of cell neighbour exchange. On a tissue-scale, PCP signalling planar-polarises tissue tension by restricting the actomyosin contractility to the apical membranes of outflow tract cells. The tissue-scale polarisation of actomyosin contractility is required for cardiac looping that occurs concurrently with chamber ballooning. Taken together, our data reveal that instructive PCP signals couple cardiac chamber expansion with cardiac looping through the organ-scale polarisation of actomyosin-based tissue tension.

Funding information:
  • Medical Research Council - (United Kingdom)

Dendritic Integration of Sensory Evidence in Perceptual Decision-Making.

  • Groschner LN
  • Cell
  • 2018 May 3

Literature context:


Perceptual decisions require the accumulation of sensory information to a response criterion. Most accounts of how the brain performs this process of temporal integration have focused on evolving patterns of spiking activity. We report that subthreshold changes in membrane voltage can represent accumulating evidence before a choice. αβ core Kenyon cells (αβc KCs) in the mushroom bodies of fruit flies integrate odor-evoked synaptic inputs to action potential threshold at timescales matching the speed of olfactory discrimination. The forkhead box P transcription factor (FoxP) sets neuronal integration and behavioral decision times by controlling the abundance of the voltage-gated potassium channel Shal (KV4) in αβc KC dendrites. αβc KCs thus tailor, through a particular constellation of biophysical properties, the generic process of synaptic integration to the demands of sequential sampling.

Funding information:
  • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council - BBS/E/J/00000614(United Kingdom)

Brain endothelial cells induce astrocytic expression of the glutamate transporter GLT-1 by a Notch-dependent mechanism.

  • Lee ML
  • J. Neurochem.
  • 2017 Dec 7

Literature context:


Neuron-secreted factors induce astrocytic expression of the glutamate transporter, GLT-1 (excitatory amino acid transporter 2). In addition to their elaborate anatomic relationships with neurons, astrocytes also have processes that extend to and envelop the vasculature. Although previous studies have demonstrated that brain endothelia contribute to astrocyte differentiation and maturation, the effects of brain endothelia on astrocytic expression of GLT-1 have not been examined. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that endothelia induce expression of GLT-1 by co-culturing astrocytes from mice that utilize non-coding elements of the GLT-1 gene to control expression of reporter proteins with the mouse endothelial cell line, bEND.3. We found that endothelia increased steady state levels of reporter and GLT-1 mRNA/protein. Co-culturing with primary rat brain endothelia also increases reporter protein, GLT-1 protein, and GLT-1-mediated glutamate uptake. The Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, bone morphogenic protein/transforming growth factor β, and nitric oxide pathways have been implicated in endothelia-to-astrocyte signaling; we provide multiple lines of evidence that none of these pathways mediate the effects of endothelia on astrocytic GLT-1 expression. Using transwells with a semi-permeable membrane, we demonstrate that the effects of the bEND.3 cell line are dependent upon contact. Notch has also been implicated in endothelia-astrocyte signaling in vitro and in vivo. The first step of Notch signaling requires cleavage of Notch intracellular domain by γ-secretase. We demonstrate that the γ-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester blocks endothelia-induced increases in GLT-1. We show that the levels of Notch intracellular domain are higher in nuclei of astrocytes co-cultured with endothelia, an effect also blocked by N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester. Finally, infection of co-cultures with shRNA directed against recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J, a Notch effector, also reduces endothelia-dependent increases in enhanced green fluorescent protein and GLT-1. Together, these studies support a novel role for Notch in endothelia-dependent induction of GLT-1 expression. Cover Image for this issue: doi. 10.1111/jnc.13825.

Feature Integration Drives Probabilistic Behavior in the Drosophila Escape Response.

  • von Reyn CR
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Jun 21

Literature context:


Animals rely on dedicated sensory circuits to extract and encode environmental features. How individual neurons integrate and translate these features into behavioral responses remains a major question. Here, we identify a visual projection neuron type that conveys predator approach information to the Drosophila giant fiber (GF) escape circuit. Genetic removal of this input during looming stimuli reveals that it encodes angular expansion velocity, whereas other input cell type(s) encode angular size. Motor program selection and timing emerge from linear integration of these two features within the GF. Linear integration improves size detection invariance over prior models and appropriately biases motor selection to rapid, GF-mediated escapes during fast looms. Our findings suggest feature integration, and motor control may occur as simultaneous operations within the same neuron and establish the Drosophila escape circuit as a model system in which these computations may be further dissected at the circuit level. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

Phosphatidylserine Exposure Controls Viral Innate Immune Responses by Microglia.

  • Tufail Y
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Feb 8

Literature context:


Microglia are the intrinsic immune sentinels of the central nervous system. Their activation restricts tissue injury and pathogen spread, but in some settings, including viral infection, this response can contribute to cell death and disease. Identifying mechanisms that control microglial responses is therefore an important objective. Using replication-incompetent adenovirus 5 (Ad5)-based vectors as a model, we investigated the mechanisms through which microglia recognize and respond to viral uptake. Transgenic, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, and fluorescence imaging approaches revealed that phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) exposure on the outer leaflet of transduced cells triggers their engulfment by microglia through TAM receptor-dependent mechanisms. We show that inhibition of phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) activity reduces intracellular calcium dysregulation, prevents PtdSer externalization, and enables months-long protection of vector-transduced, transgene-expressing cells from microglial phagocytosis. Our study identifies PLSCR1 as a potent target through which the innate immune response to viral vectors, and potentially other stimuli, may be controlled.

Funding information:
  • NIAID NIH HHS - R01 AI101400()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - DP2 NS083038()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS085296()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R01 NS085938()

Scribble Scaffolds a Signalosome for Active Forgetting.

  • Cervantes-Sandoval I
  • Neuron
  • 2016 Jun 15

Literature context:


Forgetting, one part of the brain's memory management system, provides balance to the encoding and consolidation of new information by removing unused or unwanted memories or by suppressing their expression. Recent studies identified the small G protein, Rac1, as a key player in the Drosophila mushroom bodies neurons (MBn) for active forgetting. We subsequently discovered that a few dopaminergic neurons (DAn) that innervate the MBn mediate forgetting. Here we show that Scribble, a scaffolding protein known primarily for its role as a cell polarity determinant, orchestrates the intracellular signaling for normal forgetting. Knocking down scribble expression in either MBn or DAn impairs normal memory loss. Scribble interacts physically and genetically with Rac1, Pak3, and Cofilin within MBn, nucleating a forgetting signalosome that is downstream of dopaminergic inputs that regulate forgetting. These results bind disparate molecular players in active forgetting into a single signaling pathway: Dopamine→ Dopamine Receptor→ Scribble→ Rac→ Cofilin.