X
Forgot Password

If you have forgotten your password you can enter your email here and get a temporary password sent to your email.

Donkey Anti-Sheep IgG (H+L) Antibody, Alexa Fluor? 488 Conjugated

RRID:AB_2534082

Antibody ID

AB_2534082

Target Antigen

Donkey Sheep IgG (H+L) Alexa Fluor? 488 sheep

Proper Citation

(Thermo Fisher Scientific Cat# A-11015, RRID:AB_2534082)

Clonality

unknown

Comments

Applications: ICC (1-10 µg/mL), Flow (1-10 µg/mL), IF (1-10 µg/mL)

Host Organism

donkey

Vendor

Thermo Fisher Scientific Go To Vendor

A Modular Organization of LRR Protein-Mediated Synaptic Adhesion Defines Synapse Identity.

  • Schroeder A
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Jun 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Pyramidal neurons express rich repertoires of leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing adhesion molecules with similar synaptogenic activity in culture. The in vivo relevance of this molecular diversity is unclear. We show that hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons express multiple synaptogenic LRR proteins that differentially distribute to the major excitatory inputs on their apical dendrites. At Schaffer collateral (SC) inputs, FLRT2, LRRTM1, and Slitrk1 are postsynaptically localized and differentially regulate synaptic structure and function. FLRT2 controls spine density, whereas LRRTM1 and Slitrk1 exert opposing effects on synaptic vesicle distribution at the active zone. All LRR proteins differentially affect synaptic transmission, and their combinatorial loss results in a cumulative phenotype. At temporoammonic (TA) inputs, LRRTM1 is absent; FLRT2 similarly controls functional synapse number, whereas Slitrk1 function diverges to regulate postsynaptic AMPA receptor density. Thus, LRR proteins differentially control synaptic architecture and function and act in input-specific combinations and a context-dependent manner to specify synaptic properties.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - DK72473(United States)

Identification of a critical sulfation in chondroitin that inhibits axonal regeneration.

  • Pearson CS
  • Elife
  • 2018 May 15

Literature context:


Abstract:

The failure of mammalian CNS neurons to regenerate their axons derives from a combination of intrinsic deficits and extrinsic factors. Following injury, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) within the glial scar inhibit axonal regeneration, an action mediated by the sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of CSPGs, especially those with 4-sulfated (4S) sugars. Arylsulfatase B (ARSB) selectively cleaves 4S groups from the non-reducing ends of GAG chains without disrupting other, growth-permissive motifs. We demonstrate that ARSB is effective in reducing the inhibitory actions of CSPGs both in in vitro models of the glial scar and after optic nerve crush (ONC) in adult mice. ARSB is clinically approved for replacement therapy in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis VI and therefore represents an attractive candidate for translation to the human CNS.

Funding information:
  • National Institutes of Health - 1ZIAHL006135()
  • NIEHS NIH HHS - 2T32ES007329-10(United States)

Immune or Genetic-Mediated Disruption of CASPR2 Causes Pain Hypersensitivity Due to Enhanced Primary Afferent Excitability.

  • Dawes JM
  • Neuron
  • 2018 Feb 21

Literature context:


Abstract:

Human autoantibodies to contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) are often associated with neuropathic pain, and CASPR2 mutations have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, in which sensory dysfunction is increasingly recognized. Human CASPR2 autoantibodies, when injected into mice, were peripherally restricted and resulted in mechanical pain-related hypersensitivity in the absence of neural injury. We therefore investigated the mechanism by which CASPR2 modulates nociceptive function. Mice lacking CASPR2 (Cntnap2-/-) demonstrated enhanced pain-related hypersensitivity to noxious mechanical stimuli, heat, and algogens. Both primary afferent excitability and subsequent nociceptive transmission within the dorsal horn were increased in Cntnap2-/- mice. Either immune or genetic-mediated ablation of CASPR2 enhanced the excitability of DRG neurons in a cell-autonomous fashion through regulation of Kv1 channel expression at the soma membrane. This is the first example of passive transfer of an autoimmune peripheral neuropathic pain disorder and demonstrates that CASPR2 has a key role in regulating cell-intrinsic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron excitability.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - NS18400(United States)

Obesity-Induced Infertility in Male Mice Is Associated With Disruption of Crisp4 Expression and Sperm Fertilization Capacity.

  • Borges BC
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Sep 1

Literature context:


Abstract:

Approximately 15% of human couples of reproductive age have impaired fertility, and the male component accounts for about half of these cases. The etiology is usually unknown, but high correlation with the increase in obesity rates is documented. In this study, we show that diet-induced and genetically obese mice display copulatory behavior comparable to controls, but the number of females impregnated by obese males is remarkably low. Screening for changes in gene expression in the male reproductive tract showed decreased Crisp4 expression in testis and epididymis of obese mice. Lack of CRISP4 in the luminal membrane of epididymal cells indicated inadequate secretion. Consistent with CRISP4 action in acrosome reaction, sperm from mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) had decreased fertilization capacity. CRISP4 treatment of sperm from HFD mice prior to in vitro fertilization improved fertilization rate. In leptin-deficient obese and infertile mice, leptin's effect to restore CRISP4 expression and function required gonadal hormones. Our findings indicate that the obesity-induced decline in sperm motility and fertilization capacity results in part from the disruption of epididymal CRISP4 expression and secretion.

YAP/TAZ Orchestrate VEGF Signaling during Developmental Angiogenesis.

  • Wang X
  • Dev. Cell
  • 2017 Sep 11

Literature context:


Abstract:

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major driver of blood vessel formation. However, the signal transduction pathways culminating in the biological consequences of VEGF signaling are only partially understood. Here, we show that the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ work as crucial signal transducers to mediate VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling during angiogenesis. We demonstrate that YAP/TAZ are essential for vascular development as endothelium-specific deletion of YAP/TAZ leads to impaired vascularization and embryonic lethality. Mechanistically, we show that VEGF activates YAP/TAZ via its effects on actin cytoskeleton and that activated YAP/TAZ induce a transcriptional program to further control cytoskeleton dynamics and thus establish a feedforward loop that ensures a proper angiogenic response. Lack of YAP/TAZ also results in altered cellular distribution of VEGFR2 due to trafficking defects from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membrane. Altogether, our study identifies YAP/TAZ as central mediators of VEGF signaling and therefore as important regulators of angiogenesis.

Aldosterone-Sensing Neurons in the NTS Exhibit State-Dependent Pacemaker Activity and Drive Sodium Appetite via Synergy with Angiotensin II Signaling.

  • Resch JM
  • Neuron
  • 2017 Sep 27

Literature context:


Abstract:

Sodium deficiency increases angiotensin II (ATII) and aldosterone, which synergistically stimulate sodium retention and consumption. Recently, ATII-responsive neurons in the subfornical organ (SFO) and aldosterone-sensitive neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTSHSD2 neurons) were shown to drive sodium appetite. Here we investigate the basis for NTSHSD2 neuron activation, identify the circuit by which NTSHSD2 neurons drive appetite, and uncover an interaction between the NTSHSD2 circuit and ATII signaling. NTSHSD2 neurons respond to sodium deficiency with spontaneous pacemaker-like activity-the consequence of "cardiac" HCN and Nav1.5 channels. Remarkably, NTSHSD2 neurons are necessary for sodium appetite, and with concurrent ATII signaling their activity is sufficient to produce rapid consumption. Importantly, NTSHSD2 neurons stimulate appetite via projections to the vlBNST, which is also the effector site for ATII-responsive SFO neurons. The interaction between angiotensin signaling and NTSHSD2 neurons provides a neuronal context for the long-standing "synergy hypothesis" of sodium appetite regulation.

Funding information:
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - F32 DK103387()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK046200()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - P30 DK057521()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK075632()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK089044()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK096010()
  • NIDDK NIH HHS - R01 DK111401()
  • NINDS NIH HHS - K08 NS099425()

A deficiency of the link protein Bral2 affects the size of the extracellular space in the thalamus of aged mice.

  • Cicanic M
  • J. Neurosci. Res.
  • 2017 Aug 18

Literature context:


Abstract:

Bral2 is a link protein stabilizing the binding between lecticans and hyaluronan in perineuronal nets and axonal coats (ACs) in specific brain regions. Using the real-time iontophoretic method and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance, we determined the extracellular space (ECS) volume fraction (α), tortuosity (λ), and apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCW ) in the thalamic ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) and sensorimotor cortex of young adult (3-6 months) and aged (14-20 months) Bral2-deficient (Bral2-/- ) mice and age-matched wild-type (wt) controls. The results were correlated with an analysis of extracellular matrix composition. In the cortex, no changes between wt and Bral2-/- were detected, either in the young or aged mice. In the VPM of aged but not in young Bral2-/- mice, we observed a significant decrease in α and ADCW in comparison with age-matched controls. Bral2 deficiency led to a reduction of both aggrecan- and brevican-associated perineuronal nets and a complete disruption of brevican-based ACs in young as well as aged VPM. Our data suggest that aging is a critical point that reveals the effect of Bral2 deficiency on VPM diffusion. This effect is probably mediated through the enhanced age-related damage of neurons lacking protective ACs, or the exhausting of compensatory mechanisms maintaining unchanged diffusion parameters in young Bral2-/- animals. A decreased ECS volume in aged Bral2-/- mice may influence the diffusion of neuroactive substances, and thus extrasynaptic and also indirectly synaptic transmission in this important nucleus of the somatosensory pathway.

Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) Protein Vangl2 Regulates Ectoplasmic Specialization Dynamics via Its Effects on Actin Microfilaments in the Testes of Male Rats.

  • Chen H
  • Endocrinology
  • 2017 Jun 5

Literature context:


Abstract:

Planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins confer polarization of a field of cells (eg, elongating/elongated spermatids) within the plane of an epithelium such as the seminiferous epithelium of the tubule during spermatogenesis. In adult rat testes, Sertoli and germ cells were found to express PCP core proteins (eg, Van Gogh-like 2 [Vangl2]), effectors, ligands, and signaling proteins. Vangl2 expressed predominantly by Sertoli cells was localized at the testis-specific, actin-rich ectoplasmic specialization (ES) at the Sertoli-spermatid interface in the adluminal compartment and also Sertoli-Sertoli interface at the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and structurally interacted with actin, N-cadherin, and another PCP/polarity protein Scribble. Vangl2 knockdown (KD) by RNA interference in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro with an established tight junction-permeability barrier led to BTB tightening, whereas its overexpression using a full-length cDNA construct perturbed the barrier function. These changes were mediated through an alteration on the organization actin microfilaments at the ES in Sertoli cells, involving actin-regulatory proteins, epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8, actin-related protein 3, and Scribble, which in turn affected the function of adhesion protein complexes at the ES during the epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis. Using Polyplus in vivo-jetPEI reagent as a transfection medium to silence Vangl2 in the testis in vivo by RNA interference with high efficacy, Vangl2 KD led to changes in F-actin organization at the ES in the epithelium, impeding spermatid and phagosome transport and spermatid polarity, meiosis, and BTB dynamics. For instance, step 19 spermatids remained embedded in the epithelium alongside with step 9 and 10 spermatids in stages IX-X tubules. In summary, the PCP protein Vangl2 is an ES regulator through its effects on actin microfilaments in the testis.

Funding information:
  • NIDCD NIH HHS - R01 DC001856(United States)

Adrenal Development in Mice Requires GATA4 and GATA6 Transcription Factors.

  • Tevosian SG
  • Endocrinology
  • 2015 Jul 20

Literature context:


Abstract:

The adrenal glands consist of an outer cortex and an inner medulla, and their primary purposes include hormone synthesis and secretion. The adrenal cortex produces a complex array of steroid hormones, whereas the medulla is part of the sympathetic nervous system and produces the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine. In the mouse, GATA binding protein (GATA) 4 and GATA6 transcription factors are coexpressed in several embryonic tissues, including the adrenal cortex. To explore the roles of GATA4 and GATA6 in mouse adrenal development, we conditionally deleted these genes in adrenocortical cells using the Sf1Cre strain of animals. We report here that mice with Sf1Cre-mediated double deletion of Gata4 and Gata6 genes lack identifiable adrenal glands, steroidogenic factor 1-positive cortical cells and steroidogenic gene expression in the adrenal location. The inactivation of the Gata6 gene alone (Sf1Cre;Gata6(flox/flox)) drastically reduced the adrenal size and corticosterone production in the adult animals. Adrenocortical aplasia is expected to result in the demise of the animal within 2 weeks after birth unless glucocorticoids are provided. In accordance, Sf1Cre;Gata4(flox/flox)Gata6(flox/flox) females depend on steroid supplementation to survive after weaning. Surprisingly, Sf1Cre;Gata4(flox/flox)Gata6(flox/flox) males appear to live normal lifespans as vital steroidogenic synthesis shifts to their testes. Our results reveal a requirement for GATA factors in adrenal development and provide a novel tool to characterize the transcriptional network controlling adrenocortical cell fates.

Funding information:
  • NINDS NIH HHS - R56 NS042861(United States)